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Opportunities and Challenges

of Electric Aircraft Propulsion


Tagung Energiesysteme - Elektromobilität
Dr.-Ing. Claus Müller - Brugg, 24.10.2017

Unrestricted © Siemens AG 2017 siemens.com


Siemens eAircraft flight test history

2011 2013 2014

Hybrid electric Diamond Aircraft eStar 1 and eStar 2 Fully electric Pipistrel WattsUp trainer

2016 2016

Fully electric Magnus eFusion Record motor SP260D in the Extra 330LE

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Magnus eFusion - fully electric aircraft propulsion system
installed firewall-forward

Magnus eFusion – maiden flight Summer 2016


Aircraft Data
Auxiliary Empty weight including batteries
Battery system 410 kg
system and parachute
Controller
MTOW 600 kg
Wingspan 8.4 m
Electric Motor with Length 6.6 m
Bearing Height 2.4 m
Propulsion System Data
Cooling 45 kW MCP
Power 60 kW MTOP
Inverter 85 kW max.
Nmax 2500 rpm
350 VDC
DC-link voltage (nominal)
(300 …450 V)
Torque MBoost 324 Nm
Battery 10.1 kWh
Max. airspeed 97 KIAS

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Flying testbed for ¼-MW class electric propulsion systems

Extra 330LE - maiden flight summer 2016


Aircraft Data
MTOW 1000 kg
Wingspan 8.0 m
Height 2.6 m
Length 7.5
* m
Wing area 10.7 m2
Propulsion System Data+

𝑃𝑃max 260 kW
𝑃𝑃cont 230 kW
𝑁𝑁cont 2250 rpm
Source: flyer.co.uk
𝑀𝑀cont 1000 Nm
𝜂𝜂Mot max. 95%
𝑚𝑚Mot, including propeller bearing 50 kg
* As rated in the Extra 330LE
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Short History of Electric Aircraft Propulsion

LiIon/LiPo commercially available


EXTRA 330LE
Taurus G4

eGenius
MB-E1

Solair 1
E-FAN 1.0

E-FAN

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On April 7th, 2016, Airbus Group and Siemens AG have Signed a Long-Term
Collaboration Agreement in the Field of Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems

“Siemens is determined to establish hybrid-electric “We believe that by 2030 passenger aircraft below 100
propulsion systems for aircraft as a future business.” seats could be propelled by hybrid propulsion systems...”
Airbus Group CEO Tom Enders

• Both companies take a significant • Prototype propulsion systems ranging from a few 100
joint development decision kW up to 10 MW and more
• Demonstrate the technical feasibility of various • for short, local trips with aircraft below 100 seats,
hybrid-electric propulsion systems by 2020 helicopters or UAVs up to classic short and medium-
• Assemble joint development team range journeys.
of some 200 employees • Target: breakthrough innovation in aerospace e-
mobility

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We expect electric propulsion to be the standard solution by 2050

Outlook for electric propulsion market


Increasing
dominance of 2050
electric E-propulsion is
propulsion 2030
the standard
Airlines offering
solution for all
2025 scheduled
aircraft segments
Fully electric flights based on
2022 flying for medium hybrid-driven
Market ramp-up range (energy aircraft
2018 for certified storage
Market entry for systems, e.g., capacity
Today ultra-light and two- and four- sufficient)
Experimental military due to seaters
flight with small less strict
aircraft certification rules
demonstrated

Today 2050
Source: eAircraft market evaluation
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Opportunities

Total cost of ownership (ex.: Boeing 737-800))1


1. Operating Cost Reduction
Reduced Fuel Consumption
14% 100%
15%
2. Higher Market Acceptance 20%
51%
(reduced Noise- und CO2-Emissions)

3. New Airframe and Traffic Concepts Fuel Invest Crew Service, TCO
Insurance,
etc.

 Fuel is a Cost Driver

1) Source: eAircraft market evaluation

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Aircraft Propulsive Efficiency

Turbofan Propulsive Efficiency

• Is a function of bypass ratio (BPR)


1970‘s:
737-100
• High BPR lead to large fan diameters BPR=1

• Large fans require higher landing gear Source: fra-spotterforum.de

2016:
A320neo
BPR=12

Source: Airbus / Aero

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Aircraft Propulsive Efficiency

Distributed Propulsion

• Larger total disc area (BPR)

• Reduced tip speed

• Thrust vectoring

• Redundancy

Electric Propulsion is favorable for distributed propulsion


• Excellent scalability
• Very small nacelle diameter possible

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Aircraft Propulsive Efficiency

Free Stream Propulsion

• Propeller-wing-integration can increase


lift du to increased kinetic stream energy

• Smaller nacelles for propulsion help to


reduce total drag.

Source: Diamond Aircraft Industries

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Aircraft Propulsive Efficiency

Boundary Layer Ingestion

• Providing a fan at the aft of the


fuselage, the wake field can be
compensated

• Significant reduction in fuel


consumption possible

• Electric drives are favored for this


application

Source: Bauhaus Luftfahrt

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Opportunities

Target Emissions can only be achieved by use of


disruptive technology.
1. Operating Cost Reduction
Reduced Fuel Consumption
Enhancements of current technologies

CO2 Emissions
2. Higher Market Acceptance
(reduced Noise- und CO2-Emissions)

3. New Airframe and Traffic Concepts Biofuels und disruptive concepts (e.g. eAircraft)

2010 2020 2030 2040 2050


Jahr

 “Flightpath 2050” EU Vision envisages a 75%


reduction of CO2 emissions per passenger mile
1) IATA technology roadmap, June 2013

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Opportunities

Distributed Electric Propulsion will enable


new aircraft concepts
1. Operating Cost Reduction
Reduced Fuel Consumption

2. Higher Market Acceptance


(reduced Noise- und CO2-Emissions)

3. New Airframe and Traffic Concepts 1) 2)

3) 4)

1) www.nasa.gov/centers/armstrong/Features/leaptech.html (Dezember 2015) 2) http://aviationweek.com/technology/quality-crowd-designed-uavs-surprises-airbus (July 2015)


3) www.jobyaviation.com (Dezember 2015) 4) www.nasa.gov/langley/ten-engine-electric-plane (Dezember 2015)

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Visions of future individual mobility in the air

Source: Airbus Group Source: Terrafugia

Source: Airbus Group Source: Lilium Aviation

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New markets enabled by electric aircraft propulsion

Uber vision: elevate

• Passenger transport in urban areas

• Aerial service on demand

Source: https://www.uber.com/elevate.pdf

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Challenges

1. Power Density

2. Safety

3. Environmental Conditions

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Electric Motor Power Density

Evolution in power density of electric motors

• Industrial induction motors 0.2 – 0.4 kW/kg

• Forced ventilated traction motors 0.6 – 1.0 kW/kg


𝑃𝑃𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ≈ 1/2 MW

𝑃𝑃𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 /𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 = 0,87 kW/kg


• Liquid cooled automotive traction 1.0 – 2.5 kW/kg

• 2016 Siemens eAircraft SP260 5.2 kW/kg

• 2025 Electric aircraft propulsion > 10 kW/kg


𝑃𝑃𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ≈ 1/4 MW

𝑃𝑃𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 /𝑚𝑚𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 = 5,2 kW/kg


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Motor Weight Optimization

Motor sizing and loading

Active Winding Air-gapflux


Length Factor density sine wave
amplitude
Mechanical Rotational Bore Current
Diameter Internal Power
Power Speed Loading Factor

𝝅𝝅𝟐𝟐
𝑷𝑷𝒎𝒎 = 𝒏𝒏 ∗ 𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒆 ∗ 𝒅𝒅𝟐𝟐𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 ∗ �����������
∗ 𝒌𝒌𝒘𝒘𝒘𝒘 ∗ 𝑨𝑨 ∗ 𝑩𝑩𝜹𝜹𝜹𝜹 ∗ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝝋𝝋𝒊𝒊
√𝟐𝟐

Esson’s number C
Motor Data

• Optimization levers: Pcont = 261 kW


nmax = 2500 rpm
• Current loading Mcont = 1000 Nm
η260kW = 95 %
• High-end materials
D = 416 mm
• Motor topology L = 300 mm
P/M ~ 5.2 kW/kg

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Total component weight and efficiency

Energy Storage Extended eAircraft


portfolio
• Battery Packs Storage
• Converter
• BMS2)

Core eAircraft
DC
DC portfolio

Generator1) DC Power Distribution AC Motor1)


AC DC

Turbine / ICE
96% 98% 99% 98% 96%
η=87,6%
Power Generation Power Distribution Propulsion Unit
• Generator • Circuit Breaker • Motor
• Inverter • Switches • Inverter
• Controller • Cables • Propeller
• Turbine/ICE3) • Connectors • Gearbox
Propulsion System
1) E-machines are capable to fulfill “power generation” and/or “propulsion” depending on e.g. mission profile,
requirements and/or mode of operation, 2) Battery Management System (BMS), 3) Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
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Challenges

1. Power Density

2. Safety

3. Environmental Conditions

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Lowest Failure Rates

Target Failure Rates better than λ=10E-6

• Propulsion must be fault operational


• Failure-oriented design
• Short-circuit current <= Nominal current
• Single Lane architecture not sufficient
• Multiple lanes to reduce excess power

Source: Bennet: Fault Tolerant Electromechanical Actuators for Aircraft


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Safety oriented Development Standards

Courtesy clip art


Railway Aviation
EN 50126 (RAMS) SAE ARP 4761 (Safety Assessment)
Automotive
EN 50128 (SW) SAE ARP 4754 A (Devel. Process)
ISO 26262 (System, SW, HW)
EN 50129 (System, Assessment) ED12C DO-178C (SW)
EN 50159 (Communication) ED80 DO-254 (HW)

International Safety Standard


IEC61508 (System, SW, HW)

Nuclear Process Industry Medicine Machinery


Military
IEC61513 IEC61511 IEC60601 IEC62061
Def Stan 00-56, …
IEC60880 (SW) (System, SW, HW)

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Challenges

1. Power Density

2. Safety

3. Environmental Conditions

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Environmental Conditions

Low Pressure, Low Temperatures at 40.000 ft. altitude

• Temperature: -56°C
• Qualified electric components

• Air pressure: ~200mbar

Source: geogrify.net

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Environmental Conditions

Low Pressure, Paschen law

• 1cm gap – breakdown voltage


• 30kV DC @ sea level
• 1.2kV @ 47000ft
• 327V @ 150000ft

• Precaution has been taken regarding


• Tracking
• Partial Discharging
• Arcing Source: MOOG aircraft group

• Large creepage and clearance distances


• Special insulation
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Power Electronics Challenges – Cosmic Radiation

Single Event Effects (SEE)

• Single-Event-Burnouts (SEB)
typical destructive phenomenon of cosmic
radiation
• Particle rate at flight altitude is
~300 times compared to ground level.
Source: astronomy.nmsu.edu
• Particle cocktail is different to ground level

• Measure: Severe voltage derating to match


cut-off-voltage

© Siemens AG 2017
Source: ABB Application Note 5SYA 2042-06
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Thank you for your attention

Dr.-Ing. Claus Müller


Head of CoC Aircraft Drives and Controls

eAircraft
Siemens Corporate Technology
CT N47P AIR AS ADC
E-mail:
claus.mueller@siemens.com
Internet
siemens.com/corporate-technology

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