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20. Write any two points regarding Nature and characteristics of IBM?

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Distinguish between International trade & export and Import List out any three Economic theories? What is globalization? Globalization (globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces.[1] Globalization is often used to refer to economic globalization, that is, integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.[2] Saskia Sassen writes that "a good part of globalization consists of an enormous variety of micro-processes that begin to denationalize what had been constructed as national - whether policies, capital, political subjectivities, urban spaces, temporal frames, or any other of a variety of dynamics and domains."[3] The United Nations ESCWA has written that globalization "is a widely-used term that can be defined in a number of different ways. When used in an economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour...although considerable barriers remain to the flow of labour...Globalization is not a new phenomenon. It began in the late nineteenth century, but its spread slowed during the period from the start of the First World War until the third quarter of the twentieth century. This slowdown can be attributed to the inwardlooking policies pursued by a number of countries in order to protect their respective industries.. however, the pace of globalization picked up rapidly during the fourth quarter of the twentieth century..."[4] Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute defines globalization as "the diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result."[5] Thomas L. Friedman has examined the impact of the "flattening" of the world, and argues that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse. He also argues that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice.[6] Noam Chomsky argues that the word globalization is also used, in a doctrinal sense, to describe the neoliberal form of economic globalization.[7] Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a significant formal difference. The term "internationalization" refers to the importance of international trade, relations, treaties etc. owing to the (hypothetical) immobility of labor and capital between or among nations.


List out the stages of IBM?


Write short notes for the Following terms 1. GATS The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a treaty of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations. The treaty was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provides such a system for merchandise trade. All members of the WTO are signatories to the GATS. The basic WTO principle of most favoured nation (MFN) applies to GATS as well. However, upon accession, Members may introduce temporary exemptions to this rule.

Historical background Before the WTO's Uruguay Round negotiations began in 1986, public services such as healthcare, postal services, education, etc. were not included in international trade agreements. Most such services have traditionally been classed as domestic activities, difficult to trade across borders, notwithstanding the fact that for example educational services have been "exported" for as long as universities have been open to international students. By definition, given their infrastructural and social importance, public services have been the domain of public (government) ownership, funding, and control. Moreoever such sectors - health, education, water supply, etc. - being funded by the taxpayer, in most countries have been considered as the responsibility of government and not to be left to the vagaries of markets and private companies running them for profit rather than in the public interest. Nevertheless, some service sectors—in particular, international finance and maritime transport— have been largely open for centuries, as necessary components of merchandise trade. Other large sectors have undergone fundamental technical and regulatory changes in recent decades, opening them to private commercial participation and reducing barriers to entry. The development of information technologies and the internet have expanded the range of internationally tradeable service products to include a range of commercial activities such as medicine, distance learning, engineering, architecture, advertising and freight forwarding. While the overall goal of the GATS is to remove barriers to trade, members are free to choose which sectors are to be progressively liberalised, under which mode of supply a particular sector would be covered under, and to what extent to which liberalisation will occur over a given period of time. Members' commitments are governed by a "ratchet effect", meaning that commitments are one-way and should not be wound back once entered into. Article XXI allows Members to withdraw commitments and so far two members have used this option (USA and EU). In November 2008, Bolivia notified that it will withdraw its health services commitments. Some activist groups consider that the GATS risks undermining the ability and authority of governments to regulate commercial activities within their boundaries, with the effect of ceding power to business interests over the interests of citizens. In 2003 'GATSwatch' network published a critical statement which was supported in 2003 by over 500 organisations in 60 countries. [1]. Four Modes of Supply The GATS agreement covers four modes of supply for the delivery of services in cross-border trade:

trade dress. from the territory of another Member Supplier Presence Mode 1: Crossborder supply Mode 2: Consumption abroad Service supplier not present within the Service delivered outside the territory territory of the member of the Member. integrated circuit layout-designs. available on the World Trade Organization Website. TRIPS contains requirements that nations' laws must meet for: copyright rights. monopolies for the developers of new plant varieties.Criteria Service delivered within the territory of the Member. Specifically. producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994. to a service consumer of the Member Service delivered within the territory of the Member. industrial designs.GNS/W/124. with supplier present as a natural person Mode 3: Commercial presence Mode 4: Presence of a natural person Service supplier present within the territory of the Member Note: From the document MTN. geographical indications. and undisclosed or confidential information. trademarks. patents. and dispute resolution procedures. Protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights shall meet the objectives to contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and . posted courtesy of ISTIA 2. including appellations of origin. in the territory of another Member. TRIPS The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. through the commercial presence of the supplier Service delivered within the territory of the Member. TRIPS also specifies enforcement procedures. including the rights of performers. remedies.

under TRIPS: • Copyright terms must extend to 50 years after the death of the author. the United States strategy of linking trade policy to intellectual property standards can be traced back to the entrepreneurship of senior management at Pfizer in the early 1980s. stating for example that TRIPS can and should be interpreted in light of the goal "to promote access to medicines for all. [edit] The requirements of TRIPS TRIPS requires member states to provide strong protection for intellectual property rights." Background and history TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994. Its inclusion was the culmination of a program of intense lobbying by the United States. In turn. and not based upon any "formality". India and Caribbean Basin states. The Doha declaration is a WTO statement that clarifies the scope of TRIPS. developing countries. TRIPS has a powerful enforcement mechanism. any country seeking to obtain easy access to the numerous international markets opened by the World Trade Organization must enact the strict intellectual property laws mandated by TRIPS. initiated a round of talks that resulted in the Doha Declaration.(4)) Copyright must be granted automatically. to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare. Chapter 7). 2000. Campaigns of unilateral economic encouragement under the Generalized System of Preferences and coercion under Section 301 of the Trade Act played an important role in defeating competing policy positions that were favored by developing countries. TRIPS is the most important multilateral instrument for the globalization of intellectual property laws. • • . The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property law into the international trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property to date. such as registrations or systems of renewal. most notably Korea and Brazil. concerned that developed countries were insisting on an overly narrow reading of TRIPS. States can be disciplined through the WTO's dispute settlement mechanism. supported by the European Union. In 2001.dissemination of technology. 7(2). After the Uruguay round. Because ratification of TRIPS is a compulsory requirement of World Trade Organization membership. Computer programs must be regarded as "literary works" under copyright law and receive the same terms of protection.(Art. States like Russia and China that were very unlikely to join the Berne Convention have found the prospect of WTO membership a powerful enticement. the GATT became the basis for the establishment of the World Trade Organization. who mobilized corporations in the United States and made maximizing intellectual property privileges the number one priority of trade policy in the United States (Braithwaite and Drahos. but also including Thailand. For example. unlike other agreements on intellectual property. respectively. although films and photographs are only required to have fixed 50 and to be at least 25 year terms. and to a balance of rights and obligations. Japan and other developed nations. Furthermore. For this reason.

Spread over three week-long sessions between May and July 2009. Regulation and Management will give you an in-depth understanding of these issues . intellectual property laws may not offer any benefits to local citizens which are not available to citizens of other TRIPs signatories by the principles of national treatment (with certain limited exceptions. Exceptions to the exclusive rights must be limited. Art. • • • • Many of the TRIPS provisions on copyright were imported from the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and many of its trademark and patent provisions were imported from the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. No unreasonable prejudice to the legitimate interests of the right holders of computer programs and patents is allowed.and more. LINK Centre skilled and experienced staff at the School of Public and Development Management. Legitimate interests of third parties have to be taken into account by patent rights (Art 30). provided that a normal exploitation of the work (Art. TRIPS also has a most favored nation clause. In each state. 13) and normal exploitation of the patent (Art 30) is not in conflict. TPRM TPRM: Certificate in Telecommunications Policy.2 and 27. Significance The course is designed to address the constantly evolving issues and concerns ." although exceptions for certain public interests are allowed (Art. Regulation and Management. University of Witwatersrand. 1.3 [1]) and must be enforceable for at least 20 years (Art 33). 3 and 5 [2]). 27. supported by an extensive panel of guest lecturers. will help you map the telecommunications landscape. each an expert in their field.• • National exceptions to copyright (such as "fair use" in the United States) are constrained by the Berne three-step test Patents must be granted in all "fields of technology. 2009 How many digits does it take to dial you? Who (un)bungled the local loop? Is number portability just excess baggage? Was the Convergence Act really about convergence? And what will it really change? Why is broadband such a trickle? And what does all this mean for regulation and policy-making? The LINK Centre's Certificate in Telecommunications Policy.

By identifying and proactively addressing risks and opportunities. and is monitored by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). 2. It is the largest electronic screen-based equity securities trading market in the United States. employees. business enterprises protect and create value for their stakeholders. it has more trading volume per hour than any other stock exchange in the world. EXIM 3. NASDAQ is poised to capture 67% of the controlling stake in the aforementioned exchange. ERM Enterprise risk management (ERM) in business includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. and will compete with NYSE-Euronext group in attracting new listings. including owners. 2. NASDAQ The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American stock exchange.the second largest exchange in the United States. customers. the stock of which was listed on its own stock exchange in 2002. following its agreement with Borse Dubai. Write short notes for any three from the Following 1. who divested themselves of it in a series of sales in 2000 and 2001. now known as Nasdaq-OMX. ADSU Types of regional grouping? 21. and society overall. It also operates eight stock exchanges in Europe and holds one-third of the Dubai Stock Exchange.[2] The group. by the evolving legal and regulatory environment and by the emergence of new markets. ERM provides a framework for risk management. .give rise to increased demands for training and information. 22. which typically involves identifying particular events or circumstances relevant to the organization's objectives (risks and opportunities).800 companies. services and applications . assessing them in terms of likelihood and magnitude of impact.inherent in the dynamic and fast-paced nature of the telecommunications sector in South Africa. controls and operates the NASDAQ stock exchange in New York City -. It is owned and operated by the NASDAQ OMX Group. determining a response strategy. thereby inching ever closer to taking over the company and creating a trans-atlantic powerhouse. These changes driven by rapidly developing technologies. and monitoring progress. With approximately 3.[1] It was founded in 1971 by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD). With the completed purchase of the Nordic-based operated exchange OMX. It has a double-listing agreement with OMX. regulators. The advent of convergence and globalisation intensifies the ongoing challenge on people in these sectors to remain informed of local developments and international trends and practices.

and internal control. Government of India. it functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry. the primary challenge is to create an equation that approximates the equation to be studied. The Finite Element Method is a good choice for solving partial differential equations over complex domains (like cars and oil pipelines). Regulators and debt rating agencies have increased their scrutiny on the risk management processes of companies. ERM is evolving to address the needs of various stakeholders. or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations. Being essentially an export promotion organization. Reserve Bank of India. but is numerically stable. who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations to ensure they are appropriately managed. 5. or when the solution lacks smoothness. Another example would be the simulation of the weather pattern on Earth. It is managed by a Board of Directors comprising representatives of the Government. ECGC What is ECGC? Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited. The solution approach is based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems). operations management. Department of Commerce. which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method. banking.ERM can also be described as a risk-based approach to managing an enterprise. Runge-Kutta. FEM The finite element method (FEM) (sometimes referred to as finite element analysis) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations. ECGC is the fifth largest credit insurer of the world in terms of coverage of national exports. For instance. where it is more important to have accurate predictions over land than over the wide-open sea. The present paid-up capital of the company is Rs. when the desired precision varies over the entire domain. meaning that errors in the input data and intermediate calculations do not accumulate and cause the resulting output to be meaningless. There are many ways of doing this. In solving partial differential equations. insurance and exporting community. 4. was established in the year 1957 by the Government of India to strengthen the export promotion drive by covering the risk of exporting on credit. etc. in a frontal crash simulation it is possible to increase prediction accuracy in "important" areas like the front of the car and reduce it in its rear (thus reducing cost of the simulation).800 . integrating concepts of strategic planning. when the domain changes (as during a solid state reaction with a moving boundary). all with advantages and disadvantages.

[1]Its definition can be extended to include investments made to acquire lasting interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor. It is the establishment of an enterprise by a foreigner. 31. Increasing foreign investment can be used as one measure of growing . The IMF defines control in this case as owning 10% or more of the ordinary shares or voting power of an incorporated firm or its equivalent for an unincorporated firm.[3] Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a measure of foreign ownership of productive assets. What does ECGC do? Provides a range of credit risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and services Offers guarantees to banks and financial institutions to enable exporters to obtain better facilities from them Provides Overseas Investment Insurance to Indian companies investing in joint ventures abroad in the form of equity or loan 23. lower ownership shares are known as portfolio investment.crores and authorized capital Rs. such as factories. How IBM Helps Home and Host country List out any two advantage What is custom and its documentation? List out any three advantages for MNC? List out any three disadvantages for MNC? (SECTION C – Descriptive – 5 X 8 = 40 MARKS) Answer all Questions 33Explain the following key terms • • • • Nature and characteristics of IBM Forms of International Business Export and Import FDI Foreign direct investment (FDI) in its classic form is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country.[2] The FDI relationship consists of a parent enterprise and a foreign affiliate which together form a multinational corporation (MNC). mines and land. 30. In order to qualify as FDI the investment must afford the parent enterprise control over its foreign affiliate.1000 crores.

economic globalization. And Cultural Environment? 35 How do WTO Helps International Environmental Factors .05 bn $ 2.47 bn $ 907.13 bn $ 1. Political. But flows to non-industrialized countries are increasing.18 bn $ 5. Maps below show net inflows of foreign direct investment as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP).13 bn + $ 37.04 bn $ 122.703. North West Europe and Japan).81 bn + $ 207.629.421.74 bn Total + $ 246.93 bn $ 206.69 bn $ 1.27 bn $ 329. US International Direct Investment Flows:[4] Period FDI Outflow FDI Inflows 196069 197079 198089 199099 200007 Net $ 42.72 bn $ 40.34 bn + $ 43.23 bn .88 bn 34 How Globalizations makes inter relationship between Economic.31 bn $ 2. The largest flows of foreign investment occur between the industrialized countries (North America.96 bn $ 950.$ 122.79 bn + $ 81.950.

scale economies. this doesn't mean that there is an improvement for the society. Multinational corporations can have a powerful influence in local economies as well as the world economy and play an important role in international relations and globalization. established in 1602.[3] The consolidation is often established by acquisition.[1] The imperfections in markets are natural as the neoclassical assumptions like full knowledge and enforcement don't exist in real markets.[3] This makes it easy for the MNE to enforce price discrimination shemes in various countires. Market imperfections In the first it seems like a paradox that multinational enterprises do business in a different country without it's contacts and knowledge of local customs and business practices. Brown (1976) and Hennart (1977.[1] Why is it not more efficient to combine assets of value overseas with local factors of production at lower costs by renting or selling them to investors?[1] One reason is that the use of the market for coordinating the behaviour of agents located in different countries is less efficient than coordinating them by a multionational enterprise as an institution.[2] Due to the transformation of two seperated companies into one MNE the pecuniary externalities are going to be internalized. which will reduce their profits. 1982).[5] Further reasons are originated in the control of proprietary technology and distribution systems.[1] All these autors claimed that market imperfections are inherent conditions in markets and MNEs are institutions which try to bypass these imperfections.[2] However. also called multinational enterprise (MNE)[1]. Buckley & Casson (1976).[1] The transaction costs theories of MNEs had been developed simultaneously and independently by McManus (1972).[2] The firms can maximize their joint income by a merger or acquisition which will lower the competition in the shared market. the existence of MNEs is reasoned by structural market imperfections for final products.[1] The additional costs caused by the entrance in foreign markets are of less interest for the local enterprise.36 Narrate key points and Analyze about MNC? A multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation (TNC). If these costs decrease both are forced to competition. Kindleberger and Caves. merger or the vertical integration of the potential licensee into overseas manufacturing.[5] In the absence of these factors.[1] According to Hymer. is a corporation or enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. The first modern MNC is generally thought to be the Dutch East India Company. market are fully efficient.[3] Therefore Humyer considered the emergence of multinational firms as "an (negative) instrument for restraining competition between firms of different nations".[2] In Hmyer's example there are considered two firms as monopolists in their own market and isolated from competition by transportation costs and other tariff and non-tariff barriers. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. privileged acces to inputs and product differentation.[4] Market imperfections had been considered by Hymer as structural and caused by the deviations from perfect competition in the final product markets.[2] This could also be the case if there are few substitutes or limited licenses in a foreign market. [6] [edit] International power [edit] Tax competition . Very large multinationals have budgets that exceed some national GDPs.

e. Thus.Multinational corporations have played an important role in globalization. Thus. sudden contract renegotiation. it is also the case that they tend to pay a premium of between 10% and 100% on local labor rates. which includes a high degree of standardisation. expropriation. MNC profits are tied to operational efficiency. some scholars. therefore. Japan or EU) which has the most rigorous standards. training workers. and the subsequent tax revenue. there is no evidence to suggest that MNCs deliberately avail themselves of lax environmental regulation or poor labour standards. However.g. 37 Discover the factor among the Regional grouping? 38 How latest technology helps to Export procedure and Documentations? Export procedure and documentation Detailed Overview/Outline Use effective import/export procedures to get your products to and from customers and suppliers on time and hassle-free—and protect your company’s investment! . or lax environmental and labor standards enforcement. depending on the nature of the MNC... investment in any country reflects a desire for a long-term return. many MNCs are quite vulnerable to predatory practices such as. employment. and economic activity. once established in a jurisdiction. or both. since in America the same company would probably hire far fewer people and automate whatever process they performed in Vietnam with manual labour). Costs associated with establishing plant. Countries and sometimes subnational regions must compete against one another for the establishment of MNC facilities.' etc. This process of becoming more attractive to foreign investment can be characterized as a race to the bottom. etc. can be very high. while MNCs clearly pay workers in.g. much less than they would in the US (though it is worth noting that higher American productivity—linked to technology—means that any comparison is tricky. while the substantial benefits which MNCs bring (tax revenues aside) are often understated.[7] Finally. both the negotiating power of MNCs and the supposed 'race to the bottom' may be overstated. pledges of governmental assistance or improved infrastructure. As for labor costs. e. countries and regional political districts sometimes offer incentives to MNCs such as tax breaks. have argued that multinationals are engaged in a 'race to the top. Vietnam. MNCs are likely to tailor production processes in all of their operations in conformity to those jurisdictions where they operate (which will almost always include one or more of the US. a push towards greater autonomy for corporate bodies.' While multinationals certainly regard a low tax burden or low labor costs as an element of comparative advantage. for instance the Columbia economist Jagdish Bhagwati. To compete. the arbitrary withdrawal or compulsory purchase of unnecessary 'licenses. As Bhagwati has pointed out.

credit managers. customer service staff. But the details involved in these operations have never been more complex! Using these import/export procedures.The opportunities for importing and exporting have never been greater. Extended Description The Building Blocks of Global Trade  Understand the Fundamental Knowledge Areas of International Trade  Give an Overview of the Risks Inherent to the Import/Export Field  Explain the Importance of Being Detail-Oriented and of Complying with Import/Export Regulations . you’ll be equipped to deal successfully with banks. purchasing managers and directors of procurement or logistics. controllers. And find out how to use the necessary documents to obtain the greatest cost benefit for your company and timely execution of your orders! HOW YOU WILL BENEFIT:  Discover the latest import/export procedures and guidelines Get  freight forwarders and bankers to work together to solve your logistics problems  Maximize the services of general and bonded warehouses  Prevent excessive duties by using foreign trade zones  Avoid the pitfalls of improper documentation WHAT YOU WILL COVER:  Documenting your shipment  Executing smooth import transactions  Complying with NAFTA and other origin requirements. trademark and copyright regulations  Observing industry standards  Avoiding customs penalties  Getting help from freight forwarders and customs brokers  Establishing mutually beneficial relationships  Getting paid and make payments using letters of credit and documentary collections Who Should Attend Import/export managers. shipping department personnel. freight forwarders. traffic managers. customs brokers and foreign customers. international marketing managers.

 Identify How Everything in Your Organization Is Connected When It Comes to Importing/Exporting  Evaluate How Trends in Third-Party Logistics Impact Your Decisions with Regard to How You Run Your Import/Export Operations Developing a Global Strategy  Enumerate the Potential Benefits of Global Trade  Describe the Specific Reasons You Believe Your Company Should Be Involved in Global Trade  Develop a Global Operations Strategy  Ascertain Your Readiness to Trade by Evaluating Your Products’ Viability in Foreign Markets  Apply a Domestic Market Analysis to Foreign Opportunities  Evaluate Senior Management’s Commitment to Global Expansion  Determine Your Company’s Readiness and Ability to Expand into Foreign Markets Documentation. Taxes. and Terms of Sale  List the Five Primary Documents Required to Export and Import Goods  List the Two Factors Used to Determine Duties and Taxes on Your Goods  Identify the Steps in Your Organization for Determining Product Origin and the Correct HTSUS or Schedule B Number  Explain the Importance of Understanding and Controlling the Terms of Sale  Describe Specific Terms of Sale Situations That Could Increase Your Costs Regulatory Compliance  Provide the Information Required to the Bureau of Export Administration (BXA)  Avoid "Red Flags" That Alert the BXA to Noncompliance  Develop a Checking Process  Comply with the Customs Modernization Act of 1995  Use Customs Brokers to Clear Your Imports through the Border Logistics  Select an Accounting Firm to Advise You Regarding Foreign Taxation  Identify Potential Service Providers  Understand and Apply a Variety of Steps for Determining Export Costs  Discuss Your Own Company’s Costing Practices .

and Letters of Credit  Make Sure You Get Paid  Weigh and Compare Your Banking and Finance Options  Minimize Collection Risk  Reduce Your Risk of Financial Loss by Using Insurance  Gather Credit Information on Foreign Buyers  Use and Manage Letters of Credit Risk Management  Manage Political Risk  Insure against Risks of Various Types  Reduce the Costs of Insurance and Collection for Claims  Comply with New Policies in Order to Reduce the Risk of Damage to Shipments Cargo Loss Control  Package Your Products to Properly Prevent Damage in Transit  Identify the Best Mode of Transit . Banking. Finance. Make Better Decisions Regarding Transit Modes Forwarder Selection and Management  Establish Specific Criteria to Use When Selecting a Forwarder  Select a Forwarder That Can Provide the Logistics Consulting You Need  Understand Pricing and Compare Forwarder Proposals  Identify Specific Value-added Services You Might Require  Set Performance Standards for Your Forwarder(s)  Control Costs by Using Consolidators Customer Service  Obtain a Competitive Advantage through Timely Action and Genuine Communication  Respond Appropriately to Customers’ Needs When Things Go Wrong  Adjust Your Service and Communication Approach to Different Cultures  Focus on Developing Personal Relationships with Clients  Manage Customer Relationships When Problems Arise  Set up Quality Control Procedures for Exports and Imports Trade.

AMA will give you a complete refund if you cancel more than three weeks before your seminar begins. They have built a content control check into every one of their professional seminars. The courtesy transfer must be . however you may request a courtesy transfer to use at any future AMA seminar of equal or lesser value. Multiple Handling. Plus a series of checks and balances to ensure that the content of every AMA seminar is precisely targeted to:  provide comprehensive. To cancel. simply call. If you need to cancel your attendance. processes and yourself Cancellation and Refund Policy If you cannot attend a seminar you may contact AMA in advance to transfer to a future session. and Nuances of the Cargo  Access a Number of Sources to Locate Carriers That Meet Your Needs Technology in Global Trade  Use Technology to Gain a Competitive Advantage in Global Trade  Take the Pain out of International Trade Documentation  Research and Select EDI Services Sponsor Background: The American Management Association was founded in 1923. hands-on training that is of practical use when you return to the job  focus on need-to-know specifics. AMA offers expert instruction to help you:  manage your priorities effectively  cultivate more productive working relationships  increase your on-the-job value  align your skills with marketplace demands  bring out the best in people. you will be liable for the entire seminar fee. or can send someone to take your place. If you cancel with less than three weeks' notice. Establish Management Policies and Packaging Guidelines  Manage Carrier Arrangements with Regard to: Environment the Shipment Passes through. Exposures to Theft and Pilferage. relevant to the demands of global business today  offer the expertise and personalized attention of top-ranking instructors  facilitate your career development and business savvy Whether you're looking for a solid foundation of business fundamentals or strategies to help you seize growth opportunities for your company.

regional groups control elections to UN-related positions. Latin American and Caribbean Group (GRULAC). and form common fronts for negotiations and voting. with 33 member states.used within one year of the date of your originally scheduled seminar. dividing up the pie on the basis of geographic representation.the United States of America. Israel and Kiribati . Contents .are not included in the above numbers (see below). with 23 member states. you will be charged the entire seminar fee. In fairness to all attendees. the Asian Group. if you do not attend a seminar session for which you are confirmed. with 53 member states. as well as coordinate substantive policy. with 53 member states. with 27 member states. Regional grouping The United Nations is unofficially divided into five geopolitical regional groupings. African Group Asian Group Eastern European Group Latin American and Caribbean Group Western European and Others Group UN member not in any voting group Non-UN state or territory The five groups are • the Western European and Others Group (WEOG). the Eastern European Group. • • • • Three states . Depending on the UN context. and do not cancel with a minimum of three weeks’ notice as described above. the African Group. What began as an informal means of sharing the distribution of posts for General Assembly committees has taken on a much more expansive role.

Viet Nam. Singapore. Uganda. Mongolia.Cyprus. Morocco. United Republic of Tanzania. Republic of Korea. South Africa. Maldives. Mali. Lesotho. Nepal. Tajikistan. Angola. Sudan. Tonga. Botswana. Iraq.3 The Eastern European Group 1.1 Pacific • 2 Special cases ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • 3 Proposed new groupings ○ 4 Criticisms 5 References 6 See also [edit] Members of each group [edit] The African Group Algeria. Zambia. Liberia.3 Kiribati 2. Lebanon. Somalia. Togo. Sri Lanka.1 The African Group 1. Egypt. Zimbabwe. [edit] The Eastern European Group . Yemen. Timor-Leste. Vanuatu. Brunei Darussalam. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malawi. Malaysia. Djibouti.2 Israel 2. Islamic Republic of Iran. Eritrea. Lao People's Democratic Republic. Federated States of Micronesia. Gabon. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Guinea-Bissau. Cape Verde. Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Comoros.4 Turkey 3. Ghana. Jordan. Bangladesh. Palau. Oman. Cameroon. Saudi Arabia. Bhutan. China. Nauru. [edit] The Asian Group Afghanistan. The Gambia.4 The Latin American and Caribbean States (GRULAC) 1.5 The Western European and Others Group (WEOG) 2. Nigeria. Kenya. Pakistan. Japan. Republic of the Congo. Fiji. Burkina Faso. Niger. Chad. Indonesia. Philippines. Rwanda. Senegal. Cambodia. Samoa. Mauritius. Marshall Islands. Solomon Islands. Ethiopia.2 The Asian Group 1. Namibia. Kazakhstan. Tunisia. Bahrain. Thailand. Tuvalu. Kyrgyzstan. Madagascar. Swaziland. Guinea. Mozambique. Equatorial Guinea. Turkmenistan. Mauritania. São Tomé and Príncipe. Sierra Leone. Kuwait. Papua New Guinea. Uzbekistan. United Arab Emirates. Benin. Seychelles. Central African Republic.[hide] • 1 Members of each group ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 1. Myanmar. India. Qatar. Syrian Arab Republic. Burundi. Côte d'Ivoire.1 United States of America 2.

Malta. such as wireless carrier Bharti Airtel Ltd. Former Yugoslavic Republic of Macedonia. Bolivia. Honduras. Austria. Barbados. Belarus. companies with cheaper labor and low capital costs. is expanding in India and grabbing enough customers to take the top spot in the country’s domestic informationtechnology market from local rivals. Georgia. Uruguay. though naturally a part of the Asian Group in geographical terms but with membership withheld due to the large majority of Muslim countries in the Asian block who refuse to allow Israel's acceptance. San Marino. but attends meetings of the Western European and Others Group as an observer and is considered to be a member of that group for electoral purposes. [edit] Special cases [edit] United States of America The United States of America is not a member of any regional group. Trinidad and Tobago. Slovakia. Spain. Paraguay. Liechtenstein. Costa Rica. Dominica.S. Turkey. Armenia. Chile. Croatia. In this position. and Infosys Technologies Ltd. Guyana. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[1] [edit] Israel Israel is a member of WEOG but with limited competencies only. Dan Gillerman was elected to the position of Vice-President of the 60th UN General Assembly. In 2000. Norway. Russian Federation. Estonia. Germany. While Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. Sweden. Luxembourg. Canada. Saint Lucia. Serbia. IBM snapped up contracts with some of India’s largest companies. Dominican Republic. The last Israeli to hold this position was UN envoy Abba Eban in 1952. El Salvador. Brazil. Argentina.Albania. Iceland. Italy. Czech Republic. Grenada. Republic of Moldova. Denmark.’s Karl Keirstead said. Latvia. Israel (New York activities only). Mexico. Jamaica. Hungary. Ireland. Lithuania. Belize. Israel obtained a permanent renewal to its membership to the WEOG for New York activities. Israel's candidacy was put forward by the United Nations Western European and Others Group (WEOG). Romania. Israel. Azerbaijan. Finland. [edit] The Latin American and Caribbean States (GRULAC) Antigua and Barbuda. Portugal. Ukraine. Gillerman played a central role during the initial negotiation stages of the MNC April 9 (Bloomberg) -. Kaufman Bros. New Zealand. Slovenia. Poland. Suriname. Greece. 2005. . On June 14. [2]. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Switzerland.International Business Machines Corp. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. In 2004. [edit] The Western European and Others Group (WEOG) Andorra. Haiti. Monaco. Montenegro. Australia. Ecuador. France. Saint Kitts and Nevis. thereby enabling it to be a candidate for election to various UN bodies [1]. Guatemala. Cuba. Nicaragua. was admitted on temporary basis (subject to renewal) to WEOG's New York activities. Peru. the Netherlands. Bahamas. Bulgaria. The strategy will yield dividends for IBM over time as India’s economy thrives. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Colombia. have won over U. Panama. Belgium.

IBM also may attract new customers from India’s Satyam Computer Services Ltd. please visit the HELP section. “There’s a cachet in using IBM. who pointed to IBM’s brand name and experience as draws for potential clients.. What's New CROSS was last updated 4/27/2009 with 111 rulings. said Sandip Patel. The most recent ruling is dated 4/22/2009.S.downloadable rulings spanning 1990 to present. Code of Federal Regulations. revoked or referenced counterparts. Collections can be searched individually or collectively. embroiled in the nation’s largest accounting scandal. economy will shrink 2. managing partner for services in the a coveted domestic market with fast-growing companies. taking advantage of the “hyper-growth” there by helping domestic companies develop infrastructure. according to research firm Gartner Inc.000 employees in India. Informed Compliance. and more… Customs Valuation Encyclopedia (1980-2003) . The U. India’s economy will grow 5.Includes links to the Harmonized Tariff schedule. For more information about features or how to use CROSS.a place where companies send work to cut costs -. Trade related links . Rulings collections are separated into Headquarters and New York and span the years 1989 to present.Download • MNCs offer the following advantages compared to government: 1 . CROSS has the added functionality of CROSS referencing rulings from the initial search result set with their modified.” said the New York-based analyst. The services market is worth almost $5 billion. the International Monetary Fund said in March. Building Infrastructure CROSS is a searchable database of CBP rulings that can be retrieved based on simple or complex search characteristics using keywords and Boolean operators. bringing the total number of searchable rulings to 155649.Easier and better career path 4 .3 percent in the year starting April 1.More career growth 5 .“They’ve beaten their competition relatively handily.6 percent this year. Customs Bulletins. IMF projects.Better benefits 3 . IBM’s sales from India increased more than from any other country in the past three years.Often MNCs offer higher pay compared to government 2 . India is slowly transforming from a back office -. Related Trade Information Downloadable rulings .” IBM has hired more than 70. Patel said.Opportunity to be assigned to offices of MNC in other countries ○ 1 year ago Adv: MNCs are globally recognised businesses so you have great potential for your career growth in a global level .

Sign in or Register. They also provide various charitable services to the RSS There are currently no comments for this question. Economic benefit DisAdv: MNCs Strategy will influence various govt policy making which may not always be good for the economy • • • • • 1 year ago Report Abuse Rating: Good Answer Rating: Bad Answer 0 stars . and their profit minded operations may impact local markets/produce For government -------------------Adv: Tax source.mark this as Interesting! Who found this interesting? Be the first person to mark this question as interesting! 100% 2 Votes Is this what you are searching for? • • • Email Comment (0) Save ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Add to private Watchlist Save to Yahoo! Bookmarks Add to My Yahoo! Add to Del. For Society ----------------Adv: MNCs remove established legacy businesses and promote local employment opportunities.icio. Disadv : MNCs induces competition. Other Answers (3) Top of Form 20071208035458 All Answ ers Go Show: .DisAdv: Career path in an MNC will take time to establish. * You must be logged into Answers to add comments.

Bottom of Form • by son of tamilnadu india Member since: June 20. 2006 Total points: 813 (Level 2) ○ ○ Add to My Contacts Block User ○ Best answer 7% ○ 243 answers Member Since: June 20. 2006 Total Points: 813 (Level 2) Points earned this week: 0 ○ ○ Add to My Contacts Block User mncs were like trojan horse in long term basis they are harm .