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Example of Nursing Diagnosis or Nursing Problems


Activity intolerance- A person suffering from a physical or psychological inability to complete daily activities. The condition may be caused by weakness,
bed rest, immobility, inadequate oxygen supply or sedentary lifestyle. 

Anxiety- Is a psychological and physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Risk for aspiration-Aspiration pneumonia, a special type of pneumonia that may be seen in critical care units, is a major cause of morbidity and
mortality. Aspiration has been recorded in as many as 38% of critically ill, intubated patients receiving feeding through small-bore nasogastric tubes, despite maintenance of the integrity of cuffed tracheal tubes. Many of the risk factors leading to aspiration are present in critical care patients 

Disturbance body image-State
percei ves o ne¶s body

i n whi ch a person experi ences or i s at ri sk to exp eri ence a di srupti on i n the way he 

Risk for imbalance body temperature-The

state in whic h the individ ual is at risk for failing to ma inta in body temper ature

within n orma l range (36°C to 37.5°C or 98°F to 99.5°F) 

Bowel incontinence- Bowel incontinence is the loss of bowel control, leading to an involuntary passage of stool. This can range
from occasionally leaking a small amount of stool and passing gas, to completely losing control of bowel movements. 

Ineffective breathing Acute confusion Constipation- also known

as costiveness , dyschezia,



and dyssynergic defaecation



a symptom


of infrequent hard to pass


movements. Defecation may be painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) may lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. The term obstipation describes severe constipation which prevents passage of both stool and gas. Causes of constipation include dietary, hormonal, anatomical, as a side effect of medications (e.g., some opiates), and poisoning by heavy metals. Treatments may include changes in dietary habits, laxatives, and enemas. 

Ineffective coping Diarrhea - (from the Greek,

meaning "a flowing through" ), also spelt diarrhoea, is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel


movements per day. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deathsworldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 [4] [1] and over and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5. Oral rehydration salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to [1] have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years. 

Fatigue- medical aspects of tiredness in humans  Fear- is an emotional response to a perceived threat. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of
danger. Somepsychologists such as John B. Watson, Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested that fear is one of a small set of basic or innate emotions. This set also includes such emotions as joy, sadness, and anger. Fear should be distinguished from the related emotional state of anxiety, which typically occurs without any external threat. Additionally, fear is related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance, whereas anxiety is the result of threats which are [1] perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable. Worth noting is that fear almost always relates to future events, such as worsening of a situation, or continuation of a situation that is unacceptable. Fear could also be an instant reaction to something presently happening. 


is an elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation. Hyperthermia occurs when the body produces or absorbs

more heat than it can dissipate. When the elevated body temperatures are sufficiently high, hyperthermia is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment to prevent disability and death. 

Hypothermia(low grade fever)-

is a condition in which core temperature drops below that required for normalmetabolism and body functions

which is defined as 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5±37.5 °C (98±100 °F) through biologichomeostasis or thermoregulation. If exposed to cold and the internal mechanisms are unable to replenish the heat that is being lost, a drop in core temperature occurs. As body temperature decreases characteristic symptoms occur such as shivering and mental confusion. 

Hopelessness- is the loss of hope  Urinary incontinence- is any involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life.
Urinary incontinence almost always results from an underlying treatable medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There is also a related condition for defecation known as fecal incontinence. 

Risk infection- is a nursing diagnosis which is defined as "the state in which an individual is at risk to be invaded by an opportunistic orpathogenic agent
(virus, fungus, bacteria, protozoa, or other parasite) from endogenous or exogenous sources" and was approved byNANDA in 1986. Although anyone can become infected by a pathogen, patients with this diagnosis are at an elevated risk and extra infection controls should be considered.

Risk for loneliness- is a feeling in which people experience a strong sense of emptiness and solitude. Loneliness is often compared to feeling empty,
unwanted, and unimportant. Someone who is lonely may find it hard to form strong interpersonal relationships. 

Impaired memory- Memory loss can be partial or total and it is normal when it comes with aging. Sudden memory loss is usually a result of brain
trauma and it may be permanent or temporary. When it is caused by medical conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, the memory loss is gradual and tends to be permanent. Otherwise the condition is temporary and only affects memories relating to a portion of one's experience.Nausea - (Latin nausea, from Greek , nausi , "seasickness" "wamble" ), is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an urge to vomit. An attack of nausea is known as a qualm.The most common cause is gastroenteritis (a stomach infection) or food poisoning but nausea also frequently occurs as a medication side effect and in pregnancy. A number of medications exist that improve symptoms including: dimenhydrinate, metoclopramide, and ondansetron.
[1] [2] 

Acute pain- pain that resolves quickly.  Chronic pain- has several different meanings

in medicine. Traditionally, the distinction betweenacute and chronic pain has relied upon an arbitrary interval of time from onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since the initiation

of pain, [1] though some theorists and researchers have placed the transition from acute to chronic pain at 12 months.[2] Others apply acute to pain that lasts less than 30 days, chronic to pain of more than six months duration, and subacute to pain that lasts from one to six months.[3] A popular alternative definition of chronic pain, involving no arbitrarily fixed durations is "pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing."[1]

Impaired swallowing- Difficulty with swallowing is the sensation that food is stuck in the throat, or from the neck down to just above the abdomen behind
the breastbone (sternum). 

ocial isolation- is the pervasive withdrawal or avoidance of social contact or communication. It can contribute toward, or be the result of, many emotional, behavioural and physical disorders including anxiety, panic attacks, eating disorders, addictions, substance abuse, violenceand overall disease.
inherently unpredictable act) is a legal construct in a clinical guise, which can be used to justify rationing of emergency psychiatric resources or intrusion into patients' civil liberties.[1] Accurate and legally defensible risk assessment requires that a clinician integrates clinical judgement with the latest evidence-based practice,[2] although accurate prediction of low base rate events such as suicide is inherently difficult and prone to false positives. There are risks and disadvantages to both over-estimation and under-estimation of suicide risk. Over-sensitivity to risk can have undesirable consequences, including inappropriate deprivation of patients¶ rights and squandering of scarce clinical resources. On the other hand, underestimating suicidality as a result of a dismissive attitude or lack of clinical skill jeopardizes patient safety and risks clinician liability.[3] 

Risk for suicide- Suicide risk assessment is ethically complex: the concept of "imminent suicide" (implying the foreseeability of an 

Disturbed sleep pattern-

Anatomy- (from the Greek

is the consideration of thestructure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). In some of its facets anatomy is closely related toembryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots inevolution.
[1] [1]

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye.
[1] [1]

structures assisted withmicroscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology(the study of cells).

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI imaging. Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs. 

Father of modern psychology- German physician Wilhelm Wundt is known as the "father of experimental psychology,"[5]because he founded the
first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University in 1879. Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, starting a school of psychology that is called structuralism. Edward Titchener was another major structuralist thinker. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher and [6] psychologist William James. In his seminal book, Principles of Psychology, published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.


anatomia, from

ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open.) is a branch of biology and medicine that

Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical