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The effect of very low or very high hemoglobin concentrations on the cardiovascular system and resulting compromised delivery

of oxygen to tissues can directly cause severe morbidity or mortality. Iron deficiency can be a major contributory factor to very severe anemia, but no evidence exists to show that a very high hemoglobin concentration is due to too much iron or to iron supplementation. The clinical significance of low or high hemoglobin concentrations that are less extreme has more to do with underlying conditions that cause abnormally high or low hemoglobin concentrations. Hematocrit is the % of your blood that is red blood cells. The rest would be mostly plasma. Normal values are approximately 40-45% with males typically being a little higher. Low hematocrit, anemia, can be due to bleeding, inadequate red blood cell production or a hemolytic process (the red blood cells are being destroyed) High hematocrit can be due to dehydration. Since the hematocrit is a % of your blood, if you are dehydrated you have too little fluid and therefore too little plasma and so a greater % of your blood would be red blood cells. High hematocrit can also be due to high levels of iron. In this case they would perform a therapeutic phlebotomy. This is where ther remove some blood from the person and discard it. I would think that is is very unlikely that high hematocrit would be due to lab error. (This is what I do for a living) A high blood count (above 30000 cells per micro-liter) indicates is not a specific disease by itself but indicates infection, systemic illness, inflammation, allergy, leukemia and tissue injury caused due to burns. The count of white blood cells also increases when certain medicines like antibiotics or antiseizure drugs. Smoking and too much of mental stress also increases the count of the white blood cells in the body. Also, once the count of white blood cell is on the higher side, the risk of cardiovascular mortality also increases. It turns into a vicious circle. On the other end, a low count of white blood cells indicates viral infections, low immunity and bone marrow failure. A severely low white blood count that is the count of less than 2500 cells per micro-liter is a cause for a critical alert and possess a high risk of sepsis . Causes of Low White Blood Cell Count An abnormal low white blood cell count is associated with a number of causes and medical conditions. Some of the causes of leukopenia are aplastic anemia, chemotherapy, autoimmune diseases such as lupus, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, liver diseases, spleen diseases, a deficiency of vitamins and minerals such as zinc and copper, and autoimmune diseases. Certain infections such as viral infections can cause low white blood cell count. Some of the medications including chemotherapy drugs, some of the antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs also lead to leukopenia. Certain bone marrow diseases such as myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia reduce the white blood cell count. Sometimes, the exact cause of leukopenia is not known, it is referred to as idiopathic. High An increase in lymphocyte concentration is usually a sign of a viral infection (in some rare case, leukemias are found through an abnormally raised lymphocyte count in an otherwise normal person). Low A low normal to low absolute lymphocyte concentration is associated with increased rates of infection after surgery or trauma. One basis for low T cell lymphocytes occurs when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and destroys T cells (specifically, the CD4+ subgroup of T lymphocytes). Without the key defense that these T cells provide, the body becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections that otherwise would not affect healthy people. The extent of HIV progression is typically determined by measuring the percentage of CD4+ T cells in the patient's blood. The effects of other viruses or lymphocyte disorders can also often be estimated by counting the numbers of lymphocytes present in the blood

her immune system treats the Rh-positive fetal cells as if they were a foreign substance and makes antibodies against the fetal blood cells. second children who are also Rh-positive may be harmed. When red blood cells are broken down. Significance  Platelets are cells that circulate in the blood and play an important role in the blood-clotting process.unless the mother has had previous miscarriages or abortions. a baby is at risk for hemorrhaging. where they destroy the baby's circulating red blood cells. they make bilirubin. red blood cells from the fetus can get into the mother's bloodstream as she nourishes her child through the placenta. Causes During pregnancy.S. First-born infants are often not affected -. called RhoGAM. This problem has become uncommon in the U. However. which could have sensitized her system -. are now used to prevent RH incompatibility. Symptoms Rh incompatibility can cause symptoms ranging from very mild to deadly. Rh incompatibility develops only when the mother is Rh-negative and the infant is Rh-positive. Special immune globulins. These anti-Rh antibodies may cross the placenta into the developing baby. In its mildest form. Rh incompatibility causes destruction of red blood cells. The level of bilirubin in the infant's bloodstream may range from mild to dangerously high. Without an adequate amount of platelets in the blood. and other places that provide good prenatal care. If the mother is Rh-negative. which causes an infant to become yellow (jaundiced) it takes time for the mother to develop antibodies against the fetal blood. Symptoms may include: • • • • Low muscle tone (hypotonia) Developmental delay Increased amount of amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios) Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) .