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TELECOMMUNICATIONS
BEG 435 EC
Teaching Schedule Hours/Week Examination Scheme
Theory Tutorial Practical Internal Assessment Final
Theory Practical* Theory Practical** 3 1 3/2
20 25 80 -
Total

125
* Continuous
** Duration: 3 hours
Course objectives: The course objective is to give fundamental of telecommunication system.

1. Introduction (3 hrs)
1.1 Evolution of telecommunication
1.2 Structure of telecommunication system
1.3 Simple telephone communication

2. Transmission media (10 hrs)
2.1 Transmission media characteristics
2.2 Transmission line
2.3 Twisted pair, Feeder cable and coaxial cable
2.4 Microwave principle components and communication
2.5 Optical fibre communication

3. Signal Multiplexing (4 hrs)
3.1 Space division multiplex
3.2 Frequency division multiplex
3.3 Time division multiplex

4. Switching system (8 hrs)
4.1 Switching techniques
4.2 Space division switching
4.3 Time division switching

5. Subscriber and Signaling in telecommunication (6 hrs)
5.1 Rotary dial telephone
5.2 Touch tone dial telephone
5.3 Subscriber loop signaling
5.4 Interexchange signaling
5.5 Intraexchange signaling

6. Data communication and computer networking (10 hrs)
6.1 Structure of local area networks
6.2 Local area network protocols
6.3 Network interfaces
6.4 Inter-networking
6.5 Routine and flow control

7. Telephone traffic and networks (5 hrs)
7.1 Fundamentals of telephone traffic
7.2 Telephone network
7.3 Integrated service digital network (ISDN)

Laboratory:
Six laboratory exercises in FDM, TDM, Switching signal transmission in coaxial cable, optical fibre cable,
microwave components.
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References:
1. M.Schwartz “Telecommunication networks” Addition Wesley.
2. B.E.Briley “An Introduction to telephone switching” Addition Wesley
3. W. Stallings “Local Area Networks” Mc Millan
4. Harold B. Killen “Fibre Optic Communications” Prentice Hall
5. Manuals published by telecom equipment.
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Evolution of telecommunication:
Telegraph was introduced in 1837 in Great Britain and in 1845 in France. In March 1876, Elexander
Grahm Bell demonstrated his telephone set and the possibility of telephony. His model was based on
point to point connection between entities. In general case, there are n(n-1)/2 links with an entities.
Network with point to point links among all the entities are known as fully connected network. The
disadvantage of such model is that the no of links required becomes very large with moderate values of
M, also receives more numbers of cables etc.
To overcome above difficulties, scientists invented concepts of switching system with the
introduction of SS the subscriber do not connected to one another but are connected to SS as shown in
figure.
s
1
s
2
s
3
s
4
s
5
s
6
s
7
s
8



In this figures only one link is required between subscriber hand- switching system and total number of
link is equal to the number of subscriber connected to the networks.
Generally, there were number of modification in switching system. Early switching system were
manual and operator oriented. Which provided lots of problems in establishing call and was inefficient
in time perspective. To overcome above drawbacks manual exchange was replaced by automatic
exchange. The automatic exchange have large number of advantages as it require less time to establish
and release call; maintain privacy etc.
Gradually, the automatic exchange was also modified as electromechanical, electronic, time division
switching, space division switching etc.
However, subscriber all over the world cannot be connected to single switching system. To overcome
this problem, switching system placed at different geographical location and connected to each other to
provide services between different distance subscriber as shown in fig.

SS1 SS3
SS2 SS4
Trunk


The links that run between switching system are called trunk. The no of trunks depend upon the traffic
between two switching system as the number of exchange are increased, the number of links and
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interconnection becomes more complex. To overcome this, the hierarchical model among switching
system was brought to the practice.

switching
center
SS2
SS3
SS4
SS5 SS6 SS7



A modern telecommunication n/w may be viewed as an aggregate of a large no of point to point
electrical or optical system.

Q. How many point to point links are required in fully connected network with 5 entities.
Solution:
No of entities (n) = 5
Therefore, Total number of links = n(n-1)/ 2 = (5*4)/2 = 10


Classification of switching system:
System which is used to establish connection between entities and outlets, carry necessary function
regarding establishment and release of call, signaling function etc is known as switching system.

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Switching System
Manual
Automatic
Electomechanical
Electronics
Space division
Time division
Digital
Analog
Space
Time
combination
Strowger Crossbar


Manual SS: In this, human being was placed in SS that help in establishing and releasing a call.

Automatic S.S: In this, operator was replaced by machine that help in signaling, establishing and
releasing a call, control function.

Electromechanical: It uses the electromagnet to move the mechanical parts to perform required
switching.

Strowger ( Step by step): It is known as so after its inverter A.B Strowger. Control function is
performed by circuits associated with switching element like uniselector, two-motion selector.


Crossbar: It consists of array of horizontal and vertical provided that horizontal and vertical contacts
points are connected to these wires. The electromagnets are used to energize the horizontal and vertical
crosspoints for establishment of connection between subscriber.

Electronic switching system (SPC): In this switching is possible through computer or processor.

Space division switching: In this, a dedicated path is established between the calling and the called
subscriber for the entire duration of call.

Time division by switching system: In this, sampled values of signal are transmitted at fixed interval.

Digital time division s/w system: In this, binary coded data are transmitted at fixed interval.
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Space SS: It is a type of digital switching where coded values are transferred during same time interval
from i/p to o/p.

Time SS: It is a type of digital s/w where coded values are transferred at fixed interval of time form i/p
to o/p.

Combinational: It is the combination of space and time division digital switch.

Analog time division SS:- In this, sampled voltage levels are transmitted at a fixed interval.

1. 3 Simple Telephone communication:-
Ear-phone
Diaphragm
Microphone
V


Fig: Simple comm. System.

The simplest form of telephone ckt consists of one microphone , one earphone. This ckt performs one
way communication i.e simplex between two entities. The microphone and earphone acts as a transducer
where microphone converts audio signal into electrical signal. Where as earphone converts electrical
signal to audio signal.
Commonly used microphone is a carbon microphone which does not produce high fidelity signal but
gives strong electrical signal. Here, small carbon granules is placed in a box. This carbon granules
conducts electrically and the resistance offered by them is dependent upon density with which they are
packed. One side of the box is mechanically attached to a diapharagm. When a sound wave impinge on
the diaphragm, it vibrates the diaphragm causing the carbon particles to compress and expand, thus
changing the resistivity offered by particles. If voltage is applied to the microphone, the current in the
ckt varies according to the vibration of the diaphragm, when sound wave impinge on the diaphragm, the
instantaneous resistance of the microphone is given by,
r
i
= r
o
– rsinwt.
Where, r
i
= instantaneous resistance.
r
o
= Quiescent resistance.
r = Maximum variation in resistance offered by carbon granules. ( r < r
o
)


r
i
= r
o
– rsinwt
= r
o
( 1- ) sin
0
wt
r
r
i

Now instantaneous current,
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I = V/r
i
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− wt
r
r
r
V
sin 1
0
0

= ( ) ) .........( sin 1
1
0
i wt m
r
v


Where, m = r/r
o
, modulation factor
Now, from Binomial expansion ,
( 1-m sinwt)
-1
= (1+m sinwt) [ By neglecting higher power terms]

Equation (i) becomes,
I = I
0
( 1+m sinwt) ………(ii)

Comparing this equation with amplitude modulation wave we can say that, the equation (ii) becomes the
amplitude modulation. So here, microphone acts as a modulator and I
0
acts as a carrier.
Earphone usually an electromagnet with magnetic diaphragam. When electromagnet is energized by
passing a current, a force is exerted on the diaphragm. The voice frequency current from microphone
causes variation in the force exerted by the electromagnet, thus vibrating the diaphragm and producing
sound wave the instantaneous flux linking in the poles of the electromagnet and diaphragm is given by:

Ø
i
= ø
o
+ ø sinwt.
Where,
Ø
i
= instantaneous flux linkage

ø
o
= constant flux due to quiescent current.
ø = maximum amplitude of flux variable. (ø < ø
o
)

The instantaneous force or diaphragm is directly proportional to the square of instantaneous flux.
i.e
2
i
F φ α
F = K ( ø
o
+ ø sinwt)
2

= k ø
o
2
( 1+ ) sin sin
2
2
0 0
wt wt
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
φ
φ
φ
φ

φ
φ
φ
<<
0
Q So highest terms are neglected.
= k ø
o
2
( 1+ ) sin
2
0
wt
φ
φ

F = k ø
o
2
(1+ k
1
I
o
sinwt)

Above equation shows that force produced as diaphragm at earphone is proportional to the current
produced at microphone.

Duplex:
If transmission of data takes place in both the direction, called duplex comm..
2 types: (i) Half duplex.
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(ii) Full duplex.

In half duplex , transmission of data takes place in both directions but not simultaneously (e.g walkie –
talkie ) .
In full duplex, transmission of data takes place in both directions simultaneously. (eg. telephone
system).
V
M
E
M
E


Fig: half duplex
(alternative use of microphone and earphone )
( explain as above )

V
Z
b
p Q
A
A’


Sidetone: The audio signal heard at the generating end is called side tone is known as sidetone.

Chapte:4

Basic of witching system:
Inlets /outlets : Set of input and output ckts called inlets and outlets.
Switching Matrix or networks: The hardware used to establish connection between inlets and outlets is
known switching Matrix. It’s provided the switching path, it is the controls subsystem of the switching
system that actual establish the path.
Switching: This enable the calling subscriber to be temporary connected to call subscriber.
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Switching system: It is composed of elements that peroforms switching, controlling and singnaling
function.
Control function:- It’s perform following task.
- Distinguish between inlets/outlets and interrupt.
- Sense the end of information transfer and release connections.
- Sense signaling information to subscriber and other exchange connected to outgoing trunk.
- Perform switching action.

Signaling: - It perform the following task.
- It gives the subscriber certains status such as dial tone busytone, ringtone, calling process etc.
- It enables to detects whether called subscriber is busy if so, indicate the same to calling subscriber.

Switching techniques:-
Figure:

Fig: Model of switching n/w

1. Symmetric switching network:-
When in above figure the N inlets subscriber is equal to the M outlets subscriber such n/w called
symmetric switching n/w.

2. Folded network:-
Figur:

A n/w in which output line are folded back to the input line known as folded n/w.


3. Unfolded network:- N/w that does not support local subscriber such that the outlets are not folded
back to inlets is known as unfolded networks.

Figur:

Non-folded:- With N inlets and outlets and N simultaneous information transfer are possible.
Note folded:- For N subscriber the no. of simultaneous call is equal to N/2.

# In 100 lines f
olded n/w, how many switching elements are required for non-blocking operation.
(Ans :15)

Blocking network: The switching network that have as many simultaneous switching paths as the
average number of conversion expected. In this case, it may occasionally happen that when a subscriber
request a connection , there is no switching paths free in the network, and he is denied connection, in
such an event, the subscriber is said to be blocked and the network is said to be blocking.
The probability that a user may get blocked is called blocking probability.

Non-blocking network:-
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The switching network designed to provide N/2 simultaneous switching path, in which case the n/w is
said to be non-blocking.
Incomming trunk
Subscriber inlets
Outgoing trunk
Outgoing
Subscriber
Switching
Network


Fig: Inlet/outlet connection

From above figure , 4 types of connections may be established.

i) Local call connection between two subscriber in the system.
ii) Outgoing call connection between a subscriber and an outgoing trunk.
iii) Incomming call connections between an incoming trunks and a local subscriber.
iv) Transit call connection between an incoming trunk and outgoing trunk.

Trunk Interface
Subscriber
Interface
Service ckt
Interface
Trunk Interface
Subscriber
line Interface
Service ckt
Interface
J
U
N
C
T
O
R
S
Trunk
ckt
scanning
&
distributor
units
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Subscribe&
service line &
distributor
units
Control
Operator console
.
.
.
.
.
Incoming
trunk
Switching
Network
Incomming Outgoing

Fig: Elements of switching system.


- Subscriber lines ….. trunks are connected with subscriber and trunk line interface.
- Service ckt interfacing are used for maintenance and testing of subscriber lines.
- Junctors ckt employee a folded connection for the local subscriber and the service ckt interface
but some switching system provide an internal mechanism for local connection without using the
junctors ckts.
- Line scanning ckt senses and obtain signaling information from the respective lines.
- Distributors units send out signaling information on the respective lines.
- Operator console permits interaction with switching system for maintenance and administrative
purpose.
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Classification of switching system:
On the basis of control sub system there are manly 2 types switching system.
i) Direct control SS.
ii) Indirect control SS.


Direct control SS.
Switching system where control sub system may be an integral part of the switching matrix itself is
known as direct control SS. For eg. strowger or step by step switching system.


Indirect control SS (or common control SS ):
Switching system where the control sub system is outside the switching network are known as common
control SS or indirect control SS. For eg. crossbar , electronic exchange.


* On the basis of generation:
1) 1
st
generation SS. Eg. strowger.
2) 2
nd
generation SS. E.g crossbar
3) 3
rd
generation SS. Eg SPC or electronic exchange.
4) 4
th
generation SS. Eg. ISDN.


Strowger SS: It was the first switching system developed by A.B strowger in 1889.
There are two types of selectors which form the building blocks for the switching system.
a) Uniselector: It is one which have a single rotary switch with a bank of contact.
b) Two-motion selector: It is capable of horizontal as well as vertical stepping movement. It has
two rotary s/w.

Selector hunter
or
life finder
Group
Selector
stage
Final
Selector
stage
Line equipment
part
Switching n/w
part
connector
part
From calling subscriber To called subscriber

Fig: configuration of step by step ss.
It consists of 3 main parts.
1) Line equipment part.
2) Switching n/w part.
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3) Connector part.

Line equipment part: - Consists of hunter or line finder. The main task of selector hunter is to search
and seize a selector form the switching matrix part. There is only one selector hunter for each subscriber.
Usually, 24 outlet uniselectors are used as selector hunters. Selector hunter scheme is sometime called
subscriber uniselector scheme as there is dedicated uniselector for each subscriber in the system.
Line finder searches and finds the line of subscriber to be connected to the first selector associated
with it. These are built using uniselector or two motion selector. Line finders and selector hunters are
generally referred to as pre-selectors.
The switching matrix part consists of one or more sets of two motion selector known as first group
selector, second group selector and so on.
The connector part comprises one set of two motion selector known as final selectors.

iii) Cross-bar switching:
M2 M1 M3
M1
M2
M3
A
B
C
A
B
C
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
Subscriber

Fig: 3×3 crossbar switching

The major disadvantage of the strowger of the strowger switching system is its dependence on moving
parts and contacts that are subject to wear and tear. So it was replaced by crossbar. Crossbar are
designed using common control concept.
The basic idea of this switching is to provide a matrix of n×m sets of contacts with only n+m
activators or less to select one of the n×m sets of contact. This form of switching is also known as co-
ordinate switching as the switching contacts are arranged in a x-y plane.
When an electromagnet say in the horizontal direction is energized, the bar attached to it slightly
rotates in such a way that the contacts points attached to the bars move closer to its facing contacts
points but do not actually make any contact. Now if an electromagnet in the vertical direction is
energized the correspondingly bar rotates causing the contact points move towards each other.
From above figure…………………..(आफै explain गन

)




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line unit
Final
translator
Line unit Called subscriber
Calling subscriber
Register
Sender
Digit receiver
& storage
register
Initial
translator
Charging
ckts
Operator
control
Maintainance
ckts
Event
monitors
Switching
n/w
Register
finder
Call processign subsystem


Fig: common control SS.
Where,
___ indicates data or into.
---- indicates control line.

The control function in a SS may be placed under 4 broad categories.
a) Event monitoring.
b) Call processing.
c) Charging.
d) Operation and maintenance.

Events occurring outside the exchange at the line units, trunks, junctors and signaling receiver/ sender
/sender receivers are all monitored by the control sub-system. For eg. when a subscriber goes off hook,
the event is sensed by the line unit, the calling location is determined and marked for dial tone.
- Register finder is activated to seize a free register.
- Initial translator determines the router for the call through the network and decides whether a call
should be put through or not. It also determines the charging method and the rates on the class of
service information of the subscriber which specifies details such as:
a) Call priority: When exchange or n/w is overloaded, only calls from subscriber indentified as
priority call subscriber, one be put through.
b) Call baring: A subscriber may be barried from making certain calls. For eg. STD or ISD barring.
c) Call charging: It is possible to define charging rules for different subscriber in the same
exchange.
d) Origin based routing: Destination of certain calls may depend on the geographical location of the
calling subscriber.
e) No-dialing calls: These calls are routed to pre-determine number without the calling party having
to dial.

Final translator:
It is determines the line unit to which a call must be connected and the category of the called line.

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Comparison between manual exchange (SS) and automatic exchange (auto SS):

Manual: -
- The calling subscriber needs to communicate with operator in a common language.
- Privacy is not maintained
- Slow in processing.
- Time required to established and released call depends upon loads.
- Here, we cannot use electromechanical or electronic switching concept.
- Human being acts as a SS to set and release call.
- It was ancient techniques of switching.

Automatic:
- Language independent
- Privacy maintained
- -
- -
- We may use electromechanical or electronic s/w concept.
- Not required.
- Modern technique of switching.



4.2 Space division switching:- Early crossbar system were slow in processing as they used mechanical
components or common control subsystem. To improve the speed of control and signaling between
exchange led to the application of electronic in the design of control and signaling subsystem.
Resistor and translator of the common control subsystem could be replace by a single digital
computer.
Electromechanical
switching n/w
SPC
Electronic
switching n/w
SPC


Fig: Electromechanical and electronic switching


SPC: In SPC exchange control function are carried through programmed stored in computer memory
and are executed automatically one by one by the processor.
There are basically two approaches to organizing Stored program control.
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1. Centralized SPC
2. Distributed SPC.

Centralize SPC: In this, all control equipment is replaced by a single processor. This configuration use
more then one processor for redundancy purpose. Each processor has access to all the exchange
resources like scanner and distribution points and is capable of all the control function.




Signal
distributor
Processor
Maintenance
consol
Memory
Secondary
storage call
recording
program storage
etc
Scanner


Fig: Typical centralized SPC configuration.

Present day most of electronics switching system use centralize control, only of two processor configure
is used. A dual processor architecture may be configured to operate in one of three mode.
1. Standby mode.
2. Synchronous duplex mode.
3. Load sharing mode.









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Standby mode:
p
2
Exchange
Environment
Secondary storage
p
1


Fig: Stand by dual processor config.

- In this, one processor active and the other is on standby.
- The standby processor is brought online only when the active processor fails.

Synchronous duplex mode:-




p
2
Exchange
Environment
p
1
M
1
C
(comparat or)
M
2


Fig: Synchronous duplex configuration.

- In this, hardware coupling is provided between the two processor which execute the same set of
instruction and compare the result continuously.
- If a mismatch occurs, the faulty processor is identified and taken out of service within a few
milliseconds.
- It is possible that a comparator faults occurs on account of a transient faller which does not show
a when the checkout program is run. In such case, the decision as to how to continue the
operation is arbitrary and three possibilities exists.
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- 1. Continue with both processor.
- 2. Take out active processor and continue with the other processor.
- 3. Continue with the active processor but remove the other processor from the service.

Load shearing mode:
p
2
Exchange
Environment
p
1
M
1
E.D
M
2


Fig: Load sharing configuration.

In this, incoming call is assigned randomly or in a predetermine order to one of the processor which then
handles the call right through completion. Thus, both the processors are active simultaneously and share
the load and resources dynamically.
- Exclusion device avoid to seek the same resource at the same time by both processor. This
device which, when set by one the processor prohibits access particular resources by the other
processor until it is ret by the first processor.
- Under normal operation each processor handles one half of the calls on statical basis.

Comparison between single and dual processor:
Availability of the single and dual processor system: -
The availability of single processor system is given by A =
MTTR MTBF
MTBF
+
Where,
MTBF = mean time between failure.
MTTR = Mean time to repair.

The unavailability of single processor system is given by = 1 – A
=
MTTR MTBF
MTBF
+
− 1
=
MTTR MTBF
MTBF MTTR MTBF
+
− +

If MTBF >>>MTTR Then ,
MTTR MTBF
MTTR
+



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For dual processor, the availability is given by A
D
=
MTTR MTBF
MTBF
D
D
+

Where, MTBF
D
=
( )
MTTR
MTBF
D
2
2

A
D =

( )
( )
MTTR
MTTR
MTBF
MTTR
MTBF
+
2
2
2
2


=
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 MTTR MTBF
MTBF
+

Unavailability of dual processor is given by,
U
D
= 1 –AD
=
2 2
2
) ( 2 ) (
) ( 2
MTTR MTBF
MTTR
+

If MTBF >> MTTR then,

U
D
= 2(MTTR)
2
/(MTBF)
2



Q. Given that MTBF is equal to 2000 hrs and MTTR is equal to 4 hrs calculate the unavailability for
single and dual processor system for 30 years.

MTBF = 2000 hrs
MTTR = 4 hrs.
U = MTTR/MTBF = 4/2000 = 2 * 10
-3

i.e 525 hours in 30 years.
U
D
= 2 (MTTR)
2
/(MTBF)
2
= (2*16)/ (2000 * 2000) = 8 *10
-6

i.e 2.1 hrs in 30 year.




Distributed SPC: -
- In this, the control function are shared by many processors within the exchange itself. It uses low
cost microprocessor. It has better availability and reliability then centralize SPC.
- Exchange control may decomposed either horizontally or vertically for distributed processing.
- In vertical decomposition, the exchange environment is divided into several blocks and each blocks
is assign to a processor that performs all control function related to that block of equipments.
- In horizontal decomposition, each processor performs only one or some of the exchange control
function.
- In this level of control functions are:
Level 3: EM & DP ………(1)
Level 2: CP ……….(2)
Level 1: Operation and maintenance & charging ……..(3)
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Where, EM & DP = Event monitoring and distribution
CP = Call processing.
Fig: Level of control function.

Exchange Environment
EM & DP
CP
O & MP
EM & DP
CP
O & MP
Level -3
Level -2
Level -1


Level 3 processing:
- It handles scanning distribution and making function.
- Processing operation involved are of simple, specialized and well define nature.
- Processing at this level results in the setting or sensing of one or more binary condition in flip flop or
register. Such simple operation are efficiently perform either by wired logic or micropropgrammed
device.
- Control unit is a collection of logic circuits using logic elements, called hardwired control unit.

Level 2 processing ( switching processor): -
- This processor allows data to be packed more tightly in memory so that access time will
increase.
- The traffic handling capacity of control equipment is usually limited by the capacity of the
switching processor. The load on switching processor is measure by its occupancy ‘t’ , estimated
by the simple formula t = a+bN
Where, a = fixed overhead depending upon the exchange capacity and configuration.
b = average time to process one call.
N = No of calls per unit time.

Level 1 processing:
- It handles operation and maintenance function. Which involves the following steps.
a) Supports switching system hardware and software.
b) Add, modify or delete information from translation table.
c) Change subscriber class of service
d) Put a new line or trunk into operation.
e) Supervise the operation of exchange.
f) Monitor traffic.
g) Detect and locate faults and error
h) Run diagnostic and test program.
i) Man machine interaction.

Difference between microprogammed and hardware control:
Microprogamming:
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1. Flexible
2. Slower
3. More expensive for moderate processing function.
4. Easier to implement complex processing function.
5. Introducing new service is easy.
6. Easier to maintain

Hardwire:
1. Not flexible
2. Faster
3. Less expensive for moderate processing function.
4. Harder to implement complex processing function
5. Introducing new service is hard.
6. Difficult to maintain

Time division switching:- Switching system, in which sampled values of speech signal are transferred
at fixed interval of time. It may be analog or digital. In analog switching, the sampled voltage levels are
transmitted where as in digital they are binary coded and transmitted through the system.
A time division digital switch may also be designed by using a combination of space and time
switching techniques.



Date: 2066/8/3

Basic time division space switching:
It is generally categorized into two category.
a. i/p control time division switch.
b. o/p control time division switch.
2 to 2
k
Decoder
Modulo-N
location
1
2
N-1
N
1
2
N-1
N
Cyclic control
Fig 1(a) Switching structure.
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1
N
1
N

Fig:1 (b) two stage equivalent.

Fig: Simple PAM time division switching.


A simple N×N time division space switch is shown in above figure. The switch can be represented in an
equivalent form as a two state network with N×1 and 1×N switching matrixes for the 1
st
and 2
nd
stage
respectively. The network has only link interconnecting the stages. Each inlet and outlet is a single
speech circuit corresponding to a subscriber line. The speech is carried as PAM analog samples or PCM
digital samples, occurring at 125 micro second intervals.
When PAM samples are switch in a time division manner, the switching is known as analog
time division switching. If PCM binary samples are switched, than switching is known as digital time
division switching.
In above figure (a), the interconnecting link is shown as a bus to which a chosen inlet-outlet pair can
be connected by a suitable control mechanism and speech samples are transfer from inlet to the outlet.

Time division space switching:-
It is generally categories into two groups:
a) Input control time divisions switch.
b) Output control time division switch.


Input control time division switch:-
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Cyclic control
Bus
1
2
N-1
N
1
2
N-1
N
Modulo-N
location
2 to 2
k
Decoder
Address decoder
(MDR)

Fig: Input control time division switch.

The switch is said to be input control or input driven as the outlet is chosen depending on the inlet that is
being scanned at any instant.
Modulo N counter of the cyclic control acts as the memory address register (MAR) of the control
memory. Control memory has N words corresponding to N inlets and has a width of log
2
N. These bits
which are used to address the N outlets.
Cyclic control at the input implies that all the subscriber lines are scanned irrespective of IRRE
weather they are active or not. For an active inlet i, the corresponding outlet address is contained in the
i
th
location of the control memory. It is read out an pass to the address decoder which also acts as the
MDR of the control of memory.
The decoder output enables the proper outlet to be connected the bus. The sample value is than
transferred from inlet to the outlet.
The bus is being shared by N connection, all of which can be active simultaneously and the physical
connection is established between the inlet and outlet for the duration of sample transfer, the switching
technique is known as time division space switching.

2) Output control time division space switch:

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Decoder
Decoder
Modulo-N
location
Modulo-N
location
Clock
Cyclic control
Bus
1
2
N-1
N
1
2
N-1
N

Figure: output control time division switch.


It is said to be output control because each location of the control memory is rigidly associated with a
given outlet. For both input and output control configuration, the number of inlets and outlets N =
switching capacity i.e
N = SC =
t d m i
t t t t + + +
125

Where, SC = switching capacity.
t
i
= Time to increment the modulo-N counter.
t
m
= time to read the control memory.
t
d
= time to decode address and select the inlet or outlet.
t
r
= time to transfer the sampled value from inlet to outlet.

The o/p controlled switches are capable of supporting broadcast connection, where i/p controlled are
not.

Generalized time division space switch:-
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Decoder
Bus
1
2
N-1
N
1
2
N-1
N
Decoder
MDR
Control memory
Data
input
Read/write
MAR
Modulo
counter



Fig: Generallised time division space switching.

Time division Time switching:-

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S/P S/P
Data in
MDR
M
A
R
MDR
Modulo-N
Counter
I
N
G
A
T
E
D
A
T
E
I
N
Data memory
N words
of 8bit each
D
A
T
E
O
U
T
O
U
T
G
A
T
E
1
N
MDR OG
MDR IG
Control memory
N-words of log
2
N
bits each


Fig: switching structure

1
N
1
N
N x 1
Delay N x 1

Fig(b) Equivalent ckt
Fig- Basic time division time switching.


- In this, the data coming in through the inlets are written into the data memory and later read out to
the appropriate outlets.
- The incoming and outgoing data are usually in serial form where as the data written into and read out
of the memory in parallel form. Therefore necessary to perform serial to parallel conversion and
parallel to serial (p/s) conversion at the inlet and outlet respectively.
- Information is not performed in real time, it is first stored in the memory and later transferred to the
outlet.
- Time division time switch may be coupled in any of the following three ways:

(i) Sequential write/random read.
(ii) Random write/ sequential read.
(iii) Random input/ random output.
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In the 1
st
two months of control, the sequential/ random read/write operation refer to the read/write
operation refer to the read/write operations associated with data memory. In both cases, the inlets and
outlets are scanned randomly, and the data memory is associated sequentially.
There are two modes in which time division switch may operated.
(i) Phased operation.
(ii) Slotted operation.

Phase operation:-
The phase operation of the time switches proceeds in two phase. In 1
st
phase, the write access to the
data memory sequentially and the read access in the 2
nd
phase randomly.
Time taken for the two phase operation is given by
t
s
= Nt
d
+N(t
d
+t
c
)
Where, t
d
= read/write time for the data memory.
t
c
= read/write time for the control memory.
t
d
= t
c
= t
m
, we have.
t
s
= 3 N t
m

Since entire operation is to be completed within 125 µs, we have expression for no of subscriber as
N = 125/(3t
m
) where, t
m
is expressed in µs.

Slotted operation:-
In this, the 125µs period is divided into N sub-periods of duration 125/N. Each sub period i, the
following operation are performed
(1) Read inlet ‘i’ and store the data in data memory location i.
(2) Read location ‘i’ of the control memory which contains the value of say j.
(3) Read the data memory location j and transfer the data to outlet i.


Date:2066/8/04


3. Signal Multiplexing:
The process of sending number of separate signals together over the same transmission medium (ie
metallic wire, twisted cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber cable , satellite microwave system etc) is known
as signal multiplexing.
Space division multiplexing (SDM)
Frequency division multiplexing (FDM)
Time division multiplexing (TDM)

3.2 Frequency division multiplex:
The technique of separating the signals in frequency is referred to as FDM:
In this, multiple signals that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are shifted (each) to a
different frequency band and transmitted simultaneously over a single transmission medium. Thus,
many relatively narrow band channels can be transmitted over a single wideband transmission system.
It is an analog scheme, the information entering an FDM system is analog and it remains analog
through out transmission balanced modulator to which is fed the carrier and voice channel having
frequency range of 300 hz to 3400 hz (nominal channel 0 – 4 khz).
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FDM is used in telephone system, telemetry, commercial broadcast, television and communication
network.
An example if the FDM signal three message signal in shown below where three band signals XYZ
modulate the three separate carrier signals with the frequency F
1
F
2
,F
3
spaced in frequency domain with
reasonable margin to avoid overlapping to avoid crosstalk & intermodulation. The output of the each
modulator the added to produce a composite signal having tree multiplexed message signals.






LPF SSB x
LPF SSB y
LPF SSB z

Channel
BPF DEM
BPF
BPF
DEM
LPF
LPF
LPF
x
y
z
DEM
F
1
F
2
F
3
(Carrier)
Carrier
supply
F
1
F
2
F
3
Tx
Rx

Fig: Block-diagram of FDM system.

FDM in telephony:-
Telephone channel is bandlimited to 300 – 3400 hz (BW 3100 hz) frequency slot of 4 khz is assigned
to assigned to each telephone channel so that there is guard band of 900 hz for each channel. The first
three channel are multiplexing at 12, 16 and 20 khz to form a pre-group of 3 telephone channels. The
multiplexing (fre shifting) is SSB- USB.

FDM Hierarchy:-
1. Message channel:- The message channels is the basic building block of the FDM hierarchy. The
basic message channel was originally intended for voice transmission that utilize voice band
frequency (VB) circuit is called 3002 channel and is actually band limited to 300 hz to 3400 hz band,
although for practical consideration it is considered a 4 khz channel.
2. Basic group: It is the first step for multiplexing the message channel. A basic group consists of 12
voice-band channels stacked next to each other in the frequency domain.
Group BW = 12 ×4 = 48 khz
F
out
= F
c
– F
i

F
c
= carrier (channel) frequency, F
i
= channel frequency spectrum ( 0 – 4 khz).
For channel 12,
F
c
= 112 – 4×12 = 64 khz.
F
out
= 64 – (0 to 4 khz) = 60 – 64 khz.

3. Formation of super group:-
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Five groups are combined to form a super group. The frequency spectrum for each group is 60 –
108 khz. The carrier frequency frequency for a group is derived from the following expression,
F
c
= 372 + 48n khz Where, n = group number.
BW being 240 khz.

4. Basic master group:- 5 Super group makes a master group, BW of 240×5 = 1.2 Mhz.
5. Super master group:- 3 basic master groups makes a super master group containing 900 telephone
channels BW being 3.6 Mhz.
Filter and oscillator requirement in FDM.
In FDM the guard band between two adjacent frequency slots is not very large, the frequency stability of
the oscillators should be very high in order to avoid overlapping. Generally highly stable quartz
controller oscillator with stability factor of 10 – 5 or higher is employed.
Similarly SSB- filters are also necessary for the same reason mention above in oscillator.

3.3 Time division multiplexing:
The technique of separating the signals in time is referred to as time division multiplexing.
The concept of TDM is illustrated by the block diagram as shown below:
LPF
LPF
LPF
m
1
m
2
m
3
Pulse amplitude
modulator
Common
channel
Pulse amplitude
modulator
LPF
LPF
LPF
m
1
m
2
m
3
Message input
Message output
Commutator Decommutator
Synchronizaed
Timing pulses
Timing pulses


Fig: Block-diagram of TDM system.

The signals to be multiplexed are first individually band limited by low pass-filter. The low pass filter
outputs are then applied to a commutator at fixed interval of time. These samples are then transmitted to
the pulse amplitude modulator. The purpose of this modulator is to transform the multiplexed signal into
a form suitable for transmission over the common channel.
At the receiver end of the system, the received signal is applied to a pulse demodulator, which
performs the inverse operation of the pulse modulator. The narrow samples produced at the pulse
demodulator output are distributed to the appropriate low-pass filters by means of a decommutator,
which operates in synchronism with the commutator in the transmitter. This synchronization is essential
for the satisfactory operation of the system.
The most common type of modulation used with TDM system is PCM with PCM-TDM system. Two
or more voice band channels are sampled, converted to PCM codes, and then time division multiplexed
onto a single metallic cable pair or optical fiber cable.
The essential operations in the transmitter of a PCM system are
(1) Sampling (2) Quantizing (3) Encoding.

The time-division multiplexed signal format is best described with reference to the Bell T
1
system, The
sing signal format is given below:-

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Frame
Synchronization bit
0.6477µs
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8
Channel 1 PCM word
Channel 2 PCM word
Channel 24 PCM word
Fram 193 bits, T
f
= 125 µs


Fig: Bell T
1
PCM Format.

Each PCM word contains 8 bits and a frame contains 24 PCM channels. In addition, a periodic form
synchronization signal must be transmitted and this is achieved by inserting bit from the frame
synchronization codeword at the beginning of every frame. At the receiver side, a special detector
termed as correlator is used to detect the frame synchronizing code word in the bit stream, which enables
the frame timing to be established.
The total number of bits in a frame is 24×8 +1 = 193 bits
From sampling theorem, sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency in the
spectrum of the signal being sampled. Hence, the sampling frequency for voice is 8 khz (2×4 khz) and
so the interval between the PCM words for a given channel is 1/800 = 125µs. Which is frame time.

Frame time(T
f
): The required to transmit one sample from each channel is called frame time.




Channel 2
analog I/P
Sample pulse
Channel 2
analog I/P
Sample pulse
Channel 24
analog I/P
Sample pulse

Fig: Sampling sequence.
Antialiasing
BPF
Sample &
Hold ckt
ADC
Simple pulse
8 khz
conversion
clock
1.536 Mhz
Parallel to
Serial conv.
Line speed
clock
64 khz
I/P
signal
(0 - 4 khz)
8-bit serial PCM
code (64 kbps)

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Fig: Single channel PCM transmission system.

T
1
digital carrier system:-
This system in a communication system which uses digital pulses, rather than analog signals to encode
the information.
Antialiasing
filter
Sample &
Hold ckt
ADC Channel 1
Antialiasing
filter
Sample &
Hold ckt
ADC
Channel 1
analog I/P
Channel 14
analog I/P
2
3
24
channel
TDM
Multi
plexer
23
Channel 24
fs = 8khz
1.536
Mhz
PCM
Code
fs = 8khz
1.536
Mhz
Add
framing bit
1.536Mbps
D5 - 1
(1.544 mbps)


Fig: Block diagram.
3.1 Space division multiplexing( SDM):-
Technique of separating the signals in space is known as space division multiplexing. It is a rather
unsophisticated form of multiplexing which simply constitutes propagating signals from different
sources or different cables.





Chapter: 2

Transmission media: (TM): Physical path way that connected computer other device and people in a
network is known as transmission media. Each transmission media requires specialized network
hardware that has to be compatible with the medium. It also describe as the type of highway on which
voice and data travel.
Characteristics of transmission media.
Each type of transmission media has special characteristics that may gives suitable for a specific type of
service. Some of the important characteristics are under noted.
1. Cost: The transmission media should be cost effective.
2. Instillation requirement:-
3. Bandwidth:- It refers to the measure of capacity of medium to transmit data. High capacity
means high bandwidth and low capacity means low bandwidth. It measure in BPS. Bandwidth of
the cable is determined by length of the cable. A short cable accumulate greater bandwidth than
long cable.
4. Band usages:-
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5. Attenuation.
6. EMI (electromagnetic interference)
7. Troubleshooting.

Types of transmission media:
1. Bounded or wired or Guided
2. Unbounded or wireless and unguided.

Bounded: Twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber, open wire.

Twisted pair:- A cable made of two separately insulated strands of wire twisted together is known as
twisted pair. It is one of the oldest and still most common transmission media. It consists of two
insulated copper wires, typically about 1mm thick. The wires are twisted together in helical form.
Twisting is done because two parallel wires constitutes a fine antenna, when the wires are twisted the
waves from twist cancel out, so the wire radiates less effectively.
Twisted pair can be used for transmitting either analog or digital signals. The bandwidth depends on
the thickness of the wire and the distance traveled.
Twisted pair cable are of the two types:
1. UTP
2. STP


UTP(Un shield twisted pair): It consists one or more twisted pair of wires without additional shielding.
It is more flexible and take less space than STP but has less bandwidth. It is suitable for both data and
voice communication. It is easy to install and widely used in bus and star topologies. UTP comes in
different grades called categories (Cat1 – Cat 7 ). Cat 1 and cat 2 are used for voice and low speed data
(Telephone communication) where as 3 to 7 are used for network communication.
- It supports base band transmission.
- Minimum velocity of propagation. (V
p
= 0.59* C, C = 3* 10
8
)
- More flexible.
- Required less space than STP.
- It covers the maximum distance of 100m.
- Maximum speed supported by UTP is 10 Mbps.
- IEEE short hand for UTP is 10 BASE T.

STP: It has one or more twisted pairs within a shield.
- This shield (braided mesh or foil). This shield is used:
1. To prevent infiltration of electromagnetic noise.
2. To eliminate crosstalk during telephone conversation.
3. To give protection against EMI.
- Used for both base band broad band transmission.
- Can be used with data rates in excess of 20 Mbps.

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Twisted pair
Polyster
aluminium
top
Copper
conductor
Braided mesh
Jacket
(PUC)

Fig: Cross sectional view of STP


Coaxial cable (Coax):-
Insulating material
Copper core
Braided outer
conductor


It is common is common transmission medium widely used in television transmission. It provides higher
bandwidth and better reliability than twisted. Pair it has excellent noise immunity. The bandwidth
possible depends on the cable quality, length and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of data signal. It is widely
used for cable TV and MAN. Modern cables have a bandwidth of close to 1 Ghz. Connector use by this
cable are T, BNC , terminator etc.
There are two types of coax.
1. Thick coaxial cable.
2. Thin coaxial cable.

Thick coaxial cable:-
- Core diameter is thicker.
- Device attachment is possible at every 2.5 m.
- Maximum cable length with repeaters is 2.5 km.
- Maximum cable length is 500m.
- Data transmission speed 10 Mbps.
- Minimum velocity of propagation of velocity. (V
p
= 0.77C)
- It support based band transmission.
- Maximum medium delay per segment.
- Uses 50 Ω terminator (when it is intended for digital transmission.)
- Short hand given by IEEE 10BASE 5.

Thin coaxial cable:-
- core diameter thinner.
- V
p
= 0.65C
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- Maximum medium delay per segment 950ns.
- Maximum length 185 meter.
- IEEE 10BASE2.

Date:2066/08/11

Microwave communication: It is widely used for long distance communication. Such as telephone
communication, mobile phone, television distribution etc. It usages point to point radio transmission at
frequency higher than approximately 1 gita hertz. This transmission system exists in two forms:
1. Satellite system
2. Terrestrial (earth-based) system.

Microwaves communication is characterized by the following factors.
1. The useful ranges of frequencies lies between 150 Mhz to 150 Ghz.
2. It is line of sight communication and is limited by horizon due to the curvature of the earth.
3. Signal propagation is affected by free space attenuation.
4. Frequency or phase modulation are used.

The useful frequency range of mircrowave spectrum is divided into a number of band designated by
latter.


Band Freq.range (Gigahertz)
P
L
S
C
X
K
Q
V
0.25-0.39
0.39-1.55
1.55-3.90
3.90-6.30
6.30-10.90
10.90-36.00
36.00-46.00
46.00-56.00



The bands are future divided into a number of sub bands for examples K
u
bands covers the frequency
range 10.9 to 14.5 Ghz in the k band.
Being a LOS limited by horizon, the height of the antenna above the earth plays the important role in
determining the transmission distance in a microwave communication. Mocrowaves are usually bent or
reflected beyond the optical horizon i.e horizon visible to our eyes.
The radio horizon generally future away from the optical horizon.

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d
o
d
r

Fig: optical and radio horizon.

The distance to the radio horizon varies with the atmospheric refractive changes and can be even less
than the optical horizon at times. As a rule of thumb of , the optical and radio horizon is given as d
o
=
0.46 h and d
r
= 0.49h where h = height of the tower in m.
d
o
= distance to the optical horizon in km. d
r
= distance to the radio horizon in km.

Correction factor:- It is used to obtain any quantity to related to radio horizon from the corresponding
quantity related to optical horizon i.e k = d
o
/d
r
. Where k is a correction factor. If k is greater than 1,
than the radio horizon is nearer the optical horizon. If k < 1 the radio horizon is farther than optical
horizon.

Height of the microwave tower: - Microwave tower should be such that the radio beam is not
obstructed by objects like buildings, tree, mountains etc. The height must be more than the height
obstacle in the way. Two factor contribute to increasing effective height.
1. Earth curvature bulge.
2. Freshel diffraction.
Earth curvature bulge:-
Earth curvature bulge is calculated as h
eb
= 0.078 d
1
d
2
/k . Where h
eb
= height increase on account
of earth bulge. d
1
= distance between microwave site and obstacle in km. d
2
= distance between the other
microwave site and obstacle in km.

Date: 2066/08/13

Height of microwave tower:-
Tower height should be such that the radio beam is not obstructed by objects like buildings, tree,
mountains etc. The height must be more than the highest obstacle in the way. Two factor contribute to
increasing the effective height.
(1) Earth’s curvature bulge.
(2) Fresnel diffraction.

(1) The earth’s bulge in calculated as
h
eb
= 0.78 d
1
d
2

Where, h
eb
= height increase on account of earth’s bulge.
d
1
= distance between microwave site and obstacle in km.
d
2
= distance between the other microwave site and the obstacle in km.

(2) Fresenel diffraction:- The fresenel phenomenon stuns from the fact that electromagnetic wave
fronts expand as they travel through space. The expanding properties result in reflection and phase
d
o
= Optical horizon
d
r
= radio horizon
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transmission as the wave passes over obstacles. Hence, additional clearance is required above the
obstacle to avoid such problem. The clearance, in required is expressed in terms of the fresenel 1
st
zone,
2
nd
zone etc. The Radius of the 1
st
fresnel zone R in meters is calculated as

2
1
2 1
2 1
) (
3 . 17

+
=
d d F
d d
R
Where, F = frequency of transmission n Ghz.
A/D
A/D
A/D
A B
R
R
N N
N

Fig: Microwave link
A, B = terminal
R = Repeater
A/D = Add and drop links

It is made up of two terminal sites and usually one or more repeater sites. A T
x
site voice channel are
multiplexing into baseband signal and then modulated into RF carrier- At Rx site, RF carries
demodulated and the resulting baseband signal demultiplexed into individual voice channels. A repeater
site is characterized by two antenna for the two directions. It receives, amplifiers and retransmit RF
signal to the next site in sequence. Some repeater may add or drop of a few lines for local connection.
(a) long – haul type or (b) Short haul type.

(a) Long- haul type:- In this, only and small numbers of add or drop points but has many simple
repeaters and covers a long distance end to end.

(b) Short haul type:- This system consists of a relatively small numbers of repeaters with frequent add
and drop points.
Three commonly used microwave carrier band 4,6 and 11 Ghz, the 4 Ghz is used for long
haul and the 6-Ghz band is useful for both long and short haul communication.

Antenna:
It required very high gain antenna.
Consider two isotropic antenna separated by a distance D. The power interrupted by receiving antenna
is given by
P
R
= P
T
λ
2
/ (4πD)
2

Where, P
R
= received power.
P
T
= Transmitted power.
λ = wavelength of operation.
D = distance between two antenna.
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The path loss is decibel is given by
L =
2
8
10 3
4
log 10
|
¹
|

\
|
×
DF π

Where, D = in km and f in Ghz.
L = 20 log (4000 π/3 ) DF
L = 92.4+20log (DF) dB.

Parabolic reflectors are used to realize highly directional high gain antenna concentrating microwave
energy into parallel beam, Three versions of parabolic antenna are:
(i) Simple parabolic.
(ii) Horn.
(iii) Cassegrain.
Feed
Simple parabolic
Spill over
Main
Reflector


Wave guides:-
Microwave energy is guided to the antenna feed from the transmitter system by means of waveguides.
Depending upon the shape of the cross-section , the wave guides are classified as
(1) Rectangular wave guides.
(2) Circular wave guide.
(3) Elliptical waveguide.
(4) Square waveguide.

The wave guide size determines the cut-off frequency i.e a frequency below which satisfactory cannot
take place. Therefore, systems operating in different band use different sizes of guides. For eg. for
operation in the 3.7 – 4.24 Ghz range , a rectangular wave guide use. Wave guides are coded by a letter
to indicate the shape of the cross-section and a number to indicate the larger dimension of the shape. For
eg. WR-5-75 means rectangular wave guide with the width being 5-75cm.

Some of the microwave components are
1. Microwave tubes:-
(a) Multicarity klystron amplifier.
(b) Reflex klystron Oscillator.

This tube performs the function of generation and amplification in the microwave portion of the
frequency spectrum. This tube consist following component.
( c) Travelling wave tube (TWT)
(d) Backward wave oscillator.
(e) Magnetrons
(f) Crossed – field amplifiers.

Klystrone: - These are velocity modulated
tube that are used in radar and
communication equipment as oscillators
and amplifier.
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2. Solid state microwave devices.
(a) Gunn diode oscillator.
(b) Imapatt diode oscillator.
(c ) Trapatt diode oscillator.
(d) Masers (Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation): It is same as LASER except
that it works at microwave frequency
(e) Varactor diode.
(f) tunnel diode.
(g) Varactor diode.
(f) Tunnel diode.
(g) PIN diode.
(h) Mosfet
(i) MIC (Microwave integrated ckt)
(j) Microstrip line.

Applications of Microwave
It is used in different areas.
(1) Industry.
(a) Measurement of thickness of metal sheets in rolling mills.
(b) Continuous measurement of diameter of wires.
( c) Measurement and monitoring of moisture content.
(d) heating, cooking and processing of flood.

(2) Medical
(a) cancer treatment.
(3) Navigation
(4) Remote sensing:- Radar uses microwave radiation to defect the range, speech and other
characterization of remote object.
(5) Spectroscopy:- It is the study of the interaction between radiation and matter as a function of wave
length (λ).
(3) Rader and communication system.


Numerical problems:-
1. In the path profile of a microwave link of 25km, a hill of height 70m with trees is encountered at a
distance of 10km from transmitting end. Carrier frequency is 6Ghz. Determine tower height
required. Assume a correction factor of 0.9 for ray bending.
Soluiton:
Earth’s bulge (h
eb
) = 0.078d
1
d
2
/ k
= m 13
9 . 0
15 10 078 . 0
=
× ×

Fresnel diffraction R =
2
1
2 1
2 1
) (
3 . 17
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ d d F
d d

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=
2
1
25 6
15 10
3 . 17
|
¹
|

\
|
×
×

= ( ) 3 . 17 1 3 . 17 2
1
=
Allowing 15m for trees and future growth, we have
Height of the tower = 70 +13+17.3+15 = 122.3

(2) See page no 340 (Example 9.6) (Vishwanathan)



Date: 2066/08/25

Touch tone dial telephone:





1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
* 0 #
679
670
852
941
679
670
852
941
1209
1306
1477
LBF (Hz)
UBF (Hz)







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Structure of LAN(local area network):
- Network which spreads within small geographical area is called local area network. It is
combination of computer hardware and transmission media that is relatively small.
- It is confined to a small building or group of building generally belonging to the same
organization.
- It is widely used to connect PC and workstation in company offices and factories to share
resources and exchange information.
Hence, a LAN is a resources, sharing data communication with following three properties:-
1. It is limited within the range of 0.1 – 10km.
2. It provides high data rate ( in excess of 1 Mbps).
3. It is controlled by privative organization.

WAN
MAN
LAN

Fig : data network hierarchy

- Date networks are classified according to their geographical cover age as
1. Wide area Networking (WAN)
- Network of intercity, intercountry and intercontinental called WAN. It may be
(i) TDN (Terrestrial data network )
(ii) SBDN (Satellite based network)
- LAN of LAN is also called WAN.
2. Metropolitan area network (MAN):
Network which spreads within city or metropolitan is called WAN. It is generally uses
community antenna television (CATV) cable and twisted pairs.
3. LAN: It may uses FON (Fiber optic network ) and SONET (Synchronous optical network).
LANs, MANs, WANs are generally interconnected in a hierarchical manner to form a global n/w
(internet) as in fig (above) LANs are often directly connected to WANs.


Data transmission in PSTNs:
- Designed to carry analog voice signal.
- Can be used for data transmission.
- A modem is required ( Modulator or demodulator)
- Modulator translates data pulses into voice band signals at transmitting end.
- Demodulator translates analog signals to digital information.
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Data: Rates in PSTN
A voice channel in a PSTN is band limited with a nominal Bandwidth of 3.1 Khz.
Data rates in PSTN is given as
R = 2 H log
2
v bps (Nyquist’s data rate for noiseless channel ).
Where bps = bits per second .
R = Maximum data rate, H = BW of the channel.
v = no of discrete levels in the signals.
R
b
= H log
2
( 1+SNR) (Shannol Channel Capacity theorem )
R
b
= bit rate
H = B/W of the channel.
SNR = Signal to noise ratio.

Switching technique for data transmission:-
(i) Circuit Switching (Ckt switching )
(ii) Store and forward ( S & F) switching.


Ckt Switching:
In this, an electrical path is established between the source and destination before any data transmission
takes place.
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
N
5
H
1
H
2
H
3
T
T
T
H
4
H = host
N = Node

Fig: Ckt switch switched n/w

Fig shows principal of ckt switching. When the host H
1
wants to transfer data to the host computer H
3
, a
connection request is made to the switching node N
1
which , in turn, selects a suitable neighbouring
node N
3
through which desired connection may be established.
In this switching, there are three explicit phases involved ,
(i) Connection establishment. (ii) Data transmission (iii) Connection release.
Total ckt switched time (t
cs
) is given as

r t e cs
T T T T + + =
T
e
= Time for connection establishment.
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T
t
= Time for data transmission.
T
r
= Time for path tramsmission.

Store and forward Switching:
S & F n/w configuration is shown in fig below:

N
N N
N
N
Communication system
Processor
T T T
NODE
Storage


It is classified into
(1) Message (2) Packet switching.

LAN application:
1. Office automation.
2. Factory automation.
3. Distributed computing.
4. Fire and Security System.
5. Process Control.
6. Document distribution.

Advantages of LAN:-
1. It may be put into operation with small investment, and more system may be added as the need
arises.
2. It provides good back up capability.
3. It provides resources –sharing environment.
4. A LAN adhering to a certain standard permits multivendor systems to be connected to it.
5. LAN tends to exhibit an improved performance.
6. LAN offers flexibility in locating the equipment.

Disadvantages of LAN:-
1. Incremental growth makes more investment than centralized system.
2. Incapability may arise4 at the n/w , s/w and data organization level.
3. problems of security, privacy and data integrity.

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LAN Technologies:-
There are three major aspect in LAN
(1) Med
m
of transmission (2) Topology (3) Access Method.

1. Media of transmission:
Twisted pair , Coax or CATV cable and Fiber optic cable.
- Twisted pair are used in low speed LANs using baseband transmission. In this mode of
transmission data is to transmitted as simple electrical levels often without any modulation.
Entire BW of medium is used for transmitting signals from one station.
- Coax and CATV are used for broadband transmission at speed of 10 mbps or more. It uses
modulation and is suitable for transmitting data with high speed and multiplexed data.
- Fiber optic cables carry data at rates upto 100 Mbps.

2. LAN topology:
Geographical arrangement of LAN Component is known as LAN topology.
Three topology are widely used. They are
(i) Star (ii) Bus (iii) Ring.

Switch
T T
U U
U U
T T
Bus


Fig (a) Star topology Fig (b) Bus topology.
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RIU
RIU
RIU RIU
U
U
Data
U U

Fig (c ) Ring topology.

RIU = Ring topology
U = unit (PC)
T = Terminal


Access method:
There are three access methods:
(i) Switched access Method. (Electronic switching).
(ii) Contention or multiple access method.
(iii) Token passing access method.
But all are not techniques feasible or practically possible.
Only three combinations of access techniques and topologies are popularly used.
(a) Multiple access bus.
(b) Token passing ring or Token ring.
(c) Token passing bus or token bus.

Multiple Access bus:
- Bus is broadcast medium.
- Only one data transmission can take place at any instant of time.
- It uses carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) scheme.
In this scheme, LAN station is able to know whether the channel is busy or not at any instant.
- If the bus free, transmission occurs.
- Since the channel is sensed before transmission, it is also know as (Listen-before-talk scheme ).
- Performance of this bus is evaluated by throughput and maximum throughput is given as ,
-
B
S
2 1
1
max
+
=
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- Where, B = the time expressed as a fraction of the frame time, required for all station to detect
an ideal channel after transmission ends.
Another performance measure is the maximum channel utilization which is given by,

a t t
t
U
p f
f
+
=
+
=
1
1
max

Where,
U
max
= Maximum channel utilization.
t
f
= frame time.
t
p
= end to end propagation.
a = t
p
/t
f

Between the transmission of two frames, a time gap of t
p
is required.
Three variations are possible in CSMA protocols:
1. 1 – persistent.
2. Nonpersistent or zero-persistent.
3. P- persistent.
- When a station finds the channel busy, it may continue to sense the channel and transmit the
frame immediately after the channel becomes free (idle). In this case CSMA protocol is known a
1 – persistent.
- The station may decide to sense the channel again after a random time when it finds the channel
busy, known as zero-persistent.
- When it finds busy, the station makes a decision to persist for immediate transmission with a
certain probability ‘p” known as p-persistent.

Taken passing Ring LAN or Token Ring LAN:
RIU is required. RIU receive, regenerate and retransmit the data bit by bit (i.e serial transmission ) on a
ring. In the process RIU is capable of copying and examining every bit that phases through it. By stong
group of vits received in sequence, an RIU may also examine bit pattern that travel on the ring.
Ring beign a continuous structure and the RIUs being active repeaters, data one places on the rign
would go round the ring indefinitely, unless removed specifically. In contrast, data placed on a dies
down automatically after shortwhile. Thus data placement and removal require consideration in a ring.
The token passing access mechanism enables a station to transmit its data on the ring. In this, one or
more tokens are used to give ring access to the station.
A token is usually a 3- byte pattern as shown in fig below (a)

SD AC EC
1 1 1
P T M R
Access control


Fig(a): Token- Format

SD – starting delimiter byte.
AC – Access control byte.
ED – End delimiter byte.
P – Priority bits.
T – Token bit
M – monitor bit.
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SD AC FC DA SA CRC ED FS
1 1 1
2 or 6 2 or 6
4 1 1


FC = Frame control
DA = Destination address
SA = Source address
CRC = Cyclic redundancy code.
FS = Frame status

Fig (b) frame format.

Fig. Token and frame formats in a token ring LAN
Steps:

1. When all stations are free, i.e ring is silent then t = 0 , free token circulates in the ring.
2. When any station has to send the data, it sets T = 1, bit and transmit the data.
3. All other station in the ring, see a busy token, examine the DA and copy the data if it is defined to
them.
4. The originating station reintroduce a free token at the end of the data.
5. A tiem limt is set to hold a token by a station called token holding time (THT).
6. All the station get a chance to transmit data within a specified maximum time, known as token
rotation time (TRT) which is given by,
TRT = N ×THT +W
Where, W = walk time.

Walk time is the time taken by a bit to travel around the ring and is given by,
W = t
p
L + (N/R).
T
p
= propagation delay in km s / µ
L = physical length of the ring in km.
R = Data rate in Mbps.
N/R = The delay introduced by the station in the ring with each station contributing 1 –bit delay.

7. In a ring where each RIU introduces, 1 –bit delay, the data in the ring is removed by the
soruce station as shown in fig below ( a) Data may also be removed by the destination
station as shown in fig (b) below.
S
T
R
S
D
R

Fig (a) Fig (b)
Fig: Data removal in ring LANs.
T – ransmit
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R – Receiver
S – source
D – destination

Token passing Bus LAN or Token bus:
It is an attempt to combine the strength of the bus architecture and the token passing access mechanism.
The structure of the LAN is passive but and the stations form logical ring for token passing shown in fig
below.
p = 3
s =2
p = 5
s =3
p = 4
s =3
1 3 5
p = 1
s =4
2
p = 2
s =5
4
logical
Ring

Fig: Token passing bus LAN.

Each station knows its predecessor P and its successor S. The token passes from a station to its
successor. The token and frame structures are very similar to the once used in the token ring.
The strength of this LAN are

1. Robustness of the passive bus.
2. Bounded delay of token passing access.
3. No data removed consideration.
4. No constraint on the operating speed, frame size or physical length.

- In this , the logical ring is affected every time a station withdraws or joins the ring. When a
station withdraws it informs its neighbours of its intention giving its P and S values which are
used to change the P and S values in the successor and per decessor station respectively.
- When a station wants to join the ring, it may do so in one of two ways.
(a) It may transmit a special signal jamming the present transmission on the bus. This signal is heard
by all station which then go through the cycle of establishing the logical ring. This method
disrupts the operation of the bus.
(b) Alterntively, each active station periodically broadcasts a special frame to find out if there is a
new station that has come up between itself and its successor. This frame is known as ‘ Solicit
successor’ frame.
- When a station goes down without formally withdrawing from the ring, its predecessor
recognizes this fact by observing no response on the bus when the token is passed on. It then
transmits a frame known as ‘ Who follows’ frame to determine the next successor.
- Both token ring and token bus suffer from the potential danger of token being lost. A token may
be corrupted by noise disturbing the token pattern which is used to recognize its presence.
- A variation of token passing bus scheme is what is known as implicit token or carrier sense
multiple access/ collision avoidance (CSMA/ CA ) scheme.


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Networking model:
For local area network , institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE) recommended that
there are 7 layers of a n/w. These 7 layers network is approved by ISO (Inernational organization of
standardization ). This ISO is sometimes also known as ISO-OSI (Open system interconnection ).

Application Application
Application Protocal
Presentation
Presentation Protocal
Session
Session Protocal
Transport
Transport Protocal
Presentation
Session Session
Transport
Network Network Network Network
Data link
Physical
Data link Data link Data link
Physical Physical Physical
Communication Subnet

Fig: ISO-OSI reference Model



Layers: physical layers:
- It is first layer of ISO-OSI Model (ie The lowest layer of the architecture)
- This layer performs functions associated with the activation and deactivation of physical
connections.
- It deals with encoding and decoding of signals.
- It transmit the data over communication link through synchronous or asynchronous medium.
- It provides mechanical, electrical , functional and procedural standard to access the physical
medium.

Layer 2: Data link layers:
- This layer deals with error deflection and automatic recovery procedures required when a
message is corrupted.
- It provides functional and procedural means to establish, maintain & release data link
connections for the entities in the n/w layers.
- It also provides link level flow control of the frame.
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Layer 3: Network layers:
- It transmits packet from the source node to destination node.
- It deals with routing and switching.
- Internetworking is an important function of the network layer.
- Network congestion is also handled by this layer.

Layer 4: Transport layer:
- It is the first end-to-end layer.
- It is responsible for matching user message characteristics and service requirements with that of
the n/w capabilities.
- If performs multiplexing and splitting.
- End to end flow control and error recovery are the important function of this layer.
- When a user makes a request to the transport layer for connection, following three things may
happen.
(a) Connection may be established as request.
(b) Options may be negotiated and a connection established with changed parameter values.
(c) Connection is rejected as the n/w is unable to handle even the minimal requirement of the user.
- It is based on transmission control protocol (TCP)

Layer 5: Session layer
- It organizes different session between co operating entities and perform all related functions like
synchronization, failure management, control etc for the successful execution of the session.
- This layer provides the facility of activity management.

Layer 6: Presentation layer:
- It represents information to the communicating application entities in a way that preserve the
meaning while resolving the differences.
- It is concerned with the representation of user or system data (ASCD or EBCDIC format).
- The standard notation used for representing information across the n/w is known as abstract
syntax notation 1 (ASN.1).

Layer 7: Application layer:
- It is the highest layer in the OSI reference model.
- It provides number of services such as ,
(a) Electronic mail (E-mail) or Message handling services.
(b) Directory services.
(c) Cost allocation.
(d) Determination of quality of service (QOS).
(e) File transfer and management (FTAM)
(f) Editors and terminal support services.
(g) Telematic services like videotext.

Network interfaces:
Following equipments are widely used for n/w interface.
I. Transreceiver
II. NIC (Network interface card)
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III. Transmission media Adaptor.
i. Transceiver: Device which is capable to transmit as well as receive data between network is
known as transceiver.
- It may transmits or receiver electric, light or electromagnetic wave (EM wave).

ii. NIC: printed ckt board which provides the connection to convert the computer’s electric
signals to be electric or electro magnetic signals suitable for the medium is called NIC.
iii. Transmission media adaptor: The NIC uses a connector that is different from what is
already attached to the X’mission medium, a transmission media adaptor is used.
DTE (Data terminal equipment ) and DCE (Data communication equipment) are widely used
as transmission media adaptor.

DTE: Device that ends communication link is called DTE.
DCE: It produces path for communication.
Modem Terminal Modem Terminal
DTE DCE DCE DTE


Some of the important network connection are:
- RS 232C with 25 pins.
- Rj45 with 8 pins (Registered junction

Internetworking (page 482 vishwanathan)
- Connection between network is known internetworking connectivity (i.e connection between two
or more network ) is possible through following devices:-
(a) Repeaters.
(b) Bridge
(c) Routers
(d) Gateways.

Repeaters:
It acts as a physical layers relays. It maintains the strength of the signal.
Repeater N/w N/w


Bridge:
- This widely used in physical and data link layer standards. It connects two or more networks
with similar protocol.

Routers:
- It implements in physical, data link and network layer standards.

Gateways:
- These are considered as application relays between network environment.
- It is used to connect two or more network with different protocol.

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P
UL
P P
UL
UL
P P
UL
L L
P
CL
Bridge

(a) Repeater interconnection (b) Bridge interconnection

N
P
L
UL
N
P
L
UL
P
L
P
L
CL
Router
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
CL

(c ) Router interconnection (d) Gateway interconnection

P – physical layer L – data link layer N – Network layer.
UL – upper layer. CL – Common layer.





















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7. Telephone traffic and Network:
7.1 Fundamental of telephone traffic:
Engineering which provides the basis for the analysis of design of telecommunication network is
known as traffic engineering. The calculation were based on quantity that specified the fraction of the
time of r which a subscriber line way be busy. The task of designing cost effective networks that provide
the required quantity of service under varied traffic conditions. Traffice engineering analysis enables one
to determine the ability of a telecommunication n/w to carry a given traffic at a particular loss
probability.
Network traffic load and parameters.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Hour of the day
23

Fig: typical telephone traffic pattern on a working day.

- load carried of a communication link or channel is called traffic .
- In a day, the 60- minute interval in which the traffic is the highest is called the busy hour (BH).
According to CCITT, there are three types of busy hour.
(a) Busy hour: - Continuous 1-hour period lying wholly in the time interval concerned, for which the
traffic volume or number of call attempts is greatest over the days under consideration.
(b) Peak busy hour:- The busy hour each day, it usually varies from day to day, or over a number of
days.
(c) Time Consistent busy hour:- The 1-hour period starting at the same time each day for which the
average traffic volume or the number of call attempts in greatest over the days under
consideration.

Call completion rate (CCR): It is defined as the ratio of the number of successful calls to the number of
successful calls to the number of call attempts.

Busy hour call attempts (BHCA): It is the number of call attempts in busy hour.

Busy hour calling rate (BHCR): It is defined as the average number of calls originated by a subscriber
during the busy hour.

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Day to busy hour traffic ratio: It is the ratio of busy hour calling rate to the average calling rate for the
day.

Traffic intensity: It is defined as the fraction of time for which server is busy. It is dented by A
0
and its
unit is Erlang. i.e
n observatio of period total
busy is server which for Time
A =
0


It is known as carried traffic or traffic flow.
A server is said to have 1 erlang of traffic it is occupied for the entire period of observation.
A
0
is also measured in centum call second(CCS). One CCS may mean one call for 100 seconds
duration or 100 calls for one second duration each or any other combination.
Sometimes, call second (CS) and call minute (CM) are also used as a measure of traffic intensity.
1E = 36CCS = 3600 CS = 60 CM. ( E= eralang).

Offered traffic: Two important parameter are required to estimate the traffic intensity or the n/w load
are
- Average call arrived rate ( C ).
- Average holding time per call ( t
h
).
Now , we can express the load offered to the n/w in terms of
h
t C ≠ is

h
Ct A = [ A = offered traffic ]

GOS (Grade of service )
- It is defined as the ratio of lost traffic to offered traffic. i.e

A
A A
traffic Offered
traffic lost
GOS
0

= =
It should be as low as possible. For e.g GOS should be in ordered of 0.002 i.e 2 calls in every 1000
calls or one call in every 500 calls may be lost.


Numericals:
Q. 1. An exchange serves 2000 subscribers, if the average BHCA is 10,000 an CCR is 60%, calculate
the busy hour calling rate.
Solution:
Average busy hour calls = BHCA × CCR = 6000 calls.
Busy hour calling rate =
subscriber of no total
calls hour busy average


Q.2. In a group of 10 servers, each is occupied for 30 minutes in an observation interval of two hours.
Calculate the traffic carried by the group.
Solution:
Traffic carried per server =
duration total
duration occupied

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E 25 . 0
120
30
= =
Total traffic carried by the group 10 × 0.25 = 2.5E.


Q. A group of 20 servers carry a traffic of 10E. If the average duration of a call is 3 minutes, calculate
the no of calls put through by a single server and the group as whole in a out hour period.
Solution:
Traffic per server = E 5 . 0
20
10
=
i.e server is busy for 30 minutes in one hour. No of calls put through by one server = 10
3
30
= calls.
Total number of calls put through by the group = 10 ×20 = 200 calls.

Q. Over a 20 minute observation interval, 40 subscriber initiate calls. Total duration of the call is 4800
seconds. Calculate the load offered to the N/W by the subscribers and the average subscriber traffic.
Solution:
Mean arrival rate (c) = 40/20 = 2 calls/minute.
Mean holding time (t
h
) = 4800/ (40×60) = 2 minutes/call
Therefore, offered load = 2×2 = 4E
Average subscriber traffic = 4/40 = 0.1 E.


Modelling Switching System:-
It is possible through random process or stochastic process. Stochastic process is one in which
one or more quantities vary with time in such a way that the instantaneous values of the quantities are
not determinable precisely but are predictable with certain probability. The quantities are called random
variables. There are four different types of stochastic processes.
i. Continuous time continuous state.
ii. Continuous time discrete state.
iii. Discrete time Continuous state.
iv. Discrete time discrete state.

A discrete state stochastic process is often called chain.

Markov process: Discrete time discrete state Markov process is defined as one which has the following
property:-

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] } /{ } { } ) ( , ,......... /{ } {
1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 n n n n n n n n n n
x t X x t X P x t X x t X x t X x t X P = = = = = = =
+ + − − + +
…(1
)
Where,
2 1
t t < ……. <
1 +
<
n n
t t and x
i
is the i
th
discrete state space value.
Above equation states that probability that the random variable X takes on the value x
n+1
at time step
“n+1” is entirely determined by its state value in the previous time step ‘n’ and is independent of its state
values in earlier time steps; n-1, n-2 , n-3 etc.

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Birth –death process (B – D process )
B – D process are very useful in analysis of telecommunication n/w. A telecommunication n/w can be
modeled as a B –D state where the number of busy servers represents the population, a cell request
means a birth and a cell termination implies a death.
Death
No change
Birth
K+1
K
K-1
K
At time t+ t

Fig: State position at a B-D process.

The B- D process moves from its state k to state k-1 if a death occurs or moves to state k+1, if birth
occurs and if stays in the same state if there is no birth or death during the time period under
consideration.
To analysis B-D process, we shall choose a time interval t ∆ such that,
1. There can almost be only one state transition in that interval.
2. There is only one arrival or one termination but not both in time t ∆ .
3. There may be no arrival or termination leaving the state unchanged in time t ∆ .
Let ) (t P
k
be the probability that the system is in state k at time t i.e k serves are busy at time
t.

k
λ = Call arrival rate in state k.

k
µ = Call termination rate in state k .

Then we have the following probabilities in the time interval t ∆ .

P [ exactly one arrival ] = t ∆ λ
P [ exactly one termination ] = t ∆ µ
P [ no arrival ] = t ∆ − λ 1
P [ no termination ] = t ∆ − µ 1
Probability of finding the system in state k at time t t ∆ + is given by the equation,
( ) ( )( ) ) ( 1 1 ) ( ) (
1 1 1 1
t P t t t t P t t P t t P
k k k k k k k k
∆ − ∆ − + ∆ + ∆ = ∆ +
+ + − −
µ λ µ λ ………………. (1)
Expanding equation (1) and ignoring the second order t ∆ term, we get
( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1 1
t tP t P t t P t t P t t P
k k k k k k k k k
∆ + − ∆ + ∆ = ∆ +
+ + − −
µ λ µ λ …………. (2)
Rearranging term in equation (2) we get,

( )
( ) ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
1 1 1 1
t P t P t P
t
t P t t P
k k k k k k k
k k
µ λ µ λ − − + =

− ∆ +
+ + − −
…………. (3)
In the limit 0 → ∆t , we get
( ) t P
dt
t dP
k
k
1
) (

= ( ) ) ( ) (
1 1 1
t P t P
k k k k k k
µ λ µ λ + − +
+ + −
……….. (4)
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Equation (4) in differential equation governing the dynamics of a B – D process equation (4) applies for
all values of k 1 ≥ , for k = 0, i.e no call in progress, there can be no termination of call i.e = µ 0. Hence
equation becomes for k =0.
) ( ) (
) (
0 0 1 1
0
t P t P
dt
t dP
λ µ − = …………….. (5)
Under steady state condition, the state probabilities reach equilibrium value do not change with time i.e
0
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
= = = =
dt
t dP
t P t P t P
k
i k k k

And the B-D process becomes stationary. Therefore, the steady state equation of a B-D process are
( ) 1 0
1 1 1 1
≥ = − − +
+ + − −
k for P P P
k k k k k k k
µ λ µ λ ………… (6)
0
0 0 1 1
= − P P λ µ for k = 0 ………………. (7)

It may be noted that the steady state behaviour of a telecommunication switching system is governed by
equation (6) and equation (7).
When the system is modeled as a B-D process.
In a system modeled as a B-D process, the termination phenomenon can be characterized as pure
death process. We obtain pure death process from a B-D process by setting the birth rate equal to zero.


Blocking models and estimates:- Telecommunication system may be classified as loss system or
delay system. The behavior of loss system is studied by using blocking models and that of the delay
system by using quicking models. We concerned with three aspects while dealing with analysis of the
telecommunication system.
(i) Modelling the system.
(ii) Traffic arrived model.
(iii) Service time distribution.
There are three models of loss system:-
(i) lost call cleared (LCC ).
(ii) Lost calls returned (LCR)
(iii) Lost calls held (LCH)
Lost calls cleared system with infinite sources was first studied by A.K Erlang to estimate the blocking
probability and the GOS.
Offered traffic (A) is expressed as,
A =
h
t λ …..(1) where, λ = average passion call arrival rate.
When all serves are busy no traffic is accepted by the n/w such a traffic on the n/w is known as Erlang
traffic. In this case, we have,
λ =
i
C for R i < ≤ 0 , 0 =
R
C ( C = average call arrival rate).
Where, R is the no of serves in the system. The mean effective traffic C
o
is calculated as



=
=
1
0
0
R
i
i
P C λ Where, P
i
= probability that the system is in state i.
The system can be in any one of the 0 , 1, 2, 3, …….R states. Therefore we have,
1 ........ ..........
2 1 0
= + + +
R
P P P P ………………..(2)
Now,
( ) ( )
R R
P P P P C − = + + =

1 ..........
1 1 0 0
λ λ ……………. (3)
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The mean traffic carried by the n/w is given by,

h
t C A
0 0
= ………….. (4)
( )
h R
t P − = 1 λ ……….. (5)

From equation (i)

( )
h R
h
t P
t
A
A − = 1
0
( )
h
t A λ = ∴
A
A A
P
R
0

= The blocking probability P
B
is the same as the probability that all the server are busy i.e
P
R
.

Therefore, GOS = P
B
.
Consider termination rate is directly proportional to the number of busy server as given by
R k for k
k
≤ ≤ = 0 µ µ
Where, µ = mean call termination rate =
n
t
1


k
µ = call termination rate in state k.
We have equation for B-D process.
( ) 0 ) 1 (
1 1
= − − + +
+ − k k k k k
P k P P µ λ µ λ
Now,
( ) 0 ) 1 (
1 1
= − − + +
+ − k k k k
P k k P P µ λ µ λ ( ) µ µ k
k
= Q
Equation (1) , we get,
1
1
1
+
+ + −
=

+
k
kP AP AP
P
k k k
k
for k > 0 …………………….. (6)

0 1
AP P = for k = 0 …………. (7)
k = 1, we have
2
1 1 1
2
AP P AP
P
− +
=
Substituting for P
1
form equation (7) .
2
0
2
2
P A
P =
Fro k = 2, we have

! 3 2 3 3
2
0
2
0
3
1 2 2
3
P A P A AP P AP
P =
×
=
− +
=
Generalizing we get,

!
0
j
P A
P
j
j
= …………. (8)
From equation (2) and (8)
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1
!
..... ..........
0
0 0
= + + +
R
P A
AP P
R

For ,
!
.........
! 2
1
1
2
0
R
A A
A
P
R
+ + + +
= ………………. (9)
For k = R , Substituting for P
0
form equation (9) into equation (8) we get,

Above formula is Erlang B-formula or loss formula.

Quenign theory:-
Delay system are analyzed using this theory which sometime known as waiting line theory.
Elements of quening system.

...
Queue
Source
Offered traffic
Server 1
Server 2
Server R

Fig: elements of queuing system.



A quening system is characterized by a set of six parameters. The notation read as
A/ B/C/K/m/z. The parameter specification are as follows.
A = arrival process specification.
B = Service time distribution.
C = Number of server.
K = quene capacity.
m = number of source (Input population).
Z = Service discipline.


Telephone Network
- PSTN or the old telephone system (POTS) is most popular telecommunication n/w
- There are over 400 million telephone connection and over 60,000 telephone exchanges the world
over.
- The length of telephone exceeds a billion km.
A telecommunication n/w may be viewed as consisting of the following major
system.
(1) Subscriber end instruments or equipment.
(2) Subscriber loop systems.
(3) Switching systems.
(4) Transmission system.
(5) Signaling systems.

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Subscriber loop system.

FP DP DP DP
DP DP DP
DP DP DP FP
FP
FP
DP
DP
DP
DC
M
D
F
MF
Exchange
DW
DW


MDF - Main distribution frame, FM – Main feeder.
FP - Feeder point BF – branch feeder.
DP – Distribution point DC – distribution cable.
DW - Drop wires.

Fig: Cable hierarchy for subscriber loop.


Every subscriber in a telephone n/w is connected generally to the nearest switching office by means
of dedicated pair of wires.
Subscriber pairs and exchange pairs are interconnected at the MDF by means of jumpers. The
MDF thus provides a flexible interconnection mechanism which is very useful in reallocating cable
pairs and subscriber numbers.
It is desirable form economy point view that the subscriber loop lengths are as large as possible
so that a single exchange can serve a large area. But two factors limit their length.
(1) Signaling limits.
(2) Attenuation limits.

ISDN (Integrated service digital network) An integrated digital network in which the same digital
switches and digital paths are used to establish different services, for example telephony and data.


ISDN based on six conceptual principles:
1. ISDN will be based on and will evolve from the telephony IDN .
2. Now services introduced into the ISDN should be so arranged as to compatible with 64kbps
switched digital connection.
3. The transition from the existing network to a ISDN may required a period of time (extending
over one or two decades ).
4. During the transition period, arrangement must be made for the interworking of services on
ISDNs and services on other n/ws.
5. The ISDN will content intelligence for the purpose of providing services features, maintenance
and n/w management function.
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6. A layered functional set of protocols appears desirable for the various access arrangements to
ISDN.

Motivation for ISDN ( Three factors are responsible for the development towards the ISDN )
(2) Sociological or Societal needs.
(3) Economic necessity.
(4) Technology developments.

New services:
(1) Videotex.
(2) E-mail
(3) Digital Fax.
(4) Teletex.
(5) Database access.
(6) Electronic fund transfer.
(7) Image and graphics image.
(8) Document storage and transfer.
(9) Atomatic Alarm services eq. smoke, fire, police and medical.
(10) Audio and video conferencing.

User application
Compression/ Expansion
Encyption/Decryption
Session control Session sync
Error recovery Message interity End to end flow control
Addressin & routing User to user signalling
Data link connection
Encoding/Decoding Multiplexing for
B or D
Transmission
Conjestion flow
& error control
Tele service
function
Bearer
service function
level 7
level 6
level 5
level 4
level 3
level 2
level 1


Fig: ISDN protocol architecture.


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Transmission channel: -
There are three types of fundamental channels in ISDN. These are:
1. Basic information channel B channel, 64 kbps.
2. Signalling channel D channel , 16 or 64 kbps.
3. High speed channel H channels.
H
0
channel , 384 kbps, H
7
channel 1536 kbps, H
12
channel, 1920 kbps.


Signaling: (Signalling in ISDN falls into two distinct categories )
1. User level signaling 2. Network level signaling.

ISDN service categories:
ISDN services
1. Barrier services
a. Basic bearer services
b. Basic teleservice + supplementary services.
2. Teleservices.
a. Basic teleservices.
b. Basic barrier service + supplementary services.


Numerical: (see page 311 vishwanathan)

Q. A group of 20 services carry a traffic of 10 erlangs. If the average duration of call is 3 min.
Calculate the numbers of calls putthrough by a single server and the group as a whole in a 1 hrs
period.
Solution:

A
0
= 10E
Occupied time = 3 min
Total server = 20
Traffic per server = 10/20 = 0.5E
Time occupied for 1 server = 0.5 = t
o
/t
60 5 . 0
0
× = ∴t = 30 min
Number of calls made by single server (put through) = 30/3 = 10 calls.
The number of call put through by total server = 10 ×20 = 200.

Relation:
1 E = 36 CCS
= 3600CS
= 60Cm
CCS = Centum call second.
Cs = call second.
Cm = call minutes.
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Q. A subscriber makes three phone calls of 3 minutes, 4 minutes and 2 minutes duration in 1 hrs
duration. Calculate the subscriber traffic in erlangs, CCs and Cm.
E A 15 . 0
60
2 3 4
0
=
+ +
=
ccs A 36 15 . 0
0
× =
ccs 4 . 5 =
cs 100 4 . 5 × =
cm
60
100 4 . 5 ×
= = 9 cm
Q. An exchange server 2000 subscriber. If the average BHCA (busy hour calls attempt) is 10,000 and
the CCR (call completion rate) is 60%, calculate the busy hour calling rate.
Solution:
Busy hour Calling rate =
subscriber of number Total
calls our busy average

Average busy our call = BHCA* CCR
= 10,000
100
60
×
= 6000
Busy hour calling rate =
2000
6000
= 3.

Q. Over a 20 minutes observation interval , 40 subscribers initiate calls. Total duration of calls is 4800
seconds. Calculate the load offered to the n/w by the subscriber and average subscriber traffic.
[note: offered traffic A = C
th
]
Where,
C = average call arrival rate.
Th = average holding time per call.
C = 40/20 = 2.
th = 4800/(40×60) = 2 min per calls.
A = C.th
= 4E.


Q. During a busy hour 1400 calls were offered to a group of trunks and 14 calls were lost. The average
call duration has three minutes find.
(1) Traffic offered (A)
(2) GOS (A
o
)
(3) Traffic carried.
Solution:
GOS = ....
1400
14
= =
calls Offered
calls Lost

Successful calls = 1400 – 14
= 1386 calls.
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Traffic carried (A
o
) = accepted no of calls * average holding time in hours .
= 1386*(3/60)
= ……… Erlangs or E.
Traffic offered (A) = offered calls * Average holding time in hours.
= 1400 * (3/60 ) = ………. E.

Q. An exchange is design to handel 2000 calls during the busy hour. One day, the number of calls during
the busy hour is 2200 What is the resulting GOS.

Q. A call in processor in an exchange requires 120 ms to service a complete call. What is the BHCS
rating for the processor? . If the exchange is capable of carrying 700 erlang of traffic, what is CCR?

Q. A total of 800 calls is offered to a switching system during the busy hour if 8 calls are lost due to
insufficient equipment. What is the GOS? If the average holding time of successful call is 3 minutes,
how much traffic is carried? What is the probability of loosign a call during a busy hours.

Q. During the busy hour group of ckt if offered 100 calls having an average duration of 3 minutes, and
one call fails to find a free ckt. Calculate the traffic offered to the group, traffic carried by the group,
traffic lost and the call conjection.
[ Note: Time cojection = Total time duration which all devices/circuits were busy during a time
interval]. Eg.
considered erval The
hour an
int


Q. During the busy hour if all ckt in a group were simultaneously engage for a total period of 6 seconds
calculate time conjection.

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References: 1. M.Schwartz “Telecommunication networks” Addition Wesley. 2. B.E.Briley “An Introduction to telephone switching” Addition Wesley 3. W. Stallings “Local Area Networks” Mc Millan 4. Harold B. Killen “Fibre Optic Communications” Prentice Hall 5. Manuals published by telecom equipment.

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Evolution of telecommunication: Telegraph was introduced in 1837 in Great Britain and in 1845 in France. In March 1876, Elexander Grahm Bell demonstrated his telephone set and the possibility of telephony. His model was based on point to point connection between entities. In general case, there are n(n-1)/2 links with an entities. Network with point to point links among all the entities are known as fully connected network. The disadvantage of such model is that the no of links required becomes very large with moderate values of M, also receives more numbers of cables etc. To overcome above difficulties, scientists invented concepts of switching system with the introduction of SS the subscriber do not connected to one another but are connected to SS as shown in figure.
s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8

In this figures only one link is required between subscriber hand- switching system and total number of link is equal to the number of subscriber connected to the networks. Generally, there were number of modification in switching system. Early switching system were manual and operator oriented. Which provided lots of problems in establishing call and was inefficient in time perspective. To overcome above drawbacks manual exchange was replaced by automatic exchange. The automatic exchange have large number of advantages as it require less time to establish and release call; maintain privacy etc. Gradually, the automatic exchange was also modified as electromechanical, electronic, time division switching, space division switching etc. However, subscriber all over the world cannot be connected to single switching system. To overcome this problem, switching system placed at different geographical location and connected to each other to provide services between different distance subscriber as shown in fig.

SS1

SS3

Trunk

SS2

SS4

The links that run between switching system are called trunk. The no of trunks depend upon the traffic between two switching system as the number of exchange are increased, the number of links and Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 3

Total number of links = n(n-1)/ 2 = (5*4)/2 = 10 Classification of switching system: System which is used to establish connection between entities and outlets.Downloaded from www.jayaram.np / 4 . Solution: No of entities (n) = 5 Therefore. carry necessary function regarding establishment and release of call.jayaram. Q. signaling function etc is known as switching system. To overcome this. switching center SS2 SS3 SS4 SS5 SS6 SS7 A modern telecommunication n/w may be viewed as an aggregate of a large no of point to point electrical or optical system. the hierarchical model among switching system was brought to the practice. How many point to point links are required in fully connected network with 5 entities. Downloaded from www.np interconnection becomes more complex.com.com.

two-motion selector. control function. Crossbar: It consists of array of horizontal and vertical provided that horizontal and vertical contacts points are connected to these wires. binary coded data are transmitted at fixed interval.com.np / 5 .S: In this. human being was placed in SS that help in establishing and releasing a call. establishing and releasing a call.B Strowger. sampled values of signal are transmitted at fixed interval. Downloaded from www. Digital time division s/w system: In this.Downloaded from www. Strowger ( Step by step): It is known as so after its inverter A. Electronic switching system (SPC): In this switching is possible through computer or processor. Space division switching: In this.com.jayaram. Time division by switching system: In this. Automatic S. a dedicated path is established between the calling and the called subscriber for the entire duration of call.jayaram. The electromagnets are used to energize the horizontal and vertical crosspoints for establishment of connection between subscriber. Electromechanical: It uses the electromagnet to move the mechanical parts to perform required switching. operator was replaced by machine that help in signaling.np Switching System Manual Automatic Electomechanical Electronics Space division Strowger Crossbar Time division Digital Analog Space Time combination Manual SS: In this. Control function is performed by circuits associated with switching element like uniselector.

System.Downloaded from www. one earphone. This carbon granules conducts electrically and the resistance offered by them is dependent upon density with which they are packed. Here. r = Maximum variation in resistance offered by carbon granules. This ckt performs one way communication i. The simplest form of telephone ckt consists of one microphone . When a sound wave impinge on the diaphragm. Where. The microphone and earphone acts as a transducer where microphone converts audio signal into electrical signal. the current in the ckt varies according to the vibration of the diaphragm.e simplex between two entities. One side of the box is mechanically attached to a diapharagm. Where as earphone converts electrical signal to audio signal. ri = instantaneous resistance. Time SS: It is a type of digital s/w where coded values are transferred at fixed interval of time form i/p to o/p. when sound wave impinge on the diaphragm.com. If voltage is applied to the microphone. sampled voltage levels are transmitted at a fixed interval. ri = ro – rsinwt. thus changing the resistivity offered by particles. Analog time division SS:.In this. it vibrates the diaphragm causing the carbon particles to compress and expand.jayaram.np / 6 . 3 Simple Telephone communication:Diaphragm Ear-phone Microphone V Fig: Simple comm. Combinational: It is the combination of space and time division digital switch. = ro ( 1Downloaded from www.com. 1.jayaram.np Space SS: It is a type of digital switching where coded values are transferred during same time interval from i/p to o/p. the instantaneous resistance of the microphone is given by. ro = Quiescent resistance. small carbon granules is placed in a box. Commonly used microphone is a carbon microphone which does not produce high fidelity signal but gives strong electrical signal. ( r < ro) ri = ro – rsinwt ri sin wt ) r0 Now instantaneous current.

Downloaded from www.e Fα φ i2 F = K ( øo + ø sinwt)2 =k Q øo2 φ  ( 1+ sin wt +   sin wt ) φ  φ0  0 So highest terms are neglected. called duplex comm. m = r/ro .. (ø < øo) The instantaneous force or diaphragm is directly proportional to the square of instantaneous flux.(i) r0 Where. I = I0 ( 1+m sinwt) ………(ii) Comparing this equation with amplitude modulation wave we can say that. modulation factor Now. ø = maximum amplitude of flux variable..Downloaded from www.. The voice frequency current from microphone causes variation in the force exerted by the electromagnet.. thus vibrating the diaphragm and producing sound wave the instantaneous flux linking in the poles of the electromagnet and diaphragm is given by: Øi = øo + ø sinwt. 2 types: (i) Half duplex. microphone acts as a modulator and I0 acts as a carrier..com. Where. from Binomial expansion .. When electromagnet is energized by passing a current.. So here. Earphone usually an electromagnet with magnetic diaphragam..jayaram.com. 2φ 2φ 2 φ << φ φ0 = k øo2 ( 1+ φ0 sin wt ) F = k øo2 (1+ k1Io sinwt) Above equation shows that force produced as diaphragm at earphone is proportional to the current produced at microphone..np / 7 .jayaram. ( 1-m sinwt)-1 = (1+m sinwt) [ By neglecting higher power terms] = Equation (i) becomes. the equation (ii) becomes the amplitude modulation. a force is exerted on the diaphragm. Øi = instantaneous flux linkage øo = constant flux due to quiescent current. Duplex: If transmission of data takes place in both the direction.np I = V/ri = V   r r0 1 − sin wt   r  0   v (1 − m sin wt )−1 . i.

(eg. it is the controls subsystem of the switching system that actual establish the path.g walkie – talkie ) .np / 8 . telephone system). Chapte:4 Basic of witching system: Inlets /outlets : Set of input and output ckts called inlets and outlets. Switching: This enable the calling subscriber to be temporary connected to call subscriber. transmission of data takes place in both directions but not simultaneously (e. It’s provided the switching path.Downloaded from www. In half duplex .jayaram. In full duplex.np (ii) Full duplex. Downloaded from www.com. M M E V E Fig: half duplex (alternative use of microphone and earphone ) ( explain as above ) A p Q Zb V A’ Sidetone: The audio signal heard at the generating end is called side tone is known as sidetone.com. Switching Matrix or networks: The hardware used to establish connection between inlets and outlets is known switching Matrix.jayaram. transmission of data takes place in both directions simultaneously.

It perform the following task. calling process etc. indicate the same to calling subscriber. ringtone. Control function:.It’s perform following task. . 3. Switching techniques:Figure: Fig: Model of switching n/w 1. .jayaram.np Switching system: It is composed of elements that peroforms switching. Non-blocking network:Downloaded from www. # In 100 lines f olded n/w. In this case.Perform switching action. . of simultaneous call is equal to N/2.com.com.For N subscriber the no. (Ans :15) Blocking network: The switching network that have as many simultaneous switching paths as the average number of conversion expected.Sense the end of information transfer and release connections. Symmetric switching network:When in above figure the N inlets subscriber is equal to the M outlets subscriber such n/w called symmetric switching n/w.N/w that does not support local subscriber such that the outlets are not folded back to inlets is known as unfolded networks.With N inlets and outlets and N simultaneous information transfer are possible. and he is denied connection. the subscriber is said to be blocked and the network is said to be blocking. Signaling: . Unfolded network:. The probability that a user may get blocked is called blocking probability.np / 9 .Downloaded from www. how many switching elements are required for non-blocking operation. Note folded:. .It gives the subscriber certains status such as dial tone busytone. . .It enables to detects whether called subscriber is busy if so. it may occasionally happen that when a subscriber request a connection .jayaram. Folded network:Figur: A n/w in which output line are folded back to the input line known as folded n/w. in such an event.Distinguish between inlets/outlets and interrupt.Sense signaling information to subscriber and other exchange connected to outgoing trunk. controlling and singnaling function. Figur: Non-folded:. 2. there is no switching paths free in the network.

Distributors units send out signaling information on the respective lines. .. .com. . Junctors ckt employee a folded connection for the local subscriber and the service ckt interface but some switching system provide an internal mechanism for local connection without using the junctors ckts. Incomming . . Line scanning ckt senses and obtain signaling information from the respective lines. . Incomming call connections between an incoming trunks and a local subscriber. Service ckt interfacing are used for maintenance and testing of subscriber lines. . Downloaded from www.jayaram. . in which case the n/w is said to be non-blocking. . - - Subscriber lines …. . Incoming trunk Fig: Elements of switching system.com. trunks are connected with subscriber and trunk line interface. . 4 types of connections may be established. . Outgoing call connection between a subscriber and an outgoing trunk.np The switching network designed to provide N/2 simultaneous switching path. . .np / 10 . . i) ii) iii) iv) Local call connection between two subscriber in the system. . Incomming trunk Switching Network Subscriber inlets Outgoing Subscriber Outgoing trunk Fig: Inlet/outlet connection From above figure . . Outgoing Trunk Interface J U N C T O R S Trunk Interface Subscriber Interface Switching Network Subscriber line Interface Service ckt Interface Service ckt Interface Subscribe& service line & distributor units Control Operator console Trunk ckt scanning & distributor units .Downloaded from www. Operator console permits interaction with switching system for maintenance and administrative purpose.jayaram. . . Transit call connection between an incoming trunk and outgoing trunk.

strowger or step by step switching system. 2) 2nd generation SS. Indirect control SS (or common control SS ): Switching system where the control sub system is outside the switching network are known as common control SS or indirect control SS. 1) Line equipment part. b) Two-motion selector: It is capable of horizontal as well as vertical stepping movement. i) Direct control SS.com. ISDN. Switching system where control sub system may be an integral part of the switching matrix itself is known as direct control SS. It consists of 3 main parts. 4) 4th generation SS. E. 2) Switching n/w part. electronic exchange. For eg. ii) Indirect control SS. Eg SPC or electronic exchange. crossbar . There are two types of selectors which form the building blocks for the switching system.np Classification of switching system: On the basis of control sub system there are manly 2 types switching system.jayaram. Eg. a) Uniselector: It is one which have a single rotary switch with a bank of contact.jayaram. It has two rotary s/w. strowger.Downloaded from www.np / 11 . From calling subscriber To called subscriber Selector hunter or life finder Group Selector stage Final Selector stage Line equipment part Switching n/w part connector part Fig: configuration of step by step ss.g crossbar 3) 3rd generation SS. For eg.B strowger in 1889. Eg. Strowger SS: It was the first switching system developed by A. * On the basis of generation: 1) 1st generation SS. Downloaded from www.com. Direct control SS.

Now if an electromagnet in the vertical direction is energized the correspondingly bar rotates causing the contact points move towards each other. the bar attached to it slightly rotates in such a way that the contacts points attached to the bars move closer to its facing contacts points but do not actually make any contact. Crossbar are designed using common control concept. These are built using uniselector or two motion selector. Selector hunter scheme is sometime called subscriber uniselector scheme as there is dedicated uniselector for each subscriber in the system. So it was replaced by crossbar.com.jayaram. The switching matrix part consists of one or more sets of two motion selector known as first group selector. The basic idea of this switching is to provide a matrix of n×m sets of contacts with only n+m activators or less to select one of the n×m sets of contact. iii) Cross-bar switching: M1 M2 M3 A 1 2 3 M1 Subscriber B 4 5 6 M2 C 7 8 9 M3 A B C Fig: 3×3 crossbar switching The major disadvantage of the strowger of the strowger switching system is its dependence on moving parts and contacts that are subject to wear and tear.Downloaded from www.com.np / 12 . Usually. The main task of selector hunter is to search and seize a selector form the switching matrix part. Line finder searches and finds the line of subscriber to be connected to the first selector associated with it.. This form of switching is also known as coordinate switching as the switching contacts are arranged in a x-y plane. The connector part comprises one set of two motion selector known as final selectors.(आफ explain गनु) ै Downloaded from www.jayaram. There is only one selector hunter for each subscriber.np 3) Connector part.Consists of hunter or line finder. 24 outlet uniselectors are used as selector hunters. second group selector and so on. Line equipment part: . Line finders and selector hunters are generally referred to as pre-selectors. From above figure…………………. When an electromagnet say in the horizontal direction is energized.

. Where. Downloaded from www. Events occurring outside the exchange at the line units.Initial translator determines the router for the call through the network and decides whether a call should be put through or not.Downloaded from www. The control function in a SS may be placed under 4 broad categories. ___ indicates data or into. d) Origin based routing: Destination of certain calls may depend on the geographical location of the calling subscriber. d) Operation and maintenance. junctors and signaling receiver/ sender /sender receivers are all monitored by the control sub-system. b) Call processing. a) Event monitoring.com. e) No-dialing calls: These calls are routed to pre-determine number without the calling party having to dial. ---. the calling location is determined and marked for dial tone.jayaram. c) Call charging: It is possible to define charging rules for different subscriber in the same exchange.indicates control line.np / 13 .com. .Register finder is activated to seize a free register. c) Charging. It also determines the charging method and the rates on the class of service information of the subscriber which specifies details such as: a) Call priority: When exchange or n/w is overloaded. For eg.np Calling subscriber line unit Register finder Call processign subsystem Digit receiver & storage register Initial translator Register Sender Switching n/w Line unit Called subscriber Charging ckts Maintainance ckts Operator control Event monitors Final translator Fig: common control SS. b) Call baring: A subscriber may be barried from making certain calls. only calls from subscriber indentified as priority call subscriber. when a subscriber goes off hook. trunks. the event is sensed by the line unit.jayaram. one be put through. Final translator: It is determines the line unit to which a call must be connected and the category of the called line. For eg. STD or ISD barring.

. To improve the speed of control and signaling between exchange led to the application of electronic in the design of control and signaling subsystem. Resistor and translator of the common control subsystem could be replace by a single digital computer. Downloaded from www. 4..Here.Time required to established and released call depends upon loads.Human being acts as a SS to set and release call. we cannot use electromechanical or electronic switching concept.Modern technique of switching.The calling subscriber needs to communicate with operator in a common language. .Language independent .Slow in processing. .Not required.jayaram. There are basically two approaches to organizing Stored program control. .We may use electromechanical or electronic s/w concept.It was ancient techniques of switching.com.jayaram. Electromechanical switching n/w Electronic switching n/w SPC SPC Fig: Electromechanical and electronic switching SPC: In SPC exchange control function are carried through programmed stored in computer memory and are executed automatically one by one by the processor.com. . . . Automatic: .Privacy is not maintained . .2 Space division switching:.np Comparison between manual exchange (SS) and automatic exchange (auto SS): Manual: .Privacy maintained .np / 14 .Early crossbar system were slow in processing as they used mechanical components or common control subsystem.Downloaded from www.

np 1.com.jayaram. Standby mode. Load sharing mode. all control equipment is replaced by a single processor. Synchronous duplex mode. Present day most of electronics switching system use centralize control. only of two processor configure is used. 3.np / 15 .jayaram. Downloaded from www. Distributed SPC. 2. Centralize SPC: In this. A dual processor architecture may be configured to operate in one of three mode. This configuration use more then one processor for redundancy purpose.com. Centralized SPC 2.Downloaded from www. Signal distributor Scanner Processor Maintenance consol Memory Secondary storage call recording program storage etc Fig: Typical centralized SPC configuration. 1. Each processor has access to all the exchange resources like scanner and distribution points and is capable of all the control function.

Downloaded from www. the decision as to how to continue the operation is arbitrary and three possibilities exists.jayaram.jayaram. the faulty processor is identified and taken out of service within a few milliseconds.Downloaded from www.com.np / 16 . In this. The standby processor is brought online only when the active processor fails. In such case. If a mismatch occurs. one processor active and the other is on standby. Synchronous duplex mode:- Exchange Environment p1 C (comparat or) p2 M1 M2 Fig: Synchronous duplex configuration.np Standby mode: Exchange Environment p1 p2 Secondary storage Fig: Stand by dual processor config. It is possible that a comparator faults occurs on account of a transient faller which does not show a when the checkout program is run. In this. hardware coupling is provided between the two processor which execute the same set of instruction and compare the result continuously.com.

Comparison between single and dual processor: Availability of the single and dual processor system: The availability of single processor system is given by A = MTBF = mean time between failure. Thus. when set by one the processor prohibits access particular resources by the other processor until it is ret by the first processor. MTBF + MTTR = 1− If MTBF >>>MTTR Then . .D p2 M1 M2 Fig: Load sharing configuration.com. incoming call is assigned randomly or in a predetermine order to one of the processor which then handles the call right through completion. This device which. 2. . The unavailability of single processor system is given by = 1 – A MTBF MTBF + MTTR MTBF + MTTR − MTBF = MTBF + MTTR MTBF Where.jayaram.np / 17 . In this. Take out active processor and continue with the other processor. Continue with the active processor but remove the other processor from the service. both the processors are active simultaneously and share the load and resources dynamically.Exclusion device avoid to seek the same resource at the same time by both processor. MTTR = Mean time to repair. MTTR MTBF + MTTR Downloaded from www. Load shearing mode: Exchange Environment p1 E. Continue with both processor.np - 1.com. 3.Under normal operation each processor handles one half of the calls on statical basis.jayaram.Downloaded from www.

each processor performs only one or some of the exchange control function. It uses low cost microprocessor. .jayaram. . UD = 2(MTTR)2/(MTBF)2 Q.In this.com. MTBF = 2000 hrs MTTR = 4 hrs.Downloaded from www.com.(2) Level 1: Operation and maintenance & charging ……. Distributed SPC: . Given that MTBF is equal to 2000 hrs and MTTR is equal to 4 hrs calculate the unavailability for single and dual processor system for 30 years.1 hrs in 30 year.. the exchange environment is divided into several blocks and each blocks is assign to a processor that performs all control function related to that block of equipments.np / 18 .jayaram. It has better availability and reliability then centralize SPC. .(3) Downloaded from www.In vertical decomposition.e 2. the availability is given by AD = Where. the control function are shared by many processors within the exchange itself.In this level of control functions are: Level 3: EM & DP ………(1) Level 2: CP ………. . UD = 2 (MTTR)2/(MTBF)2 = (2*16)/ (2000 * 2000) = 8 *10-6 i.Exchange control may decomposed either horizontally or vertically for distributed processing. U = MTTR/MTBF = 4/2000 = 2 * 10-3 i. UD = 1 –AD 2( MTTR ) 2 = ( MTBF ) 2 + 2( MTTR ) 2 If MTBF >> MTTR then.np For dual processor.In horizontal decomposition. MTBFD = (MTBFD )2 2 MTTR MTBFD MTBFD + MTTR (MTBF ) AD = 2 = (MTBF )2 + 2(MTTR )2 2 MTTR (MTBF )2 + MTTR 2 MTTR (MTBF )2 Unavailability of dual processor is given by.e 525 hours in 30 years.

. Which involves the following steps. Difference between microprogammed and hardware control: Microprogamming: Downloaded from www. c) Change subscriber class of service d) Put a new line or trunk into operation. EM & DP = Event monitoring and distribution CP = Call processing. a) Supports switching system hardware and software. The load on switching processor is measure by its occupancy ‘t’ . Level 1 processing: .com.Control unit is a collection of logic circuits using logic elements. b) Add. i) Man machine interaction.Downloaded from www.This processor allows data to be packed more tightly in memory so that access time will increase.np / 19 . . . N = No of calls per unit time.It handles scanning distribution and making function. Exchange Environment EM & DP EM & DP Level -3 CP CP Level -2 O & MP O & MP Level -1 Level 3 processing: . a = fixed overhead depending upon the exchange capacity and configuration.The traffic handling capacity of control equipment is usually limited by the capacity of the switching processor.Processing operation involved are of simple. estimated by the simple formula t = a+bN Where. . modify or delete information from translation table.jayaram.jayaram.com. Level 2 processing ( switching processor): . e) Supervise the operation of exchange. called hardwired control unit.Processing at this level results in the setting or sensing of one or more binary condition in flip flop or register.It handles operation and maintenance function. b = average time to process one call. Fig: Level of control function. Such simple operation are efficiently perform either by wired logic or micropropgrammed device. g) Detect and locate faults and error h) Run diagnostic and test program. f) Monitor traffic.np Where. specialized and well define nature.

jayaram. 2.np / 20 . 6. Harder to implement complex processing function 5.Switching system. Easier to maintain Hardwire: 1. Introducing new service is hard. 3. A time division digital switch may also be designed by using a combination of space and time switching techniques. Introducing new service is easy. b. i/p control time division switch. In analog switching. It may be analog or digital. Flexible Slower More expensive for moderate processing function.Downloaded from www. 4.np 1. Date: 2066/8/3 Basic time division space switching: It is generally categorized into two category. the sampled voltage levels are transmitted where as in digital they are binary coded and transmitted through the system. 4. in which sampled values of speech signal are transferred at fixed interval of time. Not flexible 2. 1 2 1 2 N-1 N N-1 N 2 to 2k Decoder Modulo-N location Cyclic control Fig 1(a) Switching structure. Less expensive for moderate processing function. a. 6. o/p control time division switch.com.com. Easier to implement complex processing function.jayaram. Faster 3. Difficult to maintain Time division switching:. 5. Downloaded from www.

When PAM samples are switch in a time division manner.Downloaded from www.jayaram.np / 21 . b) Output control time division switch. A simple N×N time division space switch is shown in above figure. Input control time division switch:- Downloaded from www. The speech is carried as PAM analog samples or PCM digital samples.np 1 1 N N Fig:1 (b) two stage equivalent. than switching is known as digital time division switching. If PCM binary samples are switched. The network has only link interconnecting the stages.com.jayaram. The switch can be represented in an equivalent form as a two state network with N×1 and 1×N switching matrixes for the 1st and 2nd stage respectively. occurring at 125 micro second intervals. In above figure (a).com. the interconnecting link is shown as a bus to which a chosen inlet-outlet pair can be connected by a suitable control mechanism and speech samples are transfer from inlet to the outlet. Fig: Simple PAM time division switching. Each inlet and outlet is a single speech circuit corresponding to a subscriber line. the switching is known as analog time division switching. Time division space switching:It is generally categories into two groups: a) Input control time divisions switch.

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np

1 2

1 2

N-1 N

N-1 N Bus

Cyclic control Modulo-N location 2 to Decoder 2k

Address decoder (MDR)

Fig: Input control time division switch. The switch is said to be input control or input driven as the outlet is chosen depending on the inlet that is being scanned at any instant. Modulo N counter of the cyclic control acts as the memory address register (MAR) of the control memory. Control memory has N words corresponding to N inlets and has a width of log2 N. These bits which are used to address the N outlets. Cyclic control at the input implies that all the subscriber lines are scanned irrespective of IRRE weather they are active or not. For an active inlet i, the corresponding outlet address is contained in the ith location of the control memory. It is read out an pass to the address decoder which also acts as the MDR of the control of memory. The decoder output enables the proper outlet to be connected the bus. The sample value is than transferred from inlet to the outlet. The bus is being shared by N connection, all of which can be active simultaneously and the physical connection is established between the inlet and outlet for the duration of sample transfer, the switching technique is known as time division space switching. 2) Output control time division space switch:

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 22

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np

1 2

1 2

N-1 N

N-1 N

Bus

Cyclic control Decoder Decoder Modulo-N location

Modulo-N location

Clock

Figure: output control time division switch.

It is said to be output control because each location of the control memory is rigidly associated with a given outlet. For both input and output control configuration, the number of inlets and outlets N = switching capacity i.e 125 N = SC = ti + t m + t d + tt Where, SC = switching capacity. ti = Time to increment the modulo-N counter. tm = time to read the control memory. td = time to decode address and select the inlet or outlet. tr= time to transfer the sampled value from inlet to outlet.
The o/p controlled switches are capable of supporting broadcast connection, where i/p controlled are not.

Generalized time division space switch:-

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 23

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np

1 2

1 2

N-1 N

N-1 N Bus

Decoder

Decoder

Modulo counter

MDR

Data input

MAR

Control memory

Read/write

Fig: Generallised time division space switching. Time division Time switching:-

Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 24

com. Therefore necessary to perform serial to parallel conversion and parallel to serial (p/s) conversion at the inlet and outlet respectively.Downloaded from www. Random write/ sequential read. The incoming and outgoing data are usually in serial form where as the data written into and read out of the memory in parallel form.np / 25 .np MDR IG MDR OG O U T G A T E 1 I N G A T E S/P D A T E I N Data memory N words of 8bit each D A T E O U T S/P N MDR Modulo-N Counter MDR Data in M A R Control memory N-words of log2N bits each Fig: switching structure 1 1 Nx1 Delay Nx1 N N Fig(b) Equivalent ckt Fig. Information is not performed in real time.com. it is first stored in the memory and later transferred to the outlet.jayaram. Time division time switch may be coupled in any of the following three ways: (i) (ii) (iii) Sequential write/random read.Basic time division time switching.jayaram. - - In this. Random input/ random output. the data coming in through the inlets are written into the data memory and later read out to the appropriate outlets. Downloaded from www.

tm is expressed in µs. Time taken for the two phase operation is given by ts = Ntd +N(td+tc) Where. (i) Phased operation. ts = 3 N tm Since entire operation is to be completed within 125 µs. There are two modes in which time division switch may operated. Downloaded from www. (ii) Slotted operation. the write access to the data memory sequentially and the read access in the 2nd phase randomly. In 1st phase. many relatively narrow band channels can be transmitted over a single wideband transmission system.np / 26 . Thus. satellite microwave system etc) is known as signal multiplexing. the information entering an FDM system is analog and it remains analog through out transmission balanced modulator to which is fed the carrier and voice channel having frequency range of 300 hz to 3400 hz (nominal channel 0 – 4 khz). (3) Read the data memory location j and transfer the data to outlet i.2 Frequency division multiplex: The technique of separating the signals in frequency is referred to as FDM: In this. we have. the inlets and outlets are scanned randomly. Phase operation:The phase operation of the time switches proceeds in two phase. multiple signals that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are shifted (each) to a different frequency band and transmitted simultaneously over a single transmission medium. Slotted operation:In this. the 125µs period is divided into N sub-periods of duration 125/N.jayaram.com. Space division multiplexing (SDM) Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) Time division multiplexing (TDM) 3. Date:2066/8/04 3. we have expression for no of subscriber as N = 125/(3tm) where. the sequential/ random read/write operation refer to the read/write operation refer to the read/write operations associated with data memory. coaxial cable. twisted cable. the following operation are performed (1) Read inlet ‘i’ and store the data in data memory location i. Signal Multiplexing: The process of sending number of separate signals together over the same transmission medium (ie metallic wire.Downloaded from www. In both cases. td = read/write time for the data memory. and the data memory is associated sequentially. (2) Read location ‘i’ of the control memory which contains the value of say j. td = tc = tm . It is an analog scheme.np In the 1st two months of control.jayaram.com. tc = read/write time for the control memory. optical fiber cable . Each sub period i.

An example if the FDM signal three message signal in shown below where three band signals XYZ modulate the three separate carrier signals with the frequency F1F2. The output of the each modulator the added to produce a composite signal having tree multiplexed message signals. A basic group consists of 12 voice-band channels stacked next to each other in the frequency domain.USB. television and communication network. 16 and 20 khz to form a pre-group of 3 telephone channels. The multiplexing (fre shifting) is SSB. F 1(Carrier) BPF x y z LPF LPF LPF Tx Carrier supply SSB F1 SSB F2 SSB F3 DEM F2 DEM F3 BPF DEM Rx LPF z LPF x ∑ Channel BPF LPF y Fig: Block-diagram of FDM system.jayaram.np FDM is used in telephone system. FDM Hierarchy:1. telemetry. 3. The first three channel are multiplexing at 12. Fout = 64 – (0 to 4 khz) = 60 – 64 khz. Fc = 112 – 4×12 = 64 khz. commercial broadcast.Downloaded from www. Basic group: It is the first step for multiplexing the message channel. 2.jayaram. Fi = channel frequency spectrum ( 0 – 4 khz).The message channels is the basic building block of the FDM hierarchy.np / 27 . FDM in telephony:Telephone channel is bandlimited to 300 – 3400 hz (BW 3100 hz) frequency slot of 4 khz is assigned to assigned to each telephone channel so that there is guard band of 900 hz for each channel. Message channel:. The basic message channel was originally intended for voice transmission that utilize voice band frequency (VB) circuit is called 3002 channel and is actually band limited to 300 hz to 3400 hz band.com. although for practical consideration it is considered a 4 khz channel.com.F3 spaced in frequency domain with reasonable margin to avoid overlapping to avoid crosstalk & intermodulation. Group BW = 12 ×4 = 48 khz Fout = Fc – Fi Fc = carrier (channel) frequency. For channel 12. Formation of super group:Downloaded from www.

Generally highly stable quartz controller oscillator with stability factor of 10 – 5 or higher is employed.3 Time division multiplexing: The technique of separating the signals in time is referred to as time division multiplexing. The carrier frequency frequency for a group is derived from the following expression. BW being 240 khz. The low pass filter outputs are then applied to a commutator at fixed interval of time.jayaram. Fc = 372 + 48n khz Where. Two or more voice band channels are sampled. This synchronization is essential for the satisfactory operation of the system. The most common type of modulation used with TDM system is PCM with PCM-TDM system. the frequency stability of the oscillators should be very high in order to avoid overlapping.np / 28 . 5. The narrow samples produced at the pulse demodulator output are distributed to the appropriate low-pass filters by means of a decommutator. Basic master group:. Similarly SSB.2 Mhz. In FDM the guard band between two adjacent frequency slots is not very large.jayaram. These samples are then transmitted to the pulse amplitude modulator. 3. 4.Downloaded from www. the received signal is applied to a pulse demodulator. which performs the inverse operation of the pulse modulator. Super master group:.com.com. At the receiver end of the system. n = group number. The frequency spectrum for each group is 60 – 108 khz. which operates in synchronism with the commutator in the transmitter.6 Mhz. The sing signal format is given below:- Downloaded from www. The time-division multiplexed signal format is best described with reference to the Bell T1 system. and then time division multiplexed onto a single metallic cable pair or optical fiber cable.np Five groups are combined to form a super group. converted to PCM codes.3 basic master groups makes a super master group containing 900 telephone channels BW being 3. The signals to be multiplexed are first individually band limited by low pass-filter.filters are also necessary for the same reason mention above in oscillator. BW of 240×5 = 1. The essential operations in the transmitter of a PCM system are (1) Sampling (2) Quantizing (3) Encoding.5 Super group makes a master group. The concept of TDM is illustrated by the block diagram as shown below: Message input m1 m2 m3 LPF LPF LPF Timing pulses Commutator Pulse amplitude modulator Common channel Pulse amplitude modulator Synchronizaed Message output LPF LPF LPF Decommutator m1 m2 m3 Timing pulses Fig: Block-diagram of TDM system. The purpose of this modulator is to transform the multiplexed signal into a form suitable for transmission over the common channel. Filter and oscillator requirement in FDM.

Each PCM word contains 8 bits and a frame contains 24 PCM channels. Tf = 125 µs Channel 1 PCM word 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 Channel 2 PCM word 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 Channel 3 4 24 PCM word 5 6 7 8 Frame Synchronization bit 0.6477µ s Fig: Bell T1 PCM Format.4 khz) Antialiasing BPF Sample & Hold ckt Simple pulse 8 khz ADC conversion clock 1.jayaram. a special detector termed as correlator is used to detect the frame synchronizing code word in the bit stream.Downloaded from www. a periodic form synchronization signal must be transmitted and this is achieved by inserting bit from the frame synchronization codeword at the beginning of every frame. Which is frame time.np Fram 193 bits.np / 29 . In addition. which enables the frame timing to be established. the sampling frequency for voice is 8 khz (2×4 khz) and so the interval between the PCM words for a given channel is 1/800 = 125µs. Channel 2 analog I/P Sample pulse Channel 2 analog I/P Sample pulse Channel 24 analog I/P Sample pulse Fig: Sampling sequence. The total number of bits in a frame is 24×8 +1 = 193 bits From sampling theorem.jayaram. At the receiver side. Hence. Frame time(Tf): The required to transmit one sample from each channel is called frame time. sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency in the spectrum of the signal being sampled.com.536 Mhz Parallel to Serial conv. Line speed clock 64 khz 8-bit serial PCM code (64 kbps) Downloaded from www.com. I/P signal (0 .

It measure in BPS. High capacity means high bandwidth and low capacity means low bandwidth. 1. Characteristics of transmission media.It refers to the measure of capacity of medium to transmit data.jayaram. Band usages:Downloaded from www.536 Mhz Channel 1 2 3 24 channel TDM Multi plexer Channel 14 analog I/P 23 Antialiasing filter Sample & Hold ckt ADC 1. 2. Instillation requirement:3.536Mbps Add framing bit D5 . Channel 1 analog I/P Antialiasing filter Sample & Hold ckt fs = 8khz ADC 1. It is a rather unsophisticated form of multiplexing which simply constitutes propagating signals from different sources or different cables. 4. Chapter: 2 Transmission media: (TM): Physical path way that connected computer other device and people in a network is known as transmission media. Each type of transmission media has special characteristics that may gives suitable for a specific type of service. Bandwidth:.np / 30 .536 Mhz Channel 24 1.1 PCM Code (1. A short cable accumulate greater bandwidth than long cable. Cost: The transmission media should be cost effective. T1 digital carrier system:This system in a communication system which uses digital pulses.np Fig: Single channel PCM transmission system.jayaram. Some of the important characteristics are under noted.Downloaded from www.544 mbps) fs = 8khz Fig: Block diagram. Each transmission media requires specialized network hardware that has to be compatible with the medium.com. rather than analog signals to encode the information. Bandwidth of the cable is determined by length of the cable. It also describe as the type of highway on which voice and data travel. 3.com.1 Space division multiplexing( SDM):Technique of separating the signals in space is known as space division multiplexing.

3.IEEE short hand for UTP is 10 BASE T. UTP 2.It covers the maximum distance of 100m.jayaram. Twisting is done because two parallel wires constitutes a fine antenna. To eliminate crosstalk during telephone conversation. Bounded: Twisted pair.Downloaded from www. . Types of transmission media: 1. It is easy to install and widely used in bus and star topologies. STP: It has one or more twisted pairs within a shield. Troubleshooting. typically about 1mm thick.Can be used with data rates in excess of 20 Mbps. when the wires are twisted the waves from twist cancel out. Twisted pair:. C = 3* 108 ) . Twisted pair cable are of the two types: 1.A cable made of two separately insulated strands of wire twisted together is known as twisted pair. (Vp = 0. Twisted pair can be used for transmitting either analog or digital signals. To prevent infiltration of electromagnetic noise.np / 31 .com. . .Required less space than STP.Maximum speed supported by UTP is 10 Mbps. 6. . open wire. . . Bounded or wired or Guided 2. The wires are twisted together in helical form. . EMI (electromagnetic interference) 7.It supports base band transmission.This shield (braided mesh or foil). UTP comes in different grades called categories (Cat1 – Cat 7 ). It is suitable for both data and voice communication. To give protection against EMI.jayaram.com. The bandwidth depends on the thickness of the wire and the distance traveled. Downloaded from www. It is more flexible and take less space than STP but has less bandwidth. 2.Used for both base band broad band transmission. coaxial cable.np 5. Unbounded or wireless and unguided. so the wire radiates less effectively. optical fiber. It consists of two insulated copper wires. STP UTP(Un shield twisted pair): It consists one or more twisted pair of wires without additional shielding.Minimum velocity of propagation. . It is one of the oldest and still most common transmission media.59* C. Attenuation.More flexible. . Cat 1 and cat 2 are used for voice and low speed data (Telephone communication) where as 3 to 7 are used for network communication. This shield is used: 1.

It provides higher bandwidth and better reliability than twisted. length and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of data signal. .Data transmission speed 10 Mbps.Downloaded from www.Short hand given by IEEE 10BASE 5.5 km. .com.Maximum cable length with repeaters is 2. There are two types of coax. Thin coaxial cable.It support based band transmission. terminator etc.com. Thick coaxial cable:.Device attachment is possible at every 2. Modern cables have a bandwidth of close to 1 Ghz.77C) . Thin coaxial cable:. Thick coaxial cable.Maximum medium delay per segment.65C Downloaded from www. .Uses 50 terminator (when it is intended for digital transmission.jayaram. 2. Connector use by this cable are T. . It is widely used for cable TV and MAN.Maximum cable length is 500m.Minimum velocity of propagation of velocity.Vp = 0. . 1. .) . (Vp = 0. . .np / 32 .jayaram. Pair it has excellent noise immunity. BNC .core diameter thinner. The bandwidth possible depends on the cable quality.Core diameter is thicker.5 m.np Copper conductor Polyster aluminium top Twisted pair Braided mesh Jacket (PUC) Fig: Cross sectional view of STP Coaxial cable (Coax):Insulating material Copper core Braided outer conductor It is common is common transmission medium widely used in television transmission.

Maximum length 185 meter.00-46.25-0. the height of the antenna above the earth plays the important role in determining the transmission distance in a microwave communication.00 46.Downloaded from www. 1. 4. Frequency or phase modulation are used. Signal propagation is affected by free space attenuation.30 6. mobile phone. Such as telephone communication.55-3.39-1. Being a LOS limited by horizon.00 36.5 Ghz in the k band.90-36.com. It usages point to point radio transmission at frequency higher than approximately 1 gita hertz. Mocrowaves are usually bent or reflected beyond the optical horizon i. Date:2066/08/11 Microwave communication: It is widely used for long distance communication. 3.90 3. Band P L S C X K Q V Freq. IEEE 10BASE2. Microwaves communication is characterized by the following factors. The useful ranges of frequencies lies between 150 Mhz to 150 Ghz. It is line of sight communication and is limited by horizon due to the curvature of the earth.90-6.np / 33 . 2.00-56. Terrestrial (earth-based) system. The useful frequency range of mircrowave spectrum is divided into a number of band designated by latter. Downloaded from www. The radio horizon generally future away from the optical horizon.e horizon visible to our eyes. Satellite system 2.90 10.30-10.9 to 14.range (Gigahertz) 0.com. This transmission system exists in two forms: 1.jayaram. television distribution etc.00 The bands are future divided into a number of sub bands for examples Ku bands covers the frequency range 10.jayaram.np - Maximum medium delay per segment 950ns.39 0.55 1.

com.078 d1d2/k . do = distance to the optical horizon in km. Correction factor:.Downloaded from www.jayaram. (2) Fresenel diffraction:.com.e k = do/dr .It is used to obtain any quantity to related to radio horizon from the corresponding quantity related to optical horizon i. than the radio horizon is nearer the optical horizon. The distance to the radio horizon varies with the atmospheric refractive changes and can be even less than the optical horizon at times. mountains etc. (1) Earth’s curvature bulge.78 d1d2 Where. Where heb = height increase on account of earth bulge. The height must be more than the height obstacle in the way. tree. Two factor contribute to increasing effective height. Earth curvature bulge:Earth curvature bulge is calculated as heb = 0.The fresenel phenomenon stuns from the fact that electromagnetic wave fronts expand as they travel through space. If k < 1 the radio horizon is farther than optical horizon. dr = distance to the radio horizon in km.np do dr do = Optical horizon dr = radio horizon Fig: optical and radio horizon. the optical and radio horizon is given as do = 0. (2) Fresnel diffraction. 1.jayaram. d1 = distance between microwave site and obstacle in km. heb = height increase on account of earth’s bulge. (1) The earth’s bulge in calculated as heb = 0.Microwave tower should be such that the radio beam is not obstructed by objects like buildings. d1 = distance between microwave site and obstacle in km. 2. Date: 2066/08/13 Height of microwave tower:Tower height should be such that the radio beam is not obstructed by objects like buildings. Freshel diffraction. The expanding properties result in reflection and phase Downloaded from www. If k is greater than 1. As a rule of thumb of . d2 = distance between the other microwave site and the obstacle in km. tree. The height must be more than the highest obstacle in the way. Two factor contribute to increasing the effective height. mountains etc. d2 = distance between the other microwave site and obstacle in km. Earth curvature bulge.49h where h = height of the tower in m.46 h and dr = 0. Height of the microwave tower: . Where k is a correction factor.np / 34 .

D = distance between two antenna. PR = received power. (a) Long. PT = Transmitted power. Some repeater may add or drop of a few lines for local connection.com. F = frequency of transmission n Ghz.This system consists of a relatively small numbers of repeaters with frequent add and drop points. the 4 Ghz is used for long haul and the 6-Ghz band is useful for both long and short haul communication.Downloaded from www.haul type:.6 and 11 Ghz. The clearance. (b) Short haul type:. (a) long – haul type or (b) Short haul type. It receives. N N N 1 A/D R R A/D A B A/D Fig: Microwave link A. Downloaded from www.In this. RF carries demodulated and the resulting baseband signal demultiplexed into individual voice channels.At Rx site. amplifiers and retransmit RF signal to the next site in sequence. only and small numbers of add or drop points but has many simple repeaters and covers a long distance end to end. The Radius of the 1st fresnel zone R in meters is calculated as  d1d 2  2 R = 17. A Tx site voice channel are multiplexing into baseband signal and then modulated into RF carrier.jayaram.np transmission as the wave passes over obstacles. in required is expressed in terms of the fresenel 1st zone. Consider two isotropic antenna separated by a distance D. additional clearance is required above the obstacle to avoid such problem.np / 35 . The power interrupted by receiving antenna is given by PR = PTλ2/ (4πD)2 Where. Three commonly used microwave carrier band 4.jayaram. Hence. B = terminal R = Repeater A/D = Add and drop links It is made up of two terminal sites and usually one or more repeater sites. A repeater site is characterized by two antenna for the two directions. λ = wavelength of operation. 2nd zone etc. Antenna: It required very high gain antenna.com.3   F ( d1 + d 2 )  Where.

2 Parabolic reflectors are used to realize highly directional high gain antenna concentrating microwave energy into parallel beam. This tube consist following component.4+20log (DF) dB. (b) Reflex klystron Oscillator. (2) Circular wave guide.jayaram. (ii) Horn.7 – 4. systems operating in different band use different sizes of guides.Downloaded from www. For eg. and amplifier. (4) Square waveguide. for operation in the 3. Wave guides are coded by a letter to indicate the shape of the cross-section and a number to indicate the larger dimension of the shape. Downloaded from www. Depending upon the shape of the cross-section . Microwave tubes:(a) Multicarity klystron amplifier. ( c) Travelling wave tube (TWT) Klystrone: . For eg.24 Ghz range . the wave guides are classified as (1) Rectangular wave guides. WR-5-75 means rectangular wave guide with the width being 5-75cm. This tube performs the function of generation and amplification in the microwave portion of the frequency spectrum.com. (3) Elliptical waveguide. Some of the microwave components are 1. Therefore. Spill over Main Reflector Feed Simple parabolic Wave guides:Microwave energy is guided to the antenna feed from the transmitter system by means of waveguides. a rectangular wave guide use. Three versions of parabolic antenna are: (i) Simple parabolic.jayaram.np The path loss is decibel is given by  4πDF  L = 10 log 8   3 × 10  Where. D = in km and f in Ghz.com. The wave guide size determines the cut-off frequency i. L = 20 log (4000 π/3 ) DF L = 92.np / 36 . tube that are used in radar and (e) Magnetrons communication equipment as oscillators (f) Crossed – field amplifiers. (iii) Cassegrain.These are velocity modulated (d) Backward wave oscillator.e a frequency below which satisfactory cannot take place.

(a) Measurement of thickness of metal sheets in rolling mills. (3) Navigation (4) Remote sensing:.3  F (d + d )    1 2  1 Downloaded from www. (g) Varactor diode.9 for ray bending. In the path profile of a microwave link of 25km.com. Carrier frequency is 6Ghz. (5) Spectroscopy:. (d) heating.078 × 10 × 15 = = 13m 0 . cooking and processing of flood.Downloaded from www.It is the study of the interaction between radiation and matter as a function of wave length (λ).9  d1d 2 2 Fresnel diffraction R = 17. (d) Masers (Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation): It is same as LASER except that it works at microwave frequency (e) Varactor diode.078d1d2 / k 0.jayaram. Soluiton: Earth’s bulge (heb) = 0. Assume a correction factor of 0. a hill of height 70m with trees is encountered at a distance of 10km from transmitting end.com. Applications of Microwave It is used in different areas. Solid state microwave devices.jayaram. Numerical problems:1.np / 37 . (1) Industry. (c ) Trapatt diode oscillator. (f) tunnel diode. (2) Medical (a) cancer treatment. (g) PIN diode. ( c) Measurement and monitoring of moisture content. Determine tower height required. (b) Imapatt diode oscillator.np 2. (h) Mosfet (i) MIC (Microwave integrated ckt) (j) Microstrip line. speech and other characterization of remote object. (b) Continuous measurement of diameter of wires. (f) Tunnel diode. (a) Gunn diode oscillator. (3) Rader and communication system.Radar uses microwave radiation to defect the range.

com.3   6 × 25  = 17.3(1) 2 = 17.np / 38 . we have Height of the tower = 70 +13+17.Downloaded from www.6) (Vishwanathan) Date: 2066/08/25 Touch tone dial telephone: 1209 1306 1477 679 1 2 3 679 670 4 5 6 670 LBF (Hz) 852 7 8 9 852 941 * 0 # 941 UBF (Hz) Downloaded from www.3 1 1 (2) See page no 340 (Example 9.jayaram.np  10 × 15  2 = 17.jayaram.3+15 = 122.3 Allowing 15m for trees and future growth.com.

com.com.Date networks are classified according to their geographical cover age as 1. . LAN: It may uses FON (Fiber optic network ) and SONET (Synchronous optical network). 2. intercountry and intercontinental called WAN. 3.Network which spreads within small geographical area is called local area network.np Structure of LAN(local area network): . 3. . It may be (i) TDN (Terrestrial data network ) (ii) SBDN (Satellite based network) . . It is controlled by privative organization.Downloaded from www. . Data transmission in PSTNs: . Hence. It is combination of computer hardware and transmission media that is relatively small.Demodulator translates analog signals to digital information.Network of intercity. It is generally uses community antenna television (CATV) cable and twisted pairs. a LAN is a resources.np / 39 .jayaram.LAN of LAN is also called WAN.Modulator translates data pulses into voice band signals at transmitting end.Can be used for data transmission. LANs.It is widely used to connect PC and workstation in company offices and factories to share resources and exchange information. It is limited within the range of 0. . WANs are generally interconnected in a hierarchical manner to form a global n/w (internet) as in fig (above) LANs are often directly connected to WANs. It provides high data rate ( in excess of 1 Mbps).It is confined to a small building or group of building generally belonging to the same organization. Wide area Networking (WAN) . MANs.A modem is required ( Modulator or demodulator) . 2. WAN MAN LAN Fig : data network hierarchy . Downloaded from www. sharing data communication with following three properties:1.jayaram.1 – 10km. Metropolitan area network (MAN): Network which spreads within city or metropolitan is called WAN.Designed to carry analog voice signal.

R = Maximum data rate. selects a suitable neighbouring node N3 through which desired connection may be established. When the host H1 wants to transfer data to the host computer H3. T T H2 H4 N2 N4 T N5 H = host N = Node N1 N3 H3 H1 Fig: Ckt switch switched n/w Fig shows principal of ckt switching. In this switching. Total ckt switched time (tcs) is given as Tcs = Te + Tt + Tr Te = Time for connection establishment.jayaram. an electrical path is established between the source and destination before any data transmission takes place.np Data: Rates in PSTN A voice channel in a PSTN is band limited with a nominal Bandwidth of 3. Where bps = bits per second .com. Rb = H log2 ( 1+SNR) (Shannol Channel Capacity theorem ) Rb = bit rate H = B/W of the channel. a connection request is made to the switching node N1 which .Downloaded from www. in turn.np / 40 . Data rates in PSTN is given as R = 2 H log2v bps (Nyquist’s data rate for noiseless channel ). SNR = Signal to noise ratio.com. H = BW of the channel. Ckt Switching: In this. there are three explicit phases involved . Downloaded from www.1 Khz.jayaram. (i) Connection establishment. (ii) Data transmission (iii) Connection release. Switching technique for data transmission:(i) Circuit Switching (Ckt switching ) (ii) Store and forward ( S & F) switching. v = no of discrete levels in the signals.

It may be put into operation with small investment. 5. 4. Process Control. Factory automation. s/w and data organization level. Downloaded from www. LAN offers flexibility in locating the equipment. Incapability may arise4 at the n/w . Advantages of LAN:1. It provides resources –sharing environment. Disadvantages of LAN:1. Tr = Time for path tramsmission. 5.jayaram. 2. Office automation. 3. Distributed computing.np Tt = Time for data transmission. LAN application: 1. 6. 4. Document distribution. 2. problems of security. 2. Store and forward Switching: S & F n/w configuration is shown in fig below: N N N NODE Communication system N N Processor Storage T T T It is classified into (1) Message (2) Packet switching. LAN tends to exhibit an improved performance.np / 41 . 3. Incremental growth makes more investment than centralized system.Downloaded from www. 3.com. and more system may be added as the need arises. It provides good back up capability. 6.com. A LAN adhering to a certain standard permits multivendor systems to be connected to it.jayaram. Fire and Security System. privacy and data integrity.

Downloaded from www. It uses modulation and is suitable for transmitting data with high speed and multiplexed data.Fiber optic cables carry data at rates upto 100 Mbps. Downloaded from www. .np / 42 .com. U T T U Switch T T Bus U U Fig (a) Star topology Fig (b) Bus topology. 2. Entire BW of medium is used for transmitting signals from one station. LAN topology: Geographical arrangement of LAN Component is known as LAN topology. .Twisted pair are used in low speed LANs using baseband transmission.jayaram. Coax or CATV cable and Fiber optic cable.jayaram. Media of transmission: Twisted pair .com. 1.np LAN Technologies:There are three major aspect in LAN (1) Medm of transmission (2) Topology (3) Access Method. In this mode of transmission data is to transmitted as simple electrical levels often without any modulation.Coax and CATV are used for broadband transmission at speed of 10 mbps or more. Three topology are widely used. . They are (i) Star (ii) Bus (iii) Ring.

(iii) Token passing access method.If the bus free. . . Only three combinations of access techniques and topologies are popularly used. . (c) Token passing bus or token bus.jayaram. But all are not techniques feasible or practically possible. it is also know as (Listen-before-talk scheme ).Only one data transmission can take place at any instant of time.S max = 1 + 2B Downloaded from www.Performance of this bus is evaluated by throughput and maximum throughput is given as .Since the channel is sensed before transmission.Downloaded from www. In this scheme. Multiple Access bus: . .np / 43 . (b) Token passing ring or Token ring.com.Bus is broadcast medium.jayaram.It uses carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) scheme. transmission occurs.np U RIU U RIU Data RIU U RIU U Fig (c ) Ring topology. 1 .com. (Electronic switching). (a) Multiple access bus. LAN station is able to know whether the channel is busy or not at any instant. . (ii) Contention or multiple access method. RIU = Ring topology U = unit (PC) T = Terminal Access method: There are three access methods: (i) Switched access Method.

byte pattern as shown in fig below (a) 1 SD 1 AC 1 EC P Access control T M R Fig(a): Token.np / 44 . B = the time expressed as a fraction of the frame time. data one places on the rign would go round the ring indefinitely. ED – End delimiter byte.persistent. T – Token bit M – monitor bit. In this. a time gap of tp is required. known as zero-persistent.np - Where.jayaram. Nonpersistent or zero-persistent.When a station finds the channel busy.When it finds busy. Taken passing Ring LAN or Token Ring LAN: RIU is required. A token is usually a 3. 2. P – Priority bits. one or more tokens are used to give ring access to the station. a = tp/tf Between the transmission of two frames. The token passing access mechanism enables a station to transmit its data on the ring. Umax = Maximum channel utilization.e serial transmission ) on a ring. it may continue to sense the channel and transmit the frame immediately after the channel becomes free (idle). 3. an RIU may also examine bit pattern that travel on the ring. In the process RIU is capable of copying and examining every bit that phases through it.Format SD – starting delimiter byte. unless removed specifically. data placed on a dies down automatically after shortwhile. tf 1 U max = = t f + tp 1+ a Where. Downloaded from www. . .Downloaded from www. 1 – persistent. required for all station to detect an ideal channel after transmission ends. In contrast.com. Another performance measure is the maximum channel utilization which is given by. In this case CSMA protocol is known a 1 – persistent. Thus data placement and removal require consideration in a ring.The station may decide to sense the channel again after a random time when it finds the channel busy. Ring beign a continuous structure and the RIUs being active repeaters.jayaram. tp = end to end propagation. By stong group of vits received in sequence. Three variations are possible in CSMA protocols: 1. P. . AC – Access control byte. the station makes a decision to persist for immediate transmission with a certain probability ‘p” known as p-persistent. RIU receive.com. regenerate and retransmit the data bit by bit (i. tf = frame time.

R = Data rate in Mbps. 2. Walk time is the time taken by a bit to travel around the ring and is given by.Downloaded from www. the data in the ring is removed by the soruce station as shown in fig below ( a) Data may also be removed by the destination station as shown in fig (b) below. free token circulates in the ring. 1 –bit delay.np 1 1 1 2 or 6 2 or 6 4 1 1 SD AC FC DA SA CRC ED FS FC = Frame control DA = Destination address SA = Source address CRC = Cyclic redundancy code. The originating station reintroduce a free token at the end of the data. 3. 5. W = tpL + (N/R). All other station in the ring. Downloaded from www. W = walk time. When any station has to send the data.com.np / 45 . Fig. it sets T = 1. When all stations are free. known as token rotation time (TRT) which is given by. Token and frame formats in a token ring LAN Steps: 1. 6. All the station get a chance to transmit data within a specified maximum time.e ring is silent then t = 0 . bit and transmit the data. R D S T R S Fig (a) T – ransmit Fig (b) Fig: Data removal in ring LANs. examine the DA and copy the data if it is defined to them. 7. FS = Frame status Fig (b) frame format. i. see a busy token. In a ring where each RIU introduces. 4. N/R = The delay introduced by the station in the ring with each station contributing 1 –bit delay.jayaram. TRT = N ×THT +W Where.jayaram. A tiem limt is set to hold a token by a station called token holding time (THT). Tp = propagation delay in µs / km L = physical length of the ring in km.com.

np / 46 . its predecessor recognizes this fact by observing no response on the bus when the token is passed on. A token may be corrupted by noise disturbing the token pattern which is used to recognize its presence.jayaram. Robustness of the passive bus. In this . .Downloaded from www. Bounded delay of token passing access.Both token ring and token bus suffer from the potential danger of token being lost. The strength of this LAN are 1.A variation of token passing bus scheme is what is known as implicit token or carrier sense multiple access/ collision avoidance (CSMA/ CA ) scheme. This method disrupts the operation of the bus. (b) Alterntively. No data removed consideration. 4. (a) It may transmit a special signal jamming the present transmission on the bus. the logical ring is affected every time a station withdraws or joins the ring. The token passes from a station to its successor.np R – Receiver S – source D – destination Token passing Bus LAN or Token bus: It is an attempt to combine the strength of the bus architecture and the token passing access mechanism. When a station withdraws it informs its neighbours of its intention giving its P and S values which are used to change the P and S values in the successor and per decessor station respectively. .com. Downloaded from www.When a station wants to join the ring.com. each active station periodically broadcasts a special frame to find out if there is a new station that has come up between itself and its successor. The token and frame structures are very similar to the once used in the token ring. This frame is known as ‘ Solicit successor’ frame.jayaram. It then transmits a frame known as ‘ Who follows’ frame to determine the next successor. p=1 s =4 2 p=2 s =5 4 logical 1 3 Ring 5 p=3 s =2 p=5 s =3 p=4 s =3 Fig: Token passing bus LAN. Each station knows its predecessor P and its successor S.When a station goes down without formally withdrawing from the ring. 2. This signal is heard by all station which then go through the cycle of establishing the logical ring. it may do so in one of two ways. . frame size or physical length. No constraint on the operating speed. . 3. The structure of the LAN is passive but and the stations form logical ring for token passing shown in fig below.

functional and procedural standard to access the physical medium.It is first layer of ISO-OSI Model (ie The lowest layer of the architecture) . maintain & release data link connections for the entities in the n/w layers.Downloaded from www. . This ISO is sometimes also known as ISO-OSI (Open system interconnection ).It provides mechanical. institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE) recommended that there are 7 layers of a n/w.It also provides link level flow control of the frame. Downloaded from www.jayaram.This layer performs functions associated with the activation and deactivation of physical connections.com. .np / 47 . Application Protocal Application Application Presentation Protocal Presentation Presentation Session Protocal Session Session Transport Protocal Transport Communication Subnet Transport Network Network Network Network Data link Data link Data link Data link Physical Physical Physical Physical Fig: ISO-OSI reference Model Layers: physical layers: . .It deals with encoding and decoding of signals. Layer 2: Data link layers: .jayaram. .np Networking model: For local area network . . electrical .This layer deals with error deflection and automatic recovery procedures required when a message is corrupted.com. These 7 layers network is approved by ISO (Inernational organization of standardization ).It provides functional and procedural means to establish.It transmit the data over communication link through synchronous or asynchronous medium.

control etc for the successful execution of the session. .The standard notation used for representing information across the n/w is known as abstract syntax notation 1 (ASN.It provides number of services such as . . . .1). . (b) Directory services. .It deals with routing and switching. .Network congestion is also handled by this layer.np / 48 .Internetworking is an important function of the network layer. Layer 4: Transport layer: .It is the highest layer in the OSI reference model.com.This layer provides the facility of activity management. (g) Telematic services like videotext. (c) Cost allocation.Downloaded from www. Transreceiver II. (a) Electronic mail (E-mail) or Message handling services.It organizes different session between co operating entities and perform all related functions like synchronization. .It is concerned with the representation of user or system data (ASCD or EBCDIC format). Network interfaces: Following equipments are widely used for n/w interface.It represents information to the communicating application entities in a way that preserve the meaning while resolving the differences.It is responsible for matching user message characteristics and service requirements with that of the n/w capabilities.It transmits packet from the source node to destination node.jayaram. I. .If performs multiplexing and splitting. Layer 7: Application layer: .It is the first end-to-end layer. (d) Determination of quality of service (QOS). (c) Connection is rejected as the n/w is unable to handle even the minimal requirement of the user. following three things may happen. . Layer 6: Presentation layer: .jayaram. .End to end flow control and error recovery are the important function of this layer. .com. failure management. NIC (Network interface card) Downloaded from www.np Layer 3: Network layers: . (e) File transfer and management (FTAM) (f) Editors and terminal support services. (b) Options may be negotiated and a connection established with changed parameter values.It is based on transmission control protocol (TCP) Layer 5: Session layer . (a) Connection may be established as request.When a user makes a request to the transport layer for connection.

ii.np / 49 . DTE (Data terminal equipment ) and DCE (Data communication equipment) are widely used as transmission media adaptor.jayaram. iii.jayaram. N/w Repeater N/w Bridge: . NIC: printed ckt board which provides the connection to convert the computer’s electric signals to be electric or electro magnetic signals suitable for the medium is called NIC. Repeaters: It acts as a physical layers relays. Transmission media Adaptor. It maintains the strength of the signal.It is used to connect two or more network with different protocol. data link and network layer standards.It implements in physical. .np III.com. Transmission media adaptor: The NIC uses a connector that is different from what is already attached to the X’mission medium.Rj45 with 8 pins (Registered junction Internetworking (page 482 vishwanathan) .com. (b) Bridge (c) Routers (d) Gateways. a transmission media adaptor is used.RS 232C with 25 pins. . Transceiver: Device which is capable to transmit as well as receive data between network is known as transceiver. It connects two or more networks with similar protocol. DTE Terminal DCE Modem DCE Modem DTE Terminal Some of the important network connection are: . i. Downloaded from www.Downloaded from www.Connection between network is known internetworking connectivity (i. DCE: It produces path for communication.These are considered as application relays between network environment. light or electromagnetic wave (EM wave).It may transmits or receiver electric. Routers: .e connection between two or more network ) is possible through following devices:(a) Repeaters.This widely used in physical and data link layer standards. Gateways: . . DTE: Device that ends communication link is called DTE.

np / 50 .jayaram.Downloaded from www. Downloaded from www.com.np UL UL UL Bridge L CL P UL L P P P P P (a) Repeater interconnection (b) Bridge interconnection CL UL Router N L P L P CL L P UL 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 N 2 L P 1 1 1 1 (c ) Router interconnection (d) Gateway interconnection P – physical layer L – data link layer N – Network layer. UL – upper layer.com.jayaram. CL – Common layer.

com. Call completion rate (CCR): It is defined as the ratio of the number of successful calls to the number of successful calls to the number of call attempts.minute interval in which the traffic is the highest is called the busy hour (BH). Busy hour call attempts (BHCA): It is the number of call attempts in busy hour. for which the traffic volume or number of call attempts is greatest over the days under consideration. Network traffic load and parameters. there are three types of busy hour. load carried of a communication link or channel is called traffic . the 60. Traffice engineering analysis enables one to determine the ability of a telecommunication n/w to carry a given traffic at a particular loss probability. In a day. (a) Busy hour: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Hour of the day Fig: typical telephone traffic pattern on a working day. or over a number of days. (b) Peak busy hour:.Continuous 1-hour period lying wholly in the time interval concerned. (c) Time Consistent busy hour:.1 Fundamental of telephone traffic: Engineering which provides the basis for the analysis of design of telecommunication network is known as traffic engineering. Downloaded from www. The calculation were based on quantity that specified the fraction of the time of r which a subscriber line way be busy. it usually varies from day to day.com.The 1-hour period starting at the same time each day for which the average traffic volume or the number of call attempts in greatest over the days under consideration.jayaram. The task of designing cost effective networks that provide the required quantity of service under varied traffic conditions.jayaram.The busy hour each day.Downloaded from www. According to CCITT.np 7. Busy hour calling rate (BHCR): It is defined as the average number of calls originated by a subscriber during the busy hour. Telephone traffic and Network: 7.np / 51 .

Solution: Average busy hour calls = BHCA × CCR = 6000 calls.Average holding time per call ( th). One CCS may mean one call for 100 seconds duration or 100 calls for one second duration each or any other combination. we can express the load offered to the n/w in terms of C ≠ t h is A = Ct h [ A = offered traffic ] GOS (Grade of service ) . 1E = 36CCS = 3600 CS = 60 CM. In a group of 10 servers. if the average BHCA is 10. Solution: occupied duration Traffic carried per server = total duration Downloaded from www. i. i.e A − A0 lost traffic GOS = = Offered traffic A It should be as low as possible. A server is said to have 1 erlang of traffic it is occupied for the entire period of observation.g GOS should be in ordered of 0.2. ( E= eralang).e 2 calls in every 1000 calls or one call in every 500 calls may be lost. For e. 1. . each is occupied for 30 minutes in an observation interval of two hours.Downloaded from www.It is defined as the ratio of lost traffic to offered traffic.002 i.Average call arrived rate ( C ). calculate the busy hour calling rate. It is dented by A0 and its unit is Erlang. Offered traffic: Two important parameter are required to estimate the traffic intensity or the n/w load are .com.np / 52 .com. Numericals: Q.000 an CCR is 60%. average busy hour calls Busy hour calling rate = total no of subscriber Q. A0 is also measured in centum call second(CCS).jayaram.np Day to busy hour traffic ratio: It is the ratio of busy hour calling rate to the average calling rate for the day. Calculate the traffic carried by the group. An exchange serves 2000 subscribers. Now . Sometimes.jayaram. Traffic intensity: It is defined as the fraction of time for which server is busy.e Time for which server is busy A0 = total period of observation It is known as carried traffic or traffic flow. call second (CS) and call minute (CM) are also used as a measure of traffic intensity.

np 30 = 0. No of calls put through by one server = = 10 calls.jayaram.. offered load = 2×2 = 4E Average subscriber traffic = 4/40 = 0. The quantities are called random variables.. n-3 etc.. iii. A group of 20 servers carry a traffic of 10E. [ ] Downloaded from www. calculate the no of calls put through by a single server and the group as whole in a out hour period..5E.5 E 20 30 i.com.e server is busy for 30 minutes in one hour. i.. 40 subscriber initiate calls... Continuous time discrete state.Downloaded from www. t1 < t 2 ……. If the average duration of a call is 3 minutes. A discrete state stochastic process is often called chain. Solution: Mean arrival rate (c) = 40/20 = 2 calls/minute. Markov process: Discrete time discrete state Markov process is defined as one which has the following property:P { X (t n +1 ) = x n +1 } /{ X (t n ) = x n . Above equation states that probability that the random variable X takes on the value xn+1 at time step “n+1” is entirely determined by its state value in the previous time step ‘n’ and is independent of its state values in earlier time steps. Discrete time discrete state. n-2 . = Q.25 = 2.. < t n < t n+1 and xi is the ith discrete state space value. There are four different types of stochastic processes.. Over a 20 minute observation interval.. ii. Mean holding time (th) = 4800/ (40×60) = 2 minutes/call Therefore. Solution: 10 Traffic per server = = 0 .jayaram. X (t n −1 ) = x n −1 .1 E. Q. Discrete time Continuous state. Modelling Switching System:It is possible through random process or stochastic process.np / 53 . iv. Calculate the load offered to the N/W by the subscribers and the average subscriber traffic. Stochastic process is one in which one or more quantities vary with time in such a way that the instantaneous values of the quantities are not determinable precisely but are predictable with certain probability.com. X (t1 ) = x1 } = P[{ X (t n+1 ) = x n+1 } /{ X (t n ) = x n }] …(1 ) Where. n-1. 3 Total number of calls put through by the group = 10 ×20 = 200 calls.25 E 120 Total traffic carried by the group 10 × 0. Continuous time continuous state. Total duration of the call is 4800 seconds.

D process moves from its state k to state k-1 if a death occurs or moves to state k+1. a cell request means a birth and a cell termination implies a death. we get Pk (t + ∆t ) = Pk −1 (t )λ k −1 ∆t + Pk +1 (t ) µ k +1 ∆t − (λ k + µ k )Pk (t )∆tPk (t ) …………. (3) ∆t In the limit ∆t → 0 . 2. Then we have the following probabilities in the time interval ∆t . The B.com. There can almost be only one state transition in that interval. we get dPk (t ) = Pk −1 (t ) λ k −1 + Pk +1 (t ) µ k +1 − (λ k + µ k )Pk (t ) ………. Pk (t + ∆t ) = Pk −1 (t )λ k −1∆t + Pk +1 (t ) µ k +1 ∆t + (1 − λ k ∆t )(1 − µ k ∆t ) Pk (t ) ……………….np / 54 . There may be no arrival or termination leaving the state unchanged in time ∆t .jayaram.np Birth –death process (B – D process ) B – D process are very useful in analysis of telecommunication n/w. µ k = Call termination rate in state k . we shall choose a time interval ∆t such that. K+1 Death K No change K At time t+ t K-1 Birth Fig: State position at a B-D process. There is only one arrival or one termination but not both in time ∆t . (1) Expanding equation (1) and ignoring the second order ∆t term.jayaram. (2) Rearranging term in equation (2) we get.com. A telecommunication n/w can be modeled as a B –D state where the number of busy servers represents the population. Let Pk (t ) be the probability that the system is in state k at time t i. (4) dt Downloaded from www. 1. To analysis B-D process.Downloaded from www. Pk (t + ∆t ) − Pk (t ) = Pk −1 (t )λ k −1 + Pk +1 (t ) µ k +1 − (λ k − µ k )Pk (t ) ………….. if birth occurs and if stays in the same state if there is no birth or death during the time period under consideration. 3.e k serves are busy at time t. λ k = Call arrival rate in state k. P [ exactly one arrival ] = λ∆t P [ exactly one termination ] = µ∆t P [ no arrival ] = 1 − λ∆t P [ no termination ] = 1 − µ∆t Probability of finding the system in state k at time t + ∆t is given by the equation.

... We obtain pure death process from a B-D process by setting the birth rate equal to zero.. Pi = probability that the system is in state i. When all serves are busy no traffic is accepted by the n/w such a traffic on the n/w is known as Erlang traffic. Therefore.. λ = average passion call arrival rate.np / 55 . (ii) (iii) Service time distribution..R states...e dP (t ) Pk (t1 ) = Pk (t 2 ) = Pk (t i ) = k =0 dt And the B-D process becomes stationary. the termination phenomenon can be characterized as pure death process. C 0 = λ (P0 + P1 + . (5) dt Under steady state condition.K Erlang to estimate the blocking probability and the GOS. (ii) Lost calls returned (LCR) Lost calls held (LCH) (iii) Lost calls cleared system with infinite sources was first studied by A. (7) It may be noted that the steady state behaviour of a telecommunication switching system is governed by equation (6) and equation (7). 1. We concerned with three aspects while dealing with analysis of the telecommunication system. 3.(1) where... Traffic arrived model. (3) Downloaded from www. The mean effective traffic Co is calculated as C 0 = ∑ λPi i =0 R −1 Where.. i.. R is the no of serves in the system.e no call in progress.. A = λt h ….com. Blocking models and estimates:. In a system modeled as a B-D process.... Where. P0 + P1 + P2 + . The system can be in any one of the 0 . the state probabilities reach equilibrium value do not change with time i.jayaram.jayaram. there can be no termination of call i. C i = λ for 0 ≤ i < R . …….Telecommunication system may be classified as loss system or delay system. the steady state equation of a B-D process are Pk −1λ k −1 + Pk +1 µ k +1 − (λ k − µ k )Pk = 0 for k ≥ 1 ………… (6) P1 µ1 − λ0 P0 = 0 for k = 0 ………………. for k = 0. There are three models of loss system:(i) lost call cleared (LCC )...e µ = 0. When the system is modeled as a B-D process. Offered traffic (A) is expressed as....Downloaded from www. (i) Modelling the system. In this case.PR −1 ) = λ (1 − PR ) ……………..np Equation (4) in differential equation governing the dynamics of a B – D process equation (4) applies for all values of k ≥ 1 . Therefore we have.(2) Now... Hence equation becomes for k =0... we have.com. C R = 0 ( C = average call arrival rate). The behavior of loss system is studied by using blocking models and that of the delay system by using quicking models.. 2..PR = 1 ……………….. dP0 (t ) = P1 (t ) µ1 − λ0 P0 (t ) …………….

GOS = PB. (7) k = 1. (5) From equation (i) A (1 − PR )t h (∴ A = λt h ) th A − A0 PR = The blocking probability PB is the same as the probability that all the server are busy i. A j P0 Pj = …………. − APk −1 + APk + kPk for k > 0 ……………………. we have AP + P1 − AP1 P2 = 1 2 Substituting for P1 form equation (7) .jayaram.e A P R. µ = mean call termination rate = tn µ k = call termination rate in state k.np / 56 . We have equation for B-D process. Consider termination rate is directly proportional to the number of busy server as given by µ k = kµ for 0 ≤ k ≤ R 1 Where. A0 = Therefore. (4) = λ (1 − PR )t h ………. Pk −1λ + Pk +1 µ (k + 1) − (λ k − kµ )Pk = 0 Q (µ k = kµ ) Equation (1) . Pk −1λ + Pk +1 µ (k + 1) − (λ k − µ k )Pk = 0 Now.Downloaded from www. (8) j! From equation (2) and (8) P3 = Downloaded from www. we have AP2 + 2 P2 − AP1 A 3 P0 A 2 P0 = = 3 3× 2 3! Generalizing we get..jayaram..np The mean traffic carried by the n/w is given by. A0 = C 0 t h ………….com.. we get.com. A 2 P0 P2 = 2 Fro k = 2. (6) Pk +1 = k +1 P1 = AP0 for k = 0 ………….

. Downloaded from www... + 2! R! For k = R . A = arrival process specification. (5) Signaling systems.. A quening system is characterized by a set of six parameters. (1) Subscriber end instruments or equipment. Queue Source Fig: elements of queuing system.There are over 400 million telephone connection and over 60.np / 57 .PSTN or the old telephone system (POTS) is most popular telecommunication n/w ..jayaram. Z = Service discipline. + Above formula is Erlang B-formula or loss formula..np A R P0 =1 R! 1 For . (2) Subscriber loop systems.The length of telephone exceeds a billion km. Telephone Network . (4) Transmission system.. K = quene capacity.. . P0 = ………………. Substituting for P0 form equation (9) into equation (8) we get.. m = number of source (Input population)...000 telephone exchanges the world over.. The parameter specification are as follows.Downloaded from www. C = Number of server.... Quenign theory:Delay system are analyzed using this theory which sometime known as waiting line theory.. A telecommunication n/w may be viewed as consisting of the following major system.... Offered traffic Server 1 Server 2 Server R .... P0 + AP0 + .jayaram. B = Service time distribution. (3) Switching systems.com. (9) 2 A AR 1+ A + + . Elements of quening system...com. The notation read as A/ B/C/K/m/z.

jayaram.jayaram. The MDF thus provides a flexible interconnection mechanism which is very useful in reallocating cable pairs and subscriber numbers.com. DP – Distribution point DC – distribution cable. It is desirable form economy point view that the subscriber loop lengths are as large as possible so that a single exchange can serve a large area. FP . DW . 2. (2) Attenuation limits. (1) Signaling limits. ISDN (Integrated service digital network) An integrated digital network in which the same digital switches and digital paths are used to establish different services. Now services introduced into the ISDN should be so arranged as to compatible with 64kbps switched digital connection. arrangement must be made for the interworking of services on ISDNs and services on other n/ws.np Subscriber loop system.Main distribution frame. Subscriber pairs and exchange pairs are interconnected at the MDF by means of jumpers. Every subscriber in a telephone n/w is connected generally to the nearest switching office by means of dedicated pair of wires. 3. But two factors limit their length. ISDN based on six conceptual principles: 1.Drop wires. maintenance and n/w management function.com. 4. Downloaded from www.np / 58 . ISDN will be based on and will evolve from the telephony IDN .Feeder point BF – branch feeder. 5. The transition from the existing network to a ISDN may required a period of time (extending over one or two decades ). The ISDN will content intelligence for the purpose of providing services features. During the transition period. FM – Main feeder.Downloaded from www. FP DP DP DP DW MF M D F Exchange FP DP DP DP DP FP DP DC DP DP DW DP DP MDF . Fig: Cable hierarchy for subscriber loop. for example telephony and data.

(4) Technology developments. (5) Database access. fire.com.com. New services: (1) Videotex. (4) Teletex. Motivation for ISDN ( Three factors are responsible for the development towards the ISDN ) (2) Sociological or Societal needs.Downloaded from www. Downloaded from www. (7) Image and graphics image. A layered functional set of protocols appears desirable for the various access arrangements to ISDN. (8) Document storage and transfer. level 7 User application level 6 Compression/ Expansion Encyption/Decryption Tele service function level 5 Session control Session sync level 4 Error recovery Message interity End to end flow control level 3 Addressin & routing User to user signalling Bearer service function level 2 Data link connection Conjestion flow & error control level 1 Encoding/Decoding Multiplexing for B or D Transmission Fig: ISDN protocol architecture. smoke. (9) Atomatic Alarm services eq. (2) E-mail (3) Digital Fax. (10) Audio and video conferencing. (3) Economic necessity.jayaram.np 6. (6) Electronic fund transfer.np / 59 . police and medical.jayaram.

If the average duration of call is 3 min. Basic teleservice + supplementary services. Basic information channel B channel. High speed channel H channels. ISDN service categories: ISDN services 1.com.np / 60 . Relation: 1 E = 36 CCS = 3600CS = 60Cm CCS = Centum call second. Solution: A0 = 10E Occupied time = 3 min Total server = 20 Traffic per server = 10/20 = 0. 3. a. b. Cs = call second. H12 channel.Downloaded from www. Barrier services a. Downloaded from www.com. H7 channel 1536 kbps. Signalling channel D channel . 2. Network level signaling. Cm = call minutes.5E Time occupied for 1 server = 0. 384 kbps.5 = to/t ∴t 0 = 0.jayaram. Basic bearer services b.5 × 60 = 30 min Number of calls made by single server (put through) = 30/3 = 10 calls. H0 channel . 16 or 64 kbps. 1920 kbps. User level signaling 2. 2.np Transmission channel: There are three types of fundamental channels in ISDN. Basic barrier service + supplementary services. 64 kbps. Numerical: (see page 311 vishwanathan) Q. Teleservices. Basic teleservices. A group of 20 services carry a traffic of 10 erlangs. Calculate the numbers of calls putthrough by a single server and the group as a whole in a 1 hrs period. The number of call put through by total server = 10 × 20 = 200.jayaram. Signaling: (Signalling in ISDN falls into two distinct categories ) 1. These are: 1.

4 × 100 = cm = 9 cm 60 Q.com.4 × 100cs 5. C = average call arrival rate. th = 4800/(40×60) = 2 min per calls. Calculate the load offered to the n/w by the subscriber and average subscriber traffic.np Q. Solution: average busy our calls Busy hour Calling rate = Total number of subscriber Average busy our call = BHCA* CCR 60 = 10. Total duration of calls is 4800 seconds. Q. calculate the busy hour calling rate.np / 61 .Downloaded from www.15 E 60 A0 = 0. Busy hour calling rate = 2000 Q. C = 40/20 = 2. (1) Traffic offered (A) (2) GOS (Ao) (3) Traffic carried.jayaram.. A subscriber makes three phone calls of 3 minutes.. Th = average holding time per call. If the average BHCA (busy hour calls attempt) is 10. Offered calls 1400 Successful calls = 1400 – 14 = 1386 calls.000 × 100 = 6000 6000 = 3. The average call duration has three minutes find.th = 4E. Solution: Lost calls 14 GOS = = = . Over a 20 minutes observation interval .4 ccs = 5. CCs and Cm.com. During a busy hour 1400 calls were offered to a group of trunks and 14 calls were lost. 40 subscribers initiate calls. Calculate the subscriber traffic in erlangs. Downloaded from www. A = C.15 × 36 ccs = 5.jayaram.. 4 +3+ 2 A0 = = 0. An exchange server 2000 subscriber. [note: offered traffic A = Cth] Where. 4 minutes and 2 minutes duration in 1 hrs duration.000 and the CCR (call completion rate) is 60%.

If the exchange is capable of carrying 700 erlang of traffic.jayaram. Traffic offered (A) = offered calls * Average holding time in hours. Downloaded from www. = 1400 * (3/60 ) = ……….com. traffic carried by the group. Calculate the traffic offered to the group. A total of 800 calls is offered to a switching system during the busy hour if 8 calls are lost due to insufficient equipment. A call in processor in an exchange requires 120 ms to service a complete call. During the busy hour if all ckt in a group were simultaneously engage for a total period of 6 seconds calculate time conjection. The int erval considered Q. What is the GOS? If the average holding time of successful call is 3 minutes.np / 62 . One day. During the busy hour group of ckt if offered 100 calls having an average duration of 3 minutes.com. Eg.Downloaded from www.np Traffic carried (Ao) = accepted no of calls * average holding time in hours . how much traffic is carried? What is the probability of loosign a call during a busy hours.jayaram. the number of calls during the busy hour is 2200 What is the resulting GOS. = 1386*(3/60) = ……… Erlangs or E. Q. traffic lost and the call conjection. What is the BHCS rating for the processor? . Q. what is CCR? Q. and one call fails to find a free ckt. [ Note: Time cojection = Total time duration which all devices/circuits were busy during a time an hour interval]. An exchange is design to handel 2000 calls during the busy hour. Q. E.