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Rough and medium vacuum

The generation of rough and medium vacuum

Generation of rough and medium vacuum

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Chart

Gas Transfer Vacuum Pumps Kinetic Vacuum Pumps Mechanical Kinetic Vacuum Pumps Liquid Entrainment Vacuum Pumps Ion Transfer Pumps Adsorption Pumps

Vacuum Pumps (functional principles) Gas Binding Vacuum Pumps

Positive Displacement Vacuum Pumps

Oscillation Positive Displacement Vacuum Pumps

Rotary Positive Displacement Vacuum Pumps

Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps

Gas Ring Vacuum Pumps

Driving Jet Vacuum Pumps

Getter Pumps

Reciprocating Vacuum Pumps

Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps TurboVacuum Pumps

Liquid Jet Vacuum Pumps

Bulk Getter Pumps

Multi Cell Vacuum Pumps

AxialVacuum Pumps

Gas Jet Vacuum Pumps

Sublimation Pumps

Centrifugal Vacuum Pumps

RadialVacuum Pumps

Ejector Vacuum Pumps

Ion Getter Pumps

Rotary Piston Vacuum Pumps

MolecularVacuum Pumps

Diffusion Pumps

Evaporator Ion Pumps

Roots Vacuum Pumps

Turbomolecular Vacuum Pumps

Self Cleaning Diffusion Pumps

Sputtering Ion Pumps

Fractionating Diffusion Pumps

Cryo Pumps

Diffusion Ejector Pumps

Condensers

Index
........................................................................................................................Page 1 1 Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps 1.1 Design and Function.......................................................................... 4 1.2 Accessories ........................................................................................ 9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.2 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 9 Roots Vacuum Pumps Design and Function ...................................................................... 12 Design and Function of the Circulatory Gas Cooled Roots Vacuum Pumps (WGK) ........................................................ 15 Special Equipment and Accessories .............................................. 17 Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps Design and Function ...................................................................... 20 Fresh Fluid Operations .................................................................... 20 Combined Fluid Operations............................................................ 21 Closed – Circuit Fluid Operations .................................................. 21 Condensers Design and Function........................................................................ 22 Condenser Calculations .................................................................. 23 Heat Exchangers Design and Function........................................................................ 24 Heat Exchanger Calculations .......................................................... 25 Backing Pump Selection ................................................................ 26 Calculations Power Consumption of a Roots Vacuum Pump............................ 29 Volume Flow Rate of a Roots Vacuum Pumping Station ............ 30 Calculating the Volume Flow Rate of a WOD 220 A Pumping Station ........................................................ 31 Volumetric Efficiency Rating .......................................................... 33 Conductance Calculations .............................................................. 33 Pump Down Times .......................................................................... 36 The Influence of Leaks on Pump Down Times and End Vacuum (Leak Rate) .......................................................... 38 Drying Process ................................................................................ 39 Boyle-Mariotte Law ........................................................................ 40 Selecting a Vacuum Pumping Station .......................................... 40 Appendix Graphical Symbols in Vacuum Technology .................................. 44 Definition of terms in Vacuum Technology .................................. 46 Operating medium .......................................................................... 50 Conversion Tables .......................................................................... 51 Data on Various Substances .......................................................... 52 Desorption Rates on Clean Surfaces.............................................. 54 Correction Factor a .......................................................................... 54 Technical Data, Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps................................ 55 Technical Data, Roots Vacuum Pumps WKP ................................ 58 Technical Data, Roots Vacuum Pumping Stations ........................ 60 Technical Formulas.......................................................................... 62
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Vapors with a sufficiently high vapor pressure. 3 Rotor. The compression at approximately 200 mbar above atmospheric pressure allows for the gas pressure to be higher than the opening pressure of the exhaust valve. They can run as stand alone units or be utilized as a backing pump for vacuum pumps which do not compress against atmosphere. can be pumped with the rotary vane vacuum pump. In the chemical industry.1 Design and function The rotary vane vacuum pump is a typical example of an oil-immersed positive displacement pump. The most feasible solution to this is the gas ballast principle. divide the available inner space into working chambers. which glide along the cylinder wall. there is an eccentrically-arranged rotor. Inside the cylinder. the chamber volume increases from zero to the maximum volume and then decreases continually until it reaches the minimum value. The vanes are fitted into slots on the rotor. a metered quantity of gas is admitted continuously into the Fig. 2 Compression chamber. 5 Gas ballast inlet. During one full rotation of the rotor. Rotary vane vacuum pumps are available in single and two-stage models. however. another type of backing pump should be chosen. The decrease in chamber volume compresses the enclosed gases. vapors also have to be pumped. 1 Pump cylinder. Two-stage pumps have a lower ultimate pressure than singlestage pumps. with its numerous distillation and drying processes. substances are pumped which chemically attack and decompose the pump oil or have such a low vapor pressure that condensation in the pump cannot be avoided despite gas ballast. which do not decompose the pump oil. These ports are used to take in and exhaust the gases to be pumped. The vanes. In addition. It may speed up degradation of the operating medium or corrosion inside the pump. such as Roots vacuum pumps or turbomolecular pumps. Actual pumping is effected by the increase and decrease in size of the sickleshaped chambers of the working space. which may condense completely or partly in the pump during the compression phase. 9 Vacuum connection. 4 . Such condensation in the pump is always undesirable.5 m3/h to 630 m3/h. Rotary vane vacuum pumps can be used without problem whenever the medium to be pumped is a gas that cannot condense at the operating temperature of the pump and at atmospheric pressure. It consists of a cylinder with ports leading to the outside. Gas ballast Rotary vane pumps have to be equipped with a device which facilitates pumping of certain quantities of process gases in chemical vacuum applications. 4 Vane. 8 Oil level.1: Function diagram of a rotary vane vacuum pump of singleand two-stage design (Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH). With the gas ballast method devolved by G a e d e. 10 Connecting passage 1. a deterioration of the attainable ultimate pressure must be expected when the condensate and the operating medium get mixed.Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps 1 Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps Single and two-stage rotary vane vacuum pumps with volume flow rates from 2. The central component of a rotary vane vacuum pump is the pumping system. If. with ultimate pressures of up to < 6 ·10-3 mbar are used for all vacuum processes in the rough and medium vacuum range. 7 Valve. 6 Exhaust.

” The maximum tolerable water vapor inlet pressure changes with: .Higher permanent gas quantity with equal water vapor quantity: the max. The inlet of gas. 1013 mbar).Higher pump temperature: the max. tolerable vapor inlet pressures given in table 1 for different operating temperatures. . this results in the max.expansion chamber of the pump.Higher backpressure (on exhaust side): the max.Higher ambient temperature: the max tolerable water vapor inlet pressure rises. usually atmospheric air. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure drops. under normal ambient conditions (20°C. . can pump and exhaust water vapor in continuous operation. The opening pressure of the outlet valve in this example is 1200 mbar. . tolerable vapor inlet pressure depends on the operating temperature to a very high degree. tolerable vapor inlet pressures can only be reached with operating pressures which are clearly above 70°C. . 5 . Assuming a ratio of gas ballast volume to volume flow rate of 10%. . It is given in mbar.Reduced gas ballast quantity: the max. The upper limit temperatures are determined by the oil temperature and seal materials used. This reduces the negative effect which may cause a deterioration of the ultimate pressure.Increasing water vapor content in the gas ballast: the max. starts immediately after the vanes fitted into the rotor shut off the expansion chamber from the intake port. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure rises. It can be clearly seen that the max. Maximum tolerable water vapor inlet pressure (to DIN 28 426 or PNEUROP) “The maximum tolerable water vapor inlet pressure is the highest water vapor pressure at which a vacuum pump. High max. Therefore. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure rises. the outlet valve is open before condensation can occur. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure drops. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure drops.

1 0.1 0. this pressure can be calculated as follows: B (m3/h) Gas ballast volume S (m3/h) The nominal volume flow ps (mbar) Saturation vapor pressure of the water vapor pumped at the pump’s operating temperature pa (mbar) Water vapor partial pressure of atmospheric air (value in practical operation pa = 13 mbar) pv (mbar) Pressure in exhaust port of the pump pSD (mbar) Saturation vapor pressure pAD (mbar) Partial pressure of vaporized substance in atmospheric air pL (mbar) Permanent gas partial pressure at intake port pD (mbar) Maximum tolerable vapor inlet pressure TB (°C) Operating temperature of the pump TS (°C) Boiling temperature of the substance pumped off at the pressure in the exhaust port of the pump B 1333 (ps-pa) pWo= –––– · ––––––––––––– [mbar] S 1333 – ps Equation 1 Max. tolerable inlet pressures for other vapors are defined in DIN 28 426.Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps The effects of the gas ballast on the maximum tolerable vapor inlet pressure can be shown by the fundamental principles of thermodynamics.1 0. Generally. the following equation is used for calculation: pv (pSD – pAD) pSD – pL B pD = –––– · –––––––––––––– + –––––––– [mbar] pv – pSD pv – pSD S Equation 2 qpv S Ratio of gas ballast inlet volume to volume flow rate of backing pump pwo (mbar) Maximum tolerable water vapor inlet pressure PNEUROP Operating temperature (° C) qpv S 50 60 70 80 90 Table 1 Medium to be pumped Soluble in operating medium 0.1 Max. tolerable styrene vapor inlet pressure (mbar) 3 5 7 12 18 Temperature TB > TS TB < TS Condensation no yes no yes Result Oil dilution Oil dilution ––––– Forming an emulsion Not soluble in operating medium TB > TS TB < TS Table 2 TB (°C) – Operating temperature of the pump TS (°C) – Boiling temperature of the substance being pumped at pressure pv at the outlet of the pump 6 .1 0. According to these. tolerable water vapor inlet pressure (mbar) 10 18 34 63 134 Max.

generator 23 Radial shaft seal 24 Pumping stage II 25 Pumping stage I 26 Oil drain plug 27 Sight glass 28 Oil level 7 . 1 Oil filling plug 2 Cap 3 Pressure relief valve 4 Pump valve 5 Support stand 6 Gas ballast valve 7 On/Off switch with motor protection switch 8 High vacuum safety valve 9 Vacuum connection 10 Exhaust connection 11 Pump valve 12 Intake channel 13 Solenoid valve 14 Vane Drive Depending on their size. a tripping device is required.C. The three-phase motors have PTC resistor temperature sensors fitted into the windings. 2 Section through a two-stage rotary vane vacuum pump (Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH). 15 Rotor 16 Working chamber 17 Pump cylinder 18 Monitoring connection 19 Motor 20 Base plate 21 Coupling 22 D.Fig. the pumps are equipped with single or three-phase motors. To utilize these temperature sensors. All motors have the starting torque required by PNEUROP for cold starting at 12°C.

It delays opening so that a pressure compensation is achieved between the pump and vacuum chambers. Silencer The silencer provides a quiet running pump. If necessary. It prevents the rise of oil to the vacuum chambers and vents the pumping system with the pumped gas.Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps Magnetic-coupled rotary vane vacuum pumps The new drive concept . The HV safety valve responds as soon as the nominal rotation speed of the pump falls below 10%. it can be readjusted while the pump is running.“the integrated magnetic coupling“ . The silencer has been designed so that only the pumped gas is fed into the oil circuit. (Figure 3) High-vacuum safety valve During intentional and unintentional shutdowns. minimizes maintenance and increases the MTTF (meantime to failure): providing low cost of ownership.is the latest innovation within the rotary vane pump market. Depending on the pump type. The wear-free drive prevents leaks (no contamination from leaking oil). the high-vacuum safety valve is controlled by either the DC generater on the solenoid valve or the oil pressure. For this. The silencing device is accessible from outside. an integrated high-vacuum safety valve with a leak rate of <1 · 10-5 mbar I/s immediately separates the pump from the vacuum chambers and vents the pump. radial shaft seal coupling “vacuum“ rotor shaft motor shaft ”environment“ “vacuum“ O-ring inner magnet rotor shaft motor shaft ”environment“ “vacuum“ “vacuum“ outer magnet sleeve can Fig. This prevents any contamination of expensive or sensitive gases by atmospheric air. wear free drive concept with magnetic coupling 8 . 3 Traditional drive concept New. The separation of the rotor and motor shaft eliminates the problem of the radial shaft seal providing a hermeticalled sealed pump. small quantities of gas are continuously admitted to the oil circuit.

The oil mist filter consists of a cylindrical filter element of porous ceramic material and an aluminum housing. Oil return device (ORF) The ORF. LPCVD. e. It can also be used to cool hot gases and vapors to temperatures which are not detrimental to the rotary vane vacuum pump. 9 . collects and returns oil back into the pump. 4 Accessories FAK – Activated carbon filter FBL – Clay filter KAS – Condensate separator KLF – Cold trap KWK – Crystallization cooler ONF – Oil mist filter ORF STP STR STZ URB ZFH ZFO – Oil return device – Dust separator – Dust separator – Dust separator – Catalyzer trap – Heating rod – Zeolite trap ZFH ONF ORF FAK ONF ORF KAS KAS KLF FBL FAK STP STR STZ URB ZFO KWK BAFFLE Outlet UNO/ DUO Inlet OFC 1. especially when special oils are used. Dust separator (STP. STZ) A dust separator is required if the process generates dust particles that can reach the pump.g. in combination with the oil mist filter.2 Accessories Separators Condensate separator (KAS) Condensates may form in the intake and exhaust lines of vacuum systems when vapors are pumped off. it is recommended to install a condensate separator both in the intake line and in the exhaust line. are exhausted by the pumps in large or small quantities. It helps to reduce the operating costs. They prevent contamination of the air by oil mists which. STR.FAK Fig. Oil mist filter (ONF) Oil mist filters are fitted to the exhaust port of rotary vane vacuum pumps. To protect the pump from such condensates. with oil container. depending on the working pressure. Crystallization cooler (KWK) This cooler is used for special processes in semiconductor production.

LN2 or CO2. Oil Filters Chemical oil filter (OFC) The chemical oil filter is installed within the oil flow path of rotary vane vacuum pumps. The filters available have high adsorption capacity and ara well suited for such vapor producing processes. plastics and resin chemical industries. independent of the process. HCN. Clay filter (FBL) The clay filter protects the rotary vane vacuum pump and the operating medium by adsorbing organic vapors. Activated carbon filter (FAK) This filter is used if H2S. hydroperoxides and polycondensates in the petrochemical. This filter is used for peroxides. Filters Protects the rotary vane vacuum pump and the operating medium. SO2 gases and solvent. The vapors produced by certain processes can attack the operating media and decrease the life-time of the pump. NH3. The regeneration intervals are therefore. Cold trap (KLF) The cold trap prevents backstreaming of hydrocarbons from single or two-stage rotary vane vacuum pumps by condensation. Water cooling is required if the trap is fitted directly to the intake port and if it is used with single-stage rotary vane vacuum pumps. Zeolite (ZFO) The zeolite trap prevents backstreaming of hydrocarbons from rotary vane vacuum pumps to downstream high vacuum components by adsorption.g. The activated carbon filters are delivered with one filling. The clay filling can be exchanged. e. 10 . The ultimate pressure and residual gas compositions are strongly influenced by hydrocarbons streaming back from rotary vane vacuum pumps. acid and alkaline vapors are present. Therefore. Hg. Catalyzer trap (URB) The catalyzer trap prevents backstreaming of hydrocarbons on single or two-stage rotary vane vacuum pumps by catalytic combustion. The oil filter prevents wear on the pump and increases the life of the oil by filtering out dust and particles and by absorbing corrosive substances from the pump oil. The regeneration intervals depend on the process. The service life of the filter filling depends on the process.Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps Adsorption trap Reduces backstreaming of oil. It can be operated with different coolants. The oxygen supplied to the trap from periodic venting of the process chamber is sufficient for self cleaning of the trap. The service life of the filter filling depends on the process. The activated carbon filling can be exchanged. The regeneration intervals and the coolant consumption depend on the process. The adsorbent can be regenerated by baking out at 300°C. traps are installed on the backing pressure side of high vacuum pumps to obtain a hydrocarbon-free vacuum in the process chamber. The cold trap also provides effective protection for the rotary vane vacuum pump when aggressive media are pumped.

Magnetic coupled Rotary Vane Vacuum Pump Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps DuoLine 11 .

a final pressure in the medium vacuum range is attainable. One of the outstanding features of the Roots vacuum pump is. the dry compressing Roots vacuum pump can be combined with various backing pumps. above certain differential pressures between intake and discharge side. liquid ring vacuum pumps. multi-stage Roots vacuum pumps or. an in-line series of circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps. dry backing pumps. Since no backing pumps ara required. rotary vane vacuum pumps.g. for special applications. The lubrication is limited to the gear and bearing housings which are separated from the pumping chamber. in conjunction with backing pumps such as rotary vane vacuum pumps and gascooled Roots vacuum pumps.1 Design and Function of Roots Vacuum Pumps The Roots Vacuum Pump is a positive displacement pump developed for vacuum operations. 2. in a housing.Roots Vacuum Pumps 2 Roots Vacuum Pumps (WKP) Roots Vacuum Pump In principle. the large volume flow rate. It has a high compression ratio coupled with a large volume flow rate in the pressure range 50 mbar to 1 · 10-3 mbar. relative to its size. are used for all applications involving the rough to medium vacuum range where large volume flow rates are required. However. The Roots vacuum pump can operate at high rotational speeds (1500-3000 rpm) because no friction takes place in the puming chamber. Pumping chambers are formed by the housing while the two rotors seal against each other without contact. This can lead to seizing and possible destruction of the pump. The pumps work on a 100 year old Roots principle whereby two synchronous rotors turn. When combined with additional Roots vacuum pumps. dry operating vacuum pump. Circulatory gas cooled Roots Vacuum Pumps Circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps of the series WGK differ from the non-cooled series WKP in that they can be operated without backing pumps in the pressure range 130 to 1013 mbar. Pumping occurs via two figure eight shaped counter-rotating rotors synchronized by means of a pair of gears which are fitted to the ends of the rotor shafts. The absence of reciprocating parts allows perfect dynamic balancing so that despite high rotational speeds the Roots vacuum pump runs very quietly. e. the pumped medium is not contaminated by operating fluids and pollutants are ot released into the drainage system. thermal overloading can arise if an effective compression ratio of 1:2 is exceeded. Depending on the process involved. 12 . the Roots vacuum pump represents the ideal. Roots vacuum pumps. without contact.

The rotor shaft bearings are fitted on both ends: On one end as a fixed bearing and on the other with a moveable inner ring to allow for the unequal expansion between the housing and rotors. from top to bottom. 13 . The bearings are lubricated by immersing gears and splash rings into oil reservoires. so that any particles suspended in the suction stream can be carried out of the pump. the extension of the drive shaft to the outside is sealed with oil lubricated radial shaft seals. 1 Motor 2 Moveable bearing 3 Intake connection 4 Roots vacuum pump 5 Labyrinth seal 6 Gears 7 Overflow valve 8 Pumping chamber 9 Sight glass 10 Oil return line 11 Sealing gas connection 12 Discharge connection 13 Fixed bearing The drawing shows a longitudinal view of a Roots vacuum pump. fitted between bearing and pumping chamber. centrifugal rings and oil return channels. Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH). Labyrinth sealing system. The radial shaft seals run on a special bushing to protect the shaft. prevent the lubricating oil from entering into the pumping chamber. The direction of delivery is vertical. In the standard design.Fig. 5 Sectional representation of a Roots vacuum pump (WKP 500 A.

Another advantage is fast pump down times. a larger volume flow rate is possible versus just having the backing pump operate by itself. A gravity type plate valve which is adjusted to the permissible pressure differential of the pump opens when the pressure differential is exceeded and allows. depending on the volume of gas. 6 1) Volume flow rate curve of the backing pump 2) Volume flow rate curve of the Roots vacuum pump (cutting in at 7 mbar) 3) Volume flow rate curve of the Roots vacuum pump with overflow valve 4) Gain in volume flow rate through 3 Vacuum Pumping Station WOD 900 A (Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH) comprising of a WKP 1000 A and UNO 120. a greater or lesser part of the sucked in gas to backstream from the discharge to the intake side. 104 S [m3/h] 103 ➁ ➂ WKP 1000 A ➁ ➀ 102 ➂ ➃ UNO 120A 101 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 103 p [mbar] Fig.Roots Vacuum Pumps Overflow valve The overflow valve is connected to the intake and discharge lines of the pump via conduits. Since the Roots vacuum pump can start at atmosphere with the backing pump. This arrangement enables the Roots vacuum pump to cut in at atmospheric pressure and protect both the pump and its motor from thermal overloading. 14 .

15 . 7 Sectional representation of a circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pump (WGK. The pump cannot overheat. Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH).Fig.2 Design and Function of the Circulatory Gas Cooled Roots Vacuum Pumps The circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pump (WGK) has been designed for extreme applications. There are no restrictions where high differential pressures and compression ratios are involved. the heat is dispersed by an efficient gas circulation system. 1 Intake connection 2 Moveable bearing 3 Labyrinth seal 4 Gears 5 Sight glass 6 Cooling gas inlet 7 Rotor 8 Pumping chamber 9 Gas cooler 10 Discharge connection 11 Sealing gas connection 12 Oil return line 13 Fixed bearing 2. Due to their design the rotors are able to control the tronsport of the rocess gas and of the cooling gas. During the compression and discharge phases. This means that this version can be operated under conditions where the conventional Roots vacuum pump can not be used. even during final pressure operations with closed intake line.

8 Principle of the circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps (WGK. Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH). the volume flow rate is not affected. The space between the sealing rings is filled with sealing oil via an oiler. Behind cooler 7 some of the gas. streams into the next pump in series (or is released). PHASE I Space 3 is connected to intake port 5 and sucks in gas at a pressure of p1 when rotors 1 and 2 turn. Therefore. PHASE V Space 3 is connected to discharge port 6 and the sucked. WKP and WGK drives Motor and pump shafts are connected by an coupling. The design of the rotors prevent cooling gas from backstreaming to the intake side. PHASE III Cold gas streams into space 3 via the cold gas circulation until counter pressure p2 is attained.in gas mixture from intake port 5 and cold gas inlet 4 is expelled. The motor side shaft feedthrough is fitted with radial shaft sears having a replaceable protective bushing. PHASE II Space 3 is sealed off from both intake port 5 and from cold gas inlet 4. The sealing oil should be the pump operating medium. The size and type is determined by the application. PHASE IV Space 3 is closed to both cold gas inlet 4 and discharge port 6.Roots Vacuum Pumps Cooling gas connection Cooling gas connections are located on the sides of the pump. Heat exchanger and motors (for circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps) A heat exchanger and motor are required to operate the gas cooled pump. 16 . 3 4 1 5 p1 3 4 2 4 1 5 p1 3 4 2 4 1 5 p1 3 4 2 4 1 5 p1 3 4 2 4 1 5 p1 4 2 6 7 p2 6 7 p2 6 7 p2 6 7 p2 6 7 p2 Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Phase V Fig. representing the gas volume sucked in at intake port 5.

3 Special Equipment and Accessories Fig. 9 Section through a Roots Vacuum Pump. (WKP 500 A. Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH). 1 Gear wheels 2 Splash disc 3 O-ring seal 4 Rotors 5 Overflow valve 6 Connection for gear chamber evacuation 7 Oiler 8 Radial shaft seals 9 Motor 10 Coupling 11 Roller bearing 12 Measuring connection 13 Self-aligning ball bearing 14 Sealing gas connection 17 .2.

Gear chamber evacuation For rapid evacuation utilizing large Roots Pumping Stations. Seals Roots vacuum pumps are fitted with Viton O-rings as standard. The advantage of the canned motor is no wear and tear on the radial shaft feedthrough (e. It is only recommended for clean operations because its protection class is no higher than IP 22 and cannot be designed “explosion proof”.g. vented with nitrogen and sealed vacuum tight. The locking screws can be replaced with ISO-KF screw-on small flanges to enable transducers to be connected.Roots Vacuum Pumps Measuring connections The measuring connections on the intake and discharge side of the pump can be utilized to monitor temperature and pressure. An inert gas is used as the sealing gas. For special applications pumps can be fitted with O-rings and sealing materials tailored to the application. Surface protection Corrosive gases are present in certain applications. sealing gas can be introduced into the radial shaft feedthrough area between the working and gear chambers. -PhosphatizationFor short term surface protection. A thin walled. the gear chamber of a Roots vacuum pump with a separate vacuum pump. with the canned motor design. for example – VITON/ PTFE-coated – EPDM – KALREZ 18 . The following surface treatments are possible depending on the media: -Nickel platingA nickel layer is applied to all internal parts that come in contact with the gases. Reactive gases and vapors can also attack parts of the gear chamber. radial shaft seals). Pump parts which come into contact with such media can be provided with a special surface protection. via an oil separator. it is recommended to pre-evacuate. such as nitrogen (N2). non-magnetic pipe between the rotor and the stator of the motor forms the seal against atmosphere. Sealing gas connection When pumping solvents and reactive gases that life-time of the the lubricant can decrease due to condensation. during storage or transport the working chamber of the pump is phosphatized.g. Canned motor The rotor of the motor operates in vacuum. To prevent this. e.

Roots Vacuum Pump WKP 500 A PackageLine Roots Vacuum Pumping Station 19 .

If lower pressures are required. operating cavitation free as a result of the introduction of air will attain approx. 20 mbar. Ideally. The great advantage of the liquid ring vacuum pump is the fact that the opera- 20 . 25-30 mbar. the liquid ring approaches the wheel hub and pushes the pumping gas out through the pressure aperture. A liquid ring vacuum pump.2 Fresh Fluid Operations In this type of operation. Corrosive gases and vapors which condense in liquid ring pumps can be pumped without any problem when utilizing materials such as stainless steel. fresh operating fluid is constantly being supplied to generate the liquid ring. When the running wheel turns. 10 Section of a single stage liquid ring vacuum pump (Siemens) 1 Rotor 2 Rotor shaft 3 Housing 4 Intake channel 5 Liquid ring 6 Flexible outlet channel 3. operating fluids used in fresh fluid operations should not harm the environment. gas jet and liquid ring vacuum pump attains a final pressure of approx. the operating fluid in the housing forms a circulating liquid ring which rises up from the hub of the wheel. The combination of Roots vacuum pump. ting fluid of the pump can be matched to the medium being pumped. After almost one whole revolution. 1 2 6 3 4 5 3. At an operational water temperature of 15°C. The pumped gas enters the resulting vacuum through the intake aperture. The running wheel is seated eccentrically in the housing. Compression generated heat is largely carried away by the operating fluid.1 Design and Function Compared to rotary vane vacuum pumps. The temperature of the liquid ring and the operating fluid being supplied is the same. This is determined by the vapor pressure of the operating fluid which is usually water. this pump is a combination of an “isotherm” compressing vacuum pump and a contact condenser. the liquid ring vacuum pump attains a final pressure of approx. the liquid ring vacuum pump has the disadvantage of a relatively poor final pressure. Fig.Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps 3 Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps In principle.2 mbar. an additional Roots vacuum pump will be necessary. 0.

the “new” operating fluid in the liquid ring vacuum pump is continuously being mixed with the operating fluid discharged from the separator. Closed – circuit fluid type of operation is used especially where the pumping of hazardous or environmentally damaging gases is involved. 2 1 3 4 5 TA – TB KB = FB –––––––––– TA – TF Equation 3 2 6 Fig. 12 Combined fluid operations 1 Mixed operating fluid 2 Gas “ON“ 3 Liquid ring vacuum pump 4 Gas “OFF“ 5 Separator 6 Condensate discharge 7 “Used“ operating fluid 8 “Fresh“ operating fluid 2 3. 13 Closed-circuit fluid operations 1 Operating fluid 2 Gas “ON“ 3 Liquid ring vacuum pump 4 Gas “OFF“ 5 Separator 6 Condensate discharge 7 Heat exchanger 8 Cooling Water “OFF“ 9 Cooling Water “ON“ 10 Operating fluid supplement 21 .3. used operating fluid. is cooled continuously via a heat exchanger. 3 4 1 5 7 6 8 10 Fig. 11 Fresh fluid operations 1 “Fresh“ operating fluid 2 Gas “ON“ 3 Liquid ring vacuum pump 4 Gas “OFF“ 5 Separator 6 „Used“ operating fluid KB (m3/h) Fresh fluid requirements in combined operations FB (m3/h) Operating fluid flow TA (°C) Temperature of the returned “circulating” operating fluid = discharge temperature at pump outlet port TB (°C) Temperature of the operating fluid TF (°C) Temperature of the fresh fluid 8 1 3 4 5 7 6 Fig. The residual fluid from the separator is disposed of. operating fluid lost to evaporation must be replaced. From time to time. in a closed circuit.3 Combined Fluid Operations In this type of operation.4 Closed – Circuit Fluid Operations In this type of operation.

The resulting liquid condensate in the condensate chamber is then routed to the condensate collection reservoir via piping. 14 Condensator (KS.Condensers 4 Condensers 4. Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH) TS (K) Boiling point at condensation pressure (in example 1. Vapor released during the process condenses on the cooling coils used to conduct the cooling medium. e. TS = TS H2O) 22 . In these cases.14 (K) TGas Gas inlet temperature p (mbar) Pressure · Q (kg/kmol) Material component throughput per hour M (kg/mol) Molar mass A (m2) Cooling surface · Qw kJ –– – h Condensation heat/volume per hour k ( ) kJ –––––––––– h · m2 · K Heat exchange coefficient (K) Tm Mean temperature difference · QH2O () ( ) () kg –– – h Water vapor volume to be condensed per hour kJ –– – qH2O kg Vaporizing heat () (K) TW in Cooling water inlet temperature 1 Collecting vessel 2 Condensation chamber 3 Cooling coil 4 Shut off valve 5 Ventilation 6 Sight glass 7 Outlet valve (K) TW out Cooling water outlet temperature (K) ∆Thigh Highest temperature difference (K) ∆Tsmall Smallest temperature difference Fig. page 23.1 Design and Function In many vacuum processes. In addition the volume flow rate of the condenser is very high for vapors so pumping/drying times are considerably reduced. a condenser can provide effective protection for the pump. S (m3/h) Volume flow rate of a vacuum pumping station R mbar · m3 –––––––––– kmol · K Universal gas constant R = 83. drying and distillation. vapors are generated in such volumes that the water vapor capacity of the rotary vane vacuum pump is exceeded.g.

2 Condenser Calculations Example 1: a) Calculating the required volume flow rate of a pumping station: TGas Q Q2 Qn S = R · –––– · ––1+ ––– + ··· ––– [m3/h] Mn p M1 M2 Equation 4 313 100 10 S = 83.4.14 · –––– · –––– + ––– 100 18 29 S = 1535 m3/h b) Calculating the cooling surface of a condenser: QW A = ––––– [m2] k·T m Water/vapor volume to be condensed · QH2O = 100 kg/h Inert gas part (air) in water vapor · QL = 10 kg/h Gas inlet temperature TGAS = 40 °C Cooling water temperature TW in = 25 °C Cooling water temperature TW out = 35 °C Working pressure pA = 100 mbar Molar mass of water M1 = 18 kg/kmol Molar mass of air M2 = 29 kg/kmol Note! If TS is smaller than TW in or TW out no condensation is possible. [m3/h] Equation 5 kJ QW = QH2O · qH2O –– h Equation 6 ∆Thigh + ∆Tsmall Tm = ––––––––––––––– [k] 2 Equation 7 ∆Thigh = Ts – TK in ∆Tsmall = Ts – TK out W kJ k ~ 1000 –––– ≠ 3600 –––––––– h · m2 K m2 K ∆Thigh = 318 – 298 = 20 K ∆Tsmall = 318 – 308 = 10 K 20 + 10 Tm = ––––––– = 15 K 2 QW = 100 · 2257 = 225700 kJ/h 225700 A = ––––––––– ~ 4. 15 Layout of a Roots vacuum pumping station (Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH).5 m2 3600 · 15 is the required cooling surface of the condenser Fig. 1 Pre-condenser 2 Condensate 2 collecting vessel 3 Venting valve 4 Float switch 5 Drain valve 6 Shut off valve 7 Roots vacuum pump 8 Overflow valve 9 Intermediate condenser 10 Rotary vane vacuum pump 11 High vacuum safety valve 12 Oil mist filter 13 Drain screw 23 .

The flow through the cladded space is obstructed by diversion plates setup according to the application in order to maximize the degree of cross flow to the tubes. First. velocity and pressure loss. the two media will mix and the heat exchanger will break down. The flow through the tubes is single or multi type depending on function. the walls of the tubes act to separate the two media. The selection of material for the inner tubes requires careful consideration because if the wall should break. Selection of material The inner tubes of a tubular heat exchanger have the most important function. pumps and pumping stations are protected against thermal overloading which could otherwise lead to breakdowns. One medium flows through the space between tube and tube cladding and the other medium flows through the tube itself. A (m2) Exchange surface Q kJ –– – h Amount of heat to be exchanged per hour P (kW) Calculated required motor power (K) Tm Mean temperature difference between gas and cooling medium TG in (K) Gas inlet temperature TW out (K) Gas outlet temperature TW in (K) Cooling water inlet temperature TW out (K) Cooling water outlet temperature 24 . Heat exchangers can be used in multistage Roots vacuum pumping stations for intermediate cooling and also in gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps.Heat Exchangers 5 Heat Exchangers 5.1 Design and Function A heat exchanger is a container in which a thin partition separates two media exchanging heat without mixing. The use of the heat exchangers is based on the compression of the pumped gases (from p1 to p2) and the resultant increase in temperature (from T1 to T2). In gas circulatory cooled Roots vacuum pumps the heat exchanger is fitted directly to the gas discharge port. Types of heat exchangers: q Tubular: for all applications (Guide-line) 3 kW motor power of the pump for 1m2 heat exchange surface of the cooler. With the help of this equipment. Second. whereby a part of the cooled gas is routed back into the pump as cooling gas. q Finned: only for clean gases (Guide-line) 1 kW motor power of the pump for 1m2 heat exchange surface of the cooler. they form the heat exchange surface.

000 AR = –––––––– ~ 7 m2 exchange surface 180 · 43 25 .5.000 kJ/h Example 2 Motor power P = 15 kW Gas inlet temperature TG in = 120 °C = 393 K Gas outlet temperature TG out = 50 °C = 323 K (assumed) Cooling water inlet temperature TW in = 30 °C = 303 K Cooling water inlet temperature TW out = 40 °C = 313 K (assumed) k ~ 50 for finned coolers k ~ 180 for tubular coolers k-values for the pressure range from atmosphere to approx. 1 W = 1 J/s 1 kW = 3600 kJ/h (TG in – TW out) – (TG out – TW in) ∆ Tm = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– [K] TG in – TW out In –––––––––––– TG out – TW in ( ) Equation 8 · Q = 15 · 3600 = 54. · Q A = –––––– [m2] k · Tm · Q = P · 3600 [kJ/h] (393 – 313) – (323 – 303) ∆Tm = ––––––––––––––––––––––– ~ 43 K 393 – 313 In –––––––––– 323 – 303 for finned coolers where k ~ 50: ( ) 54.2 Heat Exchanger Calculations The motor power for a particular working range of a circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pump (WGK) has been calculated to be P = 15 kW. Because the calculated motor power is the basis for establishing the amount of heat which has to be conducted away from the circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pump. such heat must be dispersed by the heat exchanger to prevent overheating. 50 mbar.000 AL = ––––––– ~ 25 m2 exchange surface 50 · 43 for tubular coolers where k ~ 180: 54.

Pumping down very large vessels 26 .5 mbar to 1000 mbar even with an open gas ballast valve. operating cavitation free as result of the introduction of air will attain 25-30 mbar at best.Pumping toxic substances in closed systems . Liquid ring vacuum pumps Situations arise where substances have to be pumped which attack and decompose the backing pump oil or which have such a low vapor pressure that condensation in the pump is unavoidable. gas jet and liquid ring vacuum pump attains a final pressure of approx. At an operational temperature of 15°C. Because the Roots is a completely dry operating vacuum pump. 1 mbar. liquid ring vacuum pumps must not be operated with fresh water. 20 mbar. When pumping environmentally hazardous substances. alcohols. This means that with this backing pump. various solvents and other vapors e. It has consistant pumping speed over a wide pressure range. A liquid ring vacuum pump. the liquid ring vacuum pump attains a final pressure of approx. Liquid ring vacuum pumps with gas jet The combination of Roots vacuum pump. . it can be recommended for those situations where liquid compressing working chamber pumps are excluded.Backing Pump Selection 6 Backing Pump Selection Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps The rotary vane vacuum pump represents the ideal backing pump for Roots vacuum pumping stations. the liquid ring vacuum pump represents a viable alternative as a backing pump. Water vapor. an additional Roots vacuum pump will be necessary. e. a Roots vacuum pumping station can attain a final pressure of 10-2 mbar and lower with open gas ballast valve. A combination of Roots vacuum pump and liquid ring vacuum pump will attain a final pressure of approx. If lower pressures are required. Circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps The circulatory gas cooled version of the Roots vacuum pump is another type of backing pump used for situations where high pressure differentials are involved.Pumping off and compressing SF6 .g. the liquid ring vacuum pump has the disadvantage of a relatively poor final pressure.g. pumping off of molecular sieves etc.2 mbar. The single stage rotary vane vacuum pump can compress from approximately 0. In such cases. 0. A closed circuit must be provided in which an appropriate operating fluid is used to remove the heat of compression via a heat exchanger. paraffin and many others can be pumped by the rotary vane vacuum pump providing they have a sufficiently high vapor pressure and do not chemically decompose the pump oil. Compared to rotary vane vacuum pumps. distillation.Pumping off and compressing helium on cryostats .Clean reclamation of diverse gases in technological processes. Specific applications include: .

an almost constant volume flow rate is attainable over the whole pressure range from 1 bar to 10-3 mbar. The values are valid for air and most gases and vapors. Additional stages are necessary if the pumping of helium and hydrogen is involved. Figure 17 shows the volume flow rate of such a pumping station.Roots vacuum pumping stations with circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps present very different pumping characteristics. S [m3/h] 105 104 4 3 103 2 1 102 10-1 100 101 102 103 p [mbar] Fig. the Roots vacuum pumps must be provided with correct motors and with outlet valves to atmosphere instead of overflow valves. Naturally. Figure 16 shows the number of stages required for a particular working pressure. 17 Volume flow rate curve of a four stage Roots vacuum pumping station 1 WGK 1500 2 WGK 4000 – WGK 1500 3 WGK 8000 – WGK 4000 – WGK 1500 4 WGK 18000 – WGK 8000 – WGK 4000 – WGK 1500 27 . Stage V IV III II I Final pressure < 10-3 mbar 2·10-2 mbar 1 mbar Working© © © pressure 5·10-3 mbar 5·10-2 mbar 2 mbar 20-30 mbar 100-200 mbar © © 1000 mbar 30-50 mbar 300 mbar WKP WKP WGK (WKP) WGK WGK Fig. In extreme cases. Such a pumping station configuration primarily evacuates large volumes. 16 Relationship between attainable final pressure/working pressure and number of stages when evacuating with Roots vacuum pumps (for air).

It then increases steadily until at a back pressure of approx. The diagram shows that when compressing against atmosphere. 18 Maxium compression ratio Km1) for Roots vacuum pumps (WKP) when pumping air2). 1) This Km–value is valid for pumps which operate at nominal rotational speed. This backstreaming reduces the effective volume flow rate of the Roots vacuum pump and becomes more difficult the higher the back pressure and the greater the difference between intake and back pressure.Backing Pump Selection Maximum compression ratio Pumped off gases and vapors stream back through the gap between rotors and pump housing in the direction of the intake side. the value should be multiplied by a factor of 0. WKP 25000 101 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 p [mbar] Fig. the Km value is measured at the blank flanged intake port for the required back pressure. the Roots vacuum pump has a low compression rate. For helium.66. There are limits of compression with Roots vacuum pumps in certain pressure ranges. In practice. WKP 4000 A/AD. 2) 28 . 2 mbar the maximum value of 50 to 70 is reached. Fig. 18 shows the compression ratio dependent on the backing pressure of the WKP series. The maximum compression ratio Km is attained if all the pumped gas has backstreamed so that the volume flow rate is zero. Km 102 WKP 1000 A/AD. WLP 12000 WKP 18000. The Km value reflects the level of efficiency of the Roots vacuum pump and is required for the effective volume flow rate calculation. WKP 6000 A/AD WKP 250 A. The drop which then follows is based on the clearance between rotors and housing owning to the effect of backstreaming in the molecular flow range. Because of this a backing pump is required. WKP 500A 30 WKP 2000 A/AD WKP 8000.

85 for Roots vacuum pumps) P (kW) Power requirements/motor power 29 .85 2) 7. The mechanical loss is small and depending on the type of drive ranges between 5% and 15%.5 P = ––––––––––– = 1.5 mbar Pump efficiency rate Solution: 8000 · 4.66. Sth · ∆p P = –––––––––––– [kW] 3600 · mech Equation 9 Sth (m3/h) Theoretical volume flow rate of Roots vacuum pumps ∆p (mbar) Pressure differential between intake and discharge ports ηmech Mechanical efficiency rate of the pump (η ~ 0. the pressure differential between intake and discharge sides and the theoretic working volume are all proportional.85 ηmech = 0.5 mbar to 5 mbar. 1) This Km–value is valid for pumps which operate with low nominal rotational speed. For helium. 19 Maximum compression ratio Km1) for circulatory gas cooled Roots vacuum pumps (WKP) when pumping air2). Example 3 A WKP 8000 Roots vacuum pump should compress gas from 0. the value should be multiplied by a factor of 0. WGK 8000 WGK 1500 101 WGK 500 100 101 102 103 p [mbar] Fig. The power requirements after running up in the medium vacuum range are low. For this reason.18 kW drive power – 36000 · 0.Calculations 7 Calculations 102 Km WGK 4000. The use of relays for hard starting are recommended in the switch box.1 Power Consumption of a Roots Vacuum Pump The Roots vacuum pump is a pure positive displacement pump without internal pre-compression. (Sth = 8000 m3/h). Theoretic Roots vacuum pump volume flow rate Sth = 8000 m3/h Pressure differential between intake and pressure ports ∆ p = 4. The drive power P is requred in kW.

For this reason the identification size of a Roots vacuum pump is stated in terms of the theoretical volume flow rate (also known as the nominal volume flow rate).5 → a = 1 p Sv · p v p = –––––– [mbar] S PV pv3 – p3 ––– = < 2. That is.963 · pv3 Equation 11 S (m3/h) Volume flow rate of the Roots vacuum pump at the intake port (m /h) Sth Theoretical volume flow rate of the Roots vacuum pump Sv Volume flow rate of the backing pump at a pressure of pv (m3/h) 3 Equation 13 The volume flow rate can only be calculated according to equations 10 or 12 providing the overflow valve of the Roots vacuum pump is closed. pv-p is smaller than the pressure differential set at the 30 .5 → a =–––––––––– [mbar] p 0. With respect to a defined backing pump.5 Sth Km +––– – ––– Sv Sth pv (mbar) Fore-vacuum (back pressure) p (mbar) Intake pressure of the Roots vacuum pump ∆p (mbar) Set pressure differential at the overflow valve of the Roots vacuum pump Km Maximum compression ratio of the Roots vacuum pump at pv a Correction factor a (see page 54 Figure 26) ηvol Volumetric efficiency rating If it is required to compress from a specific intake pressure against a constant back pressure (e. condensation pressure in a condenser).2 Volume Flow Rate of a Roots Vacuum Pumping Station The volume flow rate of a Roots vacuum pump is dependent on back pressure in the whole suction range and is therefore influenced by the volume flow rate of the backing pump. When a Roots vacuum pump is combined with various backing pumps. different volume flow rate curves are obtained over the whole pressure range for the same Roots vacuum pump. an approximation of the volume flow is calculated as follows: ( ) pv a S = Sth · 1 – ––– · ––– [m3/h] p Km ( ) Equation 10 and the assigned intake pressure to: Equation 12 PV ––– = < 2.Calculations 7.g. on approximation of the volume flow is calculated as follows: Km S = Sth · ––––––––––––––– [m3/h] Sv 1. This means that the effective volume flow rate of a Roots vacuum pump can only be stated in relation to a specific backing pump.

2.1 Calculating the Volume Flow Rate of a WOD 220 A Pumping Station The WOD 220 A comprises a single stage rotary vane vacuum pump UNO 30 A and a Roots vacuum pump WKP 250 A. Example 4 A Roots vacuum pump WKP 4000 (Sth= 4000 m3/h) should compress from 5 mbar to 20 mbar. Volume flow rate [m3/h] 104 103 S4/p4 S3/p3 S2/p2 S∆6 S1/p1 S∆5 S∆4 S∆3 S∆2 S5/p5 10 2 S6/p6 S∆1 S7/p7 Sv3/pv3 101 S8/p8 100 10-5 (Sv8/pv8) 10-4 10-3 Sv7/pv7 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 Sv4/pv4 Sv5/pv5 Sv6/pv6 Sv2/pv2 Sv1/pv1 Intake pressure p [mbar] Fig. 20 · 1 S = 4000 · 1 – –––––– = 3529 m3/h 5 · 34 at 5 mbar. 20: Volume flow rate curve for example 5 31 . the calculation must be worked via the Km value (equation 10 or 12) and the overflow valve (equation 14) where the lower of the values produced is the right one. ∆ p denotes the set pressure differential at the Roots vacuum pump overflow valve. Example 5 (please also refer to Figure 20) Calculation of the pressure range of a closed overflow valve on the Roots vacuum pump (as per equations 10 and 11). In case of doubt. In the response range of the overflow valve. ( ) 7. Required is the volume flow rate. the volume flow rate can be calculated according to: Km-value according to Fig. 18 for pv = 20 mbar → Km = 34 pv · a S = Sth · 1 – –––––– [m3/h] p · Km ( ) Sv · (p + ∆p) S = –––––––––––– [m3/h] p pv For ––– = 4 derived from equation 12 p →a=1 Equation 14 In this equation.overflow valve.

01 p8 = ––––– –––– = 0.0 · 0.5 47 + –––––– – –––– 30 270 ( ) ( ) 0.01 mbar 199 = 1.5 38 + –––––– – –––– 20 270 ( ) 20 · 0.01 mbar 30 S8 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 3 m3/h 270 0.5 30 + –––––– – –––– 0.012 p7 = ––––––– –––– = 0.1 · 0. 34 (1000 + 53) S∆1 = ––––––– –––––––– = 36 m3/h 1000 at 1000 mbar 34 (300 + 53) –––––––– = 40 m3/h S∆2 = ––––––– 300 at 300 mbar 34 (100 + 53) –––––––– = 52 m3/h S∆3 = ––––––– 100 at 100 mbar 34 (30 + 53) –––––– = 94 m3/h S∆4 = ––––––– 30 at 30 mbar 34 (20 + 53) –––––– = 124 m3/h S∆5 = ––––––– 20 at 20 mbar 34 (7 + 53) –––––– = 291 m3/h S∆6 = ––––––– 7 at 7 mbar 30 · 0.1 mbar 227 = 1.02 mbar 32 .001 mbar 96 = 1 · 10-3 mbar Sv7 = 1.0 x 10-1 mbar Sv4 = 20 m3/h pv4 = 0.0 270 ( ) 34 · 100 p1 = ––––––––– = 21 mbar 163 Sv2 = 34 m3/h pv2 = 10 mbar 33 S2 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 218 m3/h 270 34 1.00044 mbar 27 = 4.5 33 + –––––– – –––– 34 270 ( ) 1.012 mbar 30 S7 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 27 m3/h 270 1.5 30 + –––––– – –––– 1.0031 mbar 154 = 3.04 mbar 30 S5 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 154 m3/h 270 12 1.Calculations Sv1 = 34 m3/h pv1 = 100 mbar (volume flow rate Sv1 at a backing pump pressure of Pv1) 12 S1 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 163 m3/h 270 34 12 + –––––– – –––– 34 270 30 S6 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 96 m3/h 270 12 1.75 mbar 47 S3 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 277 m3/h 270 30 1.1 mbar 38 S4 = 270 –––––––––––––––––––– = 199 m3/h 270 20 1.0 · 10-2 mbar Sv5 = 12 m3/h pv5 = 0.0 1.04 p5 = ––––– –––– = 0.5 30 + –––––– – –––– 12 270 ( ) 12 · 0.4 · 10-4 mbar Sv8 = 0.1 p4 = ––––– –––– = 0.5 30 + –––––– – –––– 5 270 ( ) 5 · 0.00033 mbar 3 = 3.0 m3/h pv7 = 0.75 p3 = ––––– –––– = 0.1 · 10-3 mbar Sv6 = 5 m3/h pv6 = 0.1 1.1 m3/h pv8 = 0.5 mbar 218 Sv3 = 30 m3/h pv3 = 0.02 p6 = ––––– –––– = 0.3 · 10-4 mbar Calculation for the (pressure) range of an open overflow valve on the Roots vacuum pump (as per equation 14).1 270 ( ) 34 · 10 p2 = ––––– –––– = 1.

5. The conductance value L is used to determine the extent of line losses. Please note: data on substances can be found in Appendix Section 8. at 4 mbar the rating has reduced to 0.7. Conductance for round pipes is calculated universally for all pressure ranges in vacuum technology and for all types of gas: L (m3/h) Conductance value S (m3/h) Volume flow rate at the beginning of the pipe (pump) Seff (m3/h) Volume flow rate at the end of pipe (recipient) p (mbar) Pressure at the beginning of the pipe peff (mbar) Pressure at the end of the pipe pm (mbar) p + peff Mean pressure = ––––––– 2 r (cm) Pipe radius l (cm) Equation 15 Km ηvol = –––––––––––––––– y Sv . The value is dependent not only on the length and diameter of the piping. A whole range of options is available.4 Conductance Calculations The volume flow rate of a vacuum pumping station is reduced by piping and components such as valves and bellows fitted upstream of the recipient. conductance value is pressure independent. If a volumetric efficiency rating of 0. In vacuum technology. 1. page 52 2) Pipe length T (K) Gas temperature kg –––––– k mol Gas molar mass M η (Pa · s) Gas viscosity 33 . in the molecular flow range.5 Sth Km + ––– – ––– Sv Sth Equation 16 pv · a ηvol = 1– ––––––– p · Km The volume flow rate of a Roots vacuum pump is directly influenced by the volume flow rate of the backing pump. at 10-1 a theoretical graduation of 20:1 is still viable.7. The longer the piping and the smaller the diameter the greater the losses. but also on the type of flow and the nature of the substance2) being pumped. In the laminar flow range the conductance value is pressure dependent. This means that the pump is no longer effective in non-stop operations whereas in critical cases. When performing Roots vacuum pump calculations it has to be remembered that the volumetric efficiency rating falls rapidly with increasing intake pressure.3 Volumetric Efficiency Rating The volumetric efficiency rating ηvol is often used when calculating the volume flow rate: S ηvol = ––––– Sth 7. Between 10 and 100 mbar a graduation between 5:1 and 2:1 is possible.85 is attained at a theoretical graduation of 10:1 to 10-1 mbar. it is laminar and molecular flow which are mainly involved.

yielding a simplified formula for air: S·p peff = ––––– [mbar] Seff r3 L = 340 ––– [m3/h] l Equation 24 Equation 20 Air. the following is valid: Equation 18 Laminar flow range In the laminar flow range (Figure 21) the second term in parentheses can be omitted.[m3/h] Equation 22 Effective volume flow rate Effective pressure The effective volume flow rate Seff at the end of the pipe is calculated from the conductance value L and the volume flow rate at the beginning of the pipe as r4 · pm L = 7750 ––––––– [m3/h] l Equation 19 Air. at 20°C 1 L·S Seff = –––––– = ––––– [m3/h] 1 1 L+S –– + –– L S Equation 23 and Molecular flow range In the molecular flow (Figure 21) the second term in parentheses can be omitted. at 20°C 34 . laminary. the following is valid: 1 L = ––––––––––– [m3/h] 1 1 1 –– + –– + –– L1 L2 L3 Equation 21 3.6 · r L = –––––– (2150 · r · pm + 95) [m3/h] l 3 For parallel arrangement of individual conductance values.Calculations 3. molecular..6 · r3 r · pm L = ––––– · (0.. yielding a simplified formula for air: L = L1 + L2 + L3.039 –––––– + 30 l η 3 [m /h] Equation 17 or for air at 20 °C: T √ M) –– — ––––– For sequential arrangement of individual conductance values.

6 · 103 L = –––––––– · (2150 · 10 · 0. The effective volume flow rate and the pressure at the drier are required.60 0.198 ~ 0.03 25 0. 3.6 + 0. 0.85 m.199 ~ 0.15 pm = ––––––––––––– = 0.175 + 95) 1265 L = 10978 m3/h 3500 · 10978 Seff = ––––––––––––– = 2655 m3/h 3500 + 10978 3500 · 0.9 2.4 1000 – 2.2 · 0.85 0.100 d [ cm ] laminar 10 transition range 1 10-5 molecular Fig.3 0.35 0.35 0.0 0.5 200 1. The volume flow rate is 3500m3/h.8 Table 3 Equivalent pipe lengths in m for various vacuum components 35 .6 1. The equivalent pipe length as per table 3: For one pipe bend DN 200 0.12 0.25 0.75 350 – 1.3 160 1.175 which hardly affects the final result.6 · 103 L = –––––––– · (2150 · 10 · 0. The piping has a diameter of 200 mm and is 10 m long with three 90° bends and includes an angle valve.65 m Because the mean pressure is derived from the result.12 63 0.2 100 0.6 m and for an angle valve DN 200 0.15 peff = ––––––––––––– = 0.2 mbar 2655 Nominal width (mm) 10 Y valve Angle valve Elbow 90° D = 3d . it must first be estimated and a value of 0. Total conductance value: 3.85 = 12.6 0.6 250 – 1. Total length to be used = 10 + 3 · 0.17 is taken.35 0. 21 Representation of pressure/pipe diameter dependent flow range 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 p [ mbar ] Example 6 A pumping station connected to a non stop operating drier will attain a pressure of 0.17 + 95) 1265 L = 10670 m3/h 3500 · 10670 Seff = ––––––––––––– = 2635 m3/h 3500 + 10670 3500 · 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.175 mbar 2 The actual mean pressure is 0.10 0.15 mbar due to the gas volume at the pumping port.07 40 0.35 0.0 500 – 1.25 0.15 peff = ––––––––––––– = 0. as can be seen.2 mbar 2635 0.

3 15 V (m3/h) Volume of the recipient S (m3/h) Volume flow rate of the pumping station at the intake port Sv (m3/h) Volume flow rate of the backing pump p1. the following is obtained: V p1 S = –– In ––– t p2 12 1000 S = ––– In ––––– = 168 m3/h 0.173 mbar 2 Owing to the minimal deviation from the applied value (0.17 mbar). This again yields a conductance value of: L = 10670 m3/h By transposing S·L L · Seff Seff = ––––– → S = ––––––– S+L L – Seff 10670 · 2900 S = ––––––––––––– = 3982 m3/h 10670 – 2900 and from S · peff peff = ––––––– Seff Seff · p p = ––––––– S 2900 · 0. a correction calculation is unnecessary.2 mbar for air.65 m. Because the anticipated intake pressure is slightly under 0. the dimensions of the exhaust lines. the mean intake pressure is estimated as 0. What is the required volume flow rate? By transforming equation 25.17 mbar.146 pm = ––––––––––– = 0. an effective volume flow rate of 2900 m3/h should be attained at 0. If the volume flow rate S for the pressure range p1 to be calculated is constant. the pump down time can be expressed as: V p1 t = –– In ––– S p2 Equation 25 Example 8 A recipient of 12 m3 should be evacuated from 1000 mbar (atmospheric pressure) to 15 mbar in 0.2 p = –––––––––– = 0. any vaporization of fluids.3 h. For what volume flow rate S and what intake pressure p should the pumping station be configured? The length of the pipe has already been established as 12.2 + 0.5 Pump Down Times The pump down time is determined primarily by the pumping station volume flow rate and the recipient.2 (mbar) Pressure (pressure range from p1 and p2) ∆p (mbar) Set pressure differential at the overflow valve of the Roots vacuum pump t (h) Pump down time . 7. Pump down time is also influenced by other factors such as the tightness of the complete 36 vacuum system.Calculations Example 7 At the end of a pipe with the same configurations as in the previous example.15 mbar. degassing of materials such as porous and large surface objects and contaminated walls.146 mbar 3982 0.

An approximation to the volume flow rate here is: S [m3/h] 5000 V p1 + ∆p t = –– In –––––––– = [h] S p2 + ∆p Equation 26 Example 9 Figure 22 shows the combined pump down time calculation of a tight.01 tges = 3. the case with a Roots vacuum pump with open overflow valve. This is. An example of this is given in Figure 22.0366 h 3000 200 In t3 = 2800 t4 = 200 In 3800 2000 200 1 In = 0. the range approx. clean 200m3 chamber from 1000 mbar to 10-2 mbar according to a given volume flow rate curve. Depending on the staging to the backing pump. Procedure The method most commonly used in individual cases involves dividing the volume flow rate curve over the pressure in several partial ranges of pressure in which there is little variation in volume flow rate. Sometimes the volume flow rate for a particular pressure range can be expressed by an equation.2050 h t5 = 4500 0. pumping stations have volume flow rates that differ over the pressure range. In these cases there are a number of ways in which the pump down time can be determined. t1 = 200 1000 + 70 In 180 10 + 70 10 5 5 2 2 1 = 2. Section 1) the partial pump down time t1 is calculated as per equation 26. partial range 2 – 5.3 hours under ideal conditions is arrived at by adding all partial pump down times t1 to t5. For these individual pressure ranges.8800 h 200 In t2 = 1600 = 0.0654 h = 0. More often than not. The total pump down time of tges ~ 3.2740 h up 1000 to 10 mbar: S= 180 (p + 70) p V p1 + 70 In 180 p2 + 70 1000 t= 5 0 10-3 10-2 10-1 4 100 3 2 101 1 102 103 p [mbar] Fig. 22 Calculation of pump down times in stages 37 .0870 h = 0. For the pressure range 1000 to 10 mbar (in Figure 22. the partial pump down times with their respective mean volume flow rate must be calculated individually according to equation 25 and added to arrive at the total pump down time. for example. For the pressure range 10 to 10-2 mbar equation 25 is applied in as much the volume flow rate is divided in the pressure range 2 to 5 and the individual pump down times t2 to t5 calculated.This calculation shows that a volume flow rate of 168 m3/h at the recipient must be constant throughout the range 1000 mbar to 15 mbar. 1000 to 10/20 mbar. 4000 Pump down time of a 200 m3 chamber.

6 · qL 3. The attainable final pressure of the pumping station according to example 9 (Figure 22) is limited to 9.6 The Influence of Leaks on Pump Down Times and End Vacuum (Leak Rate) Lack of tightness (leaks) in the whole system must be taken into account when the configuration of a vacuum pumping station is under consideration. at 1·10-1 mbar: Serf = 420 m3/h at 1·10-2 mbar: Serf = 4200 m3/h If the volume flow rate curve resulting from example 9 is compared with the curve which takes the leak rate into account (see Fig.31 h between 1 and 10-2 mbar. 96%. The leak rate. 23). 10-1 and 10-2 mbar 3. one can see that: – at 1 mbar the leak rate is negligible – at 10-1 the volume flow rate is reduced by approx. which is expressed in mbar I/s. is calculated on the basis of known leak locations in feedthroughs and seals. 50% from 0. 3.68 Serf = –––––––– = –––––––––– = 42 m3/h p 1 Fig. 10% – at 10-2 the volume flow rate is reduced by approx. etc. Taking the leak rate into account. there is an increase in pump down time of approx. 7.6 · qL Serf = ––––––– = [m3/h] p Equation 27 38 .4 x 10-3 mbar due to this leak rate. If the pump down time is now recalculated using this leak rate.Calculations s [m3/h] 5000 1 4000 3000 2000 1000 2 0 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 p [mbar] Serf (m3/h) Required volume flow rate of the pumping station at the recipient p (mbar) Working pressure mbar l qL = –––– s––– ( ) Total leak rate (of the system) Example 10 given: leak rate qL = 11. 23 The influence of the leak rate on the volume flow rate of a Roots vacuum pump. 2 Volume flow rate taking the leak rate into account (as per Example 10). 1 Volume flow rate without taking the leak rate into account (as per example 9). or by means of the pressure rise method.68 mbar l/s Required: volume flow rate at 1 mbar.205 h to 0. the required volume flow rate at a specific pressure.6 · 11.

50 kg of air enters through a leak in the recipient. V (m3) (Gas-) volume T (K) Temperature p (mbar) (Working) pressure kg ––– ––– mol Molar mass of each component M= Explanation: Pressure p is assumed to be 10 mbar because at this pressure and at a temperature of 20°C water evaporates (see water vapor pressure curve in Figure 24). 40 kg of water.14) 102 evaporating melting 101 triple point (0.7. Molar mass of water M1 = 18 kg/kmol Molar mass of air M2 = 29 kg/kmol Vapor pressure of water pD 23 mbar (at 20 °C) Temperature (TC = 20 °C) T = 293 K Pressure (selected according to the diagram) p = 10 mbar Amount of water Q1 = 40 kg Leaked air Q2 = 10 kg T Q1 Q2 V = R –– –– + –– + p M1 M2 Q3 ––– = [m3] …Mn 10-3 10-4 ( ) 10-5 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 temperature [°C] Equation 28 Fig. In addition. 24 Vapor pressure curve of water (for example 11). 293 40 10 V = 83.7 Drying Process In a drying process. 6. 39 . has to be pumped off. which evaporates at 20°C.09mbar) 100 sublimation 10-1 gaseous 10-2 Example 11 Calculating the volume to be pumped off and the required volume flow rate at the intake port of the pumping station.01° C.14 –––– ––– + ––– 10 18 29 V = 6253 m3 ( ) or S = 6253 m3/“time units“ ( ) water vapor pressure [mbar] Q (kg) Throughput of each component R= 103 solid liquid ( mbar · m3 ––––––– ––– kmol · K ) Universal gas constant (R = 83.

.06 h Equation 29 p1 (mbar) (Start/atmospheric) pressure V1 (m3) Volume of gas at p1 p2 (mbar) Pressure (in vacuum) V2 (m3) Volume of gas atp2 Calculating the required volume flow rate V p1 t = –– · In ––– = [m3/h] S p2 t (h) Pump down time V (m3) Volume of the recipient S (m3/h) Volume flow rate p1 (mbar) (Start/atmospheric) pressure p2 (mbar) (Working/final) pressure Example 12 p1 = 1000 mbar V1 = 1 m 3 V2 = ? Variables p2 a) p2 = 100 mbar b) pv = 10 mbar c) p2 = 1 mbar d) p2 = 0.6 1013 S = ––––– · In –––––– = 332 m3/h 0.001 Selection of the vacuum pumping station Explanation: S is the constant required volume flow rate of the vacuum pumping station over the whole pressure range of 1013 mbar (atmospheric) to 1 x 10 -3 mbar (Working/ final pressure).9 Selecting a Vacuum Pumping Station A pumping station should be assembled for a particular vacuum process. a WOD 412 B (Figure 25) is selected. V2 at T = constant pump down time – t = 4 min 0.1 mbar p1 · V1 → V2 = ––––––– = [m3] p2 1000 mbar · 1 m3 a) V2 = –––––––––––––––– = 10 m3 100 mbar 1000 mbar · 1 m3 b) V2 = –––––––––––––––– = 100 m3 10 mbar 1000 mbar · 1 m3 c) V2 = –––––––––––––––– = 1000 m3 1 mbar 1000 mbar · 1 m3 d) V2 = –––––––––––––––– = 10000 m3 0. V1 = p2 .Calculations 7. On the basis of the preceding calculation. 7. Known parameters are: vessel volume to be evacuated V = 1.8 Boyle-Mariotte Law p .6 m3 required final pressure p = 1 · 10-3 mbar p1 .1 mbar 40 V p1 S = –– · In ––– = [m3/h] t p2 1.06 0. V = const.

Sv (m3/h) Volume flow rate of the backing pump p1 (mbar) (Start/atmospheric) pressure p1 p2 (mbar) (Compressed to) pressure p2 ∆p (mbar) Differential pressure at the overflow valve s [m3/h] 104 10 3 A B C 332 D E S ≈ 250m3/h S ≈ 300m3/h S ≈ 400m3/h S ≈ 350m3/h 102 S ≈ 300m3/h D t1 Sv = 68m3/h 102 103 t6 t5 t4 t3 101 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 t2 101 Intake pressure p [mbar] Fig.6 1013 + 53 t1 = ––– · In ––––––––– = 0.t1 = 4 min* *) Based on the parameters. 25 Diagram for 7.0665 h 68 10 + 53 t1 = 0. Volume flow rate Roots vacuum pumps with two stages rotary vane vacuum pumps A WOD 3000B B WOD 1800 B C WOD 900 B (WKP 1000 A/DUO 120) D WOD 412 B (WKP 500 A/DUO 65) E WOD 222 B 41 . that is. gas ballast valve of the backing pump open At 60 Hz operations. 1. the pump down time for the vessel amounts to t = 4 min. the volume flow rate of the backing pump .0665 h . (S = 68 m3/h) is so small that t1 = t2. the volume flow rate increases by 20 %.9 (Selection of a pumping station) gas ballast valve of the backing pump closed.Checking the pump down time V p1 + ∆p t1 = ––– · In –––––––– = [h] p2 + ∆p Sv t (h) Pump down time V (m ) Volume of the recipient 3 Caution! Pressure p2 (10 mbar) should be selected so that the overflow valve of the Roots vacuum pump (∆p = 53 mbar) is closed at the selected pressure ∆p.

tn (Theoretical. 1. calculable pump down time with the vacuum pumping station – WOD 412 B –) → tges = 0.1108 h → tges = 6.0156 h 400 0.6 min. is too small (tges = 6.0086 h 300 0.6 4 t3 = –––– · In –– = 0.6 0.0089 h 250 0.004 t6 = –––– · In –––––– = 0.001 42 . especially that of the backing pump.02 t5 = –––– · In –––––– = 0.6 min] Comparison Required pump down time/theoretical. twice that of the WOD 412 B and the pump down time therefore roughly halved.Calculations V p1 t1 = ––– · In ––– = [h] p2 Sn t (h) Pump down time V (m3) Volume of the recipient Sn (m3/h) Mean volume flow rate of the pump station from pressure p1 to p2 p1 (mbar) (from) pressure p1 p2 (mbar) (to) pressure p2 Adding: tges = t1 + . calculable pump down time Required pump down time: t = 4 min Calculated pump down time: t = 6..0063 h 350 1 1. < 4 min.5 min.6 1 t4 = –––– · In ––––– = 0.6 0.6 10 –– t2 = –––– · In – = 0. t ~ 3.6 min Selected vacuum pumping station WOD 412 B: WKP 500 A – Nominal volume flow rate: Sn = 490 m3/h DUO 65 – Nominal volume flow rate: Sn = 68 m3/h WOD 412 B is too small! The pump down time is too long because the volume flow rate..6 – 4 = 2.004 1. WOD 900 B: WKP 1000 A — Nominal volume flow rate: Sn = 1070 m3/h DUO 120 — Nominal volume flow rate: Sn = 128 m3/h WOD 900 B is right! The volume flow rate is approx.).6 min [tges – t1 = 6.02 1.0049 h 300 4 1.

43 .

Vacuum pump. g. general Vacuum gauges With the exception of the symbols for throughput quantities. general Vapor traps.Appendix 8 Appendix 8. each attachment for connecting lines must be placed in the middle of the vertically drawn line. The point of the angle signifying vacuum must always be facing down. Shut-off device. The higher pressure is on the narrower side. Filters. general Vacuum vessels Vacuum chamber Separators with heat exchanger (e.1 Graphic Symbols in Vacuum Technology The symbols for vacuum pumps are not position dependent. general Baffles. They can be turned in any direction. In flow diagrams. general Cooling traps. the symbols for vacuum gauges are position dependent. general Shut-off devices Symbols for shut-off devices are not position dependent. Symbols for angle valves must be entered in the diagram according to their actual position in the system. filter systems. cooled) Vacuum bell jar Gas filters. general Cooling traps with coolant reservoir Shut-off valve Sorption traps 44 Right angle valve . general Gauge head Rotary vane vacuum pump Gauge operations and control unit Liquid ring vacuum pump Gauge operations and control unit with recorder Roots vacuum pump Flowmeter Vacuum pump accessories Separators.

Pipe Connections Stopcock Flange connection Three way Stopcock Flange connection. screwed Right angle Stopcock Small flange connection Gate valve Clamped flange connection Shut-off flap Threaded pipe connection Non-return valve Ground-in ball and socket joint Safety shut-off device Spigot and socket joint Operation of shut-off devices Taper ground joint Manual drive Altering the diameter of the conducting pipe Cross-over of two conducting pipes with connecting point Cross-over of two conducting pipes without connecting point Dosing valve Electromagnetic drive Hydraulic or pneumatic drive M Branch-off point Electric motor drive Directional signs Weight driven Vacuum 45 .

flow resistance is independant of the pressure. flow is therefore dependent on the viscosity of the gas and may be laminar or turbulent. the vacuum pump is connected to the chamber via a pipe. Compression ratio The compression ratio is the ratio between the outlet pressure and the inlet pressure of a pump for a specific gas. liquid or solid. Gas is a gaseous state which has not been converted into a liquid or solid state by compression at the prevailing temperature and pressure. The medium may be gaseous. Cooling trap A cooling trap is a trap which affects condensation on a cooled surface. At high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. Fore vacuum pressure The fore vacuum pressure is the pressure required at the discharge side of a vacuum pump which cannot operate at atmospheric pressure. It is the space where gas is compressed before being expelled.Appendix 8. F Flow Viscous flow Viscous flow is the passage of a gas through a duct under conditions such that the mean free path is very small in comparison with the smallest internal dimension of a cross section of the duct. Flow resistance In most applications. s · l-1. Gas Gas is matter in which the mean distance between the molecules is large in comparison to their dimensions and the mutual arrangement of the individual molecules is constantly changing. B C Backing pump A backing pump generates the necessary low pressure required by the exhaust of some vacuum pumps. In the case of molecular flow. Compression chamber The compression chamber is the space within the stator of some positive displacement pumps.2 Definition of terms A Absorption Absorption is a type of sorption in which the gas (absorbate) diffuses into the bulk of the solid or liquid (absorbent). the resistance is independent of the pressure. This pipe exhibits a flow resistance which arises from the ratio pressure differential ∆p divided by the gas flow q. The unit is s · m-3. D Desorption Desorption is the movement of gases sorbed by a sorbent material. The G 46 . Molecular flow Molecular flow is the passage of a gas through a duct under conditions such that the mean free path is very large in comparison with the largest internal dimensions of a cross section of the duct. Adsorption Adsorption is a type of sorption in which the gas (adsorbate) is retained at the surface of the solid or liquid (adsorbent). Diffusion Gas diffusion is the movement of a gas in another medium owing to its concentration gradient. In the case of viscous flow the resistance is a function of the pressure. Laminar flow Laminar flow (parallel flow) is a viscous flow without mixing motion at small Reynolds numbers. Turbulent flow Turbulent flow (eddy flow) is a viscous flow with mixing motion above a critical Reynolds number (for circular cylindrical pipes Re = 2300). The movement can be spontaneous or can be accelerated by physical processes.

15 K δn = 0 °C Normal pressure Pn = 101325 Pa = 1013.15 K (standard conditions). The unit for the leak rate is: 1 Pa · m3 · s-1 =1 W = 10 mbar · l · s-1 L O Outgassing Outgassing is a spontaneous desorption. pressure difference and temperature. At 20°C. N K Knudsen number The various types of flow are characterized by the ratio of the diameter of a pipe to the mean free path of the gas flowing through that pipe.25 mbar Occlusion Occlusion is the presence of a gas volume in solid particles or liquids (bubbles). Multi – stage vacuum pumps Multi – stage vacuum pump refers to the sequential arrangement of pumping systems frequently located in a common housing and representing a constructive unit. so as to prevent condensation within the pump. It is equivalent to throughput. Laminar flow Laminar flow is a viscous flow without inter-mixing at small Reynolds number levels. Normal temperature Tn = 273. M Mass flow Mass flow is the mass of a gas flowing through a cross section of a pipe in a given time and the time span. 1 mbar l/s = 55. This can occur in rotary vane pumps when a large amount of gas is pumped through the oil reservoir. liquid or gaseous substance. preferably by chemical reactions.18 sccm. Mean free path The mean free path is the average distance which a molecule travels between two successive collisions with other molecules. If oil in droplet forms is involved. Oil mist filter in vacuum pumps An oil separator in a vacuum pump is a device on the exhaust side of positive displacement pumps to trap and. Gas liberation Gas liberation is spontaneous desorption. Normal conditions Normal conditions refer to the established standard temperature and standard pressure of a solid. Standard conditions are 1013. Leak rate The leak rate is the throughput of a gas through a leak. in some cases. l/s or sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute). Gettering Gettering means bonding of gas. the device is referred to as an oil mist separator or oil mist filter. The unit is mbar. Getters (getter materials) often have large real surfaces. Gas load The gas load is the gas throughput delivered to a vacuum pump. Leak Leaks in a vacuum system are holes or voids in the walls or at joints. It is a function of the type of gas.25 mbar and 273. This ratio is the Knudsen number Kn = I/d. to return vacuum pump oil to the vacuum pump. 47 . usually into the compression chamber of a positive displacement pump.Gas ballast Inlet of a controlled quantity of gas. caused by faulty material or machining or incorrect handling of the seals.

m3 · h-1. The unit commonly used in vacuum technology is the millibar. R Reynolds number Non-dimensional quantity ρ·v·l Re = ––––––– η ρ = density of fluid v = average flow velocity l = characteristic length = (e. T Throughput rate Throughput rate of a vacuum pump is the pV flow of the pumped gas. abbreviation Pa.g. pV throughput pV throughout is the quotient from the pV value of a gas which in a given time span flows through the cross section of a pump at the prevailing temperature and the time span. pipe diameter) η = dynamic viscosity Re < 2300 : laminar flow Re > 4000 : turbulent flow S Pressure The pressure of a gas on a boundary surface is the normal component of the force exerted by the gas on an area of a real surface divided by that area. Trap A trap is a device in which the partial pressure of an undesirable residue in a mixture of gas and/or vapors which is reduced by physical or chemical means. and bar as a special unit designation for 105 Pa. 1 Pa = 1 Nm2 1 bar = 1000 mbar = 105 Nm-2 = 105 Pa. 48 . Saturation vapor pressure The saturation vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor which is in thermodynamic equilibrium with one of its condensed phases at the prevailing temperature. Units of throughput rate are m3 · s-1. Particle density Particle density is the quotient from the number of particles contained in a given volume. pV value The pV value is the product of the pressure and the volume of a specified volume of a gas at the prevailing temperature. Permeation involves diffusion and surface phenomena. Sorbents are also called sorption agents. If the pV value is to be used as a measure for the volume of substance or gas. Total pressure The total pressure is the sum of all partial pressures present. Pressure units The legal pressure units are Pascal as the SI unit. this must be an ideal gas at a specified temperature. This term is used in contexts where the shorter term “pressure” might not clearly distinguish between the individual partial pressure and their sum. Permeation Permeation is the passage of gas through a solid barrier or a liquid of finite thickness. l · s-1.Appendix P Partial pressure The partial pressure is the pressure due to a specified gas or vapor component of a gaseous and/or vapor mixture. Sorption Sorption is the attraction of a gas (sorbate) by a solid or a liquid (sorbent).

Vapor pressure The vapor pressure is the partial pressure of the vapor.5 · 1025 .U V Ultimate pressure Ultimate pressure is the value which the pressure approaches asymptotically in a vacuum pump. fitted either at the inlet or discharge side are devices to trap condensates which form in parts of the pump or vacuum lines when pumping vapors and solid substances. Torr · l · s-1 49 .5 · 1019 . d = pipeline diameter Volume throughput The volume throughput is the quotient from the volume of a gas which flows through the cross-section of a pipe in a given time at a specific pressure and a specific temperature. Note: In vacuum technology.2. Water vapor compatibility pWo Water vapor compatibility is the highest intake pressure under which a vacuum pump can deliver pure water vapor and not accumulate liquid water internally.5 · 10 . Vacuum ranges rough vacuum (GV) medium vacuum (FV) high vacuum (HV) mbar 1000 – 1 1 – 10 -3 particle density 2. the word “gas” has been loosely applied to both the noncondensable gas and the vapor. and the time span itself. W Vapor Vapor is a substance in gas phase which is either in thermodynamic equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase (saturated vapor) or brought to thermal equilibrium by compression (condensed) at the prevailing temperature (unsaturated vapor).2. Vane The vane is a sliding component dividing the space (compression chamber) between the rotor and the stator in a positive displacement pump. Vacuum pump oil Vacuum pump oil is an oil used in oil sealed vacuum pumps to seal.5 · 10 m 22 19 -3 mean free path (l) l l l l d d d d 10-3 –10-7 -7 2. Water vapor capacity CWo The water vapor capacity is the maximum volume of water per unit of time which a vacuum pump can continuously take in and discharge in the form of water vapor under ambient conditions of 20°C and 1013 mbar. m3 · h-1. Vacuum pump separators Separators. cool and lubricate.5 · 10 m 15 -3 ultra high vacuum (UHV) <10 Particle density figures are valid for a temperature of 20 °C.2. Volume flow rate The volume flow rate S is the average volume flow from a standardized test dome through the cross section of the pump’s intake port. Units for the volume flow rate are m3s-1. l · s-1.5 · 1022 m-3 2.5 · 1015 m-3 < 2. if a distinction is not required.

excellent wear protection. halogens. hydrogen. high thermal. ozone. For pumping out coolant circuits in refrigerating units 2 · 10-2 518 0.9 A555 Synthetic oil on esterbasis viscosity ISO-VG 100. Standard applications To pump off e. silane. HCL. ammonia. A polymer compound with low molecular weight and the structure of perfluoridated polyethers. 1 · 10-3 – 1.Appendix 8. without additives.g. With two-stage rotary vane vacuum pump 50 . BF3. HF. weakaggressive solvent fumes.8 P3 Mineral oil Viscosity ISO-VG 100.97 Table 4 Operating medium 1) 1) 2) Applications involving other chemicals/substances available on request.3 Operating medium Description Application1) attainable final pressure (mbar)2) 10-3 flash point (K) 537 density (g/cm3) 0. To pump off Oxygen. organic and inorganic solvents. F5 Perfluoropolyether Viscosity ISO-VG 100. noble gases.: Air. F5 is biologically inert.96 RL 68 S polyol ester viscosity ISO-VG 68 Refrigerating unit oil. oxidative and chemical stability. inert gases. high corrosion protection application with high operating temperatures > 100°C 5 · 10-2 525 0. uranium compounds. The core fraction of a paraffin based oil type with low vapor pressure. PH3 fluorine.

10-3 9.097 .6 0.278 1 m /h = 3 Table 7 Definition of the symbols Pa Pascal N/mm2 Newton per square millimeter bar Bar mbar Millibar at Technical atmosphere kp/cm2 Kilopond per square centimeter mm /Ws Millimeter water column atm Physical atmosphere Torr Torr mmQs Millimeter mercury psi. 102 0. 102 1 7.58 .01 1. 10-3 1.95 = 9.316 . 10-2 1. 7.87 1 6.4 1 1.807 9.70 1 1 0. 10-2 1.4. 10-6 1 = 1 1. 104 13. in H20 0.5 . 10-4 29. 102 1 . 102 2.807 102 3.953 . atm ft3 min-1 2.45 10 14.869 10 0.10-2 29.316 1 1.453 . 10-3 4.45 .5 1.03 1 3.491 .03 .02 .36 .32 .78 .333 = 0. 102 230 3. 10-2 3. 10-3 .3 . 10-2 .12 10 2.895 .333 .033 .968 3.333 .7 . 1.033 7.22 0.491 . lusec 7.3 . 102 10-3 1 1.60 0.12 0.333 102 1 torr l/s = 1 atm cm s = 1 lusec = 1 atm ft3 min-1 = 1 kg/h air (20 °C) = 3 -1 1. . 10-2 1.68 mm H20 10. 10-3 9.54 .535 1 . -3 1 kg/h air (20 °C) 4.036 28.92 mm Hg 0.491 1.4 Conversion Tables 8.6 . 102 9.7 . 2 .807 33.535 4. -3 torr 0.356 .0353 1 0.333 2. 7.491 .75 .1 Pressure Conversion Table mbar 1 mbar = 1 bar = 1 torr = 1 Pa (Nm-2) 1 103 1.76 atm cm3 s-1 0. bar 1 10 1 1.5890 m3/h-1 3.386 .001 3. 102 175 10-6 4.6 . 10-3 5.58 . 102 51. .937 .86 1. 10-3 4. 10-3 1 . 10-5 .333 . 10-3 2. 10-3 1.895 . 102 13. 10-5 3.677 .807 .5 10 3 .02 .59 0.36 .8.197 1. 10-2 2.5 .7 10-2 1 14. 10-2 Table 5 also: 1 dyn cm-2 = 0.068 . 10-2 7.953 .4. Pa (Nm-2) 10 2 atm 9.02 . 10-3 2. 10-3 5.71 7.96 1 3. . Ibf/in2 English pound per square inch 51 .06 1.71 7.015 .5 .67 ft3 min-1 2.987 1.333 . 102 10-2 51. 105 6.4 1 1 in Hg = 1 mm Hg = 1 in H20 = 1 mm H20 = 3.356 25.354 . 10-3 2.53 1.402 4. 104 7.4. 102 230 4.102 1 7.59 25.32 16.868 7.472 0.36 .386 . 10-2 1. 10-2 1. 10-3 2.613 .868 7.987 1.6 10 10-3 1 -3 10-3 0.0167 = 0. 10-3 102 9.75 7.354 .934 .333 .5 . 10-2 . 10-2 9.458 . 103 PSI = 68.807 . 102 104 3.1 Pa (Nm-2) = 10-3 mbar 8.4 1 1.896 . . 102 27.937 13.015 .805 0.45 14. .75 1 0.75 7. 103 1. 10-2 2. 103 1. 10-3 7.2 Leak Rate Conversion Table mbar l/s-1 1 mbar l/s-1 -1 torr l/s-1 0. 103 104 10-2 2. -2 kgf cm-2 1.342 .102 1. 10-6 10-4 10-5 1 atm = 1 Ibf 1 kgf in-2 1.934 .79 1 .356 25. in Hg 2. 10-3 10-4 .72 .42 . .013 1.394 .013 6.981 3.3 Volume Flow Rate l/s-1 1 l/s-1 = 1 l/min-1 = 1 ft3 min-1 -1 l/min-1 60 1 28. 10-3 cm-2 102 0. 10-1 Table 6 8. 105 1.795 10 2.316 . 10-5 .013 .02 1. -4 Ibf in-2 PSI 1.013 .

25 1.00 20.36.11) (2.40 165.2 161.02 108.7 -122.55 180.5 -160 -135 -181 -155.6 -189.16 329.1 68.2 0.9 .2 126.5 .99 34.9 35.59 343.4 182.02 -45.531 0.14 86.95.09 108.84 34.14.281 0.3 -187.70 159.2 138.47 120.40 670.38 27.5 55.39 324.2 .82 121.329 0.77.03 60.20 100.0 32.7 34.84 443.3 -10.12 88.3 75.1 50.7 78.5 362.03 86.94 753.27 129.42 147.16 106.0 .98 1.554 51.02 28.77 1.9 64.353 0.2 32.06 64.03 44.32 385.32) (3.82 108.3 0.52 339.34.3 214.4 125.10 54.50 94.6 478.3 .6 132.85.17 116.7 -182.235 0.8 287.0 -157.06 34.59) (1.1 315.60 1369.01 213.8 84.2 103.16.4 40.Appendix 8.3 -213 -259.48 515.90 414.0 48.93) 2.66 201.1 95.58 253.5 -35.80 590.1 30.45 146.6 188.71 54.92.20 108.13) (2.6 -140.92 502.83 460.5 81.10 636.441 0.15 184.92 (6.3 385.4 51.40) (6.5 .288 0.2 197.40) (4.9 -188.47.09 92.807 0.365 0.276 0.01 2.1 46.76 286.94 119.63.7 175.0 38.0 70.29 0.58 137.72 410.7 57.02 316.66) (5.73 195.16 104.34.4 43.354 0.5 -108.5 -88.496 0.5 -218.2 -127.12.2 1 17.92 120.575 0.26 57.65) 0.00 466.31 77.9 150.02 34.1 86.01 36.93 27.15 205.59 382.79) (5.0 .4 195.37) (7.8 40.3 60.09 1101.07 60.9 Critical Data Pressure bar 2.93) (4.16 106.3 .0 12.0 35.03 18.5 49.0 20.195 0.7 157.94 104.32 73.14 102.7 -23.83) (4.5 -136.233 0.48 711.94 510.8 84.56) (5.2 32.2 321.4 -92.2 144.6 -78.16 406.34) (1.70 357.9 -147.79 (1.56.74) (4.0 365.21 312.90 314.05) (2.235 0.12 72.6 153.85 96.43) (2.91 127.93 322.1 -118.64 1289.36) (6.36 427.2 -182.5 198.50.3 64.9 -192.51 182.5 28.55 439.507 0.79 116.95 .39 195.35 2.67 159.39 170.3 52.5 -138.59 448.02 92.9 31.8 23.314 0.08 Standard Concentration kg/m3 0.08 259.618 0.5 38.5 Data on Various Substances (Table 8) Compound Formula Mol.0 91.52) 1.33) (3.5 .0 115.77 1.7 40.90.2 179.10 394.Weight mol 4.72) (1.9 -84.96 2.13) (3.21) (4.29) Melting point °C -270.0 .7 .8 183.7 495.0 277.2 234.1 1 .63 3.6 812.00 38.08 17.3 63.484 0.7 -239.19 114.282 0.1 110.04 58.96 339.93 573.0 -63.47 116.5 80.47 80.4 13.22.6 .4 -151.520 0.43 825.573 0.58 16.96 127.1 -27.0 -129.0 178.38 48.343 0.1 25.2 -40.99 50.97 (3.610 0.524 Helium Neon Argon Air Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Chlorine Hyrofluoric Acid Hydrochoric Acid Hydrobromic Acid Hydrogen Iodide Hydrocyanic Acid Water Hydrogen Sulfide Ammonia Nitrous Oxide Nitrous Oxide Nitrogen Tetroxyde Cyanogen Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Carbon Disulfide Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur Hexaflouride Methyl Fluoride Methylene Fluoride Fluoroform Tetraflouralmethane Methyl Chloride Methylene Chloride Chloroform Diflourochloromethane Fluorotrichloromethane Trifluorochloromethane Difluorodichloromethane Fluorotrichloromethane Ethyl Fluoride Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Bromide Trifluorotrichloroethane Tetrafluorodichloroethane Trifluorochloroethylene Vinyl chloride 11-Dichloroethylene Trichloroethylene Tetrachlroethylene Fluorbenzene Chlorobenzene Benzyl chloride Methane Ethane Propan Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Benzene Toluol Ethylbenzene o-Xylol m-Xylol p-Xylol Styrolene (Beinyl Benzene) i-Propyl Benzene Diphenyl Naphtalin Methanol Aethanol Propanol Butanol Pentanol Hexanol Heptanol Octanol i-Propanol i-Butanol i-Pentanol Ethylene Glycol 13-Propylene Glycol Glycerin Benzyl Alcohol Phenol Formic Acid Acetic Acid Monochloracetic Acid Dichloracetic Acid Trichloracetic Acid Ketene Acetone Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Furfurol He Ne A H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 HF HCl HBr HJ HCN H2O H2S NH3 NO N2O N2O4 C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 SO2 SF6 CH3F CH2F2 CHF3 CF4 CH3CI CH2CI2 CHCI3 CHF2CI CHFCI2 CF3CI CF2CI2 CHFCI3 C2H5F C2H5CI C2H5Br C3F3CI3 C2F4CI2 C2F3CI C2H3CI C2H2CI2 C2HCI3 C2CI4 C2H5F C6H5CI C7H7CI CH4 C2H6 C8H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H8 C9H12 C12H10 C10H8 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C8H14O C7H18O C8H18O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C3H8O3 C7H8O C6H6O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C2H3O2CI C2H2O2CI2 C2H2O2CI3 C2H2O C3H6O CH2O C2H4O C5H4O2 -160 -183.8 46.14 156.6 .4 -1 1 8.2 .2 99.94.8 157.6 -56.27.1 47.49 84.03 (3.0 67.22 60.507 0.75 29.4 139.0 0.4 -33.81 150.92 127.2 51.5 50.8 -195.11) (4.18.91 62.5 260.83 141.88) (2.91 494.2 .59) (4.74) (4.9 8.0 78.0 188.8 .7 98.97) (4.78 1.5 359.96.4 49.45 228.91 20.9 419.21) (4.65 56.0 56.43 1.8 5.5 80.7 Melting Temperature kJ/kg 3.6 50.09 74.24 62.4 38.09 217.8 -220.0 146.05 86.00 70.12 30.74) (4.02 87.0 -1 1 7.20 128.05 94.5 -183.5 .9 -81.73 54.4 47.78.284 0.54 0.1 35.03 52.58 159.1 -185.49) (4.1 .86) (8.2 288.232 0.1 68.90 1.97.6 -42.07 76.2 -21.9 344.15) (2.2 -126.6 95.9 137.7 -248.64 150.7 -138.0 36.9 13.291 0.51.7 .74) (4.44 79.555 0.304 0.77 154.8 .7 .20) (2.6 -114.30.5 59.0 -1 1 0.40 96.76 167.20 81.7 20.9 55.11) (4.94.3 .459 0.6 4.13 106.6 38.14 196.18 0.88) (4.31) (3.0 107.0 187.97 (4.4 -117.51) -78.18 39.88 Temperature °C -267.00 .48 102.22 111 .21 242.95 975.0 -84.03 30.2 230.3 265.234 0.21) (1.10 112.7 100.1 217.56.22 548.8 52.0 205.95 131.89.9 -13.8 234.68) (3.05 277.36.73 351.7 75.99 77.06 148.4 59.82 108.15 368.2 82.7 54.41.83.03 114.21) 46.39.6 .16 106.86) (7.12 88.2 0.78 247.19 154.02 32.2 .82 37.1 -1 1 1 .22) (5.4 -129.330 0.45.0 296.97.5 .14 120.90.0 96.41 460.162 0.72 1.29 262.52 (2.81) (2.34 Boiling Evaporation at 1 bar Temperature Temperature °C kJ/kg -268.16 32.5 -29.1 189.5 267.5 36.8 132.0 .5 -159.0 130.89.1 -21.6 .6 -1 1 1 .2 -210.88) (5.7 80.5 141.06) (2.21) 152.06 127.86) (4.83 309.9 -228.35 280.50 42.031 0.5 194.5 .275 0.3 577.40) 2.8 35.3 .0 349.5 32.123.0 358.226 0.22 78.6 0.50 108.86.0 19.03 31 1 .8 50.2 .06 146.75.9 .40) (4.0 230.13 64.39 845.97 79.07 44.50 96.13 94.63 347.5 273.6 44.01 44.69 125.96.04 28.77 573.19 130.5 7.94 28.48 62.85 58.8 8.0 -151.441 0.93) (2.46 85.49 489.6 27.213 0.231 0.14 62.252 52 .01 44.15.57 332.93 104.3 .79) (4.03 70.8 195.66 376.21) 0.3 38.5 237.7 .8 -66.05 209.60 301.5 232.22 265.63 92.09 74.99 103.02) (5.17 100.4 145.7 39.20 30.91 217.1 319.09 1.40 339.75 519.0 .2 -191.5 .70 3.92 137.5 .1 -0.468 0.0 62.87.70 3.11 92.4 .9 -163.9 .61 276.73 452.28 235.5 41.63 25.7 31.76 2257.9 -246.51 69.85) 4.97 426.4 256.065 0.34 50.4 158.311 0.31) (3.54 197.2 -81.39 86.99 23.310 0.46 5.25 1.4 .53 272.77) (3.4 84.75 13.47.98 187.68) (3.7 21.4 16.05 96.8 25.60 82.73 72.2 74.9 -205.58 144.3 -252.8 225.6 61.34 1.0 .45 200.8 214.50 94.88 160.39 80.273 89.63) (5.17 0.31 (3.1 146.0 348.5 34.2 54.8 .6 102.52 16.11 46.45 (3.68) (4.69 188.9 40.0 0.9 44.64 335.14 259.1 -52.31 58.6 136.6 .522 0.20) (2.32) 1.02 52.7 87.311 0.33) (5.0 .7 .00 -60.4 -161.9 Specific Weight kg/l 0.3 40.7 -32.2 120.29) (5.3 9.94.65) (5.88.7 .3 97.7 111.93 116.97 510.5 374.351 523.08 30.2 290.01 76.78 402.09 58.25.49 355.25 69.7 118.56 126.6 306.0 -100.1 61.04 30.64 5.5 62.04 46.

10.7 39.87 1.7 -126.70 1.8 4.42.21 1.1 -261.2 95 111.72 2.7 152 181 81 94 114.47 0.4 .31 0.9 6.2.4 -204.3 -103.61.96 2.7 75.1 .34 1.9 -246.3 .31.08 1.94.82.5 .5 24.7 .34 3.33.6 6.49 .60 .4 47.5 148.83.5 .1 .7 .8 21 27 23.50.4 1000 -268.26 2.8 1.51 0.8 195.76 1.6 86.1 C4H10O .2 CH2F2 CHF3 CF4 -186.34.05 1.66 2.72.70.7 7 .6 6.18 1.11 1.57 0.16 1.7 .01 1.7 13.83 1.39 1.83 -222.57.86 1.15 .97 0.87 0.05 1.96 2.04 0.52.24.3 111.37 1.8 -106.29 1.41 1.1 1.5 .5 61 20.5 C8H8 .50 1.95 1.71 1.5 C2H4O .2 290 205.60 0.70 1.5 CHCI3 .4 .2 -205.908 1.76 0.13.7 C5H12 .08 2.2 -197.24 .1 -102.17 1.4 SF6 -134.955 1.70 1.20 1.00 1.53 -122.865 0.7 .862 1.73 -271.5 136 81.17 1.33 .53 -176.74.15 2.98 .26.48 1.16.5 .2 -269.37.28 1.27.1 .44 CH2O .86.-96.8 100 114 135 151.55 0.41 1.38.02 14.2 16.1 .56 1.86.23 -181.55 0.41.5 75 93.39 .5 .26.6 4.5 -176.81 1.60 1.7 H2 -263.744 1.3 .4 26.2 -105.7 78.9 C2H6O2 49.3 .28.63 10.7 87.34 1.4 49.17 0.76 2.55 1.7 40.2 CF2CI2 -120.57.03 0.9 .6 .93 CS2 .23 1.83.4 61.7 21.7 175.84.31 1.98 1.68.50 4.7 58.8 .82 0.28 .6) (-81.18.7 118.0.9 .9 .63.41 1.8 .5 .20.2 .3 -135.33.2 -100.77 0.31 2.83.1 -153.3 C2HCI3 .03 2.05 1.6.694 0.29.73.856 1.1 .81 1.38.8 C2CI4 .3) .6 .3 99.3 .8 .6 154 -193.93 -214.22 45.00 .60.3 C2H2O (-131.5 81 .94 1.26.8 35.25 .5 -106.15 3.73 2.41 1.23 53 .6 .2 -254.19 1.97 0.69 0.29.9 111.4 .5 46.4 145.70 1.2 C7H8O 54.59 1.4.19 2.2 .850 0.62 0.2 -193.5 9 81.1 .8 .3 C8H12 .33.97.11 1.5 .6.00 -124.11 2.72 -167.83 .5 49.1 63.76 0.2 144.9 .63 22 C12H12 65.36 0.2 -191.6 37.43 1.26 1.45 .5 33.72 0.8 8.86 0.47 0.85.84 0.33 1.3 10 25 46.5 78.27 0.8 113.2 24.96.970 0.3 .2 .5 -104.57.89 1.2 161.44.60 0.55.5 146 164.85 0.10 1.2 CH3CI -102.3 .3 C8H10 .3 83 (-114.24 0.01 3.96 .1 bar kJ/kg °C Temperature in °C 50 0 25 100 200 5.52 1.5 HCI -152.98.17 3.9 SO2 .31.03 1.73 1.3 102 .03 0.3 53.5 .4 256.92 1.16.26.36.5 CF3CI -151.5 .48 1.03 2.4 27.78.83 1.937 1.6 -116.39 1.7 .5 7 28.23.9 134.3 .10 0.Boiling Temperature at Various Formula 1 He Ne A 5 10 -271.7 80.8 .2 .765 0.93.2 -105.89 3.3 -146.61 0.46.91.969 0.55 0.53 -255.3 66.67 .23 -150.6 110.78 0.1 C6H14 .7 C2H3O2CI 39.8 C7H6 .7 C8H16 .5 .65 1.86 0.36 0.57 0.75.6 CHFCI2 .63 6.3 -103.60 1.34 3.46 1.5 C8H14O 20.92.5 123.80 .66 2.67 0.908 1.88 0.54 1.8 17.49.1 194 227.2 -127.80.01 13.89.87 0.5 167.36 1.2 26 40.5 36.46.17 1.9 .13 .44 0.04 0.67 0.4 139.36 0.62.61.7 NH3 -110.2 120.53.2 -109 .16.772 0.51.99 1.96 4.46.93 .5 .5 .74 0.5 .5 .1 .8 23.14 1.8 39 55.33 1.26.66 0.80 -135.93.5 .82 0.9 113.7 .60 5.8 .7 .5 .5 -166.9 137.75 1.40.34.62.83 1.90 0.15.3 .76.55 0.5 36.48.36.45 2.92 1.00 0.36 1.18 -254 -209.81 0.714 0.80 .85.73 -112.06 0.34 1.11 1.55.51 1.8 -195.3 .63 0.8 87.41 1.48 1.82 2.989 0.5 -157.970 1.7.2 .58 0.4 -207.84 1.9 .60 1.831 0.7 C2H2CI2 .9 .82 0.5 -209.80 0.69.3 20 35.34.6 70 90 47.01 14.9 C8H8 .3 -117 -133.18 1.178 -169.63.5 58.57 .46.7.5 109 124.7 C3H8 -130.80 0.7 .1 34.5 19.93 -118.2 .5 .4 -161.45 2.8 157.775 1.53 12.3 56.10.5 41 .6.62 1.92.78.20.948 1.3) .52 1.3 -112.77 0.64 0.86.71 0.01 14.3 61.3 -120.5 .83 .03 0.4 .71 0.4 17 36.4 Pressure in °C Pressure in mbar 40 100 200 -270.97 -250.52 1.97.41 0.4 -118 .7 .5 -201.03 2.2 46.15 1.7 .5 -131 -124.91.28 1.1 2.88 1.99.73.93.23 1.5 59 76.8 .91 0.84 2.714 0.23 .07 1.33 72 C3H8O .43.09 1.53 C2F4CI2 .95 0.29.96 0.2 25.61.10.34 1.72.07 2.99.3 16.5 176.17 1.00 .23 1.7 .22.52 1.4 10.78.5 -125.7 .4 154 95.11 -171.3 129.25 1.27.39 0.81.1 173 (-108)(-101) (-90.3 213.53 .53 .75 1.77 1.18.47 1.1 .95 0.1.8 .9 -119 .46.14 1.5 -100.8 .95.73 -107.44 2.00 .7 -114.5 63.76.10.8 .60 1.68 2.05 1.704 1.16 2.9 CH3F -148.694 0.53 0.83 .84 1.5 .88 -253 -206.8 .03 2.5 0.96.64 1.45 -251.7 .29 1.07 1.7 .00 .91.3 .25.09 0.75.2 .1 .73 .87 1.7.04 0.14 .23 30.49 2.7 -164 -106.765 0.61 0.60 .6 3.02 1.23 70 CH4O .17.99 1.0 .5 C2H5CI .63.06 1.73.60.8 .92 0.19 1.68 1. 231.5 34.09 1.29 1.05 2.5 CHF2CI -124.32 1.14 2.63 0.68 0.64 1.63 2.9 C2H4O2 .96 1.3 .4 -220 -212 -215.32 1.983 0.0.23 .81 .2 H2O .9 31.66.22 1.3 -132.83 .20 1.67 0.34 1.7 -122.70.5 158 7 18.33 .93 0.13 1.8 -114 -100.04 0.5 69 .85 0.86 1.03 0.27 2.83 .91 0.22.33.5 55.0.85.11 1.8 38 0.9 C2F3CI -118.4 -203.4 -139.5 .10.2 .3 108 130.23 .7 HJ -125.63 .826 0.6 500 269.7 H2S -136.93.17.13 -141.93 42.5 -136.00 1.7 -215.45 1.72.66 1.9 C2HO2CI3 47.51.79.89 2.4 -207.73.76 0.1 61.3 16 29.11 1.04 0.3 .975 0.56.20 .89 0.7 12.03 1.5 -117 -101 .52 1.51 1.17 0.93 .93 -218.7 -112.5 61 80.1 C4H10 -103.5 112.2 .1 -270.24 1.877 0.5 -111.6 .3 CH2O2 .8 .39.00 -214.7 38.46 5.19.11 1.877 0.8 1.8.6 51.9 .59 0.42 1.32 12.06 1.2 .45.61 1.0 -132.3 .56 .2 .60 C2F3CI3 .2 -191.26 1.8 HF (app.65.10 1.5 102.97 0.36 0.53 15.9 C2H6O .3 125.97.8 26.04 0.02 2.13 -106.3 C2H6 -161.5 105.54.5 .03 1.938 0.2 72 98 .5 40 63.5 .36 0.872 0.5 42.5 .24 1.2 CO2 -126.49.3 .8 80.65.5 .23 -112.8 47.70.14.69 1.88.3 26.23 2.2 .67 0.63 -129.6 136.53 .35 2.23.75 0.69 0.5 -216.3 69 84 106.45 1.44 .76 2.5 65.27.96 1.5.30 74 92 120 35.2 117.46.2 74.00 43 CH4 -206.5 22.80 0.5 -197 -145.04 0.79.5 70 88 114.21.00 .4 38.85.5 14 29.31 1.93 .3) C3H6O .2 C6H6O 36.6 C8H10 .5 .00 0.86.9 109.59 0.7 48.7 .46 2.8 .93 0.03 0.44 1.877 1.2 .72 0.59 0.88 .7 98.5 .83 .64.5 114 140 0.29 -271.2 C2H3CI -108.4 195.7 -104.10.8 95 161.55 .1 C5H12O 6.2 37 .3 .63 1.71 -136.31 2.12 4.8 132.5 158 190 .41 1.9 -112.00 -105.949 1.4 -183.58 0.2 -179.4 -151.5 -122.43.7 .7 48.3 148.18 2.02 1.9 .08 1.632 0.45 2.8 C2H5F -119.663 0.4 .7 86.12 2.5 136.3 24.35 -248.03 0.6 197.20 1.62 0.5 C3H8O .14 1.3 129 145 172 8.8 53.49 1.52 .47 .63 1.9 .53 -142.53 0.7 .2 .80 0.5 191.84.3 214.22 1.46 0.953 0.59 2.7 33.88.7 14.28 4.8 .5 .3 .88.9 -188 .26 1.6 .37 1.52 1.33.11.5 31.53 9.95 .80 0.32 1.1 CI2 -120.17 1.17 1.17.10.58.93 -200.51.35.2 68.3 CFCI3 .601 1.6 NO -185.70 0.2 64.955 1.2 .65.38 1.24 1.64 0.04 0.43 1.91 0.8 48.48.1.5 -202 -258 -211 -200.7 -161.689 0.06 0.52 1.9 64.6 16.8)(-68.15 1.5 53.5 .35.8) (-120.9 19.43 -262 N2 -226.40.5 171.96.42 1.3 97.70.05 0.5 -137.14.533 16 C5H12O .67 1.34 19.759 0.45 1.29 2.39.37.1 .54 -257.17.01 14.5 77.57 2.49.00 1.45 1.33 6 C6H6 .1 68.673 0.69.2 -130.4 C5H4O2 14.49 1.2 95 118.1 189.2 -260.9 -218.2 .8 84.3 .83 96 C10H8 .62.8 .30.2 .80 1.9 -192.5 CO -222.1 217.7 -209 -212.52 1.29 1.00 -108.29 1.20 1.2 93.90.8 C6H5CI .5 108.3 22.78.93.93 0.42.98.09 0.5 194.6 56.22 1.51 1.5 70 83.5 .21 20.55.11 0.96 0.5 131.84 0.8 30 43.49 1.44 2.1 .20.64 5.43 .23.69 1.05 1.9 96 110 130.99 2.98 0.80 0.1 .38 -255 -212.4 .51 2.17 1.71 Dynamic viscosity of the Vapors in 10-5 Pa·s Temperature in °C -50 0 25 100 200 1.99 0.5 62 76 96.8 8.77 C2H5Br .2 58 75 89.60.51.5 .49 0.64 1.5 261 100 113.74 1.23 1.14.5 .96 0.7 -111.12 0.94.9 5.2 3.8 51 62.69 1.5 121 46 60 81 99 127 127 144.2 -259.22 1.75 4.9 .8 81.41 1.5 21 34.44 1.7 -196.83 1.923 1.20 1.731 0.16 0.5 29.7 Specific Temperature of Vapors Under Constant Pressure Within Range of 0 .19 0.2 45.4 182 100.44 4.52 2.5 .81 0.9 -121.948 1.32 1.6 .5 2.60.60 5.70 0.79 1.5 .68 0.64.35.2 152.2 -128.17 1.8 -256.6 .64 0.72.62.8 20 -271.00 .16.2 HCN .3 .7 .50.2 90.58 1.9 -173.739 0.52 1.46 0.7.7 76 26.73 -213.32 1.7 67.86 0.5 -215.2 138.79 .2 N2O4 .3 73 97 88.2 C6H5F .4 .2 C8H10 .20 1.5 F2 -223.11.86.2 19.05 2.729 1.61 0.7 .01 1.29 .4.10 .2 78.49 0.5 39.73 13.2 127 145 171.3 .4 125.9 C7H18O 393 60 C8H18O 50.1 110.60 1.8 -211.887 0.986 1.4 CH2CI2 .3 54 78.5 54.81 2.3 .06 0.72.3 .2 .82 1.45 C2N2 .01 2.9 .03 0.93 0.38 1.1 .66 0.16 1.3 -252.23 1.5 87.64 0.39 2.2 179.8 .1 25.52 1.88.4 -196 -200 .862 0.7.23 1.88.2 -111.04 0.38 C7H18 .2 .8 .64 0.5 C3H8O2 55 82 C3H8O3 121.938 0.43 17.5 C2H2O2CI2 40 64.2) .95 1.8 .12 7.03 2.71 .6 .25 O2 -220.71 1.74 0.02 1.113.703 0.23 0.81.52 1.61 1.5.58 .7 -182.6 85.7 .61 1.5 82.81 2.8 .1 96.3 37.5 .2 71.73 .77.50 0.48 1.51 0.01 0.24.5 -189.05 1.9 41 65.73 -218.42 .73 6 C7H7CI .83 .1 -111.18.22 0.46.8 .79.67 0.26 1.2 N2O -144.26 1.5 76.93 -139.6 HBr -140.64 1.3 .949 1.33.67 0.838 0.61 0.1 -185.3 -189.93 .7 100 .17 0.5 .78.7 13.67 .53 .7 47.6 60 .82 0.56 1.5 176 191.8 C4H10O .13.59 0.20 1.3 .762 1.56 .8 -124.8 141.

Appendix

8.6 Desorption Rates on Clean Surfaces
Desorption rates1) qDes 1h 2.7 . 10-7 2 . 10-8 1.4 . 10-9 3 . 10-10 2 . 10-7 1.3 . 10-8 6 . 10-7 5 . 10-7 4 . 10-7 6 . 10-8 1.6 . 10-6 3.5 . 10-7 8.7 . 10-7 4.5 . 10-9 1.6 . 10-6 4 . 10-5 4 . 10-6 1.2 . 10-6 1.2 . 10-7 1.2 . 10-9 8 . 10-7 mbar · l s · cm2 4h 5.4 . 10-8 4 . 10-9 2.8 . 10-10 6.5 . 10-11 1.5 . 10-8 2.2 . 10-9 1.6 . 10-7 1 . 10-7 8 . 10-8 1.7 . 10-8 5.6 . 10-7 9.5 . 10-8 4 . 10-7 1.1 . 10-9 5.6 . 10-7 2.2 . 10-5 1.7 . 10-6 3.6 . 10-7 5 . 10-8 3.3 . 10-10 2.3 . 10-7

[

]
10h 2.7 . 10-8 2 . 10-10 1.4 . 10-10 4 . 10-11 5 . 10-9 1.2 . 10-9 1 . 10-7 5 . 10-8 3.8 . 10-8 1.1 . 10-8 4 . 10-7 5.5 . 10-8 2.8 . 10-7 5.5 . 10-10 4 . 10-7 1.5 . 10-5 1.3 . 10-6 2.2 . 10-7 2.8 . 10-8 2.5 . 10-10 1.5 . 10-7

Material Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Steel Ni plated Steel Cr plated Steel Steel Steel Aluminium Brass Copper Porcelain Glass Acrylic glass Neoprene Perbunan Viton Viton Viton Teflon

Surfacequality blank polished pickled bead blasted polished polished blank bead blasted

Surface condition cleaned cleaned heated for 1 hour, vented with normal air cleaned cleaned rusted cleaned cleaned cleaned cleaned cleaned cleaned

glazed

heated for 4 hours at 100 °C heated for 4 hours at 150 °C degassed
1)

Table 9 Desorption rates for clean surfaces

The desorption rates can be disproved by different types of pretreatment (e.g. annealing for hydrogen removal).

8.7 Correction Factor a
a 0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 pv /p 2.4

Fig. 26: Correction Factor a Calculation of the fore vacuum dependent volumetric efficiency rating for a Roots vacuum pump.

54

8.8 8.8.1

Technical Data, Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps UNO 2.5 and UNO 5
UNO 2.5 DN 16 ISO-KF DN 16 ISO-KF m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar g/h dB(A) dB(A) °C I rpm rpm kW kg 2.5 2.9 <5 .10-2 <1 15 37 53 55 80 0.45 2800 3355 0.13 10.2 UNO 5 A DN 16 ISO-KF DN 16 ISO-KF 4.6 5.1 <5 .10-2 <1 20 75 53 55 80 0.45 2800 3355 0.13 11

Single-stage Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast total with gas ballast Water vapor tolerance Water vapor capacity Noise without gas ballast with gas ballast Operating temperature1) Operating medium quantity Rotation speed 50 Hz 60 Hz Motor rating Weight

8.8.2

Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps UnoLine
UNO 35 DN 40 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar g/h dB(A) dB(A) °C I kW kW rpm rpm kg 35 42 <5 . 10-2 <1 30 700 54 56 80 4.5 1.1 1.3 1390 1660 50 UNO 65 DN 40 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF 65 72 <5 . 10-2 <1 30 1400 54 56 80 5.4 1.1 1.3 1390 1660 60 UNO 120 DN 63 ISO DN 63 ISO 128 154 <3 . 10-2 <1 33 3650 58 60 90 17 4 4 965 1158 193 UNO 250 DN 100 ISO DN 100 ISO 267 320 <3 . 10-2 <1 33 6950 60 61 90 30 7.5 7.5 960 1152 375

Single-stage Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast total with gas ballast Water vapor tolerance Water vapor capacity Noise without gas ballast with gas ballast Operating temperature1) Operating medium Motor rating 50 Hz 60 Hz Rated rotation speed pump 50 Hz 60 Hz Weight, with three-phase motor
1) At

ambient temperature 25 °C and operating medium P3, without gas ballast.

55

Data compilation

8.8.3

Rotary vane vacuum pumps DuoLine
DUO 2.5 DN 16 ISO-KF DN 16 ISO-KF m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar g/h dB(A) dB(A) °C l rpm rpm kW kg 2.5 2.9 <0.006 <0.006 15 37 53 80 0.4 2790 3280 0.13/0.13 10.3 DUO 35 DN 40 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF 32 38 <0.003 <0.005 20 500 61 64 80 3.2 1390 1660 1.1/1.25 56 DUO 65 DN 40 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF 62 70 <0.003 <0.005 20 1000 61 62 80 4.2 1390 1660 1.5/1.8 65 DUO 120 DN 63 ISO-KF DN 63 ISO-KF 128 154 <0.003 <0.006 20 2300 58 90 13 960 1150 4 215 DUO 250 DN 100 ISO-KF DN 100 ISO-KF 250 300 <0.003 <0.006 30 4800 60 90 23 975 1175 7.5 410

Pump Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast with gas ballast Water vapor tolerance Water vapor capacity Noise without gas ballast with gas ballast Operating temperature Operating medium quantity Rotation speed 50 Hz 60 Hz Motor rating 50/60 Hz Weight

8.8.4

Rotary vane vacuum pumps, Magnetic Coupled
DUO 5 DN 16 ISO-KF DN 16 ISO-KF m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar g/h dB(A) dB(A) °C l rpm rpm kW kg 5 6 <0.005 <0.02 36 230 55 80 0.75 1390 1620 0.25/0.37 19 DUO 10 DN 25 ISO-KF DN 25 ISO-KF 10 12 <0.005 <0.01 30 230 55 80 1 1400 1680 0.45/0.55 28 DUO 20 DN 25 ISO-KF DN 25 ISO-KF 20 24 <0.005 <0.01 30 460 57 85 1.2 1390 1620 0.55/0.65 30 UNO 30 M DN 25 ISO-KF DN 25 ISO-KF 30 35 <0.08 <1 8 190 60 80 1.1 1390 1690 0.75 44

Single-stage / Two-stage Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast with gas ballast Water vapor tolerance Water vapor capacity Noise without gas ballast with gas ballast Operating temperature Operating medium quantity Rotation speed 50 Hz 60 Hz Motor rating 50/60 Hz Weight

56

8. 10-1 30 7 63 65 80 50 17 490 11 570 BA 501 DN 100 ISO-F DN 100 ISO-F 545 500 <6 .2 58 81 94 <0.5 Rotary vane vacuum pumps PacLine PAC 20 PAC 60 PAC 90 PAC 200 PAC 250 DN 63 ISO-F DN G2" 230 270 <0.5 70 2 1450 1700 1.5 80 17 960 1150 11/13.2/3 76 180 210 <0. 10-1 30 14 63 65 80 90 45 345 15 1100 Pump Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Nominal volume flow rate Volume flow rate at 50 Hz Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast total with gas ballast Water vapor tolerance Water vapor capacity Noise without gas ballast with gas ballast Operating temperature Cooling water requirement Operating medium quantity Rotation speed Motor rating Weight with motor m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar kg/h dB(A) dB(A) °C l/h I rpm kW kg 57 .75 20 8.5/9 185 PAC 400 PAC 630 Pump Connection nominal diameter Inlet Outlet Volume flow rate 50 Hz m3/h 60 Hz m3/h Ultimate pressure total without gas ballast mbar Noise without gas ballast dB(A) Operating medium quantity l Rotation speed 50 Hz rpm 60 Hz rpm Motor rating 50/60 Hz KW Weight kg DN 25 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF DN 40 ISO-KF DN 63 ISO-F DN G2" 18 54 64 <0.8.5 2800 0.5 75 2 1450 1700 2.8. 10-3 <6 . 10-2 <6 .5 80 6 1450 1740 7.5/6.2 420 600 680 <0.5 80 17 975 1170 15/18 540 <2 70 0.5/2.6 Rotary vane vacuum pumps BA 251 and BA 501 BA 251 DN 63 ISO-F DN 63 ISO-F 270 250 <6 .5 80 6 1450 1740 5.5 170 DN 100 ISO-F DN 100 ISO-F DN 63 G 21/2" DN 63 G 21/2" 400 460 <0.

5 5. kg 130 Pump without motor approx.2 Roots Vacuum Pumps with magnetic coupling 500 AM/ADM 1000 AM/ADM 2000 AM/ADM 4000 AM/ADM 6000 AM/ADM 1070 1284 1013 43 < 1 · 10-5 72-75 2860 3430 3 4 3 250 220 2065 2478 1013 35 < 1 · 10-5 72-75 2860 3430 5.1 Technical data Roots Vacuum Pumps WKP WKP 250 A m3/h m3/h mbar mbar mbar . 10-2 <1 .5 2.5 7.9.2 1.3 (AD) 5 370 Pumps Nominal volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Starting pressure Differential pressure at overflow valve Leak rate Pump with radial shaft seals Pump with canned motor Rotation speed 50 Hz 60 Hz Motor rating 50 Hz 60 Hz Motor rating with canned motor 50 Hz 60 Hz Materials – rotor and casing Oil filling Weight with motor.8 850 750 WKP with magnetic coupling Nominal volume flow rate 50 Hz m3/h 490 60 Hz m3/h 590 Starting pressure mbar 1013 Differential pressure at overflow valve mbar 53 Leak rate Pump with magnetic coupling mbar · l/s < 1 · 10-5 Noise level (DIN 45635) db(A) 70-75 Rotation speed 50 Hz rpm 2860 60 Hz rpm 3430 Motor rating 50 Hz kW 1.7 GGG/GGL 1. 10-5 3000 3600 1.7 GGG/GGL 1. 10-5 3000 3600 3 4 5 5.3 (AD) 3 250 WKP 2000 A/AD 2065 2478 1013 35 <1 .5 60 Hz kW 2.75 1.5 6.5 5. 10-5 3000 3600 0.5 5 380 320 4050 4860 1013 25 < 1 · 10-5 74-79 2900 3480 11 15 6.5 1.5 125 WKP 1000 A/AD 1070 1284 1013 43 <1 . kg 110 AM: Standard pump with magnetic coupling ADM: Pressure surge-protected model with magnetic coupling 58 .1 1. l/s rpm rpm kW kW kW kW 270 324 1013 53 <1 .7 GGL(A) GGG/GGG 40. pump Standard motor approx. 10-2 <1 .5 95 WKP 500 A 490 590 1013 53 <1 .8 630 540 6070 7280 1013 20 < 1 · 10-5 74-79 2900 3480 15 18.9.2 Operating medium quantity l 1. 10-2 <1 . approx.5 Weight. l/s mbar . 10-5 3000 3600 5.7 GGG/GGL (A) GGG/GGG 40.5 1.Data compilation 8.9 8.5 7. A: Standard pump with standard motor AD: Pressure surge-protected model with l kg 8. 10-2 <1 .

3 (AD) 6. 10-2 – 2250 2250 30 30 WKP 18000 17850 21420 1013 10 <1 . 10-2 – 1500 1800 45 55 WKP 25000 25000 25000 1013 7 <1 . 10-2 – 3000 3600 11 15 5. 10-2 – 2100 2100 55 55 GGG/GGL (A) GGG/GGG 40.5 5.9.3 (AD) 5 380 WKP 6000 A/AD 6075 7290 1013 20 <1 .WKP 4000 A/AD 4050 4860 1013 25 <1 .Pump without drive Cooler and base frame 1) These values depend on the operating pressure range or the differential pressure.105 100 5 Yes Yes GGG Viton 520 WGK 4000 4600 5500 130 132 1500 1800 75 .105 100 21 No Yes GGG Viton 1100 WGK 8000 8000 9600 130 200 1500 1800 75 .3 Gas cooled Roots Vacuum Pumps WGK WGK 500 m3/h m3/h mbar kw rpm rpm dB(A) Hz l 520 620 130 18.7 GGG/GGL (A) GGG/GGG 40.5 WKP 8000 8000 9600 1013 27 <1 . 59 . 10-2 – 3000 3600 15 18.8 850 GGL 21 1600 GGL 21 1950 GGL 68 3100 GGL 68 4000 8. 10-2 – 1500 1800 22 30 WKP 12000 12000 12000 1013 18 <1 .5 3000 3600 75 .105 200 3 Yes Yes GGG Viton kg 116 WGK 1500 1500 1800 130 2 x 30 1500 1800 75 .105 100 21 No Yes GGG Viton 1500 Pumps Nominal volume flow rate 50 Hz 60 Hz Ultimate pressure Maximum Motor rating Rotation speed 50 Hz 60 Hz Noise level1) Noise frequency Oil filling Endplates heatable Sealing gas connection Materials Rotors and casing Seals Weight .

the power input may be reducted by as much as 70% temperature max. 20 °C 60 .7 4.5 yes 2 yes 50 1750 6500 7000 WKP 8000 BA 501 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 30 40.5 yes – – 35 1180 WOD 3500 A WOD 6500 A 3500 3900 WKP 4000 A BA 501 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 30 28.10.4 0.5 – 30 – 35 1410 WKD 3500 3500 3900 WKP 4000 A KS 3.5 48. complete l 4.10 Technical Data Roots Vacuum Pumping Stations 8.5 33.85 60 Hz kW 2.2 Single-stage rotary vane vacuum pump UNO 35 Total pressure without gas ballast mbar 1 · 10-3 with gas ballast mbar 2 · 10-2 Water vapor capacity mbar 33 Installed motor rating1) 50 Hz kW 1.5 – 10 – 19 570 WKD 1800 1800 2160 WKP 2000 A KS 1.5 UNO 250 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 13 15 1.5 1.1 Series WKD WKD 220 Volume flow rate at 10-1 mbar 50 Hz m3/h 220 60 Hz m3/h 265 Pumping station components Roots vacuum pump WKP 250 A Intermediate condenser KS 0.4 yes – – – 7.5 UNO 65 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 3.Data compilation 8.5 – 10 – 7.5 22.5 3 yes 62 yes 50 2080 WKD 6500 6500 7000 WKP 8000 KS 6.2 Water cooling for backing pump – Cooling Water requirement2) rpm 4 Cooling water monitor in backing pump – Oil filling.5 yes 2 yes 66 3650 on the operating condition.2 290 WKD 900 900 1080 WKP 1000 A KS 0.7 4.2 250 WOD 900 A 900 1080 WKP 1000 A UNO 120 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 7 8 yes – – – 19 530 WOD 1800 A 1800 2160 WKP 2000 A UNO 250 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 13 15 yes – – – 35 980 WOD 3000 A 3000 3600 WKP 4000 A UNO 250 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 18.5 22.5 33.5 48.2 Condenser cooling surface 0.5 – 30 – 35 1230 WKD 3000 3000 3600 WKP 4000 A KS 1.2 Weight kg 220 1) Depending 2) Inlet WOD 412 A 410 490 WKP 500 A UNO 65 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 3.10.5 UNO 120 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 7 8 0.85 60 Hz kW 2. complete l 4.0 BA 501 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 30 28.2 Air cooling yes Water cooling – Cooling water requirement rpm – Cooling water monitor in backing pump – Oil filling.2 Series WOD-A WOD 222 A Volume flow rate at 10-1 mbar 50 Hz m3/h 220 60 Hz m3/h 265 Pumping station components Roots vacuum pumps WKP 250 A Single-stage rotary vane vacuum pumps UNO 35 Total pressure without gas ballast mbar 1 · 10-3 with gas ballast mbar 2 · 10-2 Water vapor compatibility mbar 33 Installed power output1) 50 Hz kW 1.0 BA 501 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 30 40.5 6 yes 122 yes 66 4000 8.2 Weight kg 260 WKD 410 410 490 WKP 500 A KS 0.5 UNO 250 1 · 10-3 2 · 10-2 33 18.

complete l Weight kg 1) Depending WOD 900 B 900 1080 WKP 1000 A DUO 120 1 · 10-4 1 · 10-4 20 7 8 yes 16 530 WOD 1800 B 1800 2160 WKP 2000 A DUO 250 1 · 10-4 1 · 10-4 30 13 15 yes 28 980 WOD 3000 B 3000 3600 WKP 4000 A DUO 250 1 · 10-4 1 · 10-4 30 18. 61 .7 250 on the operating condition. the power input may be reducted by as much as 70%.7 4.10.5 22.5 yes 28 1180 220 265 WKP 250 A DUO 35 1 · 10-4 1 · 10-4 20 1.85 2.8.2 220 410 490 WKP 500 A DUO 65 1 · 10-4 1 · 10-4 20 3.2 yes 4.4 yes 5.3 Series WOD-B WOD 222 B WOD 412 B Volume flow rate at 10-1 mbar 50 Hz m3/h 60 Hz m3/h Pumping station components Roots vacuum pump Two-stage rotary vane vacuum pump Total pressure without gas ballast mbar with gas ballast mbar Water vapor compatibility mbar Installed power output1) 50 Hz kW 60 Hz kW Air cooling Oil filling.

039 –––––– + 30 l η [m3/h] T √ ––) M —–––– Conductance value (universal) 16 Sth · ∆p P = –––––––––––– [kW] 3600 · mech 3.5 Sth Km +––– – ––– Sv Sth r4 · pm L = 7750 ––––––– [m3/h] l Conductance value air (laminar flow range 20°C) 18 Volume flow rate (WKP/WGK) 9 Sv · p v p = –––––– [mbar] S r3 L = 340 ––– [m3/h] l Conductance value air (molecular flow range 20°C) Intake pressure (WKP/WGK) 62 .963 · pv3 Volume flow rate (pumping station) 3 Fore-vacuum/intake pressure (WKP/WGK) 12 QW A = ––––– [m2] k · Tm Sv · (p + ∆p) S = –––––––––––– [m3/h] p Cooling surface (condenser) 4 Volume flow rate (WKP) 13 · · kJ QW = QH2O · qH2O –– h [ ] S ηvol = ––––– Sth Condensation heat (condenser) 5 Volumetric efficiency rate (WKP/WGK) 14 ∆Thigh + ∆Tsmall Tm = ––––––––––––––– [k] 2 Km ηvol = –––––––––––––––– y Sv 1.6 · r3 r · pm L = ––––– · (0.5 → a =–––––––––– [mbar] p 0.Technical formulas 9 Technical formulas 1 B 1333 (ps-pa) pWo= –––– · ––––––––––––– [mbar] S 1333 – ps 10 pv a S = Sth · 1 – ––– · ––– [m3/h] p Km Water vapor tolerance (DSP) 2 Volume flow rate (WKP/WGK) 11 TGes Q Q2 Qn S = R · –––– · ––1+ ––– + ··· ––– [m3/h] Mn p M1 M2 PV pv3 – p3 ––– = < 2.6 · r3 L = –––––– (2150 · r · pm + 95) [m3/h] l Conductance value (air at 20°C) 17 Power consumption (WKP/WGK) 8 Km S = Sth · ––––––––––––––– [m3/h] Sv 1.5 Sth Km + ––– – ––– Sv Sth Mean temperature differential (condenser) Volumetric efficiency rate (WKP/WGK) 15 (TG in – TW out) – (TG out – TW in) ∆ Tm = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––– [K] TG in – TW out In –––––––––––– TG out – TW in 6 Mean temperature differential (heat exchanger) 7 3.

6 · qL Serf = ––––––– = [m3/h] p Required volume flow rate (leak rate) 26 T Q1 Q2 V = R –– –– + –– + p M1 M2 ( Q3 ––– = [m3] …Mn ) (Gas)volume 27 p1 . V1 = p2 .. V2 at T = constant Boyle-Mariotte law 63 ..19 1 L = ––––––––––– [m3/h] 1 1 1 –– + –– + –– L1 L2 L3 Conductance value (in series) 20 L = L1 + L2 + L3.[m3/h] Conductance value (parallel) 21 1 L·S Seff = –––––– = ––––– [m3/h] 1 1 L+S –– + –– L S Volume flow rate (at the vacuum chamber) 22 S·p peff = ––––– [mbar] Seff Pressure (at the vacuum chamber) 23 V p1 t = –– In ––– [h] S p2 Pump down pressure (RPV/WKP/WGK) 24 V p1 + ∆p t = –– In –––––––– = [h] S p2 + ∆p Pump down pressure (WKP) 25 3.

Technical formulas Legend for the technical formulas A a B ∆p 3 (m2) Cooling surface Correction factor a pa (m /h) Gas ballast volume (mbar) Set differential pressure on the overflow valve of the Roots vacuum pumps (mbar) (to equation 7) Pressure differential between intake and pressure ports Highest pressure differential Smallest pressure differential (mbar) Water vapor partial pressure of the atmospheric air (value in practical operation pa = 13 mbar) (mbar) Partial pressure of the vapor-forming material in the atmospheric air (mbar) Vapor compatibility (mbar) Pressure at the end of the pipe (mbar) Permanent gas-partial pressure at the intake port p + peff (mbar) Mean pressure = ––––––– 2 (mbar) Saturated vapor pressure of the pumped water vapor at operating temperature (mbar) Saturation vapor pressure at the operating temperature of the pump (mbar) Fore-vacuum (counterpressure) (mbar) (Starting/atmospheric) pressure (to equation 27) (mbar) Pressure (in vacuum) (to equation 27) (mbar) Water vapor tolarance as per PNEUROP (kg/h) Material component throughput per hour (kg) Throughput of each component Water vapor volume to be condensed per hour Condensation heat/volume per hour Evaporation heat Total leak rate (of the system) Relationship of inflowing gas ballast quantity to the backing pump’s capability pAD ∆p pD peff pL pm ps ∆Thigh (K) ∆Tsmall (K) η ηmech (Pa · s) Tenacity of the gas Mechanical efficiency rating of the pump (η ~ 0.85 for Roots vacuum pumps) Volumetric efficiency rating (m3/h) Operating liquid current Heat transmission coefficient Conductance value Fresh liquid requirement in combined operation Maximum compression ratio of the Roots Vacuum Pump at pv (cm) (kg/mol) kg –––––– k mol (kW) Pipe length ηvol FB pSD kJ k –––––––––– h · m2 · K ( ) pv p1 p2 pwo · Q L KB (m3/h) (m3/h) Km l M M P Q Molar mass Molar mass of the gas Power consumption/ motor power · QH2O · Qw kg (–––) h kJ (––– ) h p (mbar) (to equation 9) Intake pressure of the Roots vacuum pump (mbar) (to equation 22) Pressure at the beginning of the pipe (mbar) (Working) pressure qH2O (–––) kg ) kJ p mbar l qL –– ––––– s qpv S ( p 64 .

14 r S Seff (cm) (m /h) 3 ( ) TGas (K) Gas temperature Gas outlet temperature Gas inlet temperature Boiling temperature of the evacuated material under pressure on the exhaust ports of the pump Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water outlet temperature Mean temperature differential between gas and cooling Boiling temperature under condensation pressure (in Example 1. TS = TS H2O) Pump down time Volume of the vacuum chamber (to equation 25) (Gas) volume Volume of the gas p1 Volume of the gas p2 TG out (K) TG in TS (K) (°C) Pipe radius Volume flow rate Volume flow rate at the end of the line (vacuum chamber) (m3/h) Serf (m3/h) Required volume flow rate of the pumping station at the vacuum chamber (m3/h) Theoretical volume flow rate of the Roots vacuum pump Volume flow rate of the backing pump (at pressure pv) Gas temperature Temperature of the fed-back “revolving” operating liquid = emission temperature in the pump ports Operating temperature of the pump Temperature of the fresh liquid of LRP TW in (K) TW out (K) Tm (K) Sth Sv (m3/h) TS (K) T TA (K) (°C) t V (h) (m3) TB (°C) V (m3) TF (°C) V1 V2 (m3) (m3) 65 . page 22.mbar · m3 R –––––––––– Universal gas constant kmol · K R = 83.

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net . +49-(0) 64 41-8 02-0 · Fax +49-(0) 64 41-8 02-2 02 · info@pfeiffer-vacuum. Ordering number: PW 0013 PE (December 2002) Gas analysis Systems technology: Coating and Leak Detection systems Service Pfeiffer Vacuum · Headquarters/Germany Tel.pfeiffer-vacuum.de · www.Rough and medium vacuum Turbopumps Dry vacuum pumps Rotary vane vacuum pumps Roots vacuum pumps Diffusion vacuum pumps Leak detectors Valves Installation parts Vacuum gauges and control units Technical modifications reserved.