You are on page 1of 22

DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS

AND REMEDIES

CONTENTS

1. Introduction……………….……………………….…….........5

2. Literature survey………………………………….………….11

3. Design & its analysis……………………………………….....13

4. Elements of press tool……………….………………………..17

5. Conclusion.…………………… ………………........…………23

6. References.……………………..………………………………24

3|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT-
Press tools are used to produce a particular component in large quantity, out of sheet
metals where particular component achieved depends upon press tool construction and its
configuration. The different types of press tool constructions lead to different operations
namely blanking, bending, piercing, forming, drawing, cutting off, parting off, embossing,
coining, notching, shaving, lancing, dinking, perforating, trimming, curling etc. Generally,
metals having thickness less than 6mm is considered as strip. Blanking is one of the sheet metal
operations where we produce flat components of prerequisite shape. In Blanking the required
shape periphery is cut and cut-out piece is called blank. The press tool used is for blanking
operation is called as blanking tool, if piercing operation, it is piercing tool and so on based on
operation that we perform. The application of press operations is widely used in many
industries like food processing, packing, defence, textile, automobile, aircraft and many apart
from manufacturing industry. In this connection an attempt is made on to learn the press tool
design, materials, manufacturing used for press tool and calculations involved in it. In this
work, a real time design of a simple blanking press tool and manufacturing of a prototype is
made along with analysis where the output is a circular piece having diameter of 20mm. The
press machine is of mechanical type.
Tool making is one of the trades, which requires a detailed study, structural analysis
and process planning before proceeding with any practical work. The success of any tool
largely depends on the process analysis and design analysis of the tool. A systematic approach
in tool making is therefore very essential. This project report mainly enlightens the various
aspects of “Press Tool”. This report gives brief information about the design analysis and
overview of a “PRESS TOOL” which serves the need for mass production of sheet metal
component.

KEYWORDS: Blanking, Die Design, Manufacturing, and Analysis;

4|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 1.
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Press tool is a device that aids production of large quantity of similar sheet metal
component to the required shape, size and dimensional accuracy. The component may be flat
blank (Blanking tool) or formed one (Drawing tool, Forming or Bending tool).
A press tool consists mainly of die and punch, which are suitably shaped to get article
of desired shape. The sheet metal strip is pierced on the die and the punch is then lowered under
a heavy pressure. The metal is thus pressed between punch and die and the article of desired
shape is obtained. For preparing article with wide range of shape, pressing is to be carried out
in different stage.
Press tools are useful when a large number of similar articles are to be produced.

Fig. 1.1 PRESS TOOL

1.2 TYPES OF PRESS TOOLS


 Progressive tool
 Compound tool
 Combination tool
 Fine blanking tool

5|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

1.3 TYPES OF PRESS TOOL OPERATIONS


PRESS WORKING OPERATIONS
(SHEET METAL)

CUTTING BENDING FORMING DRAWING

BLANKING BENDING STRETCH FLANGING CYLINDRICAL


CUP
DRAWING

PIERCING FLANGING SHRINK FLANGING RECTANGULAR


SHELL
DRAWING

NOTCHING HEMMING REVERSE FLANGING IRREGULAR


SHAPE
DRAWING

TRIMMING HOLE FLANGING

LANCING Embossing/
Form Beads

JOGGLE

1.3.1. BLANKING:
Stamping having an irregular contour must be blanked from the strip. Piercing contour must be
blanked from the strip. Piercing, Embossing and various other operations may be performed
the strip prior to the blanking station.

Fig. 1.3.1

6|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

1.3.2. PIERCING :
Piercing tools pierce holes in previously BLANKED, Formed or Drawn parts. It is often
impractical to pierce holes while forming because they would become distorted in the forming
operation. In such cases they are pierced in a piercing tool after forming.

Fig. 1.3.2
1.3.3. CUTT OFF :
Cut off operations are those in which strip of suitable width is cut to length. Preliminary
operations before cutting off include Piercing, Notching and Embossing. Although they are
relatively simple, cut off tools can produce many parts.

Fig. 1.3.3
1.3.4. BENDING :
Bending is defined as shaping the material around straight axis which extends completely
across material. Metal flow is uniform in this operation.

Fig. 1.3.4

7|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

1.3.5. FORMING :
Forming tools apply more complex forms to work pieces. The line of bend is curved inside of
straight and the metal is subjected to plastic flow or deformation. Metal flow is not uniform in
this operation as Bending.

Fig. 1.3.5

1.3.6. DRAWING :
Drawing operation transform the flat sheets of metal into cups, shells or other drawn shapes by
subjecting the material to severe plastic deformation.

Fig. 1.3.6
1.3.7. TRIMMING :
When cups and shells are drawn from flat sheet metal the edge is left away and irregular due
to uneven flow of metal. This irregular edge is trimmed in a trimming die.

Fig. 1.3.7

8|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

1.3.8. SHAVING :
Shaving is a secondary operation usually flowing punching In which the surface of the
previously flowing punching in which the surface of the previously cut edges is finished
smoothly to accurate dimensions. There is little clearance between punch and edge and only a
thin section of the edge is removed from the edges of the pieces.

Fig. 1.3.8
1.3.9. EMBOSSING :
It is shallow forming operation in which the material is stretched over a male die and caused to
conform to the male die surface by a female die surface. It results depressed detail on one side
and raised detail on opposite side of the work piece.

Fig. 1.3.9
1.3.10. COINING :
Coining is the process of pressing material in a die so that it flows into the spaces in the detail
on the die face.

Fig. 1.3.10
1.3.11. CURLING :
A curling die rolls the raw edges of the sheet metal into a roll or curl. The purpose is to strength
than the raw edges provide protective edges and improve the appearance of the product.

9|Page
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

Fig. 1.3.11

1.3.12. NOTCHING :
It’s one of the cutting operations, in which material cut at the edges of the blank.

Fig. 1.3.12
1.3.13. BROCHING :
It’s one of the cutting operations, in which series of teeth or serrations are cut across the blank.

Fig. 1.3.13
1.3.14. LANCING :
It’s one of the operations, in which it includes both cutting and non-cutting operation that’s one
side bending with two or more side cutting.

Fig. 1.3.14

10 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 2.
LITERATURE SURVEY

High rate production industries generally use press machines. Thickness can vary significantly,
although extremely small thicknesses are considered as sheet and above 6mm are considered
as plate. Thickness of the sheet metal fed in between is called its gauge. Sheet metal is simply
fed in between the dies of press tool for any press operation to perform. The reciprocating
movement of punch is caused due to the ram movement of press machine. The press machine
may be of electrical type, mechanical type, pneumatic type, manual type and hydraulic type. In
today’s practical and cost conscious world, sheet metal parts have already replaced many
expensive cast, forged and machined products. The common sheet metal forming products are
metal desks, file cabinets, appliances, car bodies, aircraft fuselages, mechanical toys and
beverage cans and many more. Due to its low cost and generally good strength and formability
characteristics, low carbon steel is the most commonly used sheet metal because high carbon
composition gives high strength to the material. The other sheet metals used are aluminium and
titanium in aircraft and aerospace applications.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the causes for these seemingly contradictory
results. An attempt will be made here to review the previous studies to look into future
possibilities of various die designs. The various authors considerations are taken into account
with their presents in building up the work and their statements are as follows:
Mr. Amit D. Madake et.al.[1] He states that sheet-metal die is an inseparable constituent
of the development process of any given automotive or consumer appliance. In most of the
cases, this accounts for a high proportion in the tooling needs of the large size and structural
member in any automotive like the chassis and the BIW.
K.Kishore Kumar et.al.[2] explains that before converting raw materials to a finished
product we need an accurate design of the product and also data required for manufacturing. If
the design is not accurate then defects will occur in the manufactured product, small mistakes
in designing a product makes the manufactured product useless so more amount time is allotted
for designing new product.
Gasper Gantar et.al.[3] states that the selection of most appropriate design and
technological solutions to produce certain mould should capture technical performance
economic issues as well as environmental impacts occurred during the mould life cycle. An
approach is presented to support the selection of alternative mould design solutions in the early
design stage. Sachin
Ramdas Jadhav et.al.[4] He explains sheet metal forming problems are typical in nature
since they involve geometry, boundary and material non-linearity. Drawings part involves
many parameters like punch and dies radius, clearance, lubrication, blank holding force and its
trajectories etc. So designing the tools for part drawing involves a lot of trial and error
procedure.
Vishwanath M.C. et.al.[5] He states that in this work the use of a software namely Pro/E
for designing a progressive die to manufacture cup for the oil filter has been incorporated. A
progressive die is a multiple station die. In this work authors have designed a progressive die
which has two stages of operation. The former operation is piercing and is followed by
blanking.
T. Z. Quazi et.al.[6] prescribes a model investigation the effect of potential parameters
influencing the blanking process and their interaction. The blanking process optimization
carried out by using Design of Experiment (DOE), Finite Element Method (FEM) with ANSYS

11 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

Package, Simulation with ABAQUS-Explicit software, Blank soft Software and Neural
Network
Amol Totre et.al.[7] refers about forming processes employed in high volume
production, blanking is one of the most widely used separation techniques. Still, analysis of
blanking is mainly based on phenomenological knowledge.
Samadhan D. Bhosale et.al.[8] His aim is to apply the quality tools to find out the root
causes of the quality problems related to manufacturing of mechanical seal. The modes of
defects on production line are investigated through direct observation on the production line
and statistical tools like Check sheets, Histogram, Pareto analysis, Cause and Effect diagram
etc. are used in enhancing the process by continuous monitoring through inspection of the
samples.
Jai Hindus S et. al.[9] He assists the die designer to design press tool dies for the online
maintenance in the press itself and to reduce the tool failure due to the dynamic actions of the
press tool in the press.

12 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 3.
DESIGN & ITS ANALYSIS
3.1 TOOL DESIGN CONSIDERATION
A designer is a person who furnishes the drawings of the tool. He must have a very
good knowledge regarding the manufacturing of the tool, selection of materials and other
necessary designing aspects.
The die design should suit the scale of production, as it will be used for small or large
lot or mass production. Press tools should meet the following requirements.
1. The accuracy and surface finish of stampings should confirm to the drawing and
specification.
2. The working part of the die must be adequately strong, durable in operation and easily
replaceable when worn-out.
3. The tool should ensure the required hourly output, easy maintenance, safe operation
and reliable fastening on the press.
4. The die should be designed preferably of standard items, using as less parts as possible.
5. The scrap should be kept in minimum.
3.2 DESIGN OF PRESS TOOL INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING STEPS
1. Determination of the force. (Press tonnage) required for the operation.
2. Selection of press for requisite force, work piece size and shape.
3. Determination of shut height of the tool.
4. Calculating the die thickness and margin (minimum cross section)
5. Designing of locating elements.
6. Selection of hardware items.
7. Selection of pillar dies set.
8. Deciding punch length and mounting.
3.3 TOOL DESIGN PROCEDURE
STUDY OF COMPONENT
The first step in the design procedure is to define the problem in a clear and simple
statement of the functional needs. The tool design will receive the part print, information on
which tool is needed, what the capabilities of the tool must be, the type of the press on which
tool is used, the number of parts to be produced and pertinent information concerning the part.
CONCEPT DESIGN
The research and sketches should be combined to one or two attentive design solution,
which may consist of rough working showing the side and top view if needed. The best selected
and reworked and the final design decided upon.
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Before start in any design some major considerations are required to be made which
can solve majority of the problems while designing the press tool, moulds, jigs and fixtures.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
In any design, manufacturing process should be easy, simplified and majority of the
operations should be carried out in house. By considering this point we made our tool as simple
as possible for manufacturing.
MAINTENANCE
Last but never the least is very much necessary to think about the maintenance, if due
to any reason some parts break down, it should be easily manufactured in short time so that
ideal times is reduced and that care to be taken during designing.

13 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

3.4 THE FOLLOWING DESIGN POINTS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED CAREFULLY


1. Controlling location of the scrap strip.
2. Guidance should be extended at least two scrap width in front of first station.
3. The type of stripper used.
4. Channel clearance should be accurate to allow the strip to move freely.
5. Location of figure and stage stoppers.
6. Die block should be longer and wide enough so that the location of the holes will be at
least
7. one and half times the thickness of the die block away from the edge.
8. Dowel should be safe in non-cylindrical location such that sections or parts may be
mounted
9. in one position only.
10. Counter bore in the die block, the tapered hole in the die shoe and the reamed holes in
the die
11. shoe must be made from 6-9 mm deeper than needed to allow for grinding of die block.
12. Choose the die set, so that when the die block is mounted, it can be ground without
removing
13. it from the die shoe.
14. Small profile punch should be guided in the stripper plate.
3.5 TOOL DESIGN CALCULATIONS
The strip layout is presented in Fig:8. The calculation is done on strip to find out the following
steps
1. % of strip used =(Area of component x 4)/Length of strip x width of strip
2. Shear force = (KxLxTxS)/1000tons) = (1.5x2x3.141x10x0.5x420)/1000 =1.97 tons
Where, K =1.1 to 1.5 (constant based on clearance)
L= length of cut in mm
T= thickness of cut in mm
S= Shear strength of material in kg/mm2
3. Stripping force = 10%of shear force = 0.2 ton
4. Net force = Shear force+ Stripping force = 1.97+0.2 =2.2 ton

Fig: 8 Strips Fig: 9 Blank

5. The blank is shown in Fig: 9 and the calculations for it is done as follows
6. Press tonnage = 1.2 x Total force = 1.2 x 2.2 = 2.64 tons
7. Thickness of die plate = 3 Shear force= 4.2cm x10=42mm
8. Thickness of punch holder = 0.5 x td =0.5x5 = 25mm (td = thickness of plate selected)
Similarly by substitution td values we get
9. Thickness of bottom plate = 1.5 x td = 7.5mm
10. Thickness of top plate = 1.25 x td= 6.25mm
11. Thickness of stripper plate = 0.5 x td= 2.5mm
12. Cutting clearance = C x S x (TMax)/10 = 0.05mm
S= Sheet metal thickness
Tmax= Based on material property (Max Stress bearable)=1000 N/mm2
13. Cutting clearance = 4% of sheet thickness
14. Black punch size = Size of Blank die-2c

14 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

15. C=6% of thickness of wall


16. Cutting force = π x D x t x Fs =3.14x0.5x20x2.2= 69 N

3.4 DESIGNING SCRAP – STRIP LAYOUT


In the design of blanking parts from strip material, the first step is to prepare blanking
layout, that is, to layout the position of the work pieces in the strip and their orientation with
respect to one another. While doing so, the major consideration is the economy of material.
Another important consideration in strip layout is the distance between the blanks and the
strip edge and distance between blank to blank. To prevent the scrap from twisting and
wedging between the punch and the die. The distance must increase with material thickness.
A general rule of thumb is to keep this distance equal to from 1 to 1.5times the
material thickness. The following figure 3.4 are example of strip layouts.

Fig 3.4
A – Front scrap
B – Bridge thickness
(space between parts and strip edge, and part to parts)
C – the distance from a point on one part to the
corresponding point on the next part.
H – Part width
l - Length of part
W – Width of strip
Y – Scrap recovery at end
N – Number of blanks
t– thickness of strip
L – Length of strip

B= 1.25t, when C is less than 2inch


= 1.5t, when C is more than 2inch
C=l+B
W = H + 2B
A = t + 0.015H
Y =L – Nc +B
N = L – B /C

15 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

3.4.1 PERCENTAGE OF UTILIZATION


Strip layout is important to have economy of press tool operation. Scrap strip layout
gives an idea on the positioning of various punches, stops and pilots. It ensures the ideal
location of blanks in the stock strip. Several trial layouts have to be made to confirm the
maximum percentage of utilization of stock strip. The goal should be to have at least 75%
utilization.
The percentage of stock used to calculated by the formula:

% of utilization = Area of one blank X 100 /Lead X Width

Where, Lead = Length of component + Bridge thickness


Width= Breadth of component + 2 X Bridge thickness

3.4.2 EXAMPLE 1: FOR STRIP LAYOUT CALCULATION

Fig 3.4.2 (a)


Length of part = 20mm :
Breadth of part = 10mm
Thickness of part =1.5mm
Bridge thickness = one times of sheet thickness taken
= 1.0 X 1.5 = 1.50mm
Width of strip W = H + 2B
= 20 + 2 X 1.5 =23mm
Front scrap “a” = t + 0.015H
= 1.5 + 0.015 X 20
= 1.8mm
C =l + B = 10+1.5 =11.5mm

Fig 3.4.2 (b)

16 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 4.
ELEMENTS OF PRESS TOOL

Fig. 4.1
4.1 ELEMENTS OF PRESS TOOL
4.1.1. TOP PLATE
It is the top portion of the complete tool, which holds the top assembly or complete tool through
the punch holder.
Material: C45 or CI.
4.1.2. BOTTOM PLATE
It is also called as die shoe or bolster plate, its main function is to provide a rigid foundation
and base to the assembly. It assembles the fixed half of the tool.
Material: C45 or CI.
4.1.3. STRIPPER PLATE
This plate is also called as guide plate. This plate helps in stripping operation. It not only strips
the strip from the punch but the main function of this plate is to guide the punch accurately
which maintains the alignment between punch and die. Hence the plate is made with same care
as die plate. It is made out of mild steel. In some cases, this guide plate is also made of tool
steel. A channel is milled in the plate which will guide the stock strip.
4.1.4. GUIDE PILLAR
These are cylindrical pins known as guide pins or guide pillars. These provide accurate
alignment to the die set. One end of the pillar is given press fit in the base plate with H7/p6
tolerance. The other portion, which is sufficiently long, provides guide for top plate for easy
sliding.
Material: EN-36 HRc: 54-56
4.1.5. GUIDE BUSH
These are mounted to the top plate, which provide smooth sliding contact between pillars and
top plate.
Material: EN-36 HRc: 60-62.

17 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

4.1.6. BALL CAUGES


In progressive press tools the punch and die should align very accurately to provide equal
clearance on all sides of the die. In such causes ball cages are used. Ball cages contain ball
bearings inserted within them, which provide the sliding movement.
Material: Aluminum or Brass
4.1.7. PILOTS
In progressive press tools the function of pilots is to position the stock strip accurately and to
bring it into proper position (Registering) for successive blanking, piercing, bending or other
press operations. Mechanically fed strip normally under fed and pull forward in the same
direction with the feeding motion by the pilots, because any mechanical feeding mechanism
utilizes a unidirectional locking device which prevents any back feeding of the strip.
4.1.8. DIE
The female member of the tool in which openings are made for the punch to enter in them is
termed as die. It includes well supporting and actuating part of the tool. It also includes cutting
profiles, bending die insert, pushers, stoppers, strip guides etc.
Material: HCHCR (D3) HRC: 60-62
4.1.9. PUNCH
This is most important element of the tool. It is the cutting element of the tool. Punch gives the
whole size and the shape on the component. This is made out of high carbon high chromium
steel material (D3). [T215 CR12 W90]. Punches are hardened and tempered to 58-60 HRC.
Material: HCHCR, OHNS HRC: 60-62
4.1.10. PUNCH HOLDER
This plate is also called as punch plate all the punches are accurately held in this plate. This
plate should be thick enough to accommodate punch shoulder and keep the punches
perpendicular. It is made out of HCHCR (D2). Hardness: 56-58HRC.
4.1.11. DIE PLATE
In this plate all die inserts held accurately. This plate thickness as same as die inserts thickness
.This plate made out of HCHCr (D2).
Hardness: 56-58hrc
4.1.12. STRIP GUIDE
In progressive press tool there becomes a requirement of feeding the stock strip along a
particular path for each operation to take place. Thus strip guides are used to guide the long
stock strip in the required path for each operation can be carried out properly. The strip guide
combines of two material strips or parallel blocks, which are screwed and doweled on the die
surface in alignment with the die parameters. It is one of the important elements of the
progressive tools with fixed as well as floating stripper.
Material:D2 HRC: 56-58
4.1.13. STOPPERS
Stoppers are installed on the dies to arrest the feedings movement of the strip, to the
requirement.
Material: D2 HRC: 52-56
4.1.14. LIFTERS
Lifters are assembled in die plate with a close running fit. These are spring actuated to hold
and lift the strip.
Material: D2 HRC: 52-56
4.1.15. DOWELS
Dowels hold the parts in perfect related alignment by absorbing side pressure and lateral thrust.
Dowels always should have case hardening.

18 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

4.1.16. SCREWS
In assembly process the parts of tool are held together rigidly by socket head cap screws. Also
screws fastened the assembly. Screws are available in standard size.

4.2 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR DIFFERENT ELEMENTS


Bottom plate St-42
Top plate St-42
Die plate HCHCR (D2)
Punches HCHCR (D3)
Back plate Case hardened
Punch plate HCHCR (D2)
Stripper plate HCHCR (D2)
Guide plate Case hardened
Guide pillar Case hardened
Auxiliary guide pillar OHNS
Pilot STD
Dowel STD
Lifters OHNS
4.3 TYPES OF FITS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESS TOOL

SL No. TOOL ELEMENTS TYPE OF FIT


1 Blanking punch and Stripper Running Fit
2 Piercing punch and Stripper Running Fit
3 Guide pillar with Bottom plate H7/p6(press fit)
4 Guide pillar with Guide bush H7/g6(sliding fit)
5 Punch with Punch holder H7/k6(Light key fit)
6 Pilot with Stripper H7/g6(sliding fit)
7 Direct pilot with punch H7/p6(press fit)
8 Pilot with punch holder H7/k6(Light key fit)
9 Dowels with Stripper plate H7/m6(Medium drive fit)
10 Dowels with Die plate H7/m6(Medium drive fit)
11 Dowels with Bottom plate H7/m6(Medium drive fit)
12 Dowels with Top plate H7/m6(Medium drive fit)
13 Dowels with Punch holder plate H7/m6(Medium drive fit)
14 Punch back plate(for Dowels and Running fit
screws)
15 Lifter with Die plate H7/p6(Light key fit)
16 Guide bush with Top plate H7/p6(press fit)
17 Adjuster and slot in PHP plate H7/g6(sliding fit)
18 Punch and die Cutting clearance fit

19 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

4.4 DEFECTS AND REMEDIES


The various Defects or problems that are reducing are given below,

20 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

4.5 ASSEMBLY
We have now come to final stage of manufacturing of the tool. Assembly of a tool
means seating the parts of the tool in their respective position to get the required work. This is
the critical stage of tool manufacturing. Any fault committed during machining of parts will be
highlighted and may cause problem during try-out.
Assembly of tool may be divided into two groups,
4.5.1 BOTTOM HALF
 Firstly, we made chamfer and oil stoned to all elements of bottom half of tool
 Lifters are placed to back plate and die plate
 Die plate and back plate is aligned properly to their proper positions according to their
 reference position to the Bottom plate by dowelling.
 Finally, the Die plate, Back plate and Bottom plate is fastened by means of screws.
4.5.1 TOP HALF
 Firstly, we chamfered and oil stoned to all elements of Top half of the tool.
 All punches and pilots are grouped in Punch holder to their proper position and get
 entered into their relative positions in Bottom half.
 Proper alignment is done to top half of the tool with respect to its Bottom half.
 Springs are provided for proper ejection of the component.
 Finally the top half is get clamped by means of screws only after knowing the perfect
 alignment between two half of the tool, and then the tool get moved to tryout and then
 to inspection and finally to dispatch of the components with approval by the quality.

4.6 CARE OF TOOL


The sliding is as should be lubricated (pillars and bushes, pushers & lifters). The impact
leads to damages of die and punch and the press experiences heavy load of the blank is not
lubricated. The ‘Die Maker’ is expected to detect faults of the press tool resulted from poor
workmanship and from wrong mounting and adjustments. To do so, he must know the courses
of faults and the methods of remedy.
• Wrong installation of the tool will source in many defected finished products. An immediate
indication in the wrongly mounted tool is a unilateral friction of the guide pillars.
• Bright surface of the cut at one side of the part witness an inadequate clearance.
• Rapid blunting of the cutting edges of the punch and die at that area the fault is normally due
to misaligned bed, this can be detected by releasing the fastening of the lower shoe and
measuring the clearance between the tool and the press bed by a feeler gauge.

4.7ADVANTAGES OF PRESS TOOL


1. Speed production – Progressive die metal stamping is based on the continuous feed of
material through the different die stations of a tool. The nature of the process allows
you to create more parts in a shorter period of time when compared with traditional
fabrication or machining. For high volume parts, progressive stamping provides the
lowest cycle times per part.
2. Less Scrap Material – Progressive stamping is a metalworking method that can
encompass punching, coining, bending and several other ways of modifying metal to
produce your desired end part shape. The vast majority of material is used, hence, less
scrap is produced. Progressive Die Metal Stamping may provide the most cost effective
material option for manufacturing your parts.
3. Quicker Setup – When compared to traditional fabrication or machining, the setup
time may be much less for the progressive stamping process. What is achieved in
multiple Setups and processes during traditional fabrication and machining, may be

21 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

performed in one operation if Progressive Die Stamping is utilized. This reduction in


Setup and processing will result in a more cost effective piece part.
4. Create More Geometries with a Single Process – Progressive Die Metal Stamping
allows you to create parts with many geometries within a single tool. This video shows
a single part progressing through a die. All required geometries of the part are achieved
in one Progressive Die operation.
5. Longer Runs – The continuous material feed used in the progressive die stamping
process allows for long runs. Longer runs between material changes
and tooling adjustments mean your parts can be produced in a much shorter time.
6. High Repeatability – The hard tooling die designs allow for high volume runs without
die degradation. This means that part quality remains high and there are fewer failed
parts.
7. Lower Cost per Part – All of the factors above contribute to reducing the overall cost
of your part. Using progressive die stamping allows you to create robust parts in the
most cost effective and expeditious manner. We look forward to helping you save
money on your next project!
4.8 DISADVANTAGES OF PRESS TOOL
1. Higher mount of force and energy is required for metal forming process compared to
other manufacturing methods.
2. The components with cross holes cannot be produced easily using metal forming
process.
3. The initial capital cost is higher

22 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 5.
CONCLUSION
5.1 CONCLUSION
In course of this project I have gained a great deal of confidence and knowledge in the
way of tool manufacturing. The work has gone in detail in all the analysis methodically. The
tool can also be designed and manufactured without any these analyses, but the success and the
economics of the tool is not assured. I have executed my very best to achieve the required
results, as far as the tool is concerned. This project has paved a new way for me to tap the
knowledge that lies in the waste field of Press tools. I learned many aspects such as co-
operating and adjusting myself with other fellow crew working on this tool. And the strong
positive guidance given by our guides during solving of problems is really commendable;
hence the success of the design analysis of the tool is assured.

23 | P a g e
DESIGN ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL WITH ITS DEFECTS
AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 6.
REFERENCES
6.1 REFERENCES
[1] Mr.Amit ,D.Madake, Dr.Vinayak, R.Naik, Mr.Swapnil, S.Kulkarni, "Development of a
SheetMetal Component with a Forming Die Using
CAE Software Tools (Hyper form) For Design Validation and Improvement", International
Journal of Modern Engineering Research
(IJMER) , Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June, 2013 , pp-1787-1791,ISSN: 2249-6645.
[2] K.Kishore Kumar, Dr. A.Srinath, M.Naveen, R.D.pavan kumar, "Design of progressive
dies", International Journal of Engineering Research
and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012, pp.2971-
2973.
[3] Gasper Gantar, Andrej Glojek, Mitja Mori-BlazNardin, MihaelSekavcnik, "Resource
Efficient Injection Moulding with Low Environmental
Impacts", Strojniski Vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 59(2013)3,copy right
2013,Journal of Mechanical Engineering, All rights
reserved.DOI:10.5545/sv-jme.2012.661 pp:193-200.
[4] Sachin Ramdas Jadhav, Sunil Hiraman More, Swapnil S. Kulkarni," Die Design for Formed
Component using inputs from FEA for
determining the most suited values for the Design or Process parameter", International Journal
of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies
E-ISSN2249–8974 /April-June,2014/95-98.
[5] Vishwanath M.C, Dr. Ramni, Sampath Kumar L ,"Design of progressive draw tool",
International Journal of Scientific and Research
Publications, Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2013 ,1 ISSN 2250-3153.
[6] Prof. T. Z. Quazi, R.S.Shaikh, "An Overview of Clearance Optimization in Sheet Metal
Blanking Process", International Journal of Modern
Engineering Research (IJMER) Volume 2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec 2012, pp-4547-4558 ISSN: 2249-
6645.
[7] Amol Totre, Rahul Nishad , Sagar Bodke, An Overview Of Factors Affecting In Blanking
Processes" International Journal of Emerging
Technology and Advanced Engineering, (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal,
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013).
[8] Samadhan D. Bhosale, S.C.Shilwant, S.R. Patil ," Quality improvement in manufacturing
processes using SQC tools" International Journal of
Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun
2013, pp.832-837.
[9] Jai hindus S."Design and development of stamping dies for online maintenance" Vol. 9,
No. 4, APRIL 2014, ISSN 1819-6608,ARPN Journal
of Engineering and Applied Sciences,©2006-2014, Asian Research Publishing Network
(ARPN), All rights reserved.
[10] Hairulliza Mohamad Judi, Ruzzakiah Jenal and Devendran Genasan "Quality Control
Implementation in Manufacturing Companies
Motivating Factors and Challenges" ISBN: 978-953-307-236-4, (2011).
[11] Dr. Taylan Altan, Selection of die materials and surface treatments for increasing die life
in hot and warm forging" Paper no 644-FIA Tech
Conference, April 2011.

24 | P a g e