You are on page 1of 5

CHEM 16 2

nd
Long Exam Reviewer (Prepared by OZONE: J.D. Mapas, M.P. Malgapo, J.V. Obligacion)
1


I. Chemical Bonding, Molecular Geometry and
Bonding Theories

1. Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular
geometry of a.) O3, b.) SnCl3
-
, c.) COCl2, d.) SF4, e.) IF5, f.)
ClF3, g.) ICl4
-
. Determine if the molecule is polar, non-
polar or ionic.

2. Predict the H-C-H and C-C-C bond angles in propyne:
C C C H
H
H
H


3. Predict the H-O-C and O-C-C bond angles in vinyl
alcohol:
C C C H O H
H
H H
H


4. Calculate the number of unpaired electrons and thebond
order for the following molecules
a.) Li2, b.) N2, c.) O2, d.) O2
+
, e.) NO

5. What is the hybridization of
a.) Be in BeCl2, b.) C in formaldehyde (H2CO), c.) BF3, d.)
NH3, e.) PF5, f.) SF6, g.) C in H2C=CH2, h.) C in HC≡CH

6. How many a.) σ, and b.) π bonds are there in this
molecule?

C C C C
H
H
H
C C C O H
H
H
H
H
H
H


7. Draw the resonance structures for the carbonate anion.

II. Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

1. Given:
cice = 2.03 J/g•K
cwater = 4.18 J/g•K
cstean = 1.84 J/g•K
ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol
ΔHvap = 40.67 kJ/mol

a.) Calculate the enthalpy change upon converting 18.00
grams of ice to water vapor (steam) at 125
o
C under a
constant pressure of 1 atm.

b.) Calculate the enthalpy change during the process in
which 100.0 g of water at 50.0
o
C is cooled to ice at -
30.0
o
C?

2. Identify A, B, and C

A B C
1. Have definite
shape (resist
deformation)
2. Are nearly
incompressible
3. Usually have
higher density
than B
4. Are not fluid
5. Diffuse only
very slowly
6. Have an
ordered
arrangement of
particles that are
very close
together; particles
usually have only
vibrational
motion
1. Have no
definite shape
(assume shapes
of containers)
2. Have definite
volume (are only
very slightly
compressible
3. Have high
density
4. Are fluid
5. Diffuse at a
rate between A
and C
6. Consist of
disordered
clusters of
particles that are
quite close
together; particles
have random
motion in three
dimensions
1. Have no
definite shape (fill
containers
completely)
2. Are
compressible
3. Have low
density
4. Are fluid
5. Diffuse rapidly
6. Consist of
extremely
disordered
particles with
much empty
space between
them; particles
have rapid,
random motion
in three
dimensions

3. In which of the following molecules is H-bonding
possible? A.) CH4, B.) H2N-NH2, C.) CH3F, D.) H2S, E.)
HF

4. Arrange the following according to increasing boiling
point: BaCl2, CO, H2, HF, HCl, KCl, Ne

5. Identify the following properties of liquids:

a.) The resistance to flow of a liquid; decreases with
increasing temperature
b.) The result of inward intermolecular forces of attraction
among liquid particles that must be overcome to expand
the surface area
c.) All forces holding a liquid together
d.) The forces of attraction between a liquid and another
surface
CHEM 16 2
nd
Long Exam Reviewer (Prepared by OZONE: J.D. Mapas, M.P. Malgapo, J.V. Obligacion)
2

e.) The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore
tube when the adhesive forces exceed the cohesive forces,
or the depression of the surface of the liquid when the
cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces
f.) The pressure of vapor in equilibrium with a liquid at a
given temperature.

6. Identify the process described in the following diagram:
GAS
LIQUID
SOLID
1 2
3 4
5 6
Energy

7. Identify the IMFA described in the diagram

are i ons invol ved?
YES NO
are polar
molecules and
ions both
present?
are polar
molecules
involved?
are hydrogen
atoms bonded to
N, O or F atoms?
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
A
B
C
D
E
ex: KBr i n H
2
O
ex: NaCl , NH
4
NO
3
ex: Ar(l ), I
2
(s)
ex: H
2
O(l), NH
3
(l ), HF(l) ex: H
2
S, CH
3
Cl


8. Given the phase diagram below. a.) If A, B, and C are
phases of matter, identify A, B and C; b.) Is the phase
diagram that of CO2 or that of H2O? c.) Using your answer
in b, determine the values (in
o
C) of D and E; d.) Which
state has a highest density, the solid, liquid, or gaseous
state? e.) What does point F represent in the diagram?, f.)
Point G is called the _______ of the compound.


9. Identify A, B, C, and D

Characteristics of Types of Solids
Type of
solid
A B C D
Particles of
unit cell


Strongest
interparticle
forces




Properties









Examples
Metal ion in
“electron
cloud”

Metallic
bonds;
attraction
between
cations and
e
-
s

Soft to very
hard; good
thermal and
electrical
conductors;
wide range
of melting
points (-39
to 3400
o
C)

Li, K, Ca,
Cu, Cr, Ni
(metals)


Anions,
cations


Electrostatic






Hard, brittle;
poor thermal
and electrical
conductors;
high melting
points (400
to 3000
o
C)



NaCl, CaBr2,
K2SO4
(typical salts)
Molecules
(or atoms)


Dispersion,
dipole-
dipole,
and/or
hydrogen
bonds

Soft; poor
thermal and
electrical
conductors;
low melting
points (-272
to 400
o
C)



CH4
(methane),
P4, O2, Ar,
CO2, H2O,
S8
Atoms



Covalent
bonds





Very hard;
poor thermal
and electrical
conductors;*
high melting
points (1200
to 4000
o
C)



C (diamond),
C (graphite),
SiO2 (quartz)
* Exceptions: Diamond is a good conductor of heat; graphite is soft and
conducts electricity well

10. An element crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice.
The edge of the unit cell is 2.86 Å, and the density of the
crystal is 7.92 g/cm
3
. Calculate the atomic weight of the
element.

11. Given the band diagrams a-d. Identify a,b,c, and d.

CHEM 16 2
nd
Long Exam Reviewer (Prepared by OZONE: J.D. Mapas, M.P. Malgapo, J.V. Obligacion)
3



III. Gases

Potentially useful conversions: 1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 760 Torr
= 760 mm Hg; 10
5
Pa = 1 bar

1. A volume of carbon dioxide gas equal to 20.0 L was
collected at 23
o
C and 1.00 atm pressure. What would be
the volume of carbon dioxide if it were collected at 23
o
C
and 0.830 atm?

2. The volume of oxygen gas at 1.00 atm and 21
o
C is 785
mL. What would be the volume of oxygen at 28
o
C? (3
points)

3. What is the pressure in a 50.0-L tank that contains 3.03
kg of oxygen, O2, at 23
o
C?

4. What is the density of oxygen, O2, in grams per liter at
25
o
C and 0.850 atm?

5. A 10.0-L flask contains 1.031 g O2 and 0.572 g CO2
18
o
C. What are the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon
dioxide? What is the total pressure?

6. If it takes 4.67 times as long for a particular gas to effuse
as it takes hydrogen, H2, under the same conditions, what
is the molecular weight of the gas?

7. Which equation is represented by the illustration below?

A.) A2(g) + B2(g) → 2 AB(g)
B.) A (g) + B2(g) → AB2(g)
C.)2 AB(g) + B2(g) → 2 AB2(g)
D.) 2 AB2(g) → A2(g) +2 B2(g)

7. A 34.0 L cylinder contains 305 g O2 (32 g/mol) at 22
o
C.
How many grams of O2 must be released to reduce the
pressure to 1.15 atm?

8. A 355-mL container holds 0.146 g Ne (20.2 g/mol) and
an unknown amount of Ar (39.9 g/mol) at 35
o
C and a
total pressure of 626 mm Hg. Calculate the grams of Ar
present.

IV. Solutions

1. Concentrated HCl is about 12.1 M. What volume of
concentrated HCl is required to produce 5500 mL of 0.250
M?

2. Calculate the molarity of a 20.0% by mass (NH4)2SO4
solution. The density of the solution is 1.117 g/mL.

3. A solution is 0.120 m methanol (32 g/mol) dissolved in
ethanol (46 g/mol). Calculate the mole fractions of
methanol, CH3OH, and ethanol, CH3CH2OH, in the
solution.

4. An aqueous solution is 2.00 M urea. The density of he
solution is 1.029 g/mL. What is the molal concentration of
urea in the solution?

5. Sucrose is a non-volatile, non-ionizing solute in water.
Determine the vapor pressure lowering at 27
o
C of a
solution of 75.0 g of sucrose, C12H22O11 (342 g/mol),
dissolved in 180g of water. The vapor pressure of pure
water at 27
o
C is 26.7 Torr. Assume that the solution is
ideal.

6. A solution consists of 0.450 mole of pentane, C5H12,
and 0.250 mole of cyclopentane, C5H10. What is the vapor
pressure of pentane and of cyclopentane in this solution at
25
o
C? What is the composition of the vapor? The vapor
pressure of the pure liquids at 25
o
C are 451 Torr and 321
Torr for pentane and cyclopentane respectively.

7. From the figure below, it can be inferred that ___ is the
temperature that corresponds to the boiling point of the
pure solvent, while ___ corresponds to the freezing point
of the solution.
CHEM 16 2
nd
Long Exam Reviewer (Prepared by OZONE: J.D. Mapas, M.P. Malgapo, J.V. Obligacion)
4















8. A 0.1000 m aqueous solution of a weak acid HA is 1.5%
ionized. At what temperature does it freeze?

9. An aqueous solution is 0.022 m glucose. What is the
boiling point and the freezing point of this solution? For
water: Kb = 0.512
o
C/m; Kf = 1.86
o
C/m

10. A 0.0140-g sample of an ionic compound with the
formula Cr(NH3)5Cl3 (an ionic compound which gives 3
ions) was dissolved in water to give 25.0 mL of solution at
25
o
C. Calculate the osmotic pressure of the solution.























































CHEM 16 2
nd
Long Exam Reviewer (Prepared by OZONE: J.D. Mapas, M.P. Malgapo, J.V. Obligacion)
5


Answer Key:

I. Chemical Bonding, Molecular Geometry and
Bonding Theories

1. a.) bent, non-polar, b.) trigonal pyramidal, ionic c.)
trigonal planar, polar, d.) seesaw shaped, polar e.) square
pyramidal, polar f.) T-shaped, polar g.) square planar, ionic

2. 109.5
o
, 180
o

3. slightly less than 109.5
o
, slightly greater than 120
o

4. a.) 0, 0, b.) 0, 3, c.) 2, 2, d.) 1, 2.5, e.) 1, 2,5

5. a.) sp, b.) sp
2
, c.) sp
2
, d.) sp
3
, e.) sp
3
d, f.) sp
3
d
2
, g.) sp
2
, h.)
sp

6. a.) 17, b.) 3

7.)


II. Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

1. a.) 56.0 kJ, b.) -60.4 kJ

2. A: solid, B: liquid, C: gas
3. B and E

4. Boiling point: H2 < Ne < CO < HCl < HF < KCl <
BaCl2

5. a.) viscosity, b.) surface tension, c.) cohesive forces, d.)
adhesive forces, e.) capillary action, f.) vapor pressure

6. 1: Vaporization, 2: Condensation, 3: Melting/ Fusion 4:
Solidification/ Freezing, 5: Sublimation, 6: Deposition

7. A: Ion-Dipole forces, B: Ionic bonding, C: Hydrogen-
bonding, D: Dipole-Dipole forces, E: London dispersion
forces

8. a.) A: Liquid, B: Solid, C: Gas, b.) H2O; c.) D: 0
o
C, E:
100
o
C; d.) liquid state, e.) F represents the boiling point of
water at 3 atm pressure, f.) critical point.



9.) A: Metallic, B: Ionic, C: Molecular, D: Covalent

10.)




11.) The relative energies of occupied and empty bands
in (a) an insulator, (b) a metal in which the lower band is
only partially occupied, (c) a metal in which the occupied
and empty bands overlap, and (d) a semiconductor.

III. Gases

1. 24.096 L
2. 803.7 mL
3. 46.022 atm
4. 1.1117 g/L
5. PO2 = 0.07693 atm, PCO2 = 0.0311 atm; PT = 0.1080 atm
6. 43.6178 g/mol
7. B; using Amonton’s Law: P1V1/n1T1= P2V2/n2T2, we
get A.) V2 = 2 V1, B.) V1 = V2, C.) 4V1 = 3V2, and D.) V1
= V2/3. Only equation B satisfies the constant volume
restriction in the given
8. 253.3 g of O2 must be released
9. 0.173 g Ar

IV. Solutions

1. 113.64 mL of 12.1 M HCl
2. 1.692 M
3. Xmethanol = 0.005489, Xethanol = 0.9945
4. 2.20 m
5. Psolution = 26.13 Torr; vapor pressure lowering = 0.572
6. PTotal = 404.57 Torr; Ypentane = 0.716, Ycyclopentane = 0.283
7. C, A
8. -0.1888
o
C
9. Tb,solution = 100.0113
o
C, Tf,solution = -0.04092
o
C
10. 0.1689 atm
( )
mole
g
8 . 55
atoms 2
mole 1
atoms 10 X 02 . 6
86 . 2
1
cm 10
cm 1
g 93 . 7
MW
23
3
3
8
3
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷