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# Assignment No.

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Submitted to: Ms. Basit B. Tayyab

Difference between Logic and Rationality
Science is fundamentally a rational activity, and the scientific explanation must make sense. Religion may rest on revelations, custom, or traditions, gambling on faith, but science must rest on logical reason. Logic is the study of necessary truths and of systematic methods for clearly expressing and rigorously demonstrating such truths. [1] There are two distinct logical systems important to the scientific quest, referred to as deductive logic and inductive logic. Beveridge describes them as follows: Logicians distinguish between inductive reasoning (from particular instances to general principles, from facts to theories) and deductive reasoning (from the general to the particular, applying a theory to a particular case). In induction one starts from observed data and develops a generalization which explains the relationships between the objects observed. On the other hand, in deductive reasoning one starts from some general law and applies it to a particular instance. The classical illustration of deductive logic is the familiar syllogism: “All men are mortal; Ali is man; therefore Ali is mortal.” A researcher might then follow up this deductive exercise with an empirical test of Ali’s mortality. Using inductive logic, the researcher might begin by noting that Ali is mortal and observing a number of other mortals as well. He might then note that all the observed mortals were men, thereby arriving at the tentative conclusion that all men are mortal. Man does not know things directly but grasps only their impressions (phenomena). Rationalism is concerned with the impressions made on the intellect, Empiricism with those on the senses. [2] Mental state of a rational person characterized by (1) Beliefs that are coherent (not contradictory) and compatible with the person's experience within a given context, (2) Purposeful (intended to produce certain results) behavior guided by means versus ends analysis, (3) Decision making based on cost-versus-benefit (pain versus gain) evaluation, and

Submitted by: Farhan Ahmed Khan MBA-IIA

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htm [3] http://www.radicalacademy.com/rbjpub/philos/logic/009. 1 Submitted to: Ms. References: [1] http://www.com/adiphilrationalism.html Submitted by: Farhan Ahmed Khan MBA-IIA 2 .rbjones. [3] The difference between logic and rationality is that Logic is concerned only with the process of thinking and not with the correctness of the end result or conclusion whereas Rationality is the exercise of reason.businessdictionary.htm [2] http://www. Tayyab (4) An overall optimization approach (utility maximization) expressed in attempts to maximize advantages or gains and to minimize disadvantages or losses.com/definition/rationality. Basit B.Assignment No.