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Overview of Magnetic Measurement Techniques

Animesh Jain
Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA
US Particle Accelerator School on Superconducting Accelerator Magnets Santa Barbara, California, June 23-27, 2003

• Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)/
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)

• • • • • •

Hall Probes Magnetoresistors Fluxgate Magnetometers Flux Measurements with Pick Up Coils Magnetic Alignment – center and direction Summary
2 Animesh Jain, BNL

USPAS, Santa Barbara, June 23-27, 2003

USPAS. • The quantum energy levels are split into several discrete levels. 2003 3 Animesh Jain. Santa Barbara. • A resonant absorption of RF energy occurs at a frequency corresponding to energy gap. June 23-27. • The energy gap between these levels is proportional to the applied field.NMR/EPR Principle • A particle with a spin and a magnetic moment precesses around an applied field. BNL . depending on the spin of the particle.

June 23-27.M Spin component along the field direction can take integral values from –I to +I.I B M Magnetic Moment Energy = B.B Animesh Jain.h. ⇒ Energy gap = γ. BNL .B Frequency = USPAS.h. Santa Barbara. 2003 4 γ.NMR/EPR Principle Precession Applied Field I = Spin γ = Gyromagnetic ratio M = Magnetic Moment = γ.

4336 11.Gyromagnetic Ratio Particle e 1 2 3 – γ (MHz/T) 28026.5 42.53569 32. 2003 .576396 6. Santa Barbara. BNL H H Al He 27 USPAS.0942 5 Application 0. June 23-27.2 mT 0.5 to 3.04 to 2 T 2 T to 14 T Cryogenic Cryogenic Animesh Jain.

Santa Barbara.NMR Magnetometer VCO RF Sample & Hold Probe ∆B B ∆B/B ~ 10–4 to 10–3. 2003 6 Trigger Modulation Oscillator Animesh Jain. June 23-27. 30-70 Hz USPAS. BNL .

Santa Barbara.Locking RF to NMR Resonance NMR Signal with f and B0 mismatched Error Resonance occurs at non-zero value of modulating signal. June 23-27. BNL B0 B0+∆B(t) NMR Signal with f and B0 matched B0 B0+∆B(t) USPAS. Animesh Jain. NMR signals arrive at uneven intervals. Resonance occurs at Zero value of modulating signal. NMR signals arrive at even intervals. 2003 7 .

One may locally compensate for the gradient using small gradient coils. • Field must be homogeneous (< 0. to make measurements in inhomogeneous fields. BNL . However. USPAS. June 23-27. certain requirements must be met: • Field must be stable (< 1% per second). difficult to lock – Probe positioning accuracy becomes critical.Requirements for NMR NMR can provide measurement of magnetic field with absolute accuracy of 0.1% per cm): – The signal deteriorates. 2003 8 Animesh Jain.1 ppm. Santa Barbara.

– VHall VHall = G ⋅ RH ⋅ I ⋅ B cos θ G = Geometric factor RH = Hall Coefficient Animesh Jain. 2003 9 . v – + This produces a steady state voltage in a direction perpendicular to the current and field.The Hall Effect B θ B⊥ F – I – – Charge carriers experience a Lorentz force in the presence of a magnetic field. Santa Barbara. June 23-27. BNL USPAS.

requiring elaborate calibration.The Planar Hall Effect I B rre nt B || ψ + If the field has a component in the plane defined by current flow and voltage contacts. then a signal is produced given by: Cu VPlanar ∝ I ⋅ B sin( 2ψ) 2 || VPlanar Important for mapping of 3-D fields. USPAS. The Planar Hall Effect can be minimized by a suitable choice of geometry ⇒ sin(2ψ) = 0. In practice. the response of a Hall probe to the field direction is considerably more complex. Santa Barbara. 2003 10 Animesh Jain. BNL . June 23-27.

[ψ 2 = 90° + ψ1 ] Based on: R. Prigl. 2003 11 Animesh Jain. BNL.I directions as shown . Sum of Planar Hall Voltages is proportional to: [sin(2ψ1 ) + sin(2ψ 2 )] = 0. Santa Barbara. IMMW-11.Major component = By is in the plane of the Hall probes. BNL . USPAS. June 23-27.Compensating Planar Hall Effect .2 Matched Hall probes .

June 23-27. BNL .1% • Typical dimensions ~ mm • Frequency response: DC to ~ 20 kHz (~ a few Hz for fully compensated signal) • Time Stability: ±0.Hall Measurement Specifications • Typical Range: < 1 mT to 30 T • Typical Accuracy ~ 0. Santa Barbara.1% per year USPAS. 2003 12 Animesh Jain.01% to 0.

Particularly suited for complex geometries. Can be used at low temperatures. 13 Animesh Jain. such as detector magnets. Can measure all components of field. Can be used for fast measurements. BNL USPAS. Santa Barbara. June 23-27. • Small probe size makes it suitable for a • • • • large variety of applications. commercially available. inexpensive devices.Hall Measurement Advantages • Simple. 2003 .

Santa Barbara. • Planar Hall effect can pose a problem for mapping 3-D fields. June 23-27. requires elaborate calibration of sensitivity for each probe. USPAS. 2003 14 Animesh Jain. Special geometries are needed for measuring minor components. Keep temperature stable. BNL . • Long term calibration drift. • Sensitive to temperature: Calibrate as a function of temperature. Design compensated probes.Hall Measurement Disadvantages • Non-linear device.

CERN School on Superconductivity.Magneto-Resistors B NiSb Precipitates Field bends the current path. USPAS. June 23-27. Insensitive to polarity. Field Measurement Methods. 2003 15 Animesh Jain. Large temperature dependence. NiSb precipitates “arrest” the build-up of charge on the sides. Modest sensitivity. May 8-17. 2002. Santa Barbara. BNL . thus altering the resistance. Based on: L. V InSb Slab I Hall voltage tends to reduce this effect. Non-linear device. Erice. Bottura.

Fluxgate Magnetometers B excitation coil +Bexcitation -Bexcitation bias coil Courtesy: L. June 23-27. Santa Barbara. Excitation Coil: AC current drives detection a pair of ferromagnetic coil needles to saturation. BNL . 2003 16 Animesh Jain. Bias Coil: Maintains a zero field condition. Bottura. CERN. USPAS. Detection Coil: Detects Zero field condition.

Erice. June 23-27. BNL H USPAS. Bottura.Fluxgate Principle: Zero Field M M M1 M1+M2 H M2 t V Excitation Profile (H ) is symmetric Zero output in detection coil t t Based on: L. 2002 17 Animesh Jain. Santa Barbara. 2003 . CAS on Superconductivity.

2002 Animesh Jain. BNL USPAS. CAS on Superconductivity. 2003 . June 23-27. Erice. Santa Barbara. Bottura.Fluxgate Principle: Non-Zero Field M M M1 M1+M2 H M2 t V Output of detection coil t Excitation Profile (H ) is asymmetric t H0 H 18 Based on: L.

Santa Barbara. • Accuracy: ~ 0. • Typical field range ~ a few mT. mapping of fringe fields. geology. USPAS. linear. (Limited by capability of the bias coils) • Bandwidth: DC to ~ 1 kHz. etc. June 23-27. • Sensitivity: ~ 20 pT (~1 nT commercial). BNL .Fluxgate Characteristics • Highly sensitive.1% (depends on calibration and stability) • Used in navigation. directional device. 2003 19 Animesh Jain.

Animesh Jain.DCCT: A Special Fluxgate detection coil B bias coil DC Current Transformer Senses magnetic field produced by a current carrying conductor passing through a toroidal core. Used for accurate measurement of high currents (~10-100 ppm typical) Courtesy: L. Santa Barbara. CERN. Bottura. June 23-27. 2003 . BNL I Current to be measured excitation coil 20 USPAS.

Santa Barbara. USPAS. or both. 2003 21 Animesh Jain. June 23-27. given by: V(t)  dΦ d  V (t ) = − = −  ∫ B ⋅ d S dt dt  S  The time dependence may be caused by either a varying field or a varying surface area vector.Flux Measurements: Induction Law Flux through a coil defined by the surface S is: B Φ = ∫ B⋅d S S Coil S If the flux linked varies with time. BNL . a loop voltage is induced.

June 23-27. To know the flux at a given instant. (2) Flip Coil/Rotating coil: Φ end = mΦ start USPAS.Flux Measurements Time dependence of flux gives: B  dΦ d  V (t ) = − = −  ∫ B ⋅ d S dt dt  S  The change in flux is given by: Coil S V(t) Φ end − Φ start = − ⌠ V (t )⋅dt  ⌡ t start t end and can be measured by integrating the voltage signal. Santa Barbara. BNL . one needs to know Φstart ⇒ (1) Use Φstart = 0. 2003 22 Animesh Jain.

BNL . Y θ'=θ+π/(2m) Rc π/m θ X Flat Coil (Line or Area Coil) –Fixed coil. 2003 23 Multipole Coil Sensitive to only odd multiples of a specified harmonic (Morgan Coils) Animesh Jain. Santa Barbara. Varying field –Flip Coil/Moving Coil.Common Coil Geometries b a Point Coil Insensitive up to 4th order spatial h harmonic with proper choice of height and radii. June 23-27. Static field –Rotating Tangential/Radial USPAS.

Numerical Integration and/or well controlled coil movement is needed.Flux Measurements: Hardware Vin(t) G ±5V 0-10 V 10 V = fmax VFC N Nref Counters Vref (+5 V) Reference frequency fref = α fmax Digital Integrator: Directly gives change in flux. Digital Votmeter: Gives rate of change of flux. 10-100 ppm accuracy. June 23-27. USPAS. 2003 24 Animesh Jain. BNL . Santa Barbara.

limits accuracy. passive. Measure flux. June 23-27. ⇒ Calibration of geometry very important. • Require change in flux ⇒ ramp field with • • • • static coil. Field direction can be measured to ~ 50 µrad. Field variations across the coil area must be accounted for ⇒ harmonic analysis. not field.Measurements with Pick up Coils • Simple. 25 Animesh Jain. Field harmonics can be measured at ppm level. linear. BNL USPAS. Pay attention to ramping/moving details. Santa Barbara. or move coil in a static field. 2003 . drift-free devices.

2003 26 Colloidal Cell • Place ferromagnetic fluid in the field • Illuminate with polarized light • Observe with crossed analyzer Animesh Jain. USPAS. Santa Barbara. BNL . • Use expected field symmetry to locate the magnetic center. June 23-27.Determination of Magnetic Center To Integrator X-Y Stage MA G Wire NET Stretched Wire Measurements • Move a stretched wire in a magnet • Measure change in flux for various types of motion.

Determination of Field Direction Encoder Coil Rotating Coils • Angular Encoder and Gravity Sensors • Accuracy 50-100 µrad • Frequent re-calibrations Mirror & Needle LASER • For solenoids • Resolution ~ 10 µrad Gravity Sensors BEAM SPLITTER MAGNETIC NEEDLE MIRROR OPTICAL FILTER POSITION SENSITIVE DETECTOR Based on: C. 2003 27 Animesh Jain. Proc. PAC'99. Crawford et al. BNL . FNAL and BINP. Santa Barbara. June 23-27.. p. 3321-3 USPAS.

A variety of pick up coils are the most often used tools for characterizing field quality in accelerator magnets. Only some of them are in common use for measuring accelerator magnets. NMR technique is the standard for absolute accuracy.• Numerous methods exist for measurement of • • • • Summary magnetic fields. Innovative techniques have been developed for alignment measurements to suit various applications. but can not be used in all situations. Hall probes are very popular for point measurements. June 23-27. 2003 . BNL USPAS. such as for field mapping of detector magnets. 28 Animesh Jain. Santa Barbara.

15 Sep. 4 Aug. 1992) – April 11-17.bluewin. Anacapri (CERN 98-05. BNL . Santa Barbara. Montreux (CERN 92-05.For More Information • Knud Henrichsen’s bibliography: http://mypage. IMMW13 (May 2003) • Proceedings of Particle Accelerator Conferences: – PAC (1965-2001). 1998) • Proceedings of Magnet Measurement Workshops: – IMMW-1 (1977) to IMMW12 (2001).ch/hera/magnet • CERN Accelerator Schools on Magnetic Measurements: – March 16-20. 1992. 2003 29 Animesh Jain. USPAS. EPAC (1988-2002) • Proceedings of Magnet Technology Conferences: – MT-1 (1965) to MT-17 (2001). 1997. June 23-27.