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# Filtration in a Centrifuge The removal of a liquid from slurry by introducing the slurry into a rapidly rotating basket, where

the solids are retained on a porous screen and the liquid is forced out of the cake by the centrifugal action is called Centrifugal filtration. Centrifugal Filtration tends to be used when the solids content in the liquid-solid slurry is relatively low. The filtration medium may be of woven screens, fabric, non-woven fabric, paper, or a porous membrane. The configuration may locate the medium in a plate-and-frame apparatus, on horizontal plates, as circular or flat cartridges, as a belt, as a rotary drum, or as the wall of a centrifuge. Granular beds are also sometimes used for filtration. There are three basic types of filtration. 1. Cake filtration. The solids build up on the surface of the filter medium and form a cake of steadily increasing thickness. This cake actually becomes the filter. A filter aid (e.g., diatomaceous earth) may be added to enhance the filtration. However it must be removed from time to time as the pressure drop becomes excessive (Hayes K, 2001). 2. Cross-flow membrane filtration. The feed is passed through a membrane or bed, where the solids being trapped in the filter and the filtrate being released at the other end(Hayes K, 2001). When filtration is carried out in a centrifuge, it is necessary to use perforated bowl to permit remove of the filtrate. The driving force is the centrifugal pressure due to the liquid and suspended solids. The resulting force must overcome friction caused by the flow of liquid through the filter cake, the cloth and the supporting gauze and perforation. The resistance of the

the velocity of flow of a the filtrate is given: r = specific resistance of the filter cake viscosity of the filtrate Eq .filter cake will increase as solid or deposited but other resistance will remain constant through the process.. volume of filtrate flowing through the filter cake µ= dV = If the centrifugal force is large compared with the gravitational force.. a filter cake of thickness l will have been built up and the radius of the inter face between the cake and the suspension will be r`.. and will be evenly distributed over the axial length of the bowl. 2 If dP’ is the pressure difference cross a small thickness dl of cake. the filtrate will flow in an approximately radial direction.... then at some time t after the beginning of filtration.. It is important to know when to remove the filter cake thus a relationship between the filter cake thickness and time must be establish. To do this consider a filtration in a bowl of radius R and the suspension is introduced as such a rate that the inner radius of the liquid surface remaining constant. Filtration in a Centrifuge Retrieve from Coulson Vol. sub in Eq .

If ν is the bulk volume of incompressible cake deposited by the passage of unit volume of filtrate: Substituting for dV/dt in the total pressure equation and rearrange and integrate between the limit r`=R and r`=r` as t goes from 0 to t. situated at the wall of the basket. the pressure drop –ΔP`` across the cloth is given by: Thus the total pressure across the filter cake and the cloth (-∆P) is given by: Before this equation can be integrated it is necessary to establish the relation between r` and V. -ΔP’ is equal to the centrifugal pressure. -∆P is constant because the inner radius r0 of the liquid is maintained constant: From the above equation the corresponding volume of cake is given by: . if the cloth (considered together with the supporting wall of the basket) is equivalent in resistance to a cake of thickness L. More generally.If the resistance of the cloth is negligible.

72-78.35-41. .Hayes K Q (2001 July) ‘Process Filtration: Characterizing Fluids & Medium Selection’. Duffy J (2003 June) ‘Putting Crossflow Filtration to the Test’. Chemical Engineering p. Chemical Engineering p.