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PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE
Developed from “Introduction to Behavior Change”

Statement of Purpose
Principles of Behavior Change training will enable staff to: • Define and give examples of behavior • Identify potential functions of behavior • Identify factors which effect behavior • Describe the behavior change cycle

• Describe their role in supporting the behavior change process

H.

Time Frame: 2 Hours

HI. Methodologies A variety of methodologies may be used to teach this material: 1. 2.
3.

Role Play ctive Discussion A
Group Exercise, with case studies (sample behavior management plans) are particularly effective Video vignettes to examine

4.

IV.

utcomes/Competencies O
A. Staff will define and give examples of behavior 1. Staff will recognize that “behavior” for humans, is a characteristic of being alive.

2.
3.

Staff will recognize that changing an established behavior feels awkward and that practicing a new behavior helps it to feel more natural.
Staff will describe human activities using behavioral terms, and compare “behaviors” with “emotions.” Staff will explain the importance of using behavioral terms.

4.

a.
b.

Behavioral terms allow for clear, concise communication.
Behavioral terms prevent inaccurate assumptions, feelings and judgments about how an individual is acting. The ability to measure behavior allows us to determine whether the behavior is increasing or decreasing over time.

c.

B.

Staff will identify possible functions of behavior and sources for determining the

function of behavior
1. ommunication: C • Behavior is often a form of communication; some of the messages are intentional, others are more subtle or subconscious. 2. To gain positive reinforcer(s) • List categories of positive reinforcer’s with examples for each (See

Attachment I) 3. To escape or avoid a negative reinforcer(s)
• List categories of negative reinforcer’s with examples for each (See Attachment I)

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4.

Sources for determining the function(s) of behavior: • • • • • Baseline data Parents, service providers, staff Medical evaluations, psychiatric and psychological evaluations Environment Individual Plan

• Daily schedule and routines

C.

Staff will identify factors which may affect behavior
1. History-learned experiences

2. 3.
4.

Changes in routine or other recent events (e.g. illness, “news items,” etc.) “Cultural” Environment: appropriate behavior in one environment, inappropriate in
another environment

Physiological/Neurological/Psychiatric Factors:
• • • • • Impact of illness or pain Physical discomfort/disorders Presence of psychiatric disorder(s) Neurological integrity Sensory limitations/deficits

5. 6.

Physical environmental conditions: temperature, lighting, odors, proximity to others, noise

level and/or other factors Current sense of self
behavioral response.

Note: Combinations of environmental factors & communication limitations can intensify

D.

Staff will describe the behavior change cycle 1. Definitions of Antecedent, Behavior & Consequence:

a.
b.

Definitions of each and how they interrelate
Methods of identifying “ABCs” in a behavioral context (Functional analysis vs. functional assessment) Factors influencing the impact of “ABCs” on a person’s behavior
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c.

2.

Positive approaches to changing behavior: a. Substitute new, more appropriate behaviors for old, inappropriate ones
b. Are respectful of the individual and teach new skills • • • • • • • Positive reinforcement of desired behavior Differential reinforcement (DRO, DRI, DRA) Redirection Sensory stimulation Communication training Social skills training Environmental change

• Anger/Stress management
• Imitation of a role model 3. Key points of reinforcement a. b. c. d. e. Timing of delivery Schedule of delivery Individualization Variety Sincerity

4.

Key points in program documentation a.
b. c.

Use detailed behavioral terms
Events in chronological order Focusing on observable (factual) ABCs
-

5.

Troubleshooting Strategies to examine why program may not be working

6.

Requirements prior to implementing behavior support plan
• • • • • Plan should be written by someone who meets the qualifications listed in the DDA regulations. Licensed Psychologist must review and sign the plan Informed consent of the individual Behavior Management Committee approval* Human Rights Committee approval*

*Required for restrictive procedures

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E. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Staff will describe their role in supporting the behavior change process Model appropriate/desired behavior Provide feedback and encouragement Consistently implement formal behavior plans Provide opportunities for practice and generalization of new skills Provide environments, activities, and expectations that are reasonable, functional, challenging, interesting and flexible 6. Listen!

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Resources for Principles of Behavior Change Training
Kennedy Krieger Community Resources, Introduction to Behavioral Change, 1992

Joseph Lucyshyn, Robert Homer, and Kathy Ben, Positive Behavioral Support with Families, TASH July 1996, V 22. Issue 6
Developmental Disabilities Administration, Management of Disruptive Behavior Manual, updated 1998

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Attachment I Categories

of Reinforcer’s

The categories of reinforcer’s mentioned in III B. 2 & 3 can be described or listed in many ways. Below

is an example:
Category Positive Primary (or life sustaining) Examples Negative

Food
Air Water Sex Comfort etc. Light, Sound

Pain
Hunger Thirst Isolation Too Hot Too Cold, etc. Dullness

Sensory

Movement, Taste
Pressure, Smell Proprioceptive “Euphoria” etc. Tangible Things person likes

Deprivation
Chaos Excessive Sensations Scary, Surprising, Bizarre Sensations Things associated

Collectibles, Jewelry
Success Cars, Toys, etc. Control, Achievements Praise, Promotions, Raises Winning, etc. Intimacy, Attention Recognition, Conversation Friends, etc. Playing or Doing: Games, Sports Puzzles, Walks, etc.

with pain4 discomfort
etc. Failure, Frustration Loss, Stagnation Humiliation, etc. Rejection Isolation etc. Undesired Activities Work, etc.

Social/Relationship

Activities

t

These are examples, other categories and systems of classification may be utilized

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Name:

PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE POST TEST ______________ Date:

Select the best answer for each question.

1. Staff should control as many aspects of consumers’ lives as possible, to prevent behavioral episodes 2. An antecedent occurs immediately before the behavior 3. A consequence is what happens immediately after the behavior. 4. Staff ability to listen to, understand, and learn from the individual are
important skills for developing meaningful behavioral support plans. 5. An individual who behaves inappropriately, should experience harsh,
realistic, punishment, per DDA regulations. 6. The function of behavior refers to what the individual is trying to obtain
by exhibiting that behavior.

T T T T T T

F F F F
F
F

7. Staff are expected to model appropriate and acceptable behavior.
8. A behavior is an action that:

T

F

a. b. c. d.

Is observable Measurable and replicable Both a and b Likely to hurt other people

9. Reinforcement is:

a. b. c.
d.

A stimulus or event which follows a behavior Calling in other staff for assistance Results in an increase in or maintenance of that behavior
Both a & c

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Principles of Behavior Change

Post Test
Page 2. 10. Common functions of behavior include: a. b. c. d. To communicate To gain control For sensory stimulation All of the above

11. Staff can help prevent behavioral episodes from occurring with individuals they support by: a. b. c. d. Providing opportunities, and assistance if needed, for the individual to communicate their thoughts, feelings and personal preferences Providing positive feedback and interactions Identifying, and if possible eliminating environmental factors that may cause discomfort or upset the individual All of the above

12. If you are involved in a behavioral incident, for which an individual has a plan, you should; a. b. c. d. Implement the plan as you were trained to Sit down and re-read the plan during the incident Document the incident as it should have happened a and c

13. Before a behavioral support plan can be implemented it must be: a. b. c. d. Reviewed and signed by a licensed psychologist Approved by the Standing Committee Consented to and agreed to by the individual All of the above

14. List four examples of (potential) positive reinforcers.

15. List four examples of (potential) negative reinforcers.

Score/Comments:
Instructor: ___________________________________ Date:_________________________

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