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23-25, 2004

TURBULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A FLUID AGITATED BY MULTIPLE JETS A. Tamburrino, J. Rojas Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile E-mail : atamburr@ing.uchile.cl Abstract. Results of an experimental study about the structure of a flow induced by jets in a tank filled with water are presented in this paper. Some experiments with shear stress induced by wind on the free surface were also performed. Assuming a constant eddy viscosity, an analytical relationship for the turbulence kinetic energy was obtained. 1. Introduction and Objectives Agitated tanks have extensively been used to study turbulence decay [1, 2, 3]. It has been established that the kinetic turbulent energy (k) in the bulk of the fluid decays as z - r , where z is the distance from the source of turbulence. The value of r depends on the author, but several studies indicate a value around 2. Water agitation is usually achieved by means of oscillating grids [1, 2], but use of jets located in the bottom of the tank have also been reported [3]. Generally, the studies are centered in the turbulence decay and no reference is made to the mean flow field. The authors of this paper are not aware of studies regarding the temporal mean velocity structure in the tank or velocity measurements in agitated tanks under wind. The objective of this paper is to present results of a study on the flow structure in an agitated tank, including some preliminary findings obtained when shear stress induced by wind acts on the free surface. 2. Experimental set-up, methodology and flow conditions The experimental facilities are sketched in Fig. 1. One of them is a perspex tank, 70 cm high and 95×95 cm2 cross section. The second facility is a tank (50 cm high, 50 cm wide, 2 m long) placed in a wind tunnel (40 cm high). In both of them, water was injected and evacuated by 2.9 mm nozzles located in the bottom, regularly spaced 5 cm each other. Water circulated in a closed circuit due to the action of a pump.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODE CONVERSION, COHERENT STRUCTURES AND TURBULENCE MSS-04 MOSCOW, NOV. 23-25, 2004

Fig 1.- EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES A 3D acoustic Doppler velocimeter (micro-ADV, made by Sontek) was used to measure the velocities in the bulk of the fluid. A hot wire probe was employed to compute the wind velocities. The experiments in the first facility were carried out for three flow depth (H): 22, 33 and 44 cm, and three jet velocities (Uj): 0,7, 1,2 and 1,7 m/s. The experiments in the tank coupled to the wind tunnel were performed for three wind conditions: no wind, and mean wind velocities (UV) equal to 4,8 and 11,8 m/s. A fully developed boundary layer in the tunnel exists upwind the water tank. From the wind velocity profiles, the frictional velocity on the free surface was computed u* = τ SL ρ , resulting 1,1 and 3 cm/s for the lowest and highest wind velocities, respectively. τSL is the shear stress acting on the free surface and ρ is the water density. τ SL = ρ a u*2a , where ρa is the air

(

)

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODE CONVERSION, COHERENT STRUCTURES AND TURBULENCE MSS-04 MOSCOW, NOV. 23-25, 2004

density and u*a is the shear velocity computed from the wind velocity profiles considering a logarithmic profile. 3. Experimental Results Mean velocities revealed a toroidal flow pattern, as shown in Fig. 2, having an upward motion in the center of the tank and downwards close to the walls. Analysis of the turbulent velocity intensities revealed the existence of a region with isotropic turbulence. In that region, the −2 turbulent kinetic energy behaves as k U 2 = 2.535(z l c ) , where lc is a j characteristic length given by l c = π D 2 , (D is the jet diameter). Fig. 3 shows the turbulence decay in terms of the characteristic velocity u k = 2k 3 . The isotropic region begins at a distance z0 from the bottom, and it is related to the flow conditions by z 0 s = 0.634 Re 0.154 , where s is the separation between jets, and Re = U j l c ν (ν is the kinematic viscosity). The relationship for z0 seems to be valid in both two experimental facilities. For the flow with no shear induced by wind on the water surface, the turbulent kinetic energy at z0 is given by k 0 U 2 = 0.056 Re −0.636 . If a wind shear is applied on the water j surface, the value of k0 is greater than the case without shear, but a relationship relating k0 with u* and Uj, has not been established yet. When shear acts on the free surface, kinetic turbulent energy is generated there, and k increases towards the free surface. The results for the case Uj = 70 cm/s and H = 49,5 cm is presented in Fig.4. In the figure, a dimensionless distance η = (z - z0)/(H - z0) was used. 4. Model Let consider a steady, uniform 2D flow, in which turbulence is generated at y = 0 and a shear stress τSL (in the x direction) is acting on the free surface located at y = H0. Assuming a constant eddy viscosity, the k-ε model [4] provides the following equation for the turbulent

**cµ 2 dU ν d 2k kinetic energy: 0 = T +ν T 2 dy − ν k . The x component σ k dy T
**

of momentum gives

2

dU dy = τ SL ( ρ (ν + ν k )) , and the boundary

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODE CONVERSION, COHERENT STRUCTURES AND TURBULENCE MSS-04 MOSCOW, NOV. 23-25, 2004

conditions are k = k0 at y = 0 and k = u*2

c µ at y = H0. Defining the

2 dimensionless variables: k + = k k 0 , η = y H 0 , A = u*4 H 0

2 B = k 0 H 02 ν T , α = σkA and β = cµσkB , and considering ν << νT, the

(

)

(

) (ν k ) ,

2 T 0

equation for k is reduced to:

d 2k + = βk + 2 − α . This equation can be dy 2

Fig. 2.- MEAN VELOCITY FLOW PATTERN

Fig. 3. TURBULENCE DECAY IN THE BULK OF THE FLUID. NO SHEAR ON THE FREE SURFACE.

transformed into the canonical form

the change of variables k+ = pζ , η = qx , with p 2 = 12α ( g 2 β ) and

d 2ζ 1 = 6ζ 2 − g 2 by means of 2 2 dχ

**q 4 = 3g 2 (αβ ) , whose solution is the Weierstrass elliptic function:
**

−2 ∞ 2 j −2 j=2

ζ = P (χ ) = ( χ − χ 1 ) + ∑ c j (χ − χ 1 )

. The coefficients cj are:

c 2 = g 2 20 ,

c3 = g 3 28 ,

cj =

3 (2 j +1)( j −3 )

m=2

∑c

j −2

m

c j −m ,

j ≥4.

Fig. 4. TURBULENCE DISTRIBUTION FOR A SHEARED FREE SURFACE

Fig. 5.- TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY DISTRIBUTION. MODEL AND MEASUREMENTS

It has to be noticed that if there is not shear on the free surface, then g2 = 0 and the solution is given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic function, obtaining k+ ~ η -2 if the series is truncated at the first term, as found in the experiments. The terms χ1 and g3 depend on the boundary conditions. The solution of equation for k+, for an arbitrary value of the eddy viscosity is shown as a solid curve in Fig. 5. Symbols correspond to data from experiments with u* = 1,1 cm/s and Uj = 0,7 m/s. 5. Conclusions The characteristics of a flow generated by jets located in the bottom of a tank filled with water were studied and some of the results obtained are: 1) A mean flow is induced in the tank, with a toroidal shape, having an upward motion in the center of the tank an downwards close to the walls. 2) An isotropic turbulence region exists in the bulk of the fluid, in which turbulence decays as k ~ z –2 when there is not shear stress applied on the water surface. If the surface is under shear, turbulence increases close to the free surface. 3) An analytical solution based on the k-ε model and assuming a constant eddy viscosity was obtained. This solution behaves according to the measured data, for both cases without and with shear acting on the water surface. 4) The analytical solution involves two parameters (A and B) that should be adjusted to the measured data in order to determine the eddy viscosity. Acknowledgment The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by Fondecyt -Chile, by means of the grant No. 1020822. References [1]. S.M. Thompson and J.S. Turner. J. Fluid Mech., 1975, Vol. 67, Part 2, pp.349-368. [2].E.J. Hopfinger and J.A. Tolly. J. Fluid Mech., 1976, Vol. 78, Part 1, pp.155-175. [3]. M. Grisenti and J. George. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a jet-agitated vessel. In Air-Water Mass Transfer, ASCE, 1991, p.94. [4]. W. Rodi. Turbulence Models and Their Applications in Hydraulics. IAHR Monographs, 1980.

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