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4.3.

5 Discussion of the Bond Method


4.3.5 discusión del Método de Bond
Limitations of the Bond Method
Limitaciones del Método Bond
Austin and Brame (1983) and Herbs and
Fuerstenau (1980) have reviewed the Austin y Brame (1983) y Herbs y
limitations of the Bond test. Perhaps the Fuerstenau (1980) han revisado las
most serious in a fundamental sense is limitaciones del test de Bond. Quizás el más
Bond’s claim that equation 4.2 is a serio en un sentido fundamental es la
“universal law”, whereas it is known that llamada Bond que la ecuación 4.2 es una
the specific grinding energy needed to take “ley universal”, considerando que se conoce
a feed with a certain 80% passing size to a la energía específica de molienda necesaria
product with a certain 80% passing size para tomar un alimento con un cierto 80%
cannot be the same for a batch test, the tamaño pasante a un producto con un
standard Bond locked-cycle test, or a cierto 80% tamaño pasante no puede ser el
steady-state continuous mill with a real mismo para una prueba batch, la prueba
residence time distribution. The method estandar de ciclo cerrado de Bond, o un
ignores the fact that the shape of the molino en estado –estable continuo con
product size distribution and the associated una distribución de tiempo de residencia
specific grinding energy is different for real. El método ignora el hecho que la
these three cases. forma de distribución de tamaño del
producto y la energía específica de
Criticism of Bond’s method as a “model” is molienda asociada es diferente para estos
not really warranted since it is not intended tres casos.
to be a model in any comprehensive sense.
Its real value is as a method of Críticos del método de Bond como un
distinguishing the grindability of different “modelo” realmente no garantiza desde
ores in design (though better test may be que no se piensa que es un modelo en
available), and as a yardstick to check the cualquier sentido comprensivo. Su valor
energy utilization of current operations. real es como un método de distinguir la
Experience in its use has demonstrated the moliendabilidad de minerales diferentes en
following limitations: el diseño (aunque la mejor prueba puede
estar disponible), y como una vara de
 It tends to be a poor predictor of what medir para verificar la utilización de energía
happens in a real closed circuit when de operaciones actuales.
throughput is increased, unless Experiencia en su uso ha demostrado las
classifier performance is “adjusted” to siguientes limitaciones:
cope with the new conditions.
 As implied earlier, it is not appropriate  Tiende a ser una pobre predicción de lo
in system where size distribution slopes que pasa en un circuito cerrado real
change. cuando el rendimiento se incrementa, a
menos que la operación del clasificador
 It is not a good predictor of the es “ajustado” para cubrir con las
grinding of large rocks, and specifically nuevas condiciones.
for AG/SAG mill behavior (though it has
been adapted to such circumstances -  Como implicado antes, no es apropiado
see below). en un sistema dónde hay cambios en
las pendientes de distribución de
tamaños.

 No es un buen predictor de la molienda


de rocas grandes, y específicamente
para el comportamiento en la molienda
AG/SAG (aunque se ha adaptado a
tales circunstancias - ver debajo).
 It is unreliable for particles with
unusual screening characteristics (i.e.
of unusual shape), though this is a  Es inestable para las partículas con las
general problem for any technique características de tamizado inusual (es
relying on sieving for the determination decir de forma inusual), aunque éste es
of particle size. un problema general para cualquier
técnica que confía en tamizar para la
 The square root relationship determinación del tamaño de
assumed in equation 4,2 (arising from partículas.
Bond’s assumption that work is
proportional to new crack tip length)  La relación de la raíz cuadrada asumida
does not always hold. See also Figure en la ecuación 4,2 (proviene de la
2.1. asunción de Bond que el trabajo es
proporcional a la nueva longitud de
There is also a perception that Bond’s rotura punta de crujido) no siempre
method failed to predict the performance of sostenga. También Vea Figura 2.1.
the very large ball mills introduced in the
early 1970s, though this was probably more Hay también una percepción que el método
to do with the early learning curve de Bond no predijo la acciòn de los molinos
associated with operating these mills and de bolas muy grandes introducida en los
their associated classification process. tempranos 1970s, aunque éste era
Certainly there was never a dedicated Bond probablemente más hacer con la curva de
test for the Ag and SAG mills now in aprendizaje temprana asociado con operar
common use. estos molinos y su proceso de la
clasificación asociado. Había nunca una
Other problems and inconveniences of the prueba de Bond ciertamente especializada
Bond standard procedure include the need para los molinos AG y SAG ahora en uso
to use a Bond mill (which may not be comun.
readily available), the requirement of about
10 kilograms of feed sample, which needs Otros problemas y inconvenientes de la
special preparation, and the fact that Atadura el procedimiento estándar de Bond
conducting the test is time consuming. A incluye la necesidad de usar un molino de
number of attempts have been made in the Bolas (qué no puede estar prontamente
past to determine the Bond Work index by disponible), el requisito de
means of simplified procedures (Yap et al aproximadamente 10 kilogramos de
1982). muestra del alimento que necesita la
preparación especial y el hecho que
dirigiendo la prueba es el tiempo
Empirical methods which allow for a direct consumiendo. Varios esfuerzos han sido
calculation of the work index using a hecho en el pasado determinar el índice de
straight forward procedure are often more Trabajo de Atadura por medio de los
practical and better suited for plant procedimientos simplificados (Ladre el et al
application. For example the Anaconda 1982).
simplified method (Yap et al 1982) which
uses an ordinary laboratory mill and only 2 Métodos empíricos que permiten un cálculo
kilograms of sample, is not time consuming directo del índice de trabajo que usa un
and has proven to be very practical and procedimiento delantero recto son a
flexible in a number of different menudo más prácticos y buenos satisfecho
applications. However, the full Bond test para la aplicación de la planta. Por ejemplo
gives the maximum confidence in el Anaconda simplificó el método (Ladre el
prediction. et al 1982) qué usa un molino del
laboratorio ordinario y sólo 2 kilogramos de
muestra, no es tiempo que consume y ha
demostrado ser muy práctico y flexible en
varios aplicaciones diferentes. El embargo
del pecado, prueba del la del la la Atadura
llena da la confianza máxima en la
predicción.

The Bond method attempts to partially


compensate for idealizations in the test The Bond method attempts to partially
procedure and shortcomings of the model compensate for idealizations in the test
by making use of correlations between procedure and shortcomings of the model
grindability test result obtained in a by making use of correlations between
“standard” 2,44 m diameter milling circuit. grindability test result obtained in a
Complete compensation is not possible “standard” 2,44 m diameter milling circuit.
because this procedure cannot, for Complete compensation is not possible
instance, take into account inevitable because this procedure cannot, for
deviations in transport and classification instance, take into account inevitable
characteristics of the commercial circuit deviations in transport and classification
from those of the “standard” circuit. characteristics of the commercial circuit
from those of the “standard” circuit.
Since the method does not incorporate the
above – order effects, it cannot be used as Since the method does not incorporate the
a guide to optimize a given system, from above – order effects, it cannot be used as
either the operating point of view or the a guide to optimize a given system, from
economic point of view. Its is valid only as either the operating point of view or the
a gross method for mills operating under economic point of view. Its is valid only as
normal closed circuit conditions. a gross method for mills operating under
normal closed circuit conditions.
In spite of these limitations, the Bond
method has two main advantages: it is very In spite of these limitations, the Bond
simple, and experience has shown that it method has two main advantages: it is very
works for many circumstances to a simple, and experience has shown that it
reasonable degree of accuracy, since the works for many circumstances to a
corrections are based on a large industrial reasonable degree of accuracy, since the
database. corrections are based on a large industrial
database.
The operating Bond Work Index
Work indices obtained from operating data The operating Bond Work Index
on any mill can be compared to grindability Work indices obtained from operating data
test results. The operating work index, on any mill can be compared to grindability
WIo, can be obtained using equation 4.2, test results. The operating work index,
by defining W as the specific energy being WIo, can be obtained using equation 4.2,
used (power draw + new federate), F80 by defining W as the specific energy being
and P80 as the actual feed and product used (power draw + new federate), F80
80% passing sizes, and WI as the operating and P80 as the actual feed and product
work index, WIo. Once corrected for the 80% passing sizes, and WI as the operating
particular application and equipment – work index, WIo. Once corrected for the
related factors, WIoC, can be compared on particular application and equipment –
the same basis as grindability test result. related factors, WIoC, can be compared on
This allows a direct comparison of grinding the same basis as grindability test result.
efficiency. Ideally WI should be equal to This allows a direct comparison of grinding
WIoC and grinding efficiency should be efficiency. Ideally WI should be equal to
unity. Power draw is determined using WIoC and grinding efficiency should be
equation 4.7, assuming grinding efficiency unity. Power draw is determined using
is unity. equation 4.7, assuming grinding efficiency
is unity.
Application of Bond Theory to Autogenous
Mills. Application of Bond Theory to Autogenous
For the case of autogenous and semi Mills.
autogenous milling it has been determined For the case of autogenous and semi
that the work indices obtained from autogenous milling it has been determined
standard Bond grindability tests cannot be that the work indices obtained from
used (Section 9,6). It is necessary, standard Bond grindability tests cannot be
therefore, to calculate a Work index from used (Section 9,6). It is necessary,
operating data(e.g. from a pilot plant) so therefore, to calculate a Work index from
that power draw and mill sizing can be operating data(e.g. from a pilot plant) so
calculated . In some cases the feed is not that power draw and mill sizing can be
used in the calculation as the factor calculated . In some cases the feed is not
10/√F80 becomes insignificant because of used in the calculation as the factor
the large size of the ROM feed. For open 10/√F80 becomes insignificant because of
circuit AG/SAG mills, the discharge can be the large size of the ROM feed. For open
hypothetically classified at the desired circuit AG/SAG mills, the discharge can be
closing screen size to provide a more hypothetically classified at the desired
realistic P80 value for the work index closing screen size to provide a more
calculation. realistic P80 value for the work index
calculation.
Macpherson has developed a test
procedure for the design of AG/SAG mill Macpherson has developed a test
circuits. It includes the conduct of standard procedure for the design of AG/SAG mill
Bond rod mill and ball mill grindability test, circuits. It includes the conduct of standard
together with a dry autogenous test in a 45 Bond rod mill and ball mill grindability test,
cm air – swept Aerofall mill. A 250 kg together with a dry autogenous test in a 45
sample of -3.175 mm ores is required. The cm air – swept Aerofall mill. A 250 kg
autogenous test is used to compute an sample of -3.175 mm ores is required. The
autogenous work index, which is then autogenous test is used to compute an
corrected for a full scale installation using autogenous work index, which is then
empirical scaling procedures (based on corrected for a full scale installation using
historical data) and by comparison with the empirical scaling procedures (based on
rod and ball mill WIs. The autogenous WI historical data) and by comparison with the
and the other data are then used to rod and ball mill WIs. The autogenous WI
determine AG/SAG milling suitability, power and the other data are then used to
requirement and circuit configuration. determine AG/SAG milling suitability, power
Further details can be found in Knight et al requirement and circuit configuration.
(1989). Further details can be found in Knight et al
(1989).
Using the Bond Work Index in a Process
Model Using the Bond Work Index in a Process
Although Bond chose to use the results of Model
his laboratory ball mill test to determine an Although Bond chose to use the results of
operating work index, much more his laboratory ball mill test to determine an
information about grinding of an ore can in operating work index, much more
principle be extracted. His test is a physical information about grinding of an ore can in
model which approximates a closed circuit principle be extracted. His test is a physical
ball mill, and so product sizing and model which approximates a closed circuit
flowrates of each stream can be obtained ball mill, and so product sizing and
from it. Research currently underway at the flowrates of each stream can be obtained
JKMRC is testing the use of these data to from it. Research currently underway at the
determine the relevant parameters for a JKMRC is testing the use of these data to
ball mill model. The model is then used to determine the relevant parameters for a
predict the performance of a full scale ball ball mill model. The model is then used to
mill. This approach has the advantage of predict the performance of a full scale ball
simultaneously generating a Bond ball mill mill. This approach has the advantage of
work index and set of model parameters, simultaneously generating a Bond ball mill
which can be used in a complementary work index and set of model parameters,
fashion in design and optimization. which can be used in a complementary
fashion in design and optimization.