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Imperforate anus

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Imperforate anus
Classification and external resources

An X-ray showing Imperforate anus ICD-10 ICD-9 OMIM MedlinePlus eMedicine MeSH Q42.3 751.2 301800 207500 001147 ped/1171 ped/2923 D001006

An imperforate anus or anal atresia is a birth defect in which the rectum is malformed. Its cause is unknown.

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1 Diagnosis 2 Treatment 3 Features 4 Prognosis 5 Epidemiology 6 Associated anomalies 7 References 8 External links

[edit] Diagnosis

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. in which the colon remains close to the skin. [edit] Features There are several forms of imperforate anus: • • • A low lesion. further surgery to better establish the angle between the anus and the rectum may . tracheoesophageal fistula. The decision to open a colostomy is usually taken within the first 24 hours of birth. There are two main categories of anorectal malformations: those that require a protective colostomy and those that do not. heart problems. (February 2010) With a high lesion. in which the colon is higher up in the pelvis and there is a fistula connecting the rectum and the bladder. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. With a low lesion. urethra or the vagina. there may be a stenosis (narrowing) of the anus. and limb anomalies are among the possibilities. In this case. Imperforate anus is usually present along with other birth defects—spinal problems. A persistent cloaca (from the term cloaca.When an infant is born with an anorectal malformation. children generally have good bowel control. Depending on the severity of the imperforate. it is treated either with a perineal anoplasty[1] or with a colostomy. For children who have a poor outcome for continence and constipation from the initial surgery. many children have problems controlling bowel function and most also become constipated.[3] [edit] Prognosis This section does not cite any references or sources. [edit] Treatment Imperforate anus usually requires immediate surgery to open a passage for faeces. but they may still become constipated.[2] Sonography can be used to determine the type of imperforate anus. vagina and urinary tract are joined into a single channel. an analogous orifice in reptiles and amphibians). with the rectum ending in a blind pouch. renal anomalies. it is usually detected quickly as it is a very obvious defect. Doctors will then determine the type of birth defect the child was born with and whether or not there are any associated malformations. A high lesion. in which the rectum. or the anus may be missing altogether. esophageal atresia. It is important to determine the presence of any associated defects during the newborn period in order to treat them early and avoid further sequelae.

Anal atresia C . establishing more normal anatomy is the priority.[6] However.[7] [edit] Associated anomalies Imperforate anus is associated with an increased incidence of some other specific anomalies as well.Renal (Kidney) and/or radial anomalies L . An antegrade enema mechanism can be established by joining the appendix to the skin (Malone stoma). surgery to remove that dilated segment may significantly improve the bowel control for the patient.Cardiovascular anomalies T . imperforate anus will present as the low version 90% of the time in females and 50% of the time in males. together being called the VACTERL association: • • • • • • • V . [edit] Epidemiology Imperforate anus has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000 births.Vertebral anomalies A .Esophageal atresia R .Tracheoesophageal fistula E .Limb defects . however. for those with a large rectum. Imperforate anus is an occasional complication of sacrococcygeal teratoma.[4][5] It affects boys and girls with similar frequency.improve continence and.