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2.

One of the hnctions of the pis~entais to facilitate e x c h m y of foetai and


rnaternal blood.

3. The average 1en@


- of pregmmcy
- is 250 clays after fmtilization of the ovum

4. The size of foetus may be affected by heavy smokinp?on the part.of L l e


mother as well a.s maternal nutrition.

5. Cyanosis is associated with trachea-oesopha~edfistula.

6 . The neonatal period extends up to Uie firsl 28 days after birtii.

7. contrast to mitosis, the first meintic division is charactorizsd pairing of


homologous chromosomes.

9. Prior to fertilizing
- an egq.
- - a sperm must undergo
- capacitarion acrosornai
reaction.

10. Stem villi consists of spiral aiierios and rmaundirtg endometrial cstls.

11. Lhring the beginning of the '2nd week of development, there is only one
germ layer present.

12. The respiratory diverticulum begins as an outgrowth of ifie embryor~ic


foregut.

12. The smooth-walled portion of ttie right atrium is derived from sinus venosus

14. During the early stages of development, the age of the embryo may be
estimated by the number of sornites.

15. A tertiarv villus contains blood vessels.

16. The size of the foetus may be affected by maternal diabetes.


17. Prior to fertilization a sperm has tn penetrate the corona rrtdiata m d znna
pdhcidrt

25. Ectopic pre,qancies


- occur most frequentlv iri the uterii~etube.

27. The primary stern villi contain syncytiotrophsbfast

29. Eciopic PI-emanciesusually occur- iri the n~esentery

30. The supra-snal cartes is derived froin neural crest ectc~demi.

32. The embryonic period is from ccmception to f ~ lterrr~


l

33. Meiosis ailows for the eschange of material between lioindi.)wus


chroritosoines duriri~Gir: I st rrleic~ii~
division.

33. As a result of fertilization the sex of the emhvo is detennincd.


(17)T (18)F (19)F (20)T (21)T f32)T (23)F (24)F (25)'I'
(26)T (27)~ (28)T (29)~ (30)~ (31)F (32)F ( 3 3 j ~ (34)T
-
1he embmonic period is the smie as tile period of foatai Jeveioynwnt. )

\\

- is associated with infimdibulw sknosis


Fallot's tetra!~pj

Zt~annes
- in h e fi.etai circuiation are due to:
Closure of the furaniun w a l e
Closure of the ductus arteriosus

hereased p r s w r e ir: the left atrium is h e to closure of the ductus


arteriosus.

A phmngeai pouch is curnnlonet-on the iefi


1 . 1
I S . Failul-e ol'iieveiopment LIT iile illesi~lif:p;u-ic:
c ~ u t !u : ~i:tiit: siclt: itlads tiz
formatian ~f a hornitrigonc.

16. The m k c arches csmect th:: conw tn !.he nuortic sac.

47. The canus cordis joins the bulhis cordis tn the aortic arches.

4 . Fhanin~eal
- - pouches are associaied with h e superior constr-ictor inuscie in
the region of Passavants ridge.

49. Interatial septa1 defect is associated with condilction abnm-malit ies of the
heart.
. .
50. In spematilgenesis, cl!v!sitm of a!! spem-a!wy?es yields a spem-a!id.

5 1 . In the mandible. an obtuse an& is present at birth.

52. The tip of the tongue in the newbo1-n is reasonably well developed.

(35)F (36)F (37)F (38)T (39jT (40)F (41)T (42jT (43)T


(44)T ( 4 5 ) ~ (46)F ( 4 7 ) ~ ( 4 8 ) ~ (49)T ( 5 0 ) ~ (51)~ (52)~
The development of the kidney begins at the 20th day of interuterine life.

Harr bodies are inactivated X-cfu-ornossrnes*andmay be fnund as early a?


the blastocyst. stage.
-I he proneplu-ous develop fi-om d ~ t intern~eciiatt:
: ceii mass.

Xiesodeirri causes diEarentiatim ctf enddemi: this is callad primary.


inductive development.

l'he lizmentunt
- wteriosurn i~ a remnant ~3fthe prox.,irnaipart of t!x Grh
aixtic wch.

Spiiitin~of tile iaterai piate niescxiern~hnris scsnlites.

Culbis cardis ciintrib~itesto the forination of the left vsrrtricle.

Exchw,ge
- of genetic
- mater:a! :':a C ~ O S S O V ~ :O C ~ U t?eWeen
~ S ~:ater-r:a!anc!
patema! C ~ ~ O I T I O S O&er
~ ~ Sfrtr?i!izstien.

Meiosis decreases die armuiit o i l3'iL;A a11dnumber of chromosonm bv half


in the dauhtei- ceii.

T e r t i q stem villi c~ritainblood cells md vessels formed fiom embryonic


mesoderm.

'The foetal period extends fiom the ninth week to term.

- may ir~voivesphttirlg
Twinning - of tile inner cell mass.

During tile h u ~ i i week


l , iht: 'oanitx between niaternal filehi circuiaticti~is
made up ~7fsyn~yiiurn;~ j & ~ t i . h a ~ h c ~ bcmmactive
last~ tissiie and eridc7thelium.

Somites consist of segmental


- bloclcs of cells derived fiom pmixiz!
mesoderm.

Derivatives of ectuderrri in&& the skin.

The mesodenrmi g e m layer is derived by tile nrigralion of tile mdixienriai


cell around the ncitochc~rd.
During the stages of early de\re!oprnmt the C-R leng!! and the number of
- of tho embryo.
somites are used to determine the age

The bilaminar germ disc gives rise to the embryo proper.

Primary stem villi consist of spiral artarias and surrounding endometrial


tissue.

The foetal period extends from the 4th-8th week.

After 3-4 divisions of the inner cell mass, the cell has an appearance of a
mulberrv.

Normal chromosomal allocation for the spam is 42 autosomes and one sex
chromosomes.

The most common e,mmpie of ectopic pregnancy is the abdominal cavity.

The cytotrophobiast is that part of the blastocyst which forms the embryo.

Mitosis reduces the chromosome number by half.

The ovum is released at owlation.

The neonatal period is 7 days after birth

Sperms become mature celk by spermiogenesis.

The purpose of meiosis is to reduce the number of chrornosornus and the


amount of DNA by a half and to provide for extlhange of genetic material
between homologous chromosomes.

The primordial germ cells migrate from the primitive yolk sac in the third
week; they differentiate into gonads
- by the end of the fifth week.

The primary viili have cvtotrophoblastic cores surrounded bv syncitium.

The 16-cell stage of the embryo is called the rnorula.


Riibslla causes dearness during the 9th week of development.

h the 4-8 week (organogenesis period), the foetus is most susceptible tn


tetratogenic factors.

Thalidomide is a known human tetratogen.

The musculature of the body wall is derived fism intermediate mesoderm.

The centml nervous q & e m is derived from mesoderm.

The most cirm-on form of twinning,- occurs in the sp!itting of the inner ce!!
mass to produce identical twins.

The corpus luteurn lasts for 2 weeks in pramant women and regresses soon
after.
(S6)T (S7)T fSS)T (89)F (90)T (91)F (Y2)F (93)

RADIOLOGY A h D MISCEILANOUS
Chest X-ray Is done in an anterior posterior direction n~~rmall\i.

Cholangiopiaphy
- - is the method of studying the gall bladder.

The body s f a vertebra is the same as its centrum.

,4 barium ~ v a l l o wmay be used to detect a left atrial enlargement.

Iodine is more radio opaque than barium.

Iodine is more radio opaque than bone.

The transverse process sf a typical vertebrae is attached to the body of the


vertebra.

The first cewical vertebrae is known as the atlas.

The total number of cervical vertebrae is 3 .

The body of the vertebra is derived from the centrum only.


2 . The muscles of masticatioti are supplid by the mar~dibulxdcfivision of the
bigerninal nen7e.

125. 'l'he epithelium ot the iarynx above the voacl cords is supplied by the
recurrent larynaryngeal
nerve.

i 28. The buwinatilr nwscie is supplied bv abrsnch iif the facial nerve.

3 0 . The nasolacrimal die: empties into the lacrimal sac.

'!'he !h%~oiCf gland:


a ) develops as a duwnaowth - of ectodenn fiorn the epithelium of the t o n y e
b j has an i s t h u s in fi-ont of tilt: 2nd. 3rd and 4th tracheal rings
C) txte~itlsas far uywai-dsas the upper border id' Lfie lsrniila of the thy-oid
cartilage
tfl! is mteriix ti; the mtcrior jugular veins