35 views

Uploaded by Huy Quốc Mai

save

You are on page 1of 8

Services

Courses

How To

Clients

About Us

Contact Us

Login

The next public session of the Embedded Software Boot Camp workshop is set for October 18-22 in Maryland. Space is limited. Register now.

Glossary

Find definitions for technical terms in our Embedded Systems Glossary.

A F K P U Z B G L Q V C D H I M N R S W X Symbols E J O T Y

**CRC Implementation Code in C
**

Embedded C/C++ Programming Algorithms

by Michael Barr CRCs are among the best checksums available to detect and/or correct errors in communications transmissions. Unfortunately, the modulo-2 arithmetic used to compute CRCs doesn't map easily into software. This article shows how to implement an efficient CRC in C. I'm going to complete my discussion of checksums by showing you how to implement CRCs in software. I'll start with a naïve implementation and gradually improve the efficiency of the code as I go along. However, I'm going to keep the discussion at the level of the C language, so further steps could be taken to improve the efficiency of the final code simply by moving into the assembly language of your particular processor. For most software engineers, the overwhelmingly confusing thing about CRCs is their implementation. Knowing that all CRC algorithms are simply long division algorithms in disguise doesn't help. Modulo-2 binary division doesn't map particularly well to the instruction sets of off-the-shelf processors. For one thing, generally no registers are available to hold the very long bit sequence that is the numerator. For another, modulo-2 binary division is not the same as ordinary division. So even if your processor has a division instruction, you won't be able to use it.

Take a Quiz

T your embedded est programming skills in our online Embedded C Quiz or Embedded C++ Quiz and be entered to win a free seat at a future public Embedded Software Boot Camp.

**Modulo-2 binary division
**

Before writing even one line of code, let's first examine the mechanics of modulo-2 binary division. We'll use the example in Figure 1 to guide us. The number to be divided is the message augmented with zeros at the end. The number of zero bits added to the message is the same as the width of the checksum (what I call c); in this case four bits were added. The divisor is a c+1-bit number known as the generator polynomial.

Master Firmware

Registration is now open for the popular hands-on Embedded Software Boot Camp. Consult our public training calendar for upcoming dates and locations.

Sign Up Now

Figure 1. An example of modulo-2 binary division

The modulo-2 division process is defined as follows: Receive Michael Barr's Firmware Update newsletter for Call the uppermost c+1 bits of the message the remainder free how-to articles and Beginning with the most significant bit in the original message and for each bit position industry news by e-mail. Sign that follows, look at the c+1 bit remainder: up now. If the most significant bit of the remainder is a one, the divisor is said to divide into it. If that happens (just as in any other long division) it is necessary to indicate a successful division in the appropriate bit position in the quotient and to compute the new remainder. Articles In the case of modulo-2 binary division, we simply: Set the appropriate bit in the quotient to a one, and Categories

converted by Web2PDFConvert.com

What's most important to notice at this point is that we never use any of the information in the quotient. shifting in the next bit of the message. binary AND. } /* crcNaive() */ Listing 1.. and XOR the remainder with zero (no effect) Left-shift the remainder. } /* * Shift the next bit of the message into the remainder. --bit) { /* * If the uppermost bit is a 1. The final value of the remainder is the CRC of the given message. Bit by bit Listing 1 contains a naive software implementation of the CRC computation just described. */ return (remainder >> 4). */ for (uint8_t bit = 8. so no information is lost. A naive CRC implementation in C Code clean up converted by Web2PDFConvert. The bit that's shifted out will always be a zero.. It simply attempts to implement that algorithm as it was described above for this one particular generator polynomial. and left shift operations) must be executed for each bit in the message. /* * Initially. test for zero. */ remainder = message.. Also note here that the result of each XOR with the generator polynomial is a remainder that has zero in its most significant bit. Given that this particular message is only eight bits long. /* * For each bit position in the message. the dividend is the remainder. that might not seem too costly. either during or after computing the CRC. } /* * Return only the relevant bits of the remainder as CRC. */ remainder ^= POLYNOMIAL. Even though the unnecessary steps have been eliminated. bit > 0.. So we won't actually need to track the quotient in our software implementation. */ remainder = (remainder << 1). as is typically the case in a real-world application? You don't want to execute dozens of processor opcodes for each byte of input data. */ if (remainder & 0x80) { /* * XOR the previous remainder with the divisor. it's extremely inefficient.com . Bookmark It Bookmark this page or share it with a colleague.Categories Embedded C/C++ Hardware Interfacing Network Protocols Processes and Tools Programming Algorithms Real-Time Java Real-Time Operating Systems User Interface Design XOR the remainder with the divisor and store the result back into the remainder Otherwise (if the first bit is not a one): Set the appropriate bit in the quotient to a zero. So we never lose any information when the next message bit is shifted into the remainder.. #define POLYNOMIAL 0xD8 /* 11011 followed by 0's */ uint8_t crcNaive(uint8_t const message) { uint8_t remainder. But what if the message contains several hundred bytes. Multiple C statements (at least the decrement and compare.

int nBytes) { crc remainder = 0. let's start making some assumptions about the applications in which it will most likely be used. converted by Web2PDFConvert. the polynomial can also be stored in an 8-. */ if (remainder & TOPBIT) { remainder = (remainder << 1) ^ POLYNOMIAL. ++byte) { /* * Bring the next byte into the remainder. This implementation of the CRC calculation is still just as inefficient as the previous one. } } } /* * The final remainder is the CRC result. as well as the bits within those bytes. */ for (uint8_t bit = 8. In particular. respectively. that the remainder can be manipulated easily in software. or 33 bits wide. /* * The width of the CRC calculation and result. */ typedef uint8_t crc.Before we start making this more efficient. but remember these two facts: The most significant bit of any generator polynomial is always a one The uppermost bit of the XOR result is always zero and promptly shifted out of the remainder Since we already have the information in the uppermost bit and we don't need it for the XOR. First.8)). we should also recognize that most CRCs are computed over fairly long messages. */ return (remainder). The register size that we use will always be equal to the width of the CRC we're calculating. a byte at a time. bit > 0. The result of making these two changes is the code shown in Listing 2. byte < nBytes. } else { remainder = (remainder << 1). or 32bit numbers. * Modify the typedef for a 16 or 32-bit CRC standard. The CRC algorithm should then be iterated over all of the data bytes. As long as we're cleaning up the code. 16-. 16-. 17. */ remainder ^= (message[byte] << (WIDTH . or 32-bit register. The entire message can usually be treated as an array of unsigned data bytes. the first thing to do is to clean this naive routine up a bit. That means that the generator polynomials will be 9. it is far more portable and can be used to compute a number of different CRCs of various widths. However. #define WIDTH (8 * sizeof(crc)) #define TOPBIT (1 << (WIDTH . At first it seems we may be stuck with unnatural sizes and will need special register combinations. /* * Perform modulo-2 division.1)) crc crcSlow(uint8_t const message[]. a bit at a time. --bit) { /* * Try to divide the current data bit. */ for (int byte = 0. /* * Perform modulo-2 division.com . let's assume that our CRCs are always going to be 8-. In other words. We can simply discard the most significant bit.

You'll also need a function to compute the CRC of a given message that is somehow able to make use of the values stored in that table. */ for (uint8_t bit = 8. whether it is stored in RAM or ROM. XOR is both addition and subtraction. } } /* * Store the result into the table. So it's possible to precompute the output remainder for each of the possible byte-wide input remainders and store the results in a lookup table.com . Without going into all of the mathematical details of why this works. For a given input remainder and generator polynomial. the crcInit() function could either be called during the target's initialization sequence (thus placing crcT able[] in RAM) or it could be run ahead of time on your development workstation with the results stored in the target device's ROM. ++dividend) { /* * Start with the dividend followed by zeros. The speedup is realized because the message can now be processed byte by byte. */ if (remainder & TOPBIT) { remainder = (remainder << 1) ^ POLYNOMIAL. rather than bit by bit.) A function that uses the lookup table contents to compute a CRC more efficiently is shown in converted by Web2PDFConvert. A more portable but still naive CRC implementation Byte by byte The most common way to improve the efficiency of the CRC calculation is to throw memory at the problem. } } /* crcInit() */ Listing 3. /* * Perform modulo-2 division. */ remainder = dividend << (WIDTH . crc crcTable[256]. */ crcTable[dividend] = remainder. The computed remainder for each possible byte-wide dividend is stored in the array crcT able[]. the output remainder will always be the same." It's true. a lookup table by itself is not that useful. bit > 0. void crcInit(void) { crc remainder. The code to precompute the output remainders for each possible input byte is shown in Listing 3. } else { remainder = (remainder << 1). If you don't believe me. the remainder will always be the same. suffice it to say that the previously complicated modulo-2 division can now be implemented as a series of lookups and XORs. /* * Compute the remainder of each possible dividend. In practice. a bit at a time. That lookup table can then be used to speed up the CRC calculations for a given message. --bit) { /* * Try to divide the current data bit. just reread that sentence as "for a given dividend and divisor. (In modulo-2 arithmetic. */ for (int dividend = 0.8). Computing the CRC lookup table Of course. dividend < 256.} /* crcSlow() */ Listing 2.

As I mentioned last month. Two of these parameters are the "initial remainder" and the "final XOR value". } /* * The final remainder is the CRC. a number of fundamental operations (left and right shifts. and so on) still must be performed for each byte even with this lookup table approach. So to see exactly what has been saved (if anything) I compiled both crcSlow() and crcFast() with IAR's C compiler for the PIC family of eight-bit RISC processors.Listing 4. each of the accepted CRC standards also includes certain other parameters that describe how it should be computed. My somewhat-educated guess is that another two-fold performance improvement might be possible. as they say in textbooks. In effect. The amount of processing to be done for each byte is substantially reduced. remainder = crcTable[data] ^ (remainder << 8). left as an exercise for the curious reader. crc remainder = 0. /* * Divide the message by the polynomial. The purpose of these two c-bit constants is similar to the final bit inversion step added to the sum-of-bytes checksum algorithm. A more efficient. I want to talk about the various types of CRCs that you can compute with it. CRC implementation As you can see from the code in Listing 4. */ for (int byte = 0. ++byte) { data = message[byte] ^ (remainder >> (WIDTH . at least on one processor family. In addition to the generator polynomial. The results of this experiment were as follows: crcSlow(): 185 instructions per byte of message data crcFast(): 36 instructions per byte of message data So. 1 I figured that compiling for such a low-end processor would give us a good worst-case comparison for the numbers of instructions to do these different types of CRC computations. Each of these parameters helps eliminate one very special. CRC-CCITT 16 bits 0x1021 0xFFFF 0x0000 No No 0x29B1 CRC-16 16 bits 0x8005 0x0000 0x0000 Yes Yes 0xBB3D CRC-32 32 bits 0x04C11DB7 0xFFFFFFFF 0xFFFFFFFF Yes Yes 0xCBF43926 Width (Truncated) Polynomial Initial Remainder Final XOR Value Reflect Data? Reflect Remainder? Check Value Table 1. XORs. several mathematically well understood and internationally standardized CRC generator polynomials exist and you should probably choose one of those. int nBytes) { uint8_t data. A bit more could probably be done to improve the execution speed of this algorithm if an engineer with a good understanding of the target processor were assigned to hand-code or tune the assembly code. class of ordinarily undetectable difference. CRC standards and parameters Now that we've got our basic CRC implementation nailed down.com . Computational parameters for popular CRC standards converted by Web2PDFConvert. */ return (remainder).8)). } /* crcFast() */ Listing 4. Actually achieving that is. crc crcFast(uint8_t const message[]. byte < nBytes. lookups. table-driven. they bulletproof an already strong checksum algorithm. a byte at a time. T able 1 contains the parameters for three of the most popular CRC standards. switching to the lookup table approach results in a more than five-fold performance improvement. rather than risk inventing something weaker. though perhaps not uncommon. That's a pretty substantial gain considering that both implementations were written in C.

converted by Web2PDFConvert. consider a message that begins with some number of zero bits. Also note that for efficiency reasons. then redefine the REFLECT_DATA() macro to use that lookup table. with no overhead cost. However.T see what I mean. simply change o the value that's returned by crcSlow() and crcFast() as follows: return (remainder ^ FINAL_XOR_VALUE). The reason this is sometimes done is that a good number of the hardware CRC implementations operate on the "reflected" bit ordering of bytes that is common with some UART Two slight modifications of the code are required to prepare for these capabilities. } /* reflect() */ Listing 5. T ested.bit)).com . (In some applications. The o remainder will never contain anything other than zero until the first one in the message is shifted into it. The final XOR value exists for a similar reason. } data = (data >> 1). the unreflected data byte or remainder will be used in the computation. simply redefine the appropriate o macro as (X). And only one small change is required to the crcSlow() and crcFast() functions: crc remainder = INITIAL_REMAINDER. implementing it this way allows any possible value to be used in your specific application. Reflection macros and function By inserting the macro calls at the two points that reflection may need to be done. 8)) ((crc) reflect((X). That's a dangerous situation. /* * Reflect the data about the center bit. These implementations include the reflection capabilities just described and can be used to implement any parameterized CRC formula. */ for (uint8_t bit = 0. If the final XOR value consists of all ones (as it does in the CRC-32 standard). Simply change the constants and macros as necessary. */ if (data & 0x01) { reflection |= (1 << ((nBits . it is easier to turn reflection on and off. even a packet of all zeros may be legitimate!) The simple way to eliminate this weakness is to start with a nonzero remainder. #define REFLECT_DATA(X) #define REFLECT_REMAINDER(X) ((uint8_t) reflect((X). full-featured implementations of both crcSlow() and crcFast() are available for download.1) . The macros simply call that function in a certain way. this extra step will have the same effect as complementing the final remainder. s. since packets beginning with one or more zeros may be completely legitimate and a dropped or added zero would not be noticed by the CRC. two others exist that impact the actual computation. These are the binary values "reflect data" and "reflect remainder". it may be desirable to compute the reflection of all of the 256 possible data bytes in advance and store them in a table. bit < nBits. The parameter called initial remainder tells you what value to use for a particular CRC standard. That way. This code is shown in Listing 5. uint8_t nBits) { uint32_t reflection = 0. set the reflection of it. In addition to these two simple parameters. ++bit) { /* * If the LSB bit is set. } return (reflection). What I've generally done is to implement one function and two macros. T implement this capability. The function is responsible for reflecting a given bit pattern. The basic idea is to reverse the bit ordering of each byte within the message and/or the final remainder. WIDTH)) uint32_t reflect(uint32_t data. The final parameter that I've included in T able 1 is a "check value" for each CRC standard. T turn either kind of reflection off.

a gentleman named Daryle Walker <darylew@mac.This is the CRC result that's expected for the simple ASCII test message "123456789. This is a handy way to ensure compatibility between two communicating devices with different CRC implementations or implementors." Embedded Systems Programming. Many thanks to Ross for sharing his expertise with others and making several of my networking projects possible. 3rd Edition" by Ross Williams. 05/25/2008 . I will be greatful to you if you could answer my question. 9). is available at http://www. 06/12/2008 .netrino.com/code/crc. Michael. Free source code in C and C++ The source code for these CRC computations is placed into the public domain and is available in electronic form at http://www. which is distributed in source code form and in the public domain. pp. The entire library. Michael Barr responds: Reflection is necessary only if it is done on the other end of the transmission. you may find the following MLA-style information helpful: Barr. such as CRC-32. But I am having a doubt regarding implementation. you are free to do so without reflection. I also had the compiler optimize the resulting code for speed. each time I've had to learn or relearn something about the various CRC standards or their implementation. at its highest setting. I have gone through this article and it is really helpful. require reflection (of the bits) for compatibility between the sender and receiver of a transmission. » Login or register to post comments converted by Web2PDFConvert. then you know your implementation is correct.08:45. January 2000. for example. using IAR Embedded Workbench 2.14:08." T o test your implementation of a particular standard. but all in all it's the best coverage of a complex topic that I've seen. If you just want to put a CRC on some data and you are writing the code on both ends of transmission over RS-232. 37-46. Inspired by the treatment of CRC computations here and in Ross Williams' paper. I was specifically targeting the PIC16C67 variant of the processor. What's the actual need of reflection? Will it be a problem if I turn it off if I am not implementing this for UART? » Login or register to post comments Re: Question about CRC Reflection Submitted by webmaster on Thu.com .21A). but I thought that was probably a pretty typical compromise for use on an eight-bit processor.30D (PICmicro engine 1. This column was published in the January 2000 issue of Embedded Systems Programming. If checksum has the correct value after this call.zip. » webmaster's blog Login or register to post comments Question about CRC Reflection Submitted by sagartrehan on Sun. Some of the standardized CRC protocols.com> has implemented some very nice C++ class and function templates for doing the same. "Slow and Steady Never Lost the Race. I've referred to the paper "A Painless Guide to CRC Error Detection Algorithms. I then looked at the actual assembly code produced by the compiler and counted the instructions inside the outer for loop in both cases. Acknowledgement Through the years. If you wish to cite the article in your own work. There are a few holes that I've hoped for many years that the author would fill with a fourth edition. This effectively caps the message size at 256 bytes.boost.org/libs/crc/. simply invoke your CRC computation on that message and check the result: crcInit(). Footnotes [1] I first modified both functions to use unsigned char instead of int for variables nBytes and byte. checksum = crcFast("123456789". In this experiment.

LLC.78. #355 • Elkridge. Maryland 21075 • 866. LLC. Netrino. All rights reserved.EMBED converted by Web2PDFConvert. Website contents copyright © 1999-2009 by Netrino.Netrino® and The Embedded Systems Expertssm are trademarks of Netrino.com . LLC • 6030 Marshalee Dr.

- CommonCoreMathStandardsEditableChecklistrdGradeUploaded byJessica
- Expressing NumbersandOperationsUploaded byHassan Ait Addi
- Vedic MathematicsUploaded byArihant Parakh
- mathematics year 3 multiplication and division division ties to multiplicationUploaded byapi-286291706
- Lesson 1Uploaded byHaroon B Yauri
- Modbus IntroUploaded byArmando Garcia
- aptitude.pdfUploaded bySudha Appani
- Druck Sensor EnUploaded by2340sergio
- g5m2hfinalversionUploaded byapi-366384722
- M1 Lesson PlanUploaded bySaad Siddiqui
- Bluetooth Communication Using a Touchscreen Interface With the Raspberry PiUploaded byAris SuryoNegoro
- Maths TechUploaded byDilip Kumar Rai
- andrea gonzales math centersUploaded byapi-267848548
- 10-7Uploaded byapi-313392868
- Chapter1Remainder and FactorThm(S)Uploaded byNazmi Rafian
- math grade 5Uploaded byapi-288156899
- A Curriculum of Unquestionable Value and Lasting RelevanceUploaded byamandrea
- arithmeticforcar00daleiala.pdfUploaded byveravera
- Cisco--Bbasics[1]Uploaded byapi-3722405
- Mathematical ShortcutsUploaded byVeeraragavan Subramaniam
- MainUploaded bytedwong314
- MATH103 Math for Todays WorldUploaded byalfredomedardo
- Unidad 1Numbers ReviewUploaded bymariacaballerocobos
- RPT_math_f2_2015[1].docUploaded byPriya Josip
- Test Design Specification P1Uploaded byRicardo Vivanco Puebla
- Microchip CANUploaded bykarlitos4000
- 75570 y7 Cie Scheme of Learning MathematicsUploaded byPped Pt
- t3 week 8Uploaded by01884995
- BEAMS_Unit 1 Negative NumbersUploaded byrea0079
- LECTURE 6Uploaded byjoelanandraj

- Strong Cryptography in the Linux KernelUploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- Installation Junos 20110114Uploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- Appli FormUploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- Strong Cryptography in the Linux KernelUploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- S3C6410XType Circuit Design Guide Rev1[1].00Uploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- brox-eccv04-ofUploaded byHuy Quốc Mai
- Android Per MissionsUploaded byHuy Quốc Mai