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A004 6576

AIAA 2000-0722

HEAT RELEASE RATES OF


BURNING ITEMS IN FIRES

HYEONG-JIN KIM
and
DAVID G. LILLEY

Lilley & Associates


Route 1 Box 151
Stillwater, OK 74074

38th Aerospace Sciences


Meeting & Exhibit
lo-13 January 2000 / Reno, NV
For permission to copy or republish, contact the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

HEATRELEASERATESOF
BURNING ITEMS IN FIRES

HyeongJin Kim* and David G. Lilley**


Lilley & Associates
Route 1 Box 151
Stillwater, OK 74074

ABSTRACT release rate between these two periods. A vast range of


many items are considered. Detailed tabulation and
Heat release rates of typical items in fires are needed graphic display of the parameters (for each item during
as a prerequisite for estimating fire growth and experimental bums) permits fire modelers to initiate
temperatures in structural fires. That is, these burning calculations. Further knowledge enables the deduction of
rates are required to be specified by the user as input to when second and subsequent items may become involved,
single-room and multi-room structural fire computer codes whether flashover may occur, and when conditions may
like FPETool, FASTLite and HAZARD. Data are given become untenable. Thus, it is clear that many important
here that permit burning items to be specified in a useful phenomena that are calculated in fires depend on the
modeled way, taking a t*-fire for the growth and decay quality and accuracy of the initial bum specification.
periods, with a constant maximum heat release rate
between these two periods.
FUNDAMENTALS

INTRODUCTION Typically, the heat release rate (heat energy evolving


on a per unit time basis) of a fire 0 (kW) changes as the
Computer codes are available that permit calculations size of the fire changes, as a function of time t (seconds)
to be made of the effect of a given specified fire on the
after fire ignition. That is, the variation of ” G ” versus “t”
subsequent environment in a structural fire. Things like
temperature of the smoke layer, its depth from the ceiling is extremely important in characterizing the rate of growth
downwards, its optical density, ceiling, wall and floor of a fire.
temperatures, floor surface heat flux rate, etc are
calculated a a function of time in all the rooms of a typical Data are available for heat release rate vs. time for
multi-room structural fire. However, the accuracy of these many items, see for example Babrauskas and Grayson
calculations is strongly dependent upon the correctness of (1992), SFPE (1995) and the data base in Bukowski et al.
the initial fire specifications. (1989). Furniture calorimeter and cone calorimeter
measurements are available, with data specifically for:
Heat release rates of typical items in tires are needed
as a prerequisite for estimating fire growth and Pools, liquid or plastic
temperatures in structural tires. That is, these burning rates Cribs (regular array of sticks)
are required to be specified by the user as input to single- Wood pallets
room and multi-room structural tire computer codes like Upholstered furniture
FPETool, FASTLite and HAZARD, see Bukowski et al Mattresses
(1989), Peacock et al (1994), and Portier et al (1996). Pillows
Data are given here that permit burning items to be Wardrobes (closets)
specified in a useful modeled way, taking a t2-fire for the Television sets
growth and decay periods, with a constant maximum heat Christmas trees

* Member AIAA
** Professor, Fellow AIAA
Copyright 1999 by D. G. Lilley. All rights reserved
Published by AIAA with permission.
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

Curtains (drapes) experimental data from small- and medium-scale tests.


Electric cable trays Needless to day, such semiempirical methods are always
Trash bags and containers subject to uncertainties when experimental data from
Industrial rack-stored commodities small-scale fires are extrapolated to predict the thermal
properties of very large-scale fires.
Notice that although data may well be available from
careful laboratory experiments, the data may not apply A systematic study of liquid hydrocarbon pool fires
directly to real-world fire situations. The laboratory data over the widest range of pool diameters was conducted by
does not usually take into account the enhancement of Blinov and Khudiakov. Gasoline, tractor kerosene, diesel
burning rates because of radiation feedback. oil, and solar oil (and, to a limited extent, household
kerosene and transformer oil) were burned in cylindrical
Full-scale timiture calorimeter tests give useful pans (depth not indicated) of diameters 0.37 cm to 22.9
information on the burning rates of many typical meters. Liquid burning rates and flame heights were
household items. Peak heating values are particularly measured, and visual and photographic observations of the
useful to know, since in some cases a triangular heat flames were recorded. Hottel plotted these data and the
release rate vs. time representation can be utilized for results are shown in the Figure. The lower curve of this
simplicity. Upholstered furniture - wood frame, with fire- figure shows the variation of burning velocity (in
retardant polyurethane padding and olefin cover fabric - meters/second of depth burning) as a function of the pan
show peak heat release rates as follows: diameter. The upper curves give the ratio of flame height
to flame diameter as a function of the pan diameter. The
F21 Chair 2100 kW at 260 s diagonal lines on the lower curves represent lines of
F3 1 Loveseat 2886 kW at 230 s constant Reynolds numbers, based on pan diameter.
F32 Sofa 3120 kW at 215 s
Useful information about the rate of burning of pool
The F number used here corresponds to the particular fires is readily available in Tables, see SFPE (1995) for
experiment performed, see Bukowski (1989). Other useful example, via the mass consumed per unit area per unit
peak heat release rates: time. From the energy per unit mass values also given,
one can readily compute the heat release rate 0 in kW, or
Mattress and boxspring 660 kW at 910 s in Btu per hour since 100,000 Btuihr = 29.3 1 kW. It may
Curtain, cotton, 1.87 kg 240 kW at 175 s be nored that for pool diameters less than 1 meter, the
Wastepaper basket, 0.93 kg 15kW at 350 s burning rate expression is reduced because of a reduction
Television, 39.8 kg 290 kW at 670 s in radiation feedback.
Cooking oil, corn, cottonseed,
etc. 12-inch pan 116kW constant
Christmas tree, spruce, 7 kg 650 kW at 350 s THE t2-FIRE GROWTH MODEL
and the values help to visualize the differences between Emphasis is often placed on the growth phase of the
the items under burning conditions. fire. Slow, medium, fast and ultra-fast fire growths may be
specified by the t2-fire growth model, where, after an
Of special concern in fire investigation and computer
initial incubation period,
reconstruction of building fires is the use of accelerants.
Liquid fuels are often preferred. They are used to
accelerate the development of the fire, as indicated by Q = af(t - to)2
temperature and spreading rates. On the practical
investigative side, features often include: low bums, high where af is a fire-growth coefficient (kW/s2) and to is the
temperatures at low hidden locations, rapid house fire length of the incubation period (s). The coeficient af
development, and particular flame and smoke colors seen
by witnesses. Burning rates of liquid pool fires are appears to lie in the range 10s3 kW/s2 for ,very slowly
available in SFPE (1995): developing tires to I kW/s2 for very fast fire growth. The
incubation period (to) will depend on the nature of the
ignition’source and its location, but data are now becoming
POOL FIRES aiailable (see Babrauskas) on fire growth rates on single
items of fiuniture (upholstered chairs, beds, etc.) which
The thermal radiation hazards from hydrocarbon spill may be quantified in these terms. Suggested values for the
fires depend on a number of parameters, including the coefficient gf are also given in the formula section of
composition of the hydrocarbon, the size and shape of the Makefre - a subset of the FPETool Computer Program.
fire, the duration of the fire, its proximity to the object at The specification there for the fire-growth coefficient af
risk, and the thermal characteristics of the object exposed
(kW/s’) is: ’
to the fire. The state of the art of predicting the thermal
environment of hydrocarbon spill fires consists essentially
Slow 0.002778 kW/s’
of semiempirical methods, some of which are based on
Medium 0.011111 kW/s’
2
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

Fast 0.044444 kW/Z In order to characterize in the above fashion the actual
Ultra-fast 0.177778 kW/s= experimental data of heat release rate versus tune, one
proceeds as follows:
and these correspond to growth times of the tire 6om zero
size to 1 MW total heat output in 1. First, one decides the values to be taken for the
three key parameters Q,,,= (maximum heat
Slow 600 seconds
release rate), tp, (time to reach 0 ,,) and td (time
Medium 300 seconds
Fast 150 seconds to start decay). Adjustments are made in order to
Ultra-fast 75 seconds ensure that the modeled total heat release during
the time interval of from t, to td seconds matches
the experiment to within 0.1 percent.
BURNING RATES OF TYPICAL ITEMS 2. Then, the time to onset of ignition t,, with
associated value of fire-growth parameter as is
Experimental data are available for a variety of items, chosen so as to match the total heat release during
the growth phase of from t, to tao seconds. The
giving heat release rate Q (kW) vs time (seconds). Each
correspondence of tO, tp, and ag is automatic since
of these graphs is in conformity with several parameters
a t*-fire growth is being assumed.
that comnletely characterize the situation, as given in
3. Finally, the end time tendwith associated value of
Figure 1: ’
fire-decay parameter ad is chosen so as to match
time to the onset of ignition the total heat release during the decay phase of
to
time to reach 1 MW from td to tend seconds. Again, the
tl MW
level-off time correspondence of td, tend and ad is automatic
t Qo
since a t*-fire decay is being assumed.
td time at which 0 decay begins
t end time at which Q equals zero Modeled data are given for heat release rate 0 (kW)
G
growth time = t, MW- t, vs. tune (seconds) in Tables A, B, C and D respectively as
follows:
Notice that both the ascent and decent are characterized by
t*-tire activity: 1. Furniture calorimeter data from FASTLite (see
Pot-tier et al, 1996).
($ =a,t*wheret=t-t, 2. Furniture calorimeter data from HAZARD (see
0 = adt2 where t = tend- t Peacock et al, 1994).
3. Furniture calorimeter data from Building and Fire
where ag and ad are the fire-growth and fire-decay Research Laboratory (see BFRL Website, 1999).
coefficients (kW/s*), respectively. 4. Cone calorimeter data from HAZARD (see
Peacock et al, 1994).
These heat release rates G (in kW) vs time t (in The data are also given in Figures as follows:
seconds) are active only in the growth (to I t I t tQ,) and
decay (td 5 t I tend), respectively. The rfIaXimUm heat 1. Table A, see Figures A 1 through A34.
release rate o,, (kW) occurs when tp,, I t I td. The 2. Table B, see Figures B 1 through B2 1.
growth time to reach 1 MW = 1,000 kW of heat release 3. Table C, see Figures Cl through ClO.
4. Table D, see Fgiures Dl through D25.
rate G is t, MW- t, seconds, and this is related to the fire-
growth parameter ag (kW/s*) via Careful perusal and interpretation of the figures will
enable the discerning reader to deduce what the values of
ag = 1000 / (tl MW - to)*. the defining parameters are. However, for completeness,
the data are given directly in the extensive Tables A, B, C,
Simularly the tire-decay parameter ad (kW/s’) is found via and D in numerical form. Finally 0 vs. t is given by

ad = Q m&end - td)*.
6 =o ostst,
Q =a,(t-L)* &, 2 t < tQ,
Also note that the maximum heat release rate 0 max(kW)
tQ, 2 t < t,,
is related to other parameters via: i2 = ag (tb - to>*

Q = ad (tend - t)* td 5 t 5 ten,,

Q nlax= 1000[(tk, - t,)/(t, MW - t,)l*. Q =o tend 2 t 5 Infinity

with the parameters taken directly from the Tables for the
particular item under consideration.
3
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? uninvolved items. The ignition principles suggestthat, for
thermally thick materials,the inverse of the squareroot of
During the course of the burning of the first item of time to ignition is expectedto be a linear function of the
furniture in a room, as specifiedfrom data such as that just difference between the external heat flux and the CHF
presentedin the Table, one of severalthings might occur. value
The abovehas provided informationabout the burning rate
(heat releaserate vs. time) of a single specified item in the fi(i, - CHF)
bum room. What happensnext? Either the item bums out
without further damage to the surroundings, or one or TRP
more nearby items ignite and add fuel to the fire. This can
be by direct flame contact (if the seconditem is judged to
be sufficiently close) or, more usually, by radiant heat where tis is time to ignition set, qz is the externalheat
energy becoming sufficiently large on the surface of the flux kWlm*, and CHF is in kW/m*. Most commonlyused
second item. Direct flame contact requires time to materials behave as thermally thick materials and satisfy
pyrolyze the fuel and time to heat the gasesproduced to this equation.
their ignition temperature. The radiant flux ignition
problem is a very complicatedissue,and dependson many The Critical Heat Flux and the Thermal Response
factors. The radiant energy comes from the flame above Parametervalues for materials derived from the ignition
the first item, the upper layer and room surfaces, but data measured in the Flammability Apparatus and the
simplifying assumptions are sometimes used. As the Cone Calorimeter,by Scudamoreet al (1991, are given in
radiant energy flux rate increasesfrom the first item to the Lilley (1998). He also shows in Tables and Figureshow
second,often a simple criterion for ignition of the latter is the ignition time tis may be determinedfrom the heat flux
used. A good approximationis that the radiant heat flux q” and the Critical Heat Flux CHF and Thermal Response
(arriving on the surface of the second item) necessaryto ParameterTRP. Completedata are given in Lilley (1998)
ignite the seconditem is: so as to enablethe ignitability question to be determined
quickly. Readersare directed to that study to see fully
10 kW/m* easily ignitable items, such as thin how the size and material of a pool fire determinesthe
curtainsor loosenewsprint total heat release0, the heat flux q” on a target fuel, and
20 kW/m* normal items, such as upholstered the time requiredfor ignition to occur.
furniture
FLASHOVER
40 kW/m* difficult to ignite.items, such as wood of
0.5 inch or greaterthickness Whether or not “flashover” occurs during the course
of a fire is one of the most important outcomesof a fire
In actuality, ignition is not immediate when the calculation. Flashover is characterized by the rapid
particular level of incident radiant heat flux reaches10, 20 transition in fire behavior from localized burning of fuel to
or 40 kWlm* respectivelyfor easy,normal and difficult to the involvementof all combustiblesin the enclosure.High
ignite items. These values are used as simple rules of radiation heat transfer levels from the original burning
thumb in applied calculations, see Lilley (1995). item, the flame and plume directly above it, and the hot
Fundamentalignition principles, outlined for example in smoke layer spreadingacrossthe ceiling are all considered
SFPE (1995),. suggestthat, for tire initiation, a material to be responsiblefor the heating of the other items in the
has to be heated above its critical heat flux CHF value room, leading to their ignition. Warning signs are heat
(CHF value is relatedto the fire point). It was found that, build-up and “rollover” (small, sporadic flashes of flame
as the surface is exposedto heat flux, initially most of the that appear near ceiling level or at the top of open
heat is transferred to the interior of the material. The doorways or windows of smoke-filled rooms). Factors
ignition principles suggestthat the rate with which heat is affecting flashover include room size, ceiling and wall
transferred depends on the ignition temperature Tip, conductivity and flammability, and heat- and smoke-
ambient temperatureT,, material thermal conductivity k, producing quality of room contents. Further research
material specific heat c,,, and the material density p. The studiesrelating to this topic include Kim and Lilley (1997
combinedeffects are expressedby a parameterdefined at and 1999),and Lilley (1995, 1997and 1998).
the Thermal ResponseParameter(TRP) of the material

TRP = ATi, d kpcr, CLOSURE

The ability to determinefire growth in terms of when


where ATi&= Tis - T,) is the ignition temperatureabove
the second and subsequentobjects may ignite (and their
ambient in degreesK, k is in kW/m-K, p is in. kg/m3,cp is burning rates) and whether or not “flashover” occurs
in kJ/kg-K, and TRP is in kW-s”*/m*. The TRP is a very depends strongly on the initial fire specification. The
useful parameterfor the engineering.calculations,toassess focus of this entire documentwas to characterizethe initial
resistance of ignition and fire propagation in as-yet
4
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

item on fire (in terms of burning rate versus time) so as to Conf./Design Conf. Paper DETC 97/CIE-4428,
more accurately be able to calculate fire growth and the Sacramento, CA, Sept. 14- 17, 1997.
possible occurrence of flashover.
Lilley, D. G. (1998), “Radiant Ignition of Flammable
Heat release rates of typical items in fires were needed Materials.” Proc. of Int. Joint Power Generation
as a prerequisite for estimating fire growth and Conf., Baltimore, MD, Aug. 23-26, 1998.
temperatures in structural tires. That is, these burning
rates were required to be specified by the user as input to NFPA (1997). “Fire Protection Handbook.” 18th
single-room and multi-room structural fire computer codes Edition (Cote, A. E. and Linville, J. L. eds.),
like FPETool, FASTLife and HAZARD. Data was given NFPA, Quincy, MA, 1997.
here that permit burning items to be specified in a permit
burning items to be specified in a useful modeled way, Peacock, R. D. et al (1994). “An Update Guide for
taking a t*-fire for the growth and decay periods, with a HAZARD 1 Version 1.2.” NIST Report NISTIR
constant maximum heat release rate between these two 5410, May 1994.
periods.
Portier, R. W., Peacock, R. D. and Reneke, P. A.
(1996). “FASTLite: Engineering Tools for
REFERENCES Estimating Fire Growth and Smopke Transport.”
NIST Special Publication 899, Gaithersburg,
Babrauskas, V. and Grayson, S. J. eds. (1992). “Heat MD, April 1996. See also: Update to Version
Release in Fires.” Elsevier Applied Science, 1.Ob, Feb., 1997.
1992.
SFPE (1995). “Handbook of Fire Protection
Bukowski, R., et al (1989). “The HAZARD- 1 Engineering.” NFPA, Quincy and SFPE, Boston,
Computer Code Package for Fire Hazard MA, 1995.
Assessment.” NBS(NIST), Gaithersburg, MD.
Scudamore, M.J., Briggs, P.J. and Prager, F.H.
Cooper, L. Y. (1984). “Smoke Movement in Rooms (1991). “Cone Calorimetry - A Review of Tests
of Fire Involvement and Adjacent Spaces.” Fire Carried Out on Plastics for the Association of
Safety Journal, Vol. 7, 1984, pp. 33-46. Plastics Manufacturers in Europe.” Fire and
Materials, Vol. 15, 199 1, pp. 65-84.
Drysdale, D. (1985) “An Introduction to Fire
Dynamics.” Wiley, Chichester, England, 1985. Thomas, P. H. (1974). “Fires in Enclosures.” Paper
in Heat Transfer in Fires (P. L. Blackshear, ed.),
Emmons, H. W. (1985). “The Needed Fire Science.” Halsted-Wiley, New York, 1974, pp. 73-94.
Paper in Fire Safety Science (C. E. Grant and P.
J. Pagni, eds.), Hemisphere, New York, 1985, pp. Zukoski, E. E. (1985). “Fluid Dynamic Aspects of
33-53. Room Fires.” Paper in Fire Safety Science (C. E.
Grant and P. J. Pagni, eds.), Hemisphere, New
IFSTA (1992). “Essentials of Fire Fighting.” 3rd York, 1985, pp. l-30.
Edition, IFSTA, Stillwater, OK, 1992.

Karlsson, B. and Quintiere, J. G. (2000). “Enclosure


Fire Dynamics,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Kim, H.-J. and Lilley, D. G. (1997). “Flashover: A


Study of Parametric Effects on the Time to Reach
Flashover Conditions.” Proc. Of ASME 17* Int.
Computers in Engng. Conf./Design Conf. Paper
DETC97/CIE-4427, Sacramento, CA, Sept. 14-
17, 1997.

Kim, H.-J. and Lilley, D. G. (1999). “Comparison of


Theories for Room Flashover.” Paper AlAA 99-
0343, Reno, NV, Jan. 1 l-14, 1999.

Lilley, D. G. (1995). “Fire Dynamics.” Short TIME (second)


Course, 1995.
Figure 1. Heat Release Rate vs. Time in ?-fire
Lilley, D. G. (1997). “Structural Fire Calculations.” Characterization.
Proc. Of ASME 17* Int. Computers in Engng.
5
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

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(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

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Fig. A3. l/8” Plywood wardrobe, FR paint, clothing Fig. A6. Chair, one-piece wood-reinforced
on 16 hangers urethane foam

10
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

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11
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

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12
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

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13
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000


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Fig. A25 Loveseat, wood frame, California foam, Fig. A28. Metal wardrobe, clothing on 8 hangers
poiyolefin fabric

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plastic-coated fabric urethane foam cushion

I
= -0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (second) TIME (second)

Fig. A27. Metal wardrobe, clothing on 16 hangers Fig. A30. Sofa, metal frame, urethane foam,
plastic-coated fabric

14
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 500 1000 1500 2000


TIME (second) TIME (second)

Fig. A31. Sofa, wood frame, California foam, Fig. A33. F31 Loveseat, wood frame,
polyolefin fabric polyurethane foam, olefin fabric

6000
’pii&q
e.
d 4000 .

I -0 500 1000 1500 2000


TIME (second) TIME (second)

Fig. A32. F21 Chair, wood frame, polyurethane Fig. A34. F32 Sofa, wood frame, polyurethane
foam, olefin fabric foam, olefin fabric

15
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

z256000 6000

ifs 4000
if
$ 4000

ii c!
4 4
i.j 2000

L-
(j 2000

,
i 0 ;z
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. Bl. Double bed, bedding, night table; gyp Fig. B4. Chair, F23, wood frame, fr cotton
bd walls; test RI (85-2998) batting, olefin test 24(82-2604)

x I
-0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. 82. Double bed, bedding, night table; Fig. B5. Upholstered chair, F25, wood frame, pu
plywood walls; test R5 (85-2998) foam, olefin, test 29

F25 6000
pi@ iq.
2
d 4000 . . .

0 500 1000 1500 2000 I 500 1000 1500 2000


-0
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. 83. Upholstered chair, F21, wood frame, pu Fig. B6. Uphols.chair, F28, wood frame,
foam-fr, olefin pulpektn bedding, cotton test 28

16
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

6000 f 6000
55

F
$ 4000

ii
4d 2000
oz

1000 1500 2000


$ 0
0 500
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. 87. Uphols.chair, F30,pu frame, pu foam, Fig. BlO. Easy chair, molded ps foam frame, pu
olefin, test 30 (82-2604) pad & cover, ~07, test 48

l-
3A 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 r$ o1 j-y 1 j 1
TIME (SEC) 0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC)
Fig. 88. Bean bag chair, vinyl/ps foam beads,
~05 nbs tn 1103 Fig. Bll. Christmas tree, spruce, dry, vtt 285,
no.17

6000
6000
g
F
4000 / .
d

ii I
j /
4 _
d 2000 ,,,
I .I "' "'
IY
I-
u , 1
4
= Oo 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC)
TIME (SEC)
Fig. B9. Chair, molded flexible pu frame, pu
cover test 64 (83-2787) Fig. 812. Cooking Oil, Corn; Cottonseed; Etc In
12in.Pan

17
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

z. 6000

r
d 4000 .
/
t
3d 2000 . . .i 1 .
tc 1I
$ 0
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. 813. Curtain, Cotton, 0.31 kg/M2, Item 9 Fig. B16. Mattress + boxspring (west chase
hilton) test 67 (83-2787)

.._.
- .

I
0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC)
TIME (SEC)
Fig. 814. Loveseat, F31, wood frame, pu foam
(fr), olefin test 37 (82-2604) Fig. B17. Upholstered\sofa, F32, wood\frame, pu
foam-fr, olefin test 38

6oob

if F 6000
s 4000 25
ii
P
4
d 4000
d 2000

! 2ooo
f 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
z
TIME (SEC) g 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC)
Fig. B15. Mattress, m05, pu foam, rayon ticking,
bedding
Fig. 818. Trash bags (3), paper

18
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

6000

I
0 500 1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig, B19. Television set, b/w, wood cabinet, exp.3 Fig. 821. Wastepaper basket, polyethylene, milk
cartons, exp.7

0 500 1000 1500 2000


TIME (SEC)

Fig. 820. Wardrobe closet, plywood, fr paint nbsir


83-2787 test 42

19
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with peimission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

F
25
6000 z
25
6000
Mattress (Center)
W

5 4000

%
4 !
!
d 2000 I 1... .
Rz
I

1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. Cl. Bunk Bed, BFRL in February 1996 Fig. C4. Mattress (Center), BFRL in February
1996

Mattress (Corner)

I;:I ,., ,,-__i %


z!i
d 2000
Q

I
0 500 1000 1500 2000
5
I
00 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. C2. Koisk, Western Fire Center in the Fig. C5. Mattress (cbrner), BFRL in February
summer of 1995 1996

F25 6000

ii9d
i! I I

2000

0 500 1000 1500 2000


/jioI/\ 0 500 1000

TIME (SEC)
1500 2000

TIME (SEC)

Fig. C3. Loveseat Fig. C6. Small Dresser, BFRL in February 1996

20
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. C7. Sofa Fig. C9. Workstation (2 panels), Sponsored by


GSA and performed at BFRL in 1991

F55 6000
Wooden Pallet
b!i I

~200~~~ /

0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. C8. Wooden Pallet, BFRL in February 1996 Fig. ClO. Workstation (3 panels), Sponsored by
GSA and performed at BFRL in 1991

21
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

1 ‘.c--- ““‘[’1
2 I
!i! 00 500 1000
TIME (SEC)
1500 2000 I 0 500 1000
TIME (SEC)
1500 2000

Fig. Dl. Cotton fabric, fr (test 803a), Fabric Fig. D4. Douglas fir plywood, l/2 in. thick (446),
Board

-!-

-r
/
I Gypsum Board 1

/ _!..

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D2. Douglas fir (828), Board Fig. D5. Gypsum board, l/2 in. thick (434)

cc-
,E 1000 -
25
-I
3
pvood f ard 1 1
227
z I-

I \
-L -I
0 500 1000 1500 2000
5 O 500 1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D3. Douglas fir plywood, l/2 in. thick (439, Fig. D6. Gypsum board, l/2 in. thick (448)
Board

22
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

Mattress Composite []
I -
--I
,9 “:
L

1000 1500 2000 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIMEJSEC)

Fig. D7. Mattress a&y m05, pu foam, rayon Fig. 010. Red oak, 7/8 in. thick (1468), Board
ticking (test 296), Composite

w-
36?1000
28i55oo
,E

I
iit
i5 aL 0 I
500 1000 1500 2000
c 500
g Oo 1000
TIME (SEC)
1500 2000

TIME (SEC)

Fig. D8. Red oak, 7/8 in. thick (1454) Fig. Dll. Pine (838), Board

1J,, 1 ,;..s.s 1
1
TIME (SEC)
1500 2000 I 0 500 1000

TIME (SEC)
1500 2000

Fig. D9. Red oak, 718 in. thick (1456), Board Fig. D12. Pine (842), Board

23
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

PMMA Sheet 2
I

0 500 1000 1500 2000 1000 1500 2000


TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D13. White pine (wood), 0.75 in (test 487) Fig. D16. PMMA 1” black (cb) w/frame (test
Board 1470) Sheet

N-

$ iOO0

Pine Board 4 1 c5 Polyisocy anurate Foam 1 1

~ olr . 1 i (
I 0 500 1000 1500 2000
$ o,b ’ /
500
’ :
1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D14. White pine (wood), 0.75 in (test 493) Fig. D17. Rigid polyisocyanurate foam, 2 in (test
Board 438) Foam

'r A
leet 1

L
2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D15. PMMA 1” black (cb) w/frame (test Fig. D18. Rigid polyisocyanurate foam, 2 in (test ,
1461) Sheet 449) Foam

24
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

c-7
~looo-
3 Polystyrene Foam
Y
if
2
g 500 - i

i5 /
iii I
IY / 1
i 0 J

A
0 500 1000 1500 2000 i
0 500 1000 1500 2000
TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D19. Polystyrene foam, 2 in (test 437) Foam Fig. D22. Rigid polyurethane foam, fr, gm-31 (test
258) Foam

1
.
: Polyurethane Foam 1

1 Oo
li 500 L-L- L

1000

TIME (SEC)
1500 2000 $ O! ’ 500
\ 1000
TIME (SEC)
1500
I
2000

Fig. D20. Flexible polyurethane foam, fr, 2 in (test Fig. D23. Polyvinyl chloride, 0.5 in thick (test
725) Foam 333) Sheet

t-44
,E 1000
3 Polyurethane Foam 2 Rayon Fabric
s /
? /
s /I ,/
I
ii4 5oo /
I
I
// /
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 z 0 500 1000 1500 2000

TIME (SEC) TIME (SEC)

Fig. D21 Rigid polyurethane foam, gm-29/gm-30 Fig. 024. Rayon fabric (test 804a), Fabric
(test 257) Foam

25
(c)2000 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics or published with permission of author(s) and/or author(s)’ sponsoring organization.

0 500 1000 1500 2000


TIME (SEC)

Fig. D25. Wool fabric/neoprene padding (test


722), Composite

26