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THE NORTHERN MOUNTAIN WALL The Indian Himalayas can be divided into three zones - the Shiwaliks or the

Outer Ranges on the southern wing, the Middle Ranges like the Pir Panjal and the Dhauladhar, and the Greater Himalayas with the highest and oldest peaks (1) The Trans-Himalayan Zone is about 40 km in width, containing the valleys of the rivers rising behind the Great Himalyas, (2) The Great Himalyas or the Central Himalayas comprise the zone of high snow-capped peaks, which are 128 or 144 km from the edge of the plains. Some of the important peaks are Mount Everest which is 8848 metres high, Kanchenjunga is 8580 metres high, Dhaulagiri is 8177 metres high, Mount Godwin Austin is 8611 metres high, and Nanda Devi is 7818 metres high. (3) The lesser Himalayan Zone is 64 to 80 km wide and having an average altitude of about 3000 metres. This zone, having a height between 1500 and 1600 metres, is covered by evergreen and oak forests, that between 1600 and 2124 metres by coniferous forests of chir, deodar, the blue, pine, oaks and magnolias and that above 2436 metres has birch, spruce, silver fir etc. (4) The Siwalik Foot-hills extend continuously along the foot of the Himalayas from the Brahmaputra Valley on the East to Potwar plateau and the Bannu plains on the west. Geologically the Himalayan mountain ranges are not very old the Northern Mountains can also be divided from West to East into three major regions; and the three regions can be mentioned as Westerns, Central and Eastern. The eastern mountain region consists of those mountains, which lie to the east of the Brahmaputra and along the summit of which runs the frontier of India and Burma. They are divided by a series of river-valleys and covered for the most part with thick forests. The valleys are fertile and cultivated with the aid of irrigation. In the western mountain region the valleys are irrigated and cultivated wherever possible. Along these valleys and over the passes such as the Gomal, the Bolan and the Khyber run the routes to Central Asia and China on one hand and to Persia and the West on the other. The himalayas are the highest mountain ranges in Asia, which includes the Karakoram, Hindu Kosh and a host of minor ranges extending from the Pamir Knot. From the Pamirs in Pakistan to the easternmost bend of the Brahmaputra in Assam, the majestic Himalayas rise across a length of 2,500km. It also seperates India from the Tibetan plateau. The himalayan ranges are the home to about 100 mountain peaks, exceeding 7,200 meters including the famous Mount Everest. From the most ancient times they have attracted pilgrims from all over India, and in their sublime presence people have felt the grandeur and the infinity of the pure spirit. An estimated 750 million people live in the watershed area of the Himalayan rivers, which also includes Bangladesh. The Himalayas stretch across the nations of Bhutan, china, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Himalayas also encompass many glaciers,

of which the famous Siachen Glacier is also included. This glacier is also the largest in the world outside the polar region. The higher regions of the Himalayas are snowbound throughout the year in spite of their proximity to the tropics. It is the source of three of the world`s major river systems, the Indus Basin, the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin and the Yangtze Basin. Thus, we can say that the Himalayas gave birth to great rivers Indus and its four tributaries. They form the sources for several large perennial rivers, most of which combine into two large river systems. SIGNIFICANCE: The Himalayas, forms the northern barrier of the Indian peninsula, containing the highest elevation of the world. Due to their large size and expanse, has been a natural barrier to the movement of people for many thousands of years. They have prevented intermingling of people from the Indian subcontinent with people from China and Mongolia, causing significantly different languages and customs between these regions. The Himalayas have also hindered trade routes and prevented military expeditions across its expanse. The Himalayas have not only proceed the country from invasion from North, but have also sheltered the vast plains of Northern India from the ice colds winds of the Tibet and have played a great part in determining the climate of North India. The Indian Himalayas are a hot spot among climbers and trekkers throughout the world that offer some of the finest trekking and mountaineering challenges. Since most of India`s northern boundary lies in these mountains, many areas close to the international borders have been declared off-limits for tourists, especially for foreigners. Territorial disputes and trouble caused by militants are other reasons why access to some parts of the Indian Himalayas is restricted. However, those parts that are accessible include many high mountain ranges; deep valleys; fantastic varieties of vegetation - ranging from dense tropical forests of the lower foothills to alpine and sub-alpine vegetation in the higher reaches and from the rain forests of the east to the desert vegetation in the barren Trans Himalayas. The flora and fauna of the Himalayas varies with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the front of the range. This diversity of climate, altitude, rainfall and soil conditions generates a variety of distinct plant and animal communities.

Lowland forests
On the Indo-Gangetic plain at the base of the mountains, an alluvial plain drained by the Indus and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems, vegetation varies from west to east with rainfall. The xeric Northwestern thorn scrub forests occupy the plains of Indian Punjab. Further east lie the Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh and Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests of Bihar and West Bengal. These are monsoon forests, with drought-deciduous trees that lose their leaves

rise in the Himalayas. made up of debris washed down from the higher ranges. Red River (Asia). and their combined drainage basin is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in countries which includes Afghanistan. This region consists of many sub-ranges. The central part of the Terai belt is occupied by the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands. The moister Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests occupy the plains of Assam. Inner Terai or Dun Valleys The Inner Terai valleys are open valleys north of Shiwalik Hills or nestled between Shiwalik subranges. Mekong. northern slopes are gentler. depositing fertile silt during the monsoon season. The Himalayan subtropical pine forests occupy the western end of the subtropical belt. Permeable conglomerates and other rocks allow rainwater to percolate downslope into the Bhabhar and Terai. Indus.000 to 3. Examples include Dehra Dun in India and Chitwan in Nepal. India. Tarim River and Yellow River. Syr Darya. Bhutan. The central part of the range is home to the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests. Some of the world's major rivers. a zone of porous and rocky soils. Chao Phraya. a mosaic of grasslands. dominated by the sal tree (Shorea robusta). The Terai belt Above the alluvial plain lies the Terai strip. The Terai has higher rainfall than the plains. Irrawaddy River. The Himalayan subtropical pine and broadleaf forests continue here. Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests grow here. Brahmaputra. Salween. Summits are generally 600 to 1. deciduous and evergreen forests that includes some of the world's tallest grasslands. The Bhabhar and the lower Shiwalik ranges have a subtropical climate. supporting only scrubby forests upslope. and the downward-rushing rivers of the Himalaya slow down and spread out in the flatter Terai zone. with forests dominated by Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii). Amu Darya. Yangtze. savannas.during the dry season. They are at the foot of the Himalayas where the Himalayan streams descend on to the plains.900 ft). The grasslands of the Terai belt are home to the Indian rhinoceros Bhabhar belt Above the Terai belt is an upland zone known as the Bhabhar. People's Republic of China. Bangladesh.200 metres (2. . a seasonally marshy zone of sand and clay soils. Shiwalik Hills Also called Churia or Margalla Hills. and receding in the dry season. The Terai has a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zone. Steeper southern slopes form along a fault zone called Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Xunjiang. Ganges. Sivalik Hills is an intermittent outermost range of foothills extending across the Himalayan region through Pakistan. Nepal and Bhutan.

000 km2 (193.966 ft) and the snow line ranges between 6.553 mi).India. Malaysia and Pakistan. The mountains in these ranges include some of the world's tallest mountains which act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds.000 m (22. Numerous Himalayan peaks rise over 7.843 ft) in Kashmir. The main Himalaya range runs.000 m (19.000 m (9. and Patkai ranges define the northern Indian subcontinent.611 m (28. and highest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. with its tallest peak Mt. Burma.[12] They form India's northeastern border. forming an arc 2. A great arc of mountains. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia. west to east. Buddhism and Sikhism. covering an area of 500. Thus.966 ft). including K2. Mt. which varies in width from 400 km (249 mi) in the western Kashmir-Xinjiang region to 150 km (93 mi) in the eastern Tibet-Arunachal Pradesh region.281 ft): • The Himalayan range is considered as the world's highest mountain range.251 ft).491 mi) long. Everest on the Nepal–China border. The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges. Turkmenistan. • The Karakoram is situated in the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kanchenjunga—on the Sikkim–Nepal border—is the highest point in the area administered by India.051 sq mi). Cambodia. in summer. Laos.400 km (1. many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism. Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Hindu Kush. Most peaks in the Himalayas remain snowbound throughout the year. flow through the fertile Indo–Gangetic plains. Uzbekistan. from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley. Thailand. with the northern-most. These states along with Himachal Pradesh. Rivers originating in these mountains.000 m (22. It has more than sixty peaks above 7. separating it from northeastern Asia.500 km (1. They also facilitate the monsoon winds which in turn influence the climate in India. Vietnam. These were formed by the ongoing tectonic collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate that started around 50 million years ago. North India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter. Kazakhstan.000 m (3. These mountains are recognised by biogeographers as the boundary between two of the Earth's great ecozones: the temperate Palearctic that covers most of Eurasia and the tropical and subtropical Indomalaya ecozone which includes the Indian subcontinent. Nepal. They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2. consisting of the Himalayas. Kanchenjunga in Sikkim.685 ft) in Sikkim to around 3. and Sikkim lie mostly in the Himalayan region. Tajikistan.[12] The Himalayas extend from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. K2 is just 237 m (778 ft) smaller . India has eight major mountain ranges having peaks of over 1. the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Kyrgyzstan. the second highest peak in the world 8. known as the Great or Inner Himalayas. Uttarakhand.

The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length and the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside of the polar regions. which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalayas. lies the Hindu Raj range. The Siachen Glacier at 70 km (43 mi) and the Biafo Glacier at 63 km (39 mi) rank as the world's second and third-longest glaciers outside the polar regions. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by the Gilgit. extending 1.[16] It runs parallel to the Vindhya Range. has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: the Patkai– Bum. Indus and Shyok rivers.843 ft). Mawsynram. They were created by the same tectonic processes which led to the formation of the Himalayas.000 m (3. It extends 900 km (559 mi) with many peaks rising above 1.than the 8.[12] The average elevation of these hills is 3. The western end of the range lies in eastern Gujarat. and these two east-west ranges divide the Indo–Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau located north of River Narmada. The Satpura Range begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian Sea coast and runs east across Maharashtra. which lies to the north.848 m (29. with its apex at Ratnapuri and the two sides being parallel to the Tapti and Narmada rivers.[15] Geographically. • The Patkai. it separates northern India from southern India. The Garo–Khasi range lies in Meghalaya. almost meeting the Ganges at Mirzapur.050 km (652 mi). • .[12] It is triangular in shape. are situated near India's eastern border with Myanmar. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. the Garo–Khasi–Jaintia and the Lushai hills. The physical features of the Patkai mountains are conical peaks. and runs east and north. near its border with Madhya Pradesh. [13] Just to the west of the northwest end of the Karakoram. steep slopes and deep valleys. The Patkai ranges are not as rugged or tall as the Himalayas. beyond which is the Hindu Kush range.281 ft). or Purvanchal. a village near Cherrapunji lying on the windward side of these hills. receiving the highest annual rainfall.[14] The Vindhyas in central India • The Vindhya range runs across most of central India.[12] They are believed to have been formed by the wastes created by the weathering of the ancient Aravali mountains.029 ft) Mount Everest.000 m (9.

The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu. the Punjab Plain. rising to 1.000 m (3. the Indo-Gangetic Plain is divided into two drainage basins by the Delhi Ridge. lying near the border with Gujarat. Krishna.[16] The Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats. the Marwar segment to the northwest of the range. Though not as tall as the Western Ghats.695 m (8.[20] Eastern Ghats (Javadi Hills) in Tamil Nadu • The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains.722 m (5. and Kaveri. The average elevation is around 1. The range runs approximately 1. Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula. The Indo-Gangetic plain is bound on the north by the abruptly rising Himalayas.[17] The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana.281 ft) in height. along the coast and parallel to the Bay of Bengal.281 ft). Mahanadi.and Satpura Range.[18] The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient fold mountain system. and the middle and lower Ganga. which feed its numerous rivers and are the source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. some of its peaks are over 1. INDO GANGETIC PLAINS The Indo-Gangetic Plains also known as the Northern Plains and The North Indian River Plain is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India.[21] These mountains extend from West Bengal to Orissa. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.[19] The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravali–Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton. Some geographers subdivide the Indo-Gangetic Plain into several parts: the Indus Valley. running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction. Western Ghats near Matheran • The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau and separate it from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The southern edge of the plain is marked by the Vindhya. the .650 ft).[16] Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills 2. These regional distinctions are based primarily on the availability of water. Goa. and the Chota Nagpur Plateau. the Haryana Plains.600 km (994 mi)[16] from south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border and across Maharashtra. Karnataka. ending near Delhi.• The Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India.000 m (3. On the west rises the Iranian Plateau.842 ft) in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats. the Godavari. which have been eroded and vivisected by the four major rivers of southern India. and the Bundelkhand segment to the southeast. extending approximately 800 km (497 mi).

Chambal. Both the Punjab and Haryana plains are irrigated with water from the Ravi. The lower Ganga is centered in West Bengal. Roughly. Ravi. which reaches the lower drainage areas in the state of Punjab in India and the Indus Valley in Pakistan. . from which it flows into India After joining the Yamuna. The major rivers of this system are the Ganga (Ganges) and the Indus along with their tributaries. the Sutlej and the Yamuna. before crossing into Bangladesh. the Indus. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River and flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. The irrigation projects in progress on these rivers have led to a decrease in the flow of water.000 km² (270. The rivers encompassed are the Beas. The middle Ganga extends from the Yamuna River in the west to the state of West Bengal in the east.and Satpura Range. due to the effects that irrigation has had on agricultural life in the Punjab areas of both India and Pakistan. and the eastern part consists of the Ganga-Brahmaputra drainage systems.western part consists of the Punjab Plain and the Haryana Plain. [edit] Extent As a large plain. Even rural areas here are densely populated. Sindh in the west. Sutlej and Chenab. and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the south. Gomti. The lower Ganga and the Assam Valley are more verdant than the middle Ganga. and Sutlej rivers. both rivers form the Ganges Delta. the Ravi. Beas. the Ganges. the Himalayan foothills in the east. the Chambal. The benefits that the increased irrigation has brought to Haryana farmers are controversial. the exact extent can vary from source to source. the Gomti. The plains encompass an area of 700. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. The soil is rich in silt. Beas. the Chenab. and the Vindhya. the IndoGangetic Plain stretches across: • • • • • • Kashmir in the north. Yamuna.000 mile²) and vary in width through their length by several hundred kilometres. [edit] Geography The Indo-Gangetic plains." are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains. making the plain one of the most intensely farmed areas of the world. goes to northern portion of Gujarat The fertile Terai region is the Nepalese extension of the Plain. also known as the "Great Plains. the Punjab region of Pakistan and the Aravalli Range.

In the Gangetic plains. deer and muntjac. The main crops grown are rice and wheat. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain. antelopes and horses lived alongside several species of wild cattle including the now-extinct Auroch. [edit] Fauna Until recent history. Gazelle. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife. In the wetter regions close to the Ganges there would have been large herds of Water Buffalo grazing on the riverbanks along with extinct species of hippopotamus. The underground streams reappear in this region. The open plains were home to large numbers of herbivores which included three species of rhinoceros (Indian rhinoceros. Dhole. In the forested areas there were several species of wild pig. . the open grasslands of the Indo-Ganetic Plain was inhabited by several large species of animal. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. Striped Hyena. it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. gazelles. Large herds of elephants. buffalo. mugger crocodile and river dolphin controlling fish stocks and the occasional migrating herd crossing the river. As the porosity of this belt is very high. sugarcane and cotton. Javan rhinoceros. Wolf. The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. which are grown in rotation. Indian cheetah and Asiatic Lion would have hunted large game on the open plains. The open grasslands were in many ways similar to the landscape of modern Africa. the same way as they do in Africa today. The area is also rich in ground water sources. In the Ganges there were large concentrations of gharial. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. The Bangar belt — consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. Sumatran rhinoceros). The plains are flat and mostly treeless. lions. making it conducive for irrigation through canals. The bhabar is generally narrow about 7-15 km wide. The Terai belt — lies next to the Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium.Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia. rhinos. So many large animals would have supported a large population of predators as well. and hippo roamed the grasslands. the streams flow underground. while tigers and leopards would stalk prey in the surrounding woods. elephants. The Khadar belt — lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. Others include maize.The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions: • • • • The Bhabar belt — is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams.

The main source of rainfall is the southwest monsoon which is normally sufficient for general agriculture. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. this area is considered at high risk for water shortages in the future. Sutlej and Chenab. Ravi. Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Dhaka in Bangladesh.272 sq mi).000 square kilometers (270. Jaipur. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. The plains encompass an area of 700. The Indo-Gangetic plains. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. Lahore. Multan.272 sq mi). Gomti.272 sq mi).Chambal and Brahmaputra flow through the area. Patna and Kolkata in India. Among the largest cities of the Indo-Gangetic plain are Ahmedabad. The major rivers in this region are the Ganges and the Indus along with their tributaries–Beas.000 square kilometers (270. The Indo-Gangetic plains. Ludhiana.[edit] Agriculture Farming on the Indo-Gangetic Plain primarily consists of rice and wheat grown in rotation. and cotton. Other crops include maize. also known as the Great Plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. The major rivers in this region are the Ganges and the Indus along with their tributaries–Beas. Chambal. [edit] Stressed water supplies Due to a rapidly growing population (as well as other factors such as global warming which affects monsoon and Himalayan runoff). also known as the Great Plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains. Lucknow. Hyderabad and Karachi in Pakistan. jaisalmer.000 square kilometers (270. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains. Gomti. The major rivers in this region are the Ganges and the Indus along with their tributaries–Beas. Gomti. Allahabad. Chambal. Delhi. also known as the Great Plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. Sutlej and Chenab. it is hard to define where one megalopolis begins and one ends. Amritsar.Yamuna. The Indo-Gangetic plains. The many rivers flowing out of the Himalayas provide water for major irrigation works. Yamuna.Ghaggra. Chandigarh. sugarcane. Yamuna. Ravi. Faisalabad. In this region. Sutlej and Chenab. . This area constitutes the land between the river Brahmaputra and Aravli mountain ranges. Varanasi. the famous river Ganges. Ravi. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains. Chambal. The plains encompass an area of 700. Yamuna. Kanpur. The plains encompass an area of 700.

As the porosity of this belt is very high. The area is also rich in ground water sources. In the Gangetic plains. The main crops grown are rice and wheat. Yamuna.Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia. the streams flow underground.000 square kilometers (270. sugarcane and cotton. . The Khadar belt — lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. The plains are flat making it conducive for irrigation through canals. The bhabar is generally narrow with its width varying between 7 to 15 km. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife. The plains encompass an area of 700. also known as the Great Plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. The Terai belt — lies next to the Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. Ravi. The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions: • • • • The Bhabar belt — is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain. Chambal. The underground streams reappear in this region. The Bangar belt — consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits. Gomti.272 sq mi). Other important crops grown in the region include maize. which are grown in rotation. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. The major rivers in this region are the Ganges and the Indus along with their tributaries–Beas. Sutlej and Chenab. The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. The Indo-Gangetic plains.

The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. The Terai belt — lies next to the Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. Gomti. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains.Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia.272 sq mi). It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain.000 square kilometers (270. Yamuna. it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits. The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions: • • • • The Bhabar belt — is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams. As the porosity of this belt is very high. also known as the Great Plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. Sutlej and Chenab. The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions: . The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife. The Khadar belt — lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. sugarcane and cotton. The plains encompass an area of 700. The underground streams reappear in this region. Ravi. the streams flow underground. In the Gangetic plains. which are grown in rotation. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia. Other important crops grown in the region include maize. Chambal. The Bangar belt — consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. The main crops grown are rice and wheat. The major rivers in this region are the Ganges and the Indus along with their tributaries–Beas. from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. The bhabar is generally narrow with its width varying between 7 to 15 km. The area is also rich in ground water sources. The Indo-Gangetic plains. The plains are flat making it conducive for irrigation through canals.

The bhabar is generally narrow with its width varying between 7 to 15 km. The main crops grown are rice and wheat. It rises a hundred metres high in the north. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. The plains are flat making it conducive for irrigation through canals. it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits. sugarcane and cotton. The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain. The Khadar belt — lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. The underground streams reappear in this region.[2] It extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of habitats. Other important crops grown in the region include maize. . The Bangar belt — consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife. and the Eastern Ghats its eastern boundary. In the Gangetic plains. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. making up the majority of the southern part of the country. As the porosity of this belt is very high.[3] It is located between three mountain ranges: the Western Ghats form its western boundary. forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline. the streams flow underground. which form its northern boundary. The Terai belt — lies next to the Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. It is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges.• • • • The Bhabar belt — is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. covering most of central and southern India. Other important crops grown in the region include maize. which are grown in rotation. which are grown in rotation. The area is also rich in ground water sources. Each rises from their respective nearby coastal plains and nearly meet at the southern tip of India. sugarcane and cotton. The main crops grown are rice and wheat. DECCAN PLATEAU The Deccan Plateau (also called the (Great) Peninsular Plateau[1]) is a large plateau in India. rising further to more than a kilometre high in the south.

Most of . The northern ranges separate the Deccan Plateau from the densely populated riverine plains of the northern parts of India. including the Bhima River. drain the central portion of the plateau. so the region receives very little rainfall. March to June can be very dry and hot with temperatures exceeding 40°C regularly. including the Indravati River. The two main rivers which do not flow into the Bay Of Bengal are the Narmada and Tapti.The Deccan Plateau lies south of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Krishna River and its tributaries. then forming the Sivasamudram Falls at the island town of Shivanasamudra. This plateau ranges in an elevation from 100 metres in the northern side to 1000 metres to the south. They start in the Eastern Ghats and flow into the Arabian sea.[2][7] Most Deccan plateau rivers flow from west to east. This is one of the largest plateaus in India which makes up most of the southern parts of the country. The climate of the region varies from semi-arid climate in the north to tropical in most of the region with distinct wet and dry seasons. The Godavari River and its tributaries. Both the ranges form the southward-aiming vertex of a triangle. The Deccan Plateau is situated in between three mountain ranges and it also extends over eight of the Indian states. and it eastern boundary is formed by the Eastern Ghats. Both rise from their respective closely-located coastal plains and roughly reach the tip of southern India.[5][6] The eastern Deccan Plateau is at a lower elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India. Its forests are also relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins and then into the Bay of Bengal. Rain falls during the monsoon season from about June to October. All Deccan plateau rivers depend on the rains and dry up in the summers. which rises in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and bends south to break through the Nilgiri Hills at Hogenakal Falls into Tamil Nadu.[8] before flowing into the Stanley Reservoir and the Mettur Dam that created the reservoir and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The western boundary of the Deccan Plateau is formed by the Western Ghats. The Western Ghats Mountain Range is tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest monsoon from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The uplands of this plateau make up a triangle cuddled within the renowned downward-pointing triangle of the coastline of the Indian sub-continent. which also run from west to east. The southernmost portion of the plateau is drained by the Kaveri River. Deccan Plateau is a home to a large number and variety of habitats and it covers most of the marts of southern and central India. which comprehends the plateau with the approximately west-southwest to east-north-east running Vindhya Mountain Range and Satpura Mountain Range shaping the third northern boundary of the Deccan Plateau. The Tungabhadra River. Deccan Plateau is also called as the Great Peninsular Plateau or the Peninsular Plateau. drain most of the northern portion of the plateau. the second-biggest waterfall in India and the sixteenth-largest in the world. rising in the Western Ghats and flowing east towards the Bay of Bengal.

The continuous volcanic activity which lasted for several thousand years at this region resulted in the formation of layer after layer and when the volcanic process came to an end. which include the Indravati River. Here the climate varies from subtropical to the extreme north to tropical climate in a majority of the regions with distinct dry and wet seasons. The Deccan Plateau is situated to the south of the Indo-Gangetic plain. which is derived from the Sanskrit word meaning ‘south’. The location of the eastern Deccan Plateau is at a much lower elevation which spreads across India’s southeastern coast. This region of the Deccan Plateau is among the most geographically static landmasses of the entire world. The Godavari River along with its tributaries. which also runs from the western direction to the east. They start their journey in the Eastern Ghats and empty into the Arabian Sea. The plateau experiences rain only at the time of monsoon or wet season from the month of June to October every year. thus making the Sivasamudram Falls at the island town of Shivanasamudra. and therefore this region gets very little rainfall. they left behind an area of highlands with distinctively vast stretches of flat areas on top resembling to that of a table. which is also regarded as India’s second biggest waterfall and the World’s sixteenth largest. The forests of this plateau are comparatively dry but serve to hold the rain in order to form streams which ultimately feed into rivers flowing into the basins and then into the Bay of Bengal. which took place towards the end of the Cretaceous period.the areas of the Indian state of Karnataka and Maharashtra and some parts of the state of Andhra Pradesh form the Deccan plateau. River Tapi and Narmada River are the two rivers which do not flow into the Bay of Bengal. before flowing through the Stanley Reservoir and the Mettur Dam which formed the reservoir and lastly emptying its water into the Bay of Bengal. The name ‘Deccan’ is an anglicized form of the Prakrit word ‘dakkhin’. The months from March to June are considered to be very dry hot at this region with temperatures going over 40°C on a regular basis. The Krishna River. The Deccan forms the catchment areas of some of the mighty rivers of India. ascending in the Western Ghats and flowing towards east to the Bay of Bengal. roughly between 67 and 65 million years ago. The Kaveri River drains the southernmost portion of the Deccan plateau. which rises in Karnataka’s Western Ghats and bends to the direction of south in order to move through the Nilgiri hills at Hogenakal Falls into the state of Tamil Nadu. drains a majority of the northern areas of the plateau. Some paleontologists investigated and found that this eruption might have quickened the disappearance of the giant species like dinosaurs. The Deccan Plateau’s immense volcanic basalt beds were established in the massive Deccan Traps eruption. drain the plateau’s central parts. the Tungabhadra River and its tributaries which include the Bhima River. The mountain ranges of the Western Ghats are tall and block the moisture laden southwest monsoon from getting to the Deccan Plateau. The rivers flowing in the Deccan plateau depend on rain water and it is for this reason they dry up in the summer season. Deccan plateau experiences a mixed climate. It is for this region that the region is also .

the Bhil and Gond tribe live. The people of the southern parts of India got top know the religious ideas from the people of the north. Several people also follow these religions. and the state of Karnataka covers the west central and a majority of the southern areas of the Deccan plateau. other three dynasties surfaced. the Deccan Plateau is formed by basalt layer which still extends up to Bor Ghat. The interaction of culture in between these kingdoms and the northern region exposed the other parts of India to the south’s rich Sangam literature. The largest cities situated in the Deccan plateau are Karnataka and Bangalore. and gold. The state of Maharashtra covers a majority of the northern parts of the Deccan Plateau. Normally. Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock. This plateau is also very rich in minerals. This volcanic hotspot which formed the Deccan traps is assumed to be positioned under the present day Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean. Thomas came to India in order to spread Christianity during the first century AD. Eastern Chalukyas and the Vijaynagara kings ruled the region till the same became a part of Golconda’s Qutub Shahi kingdom. in close proximity to Karjat. to fight over it. The Pandyas. The Deccan plateau in India is having a rich in history. whereas granite is generally found in areas which are colliding. with the extreme south portion in the state of Tamil Nadu. The states of India which cover the parts of Deccan plateau are Andhra Pradesh. but a large number of people till today worshipped their gods and goddesses and exercised the religious ceremonies of their own. It is formed in the areas that are spreading. Aurangabad. Along the north and north-eastern edges of the hills of Deccan Plateau. the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Later it went into the rule of Hyderabad’s Nizam Shahi dynasty. To the south of the Satvahanna kingdom. which will be separate from the state of Andhra Pradesh. It is said that St. Some of the primary mineral ores available in this region are iron ore and mica in the Chhota Nagpur region. Andhra Pradesh state covers the east-central region of this Plateau. From the date of the independence of India in the year 1947 to till date.called as Table Top. The mineral wealth of this plateau led a number of lowland rulers. As both these rocks are found in the Deccan plateau. The Satvahanas. which include the Mauryan (who ruled from 4th to the 2nd century BC) and Gupta (who ruled from the 4th to the 6th century AD) dynasties. like the worship of the Vedic gods and the doctrines of Jainism and Buddhism. Pune and Nagpur. diamonds and other metals in the Golconda region. the Cheras along the Malabar Coast and the Pandyas centered in Madurai. These people speak . They were the Cholas of Tanjore. The Satvahanas (who ruled from 28 BC to 250 AD) came out to be the independent power in the Deccan during the first century BC. Kakatiyas. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. it thus specifies two different environments of formation. and state of Chhattisgarh covers the northeast corner of the plateau. there is a repeated demand for the formation of a Telangana state. Some of the other major cities in the Deccan plateau are Hyderabad. Pallavas. Cheras and Cholas were frequently at war with each other. The Saint spread the message of Christianity among the people living in the Malabar Coast and also in areas close to the present-day city of Chennai.

Badami was the former capital of the Chalukyas. The magnificent and the largest dome in India and the worlds’ second largest one. an attractive tomb constructed by Adil Shah II in memory of his queen and the remains of Gagan Mahal are something which is a must to be seen site of this place. This place has got its name from Aurangzeb. the Gagan Mahal. This is one of the townships of the erstwhile British Empire in India and a renowned hill station. Jala Manzil or the water pavilion. It is also the headquarters of the district of Malanad. Mehtar Mahal. engraved into the cliff face of a red sandstone hill. It is situated in the Karnataka state and famous for its historical monuments. Shravanabelagola is a renowned Jain pilgrimage having a 17 meter high monolith of the Lord Bahubali. One of the languages spoken by these people is Urdu. Once. Deccan plateau is also one of the major tourist attraction and some of the major attractions of this region include Aurangabad. A number of other major palaces inside the ramparts of the fort are the Rangin Mahal. known as the Gol Gumbaz. Another famous place of interest in the state of Karnataka is Hassan. It is located in the southern Karnataka state and famous among the tourists for the presence of several historical monuments. however. One of the major tourist attractions of Bidar is the fort. This place is famous for its attractive cave temples. It is presently a small rural town in the state of Karnataka. It is situated in Maharashtra. the Solah Kambh Masjid or the 16-pillared mosque. Other historical monuments include the Ibrahim Roza. The temple of Goddess Hasanamba is opened once in a year at the time of the second Ashwayuja (October). which was constructed by Ahmad Wali Shah. Another major attraction is the Bibi-ka-Maqbara or the mausoleum of the wife of Aurangzeb and the caves of Aurangabad. This is the capital city of the medieval India Adil Shahi rulers. Some of the other major attractions of the Deccan plateau include Ooty. sugarcane and a number of other crops are also common. Situated in the central region of the state of Karnataka. Another major place of attraction is the Bijapur city.several languages. the Takhat Mahal. It is known for its internationally-acclaimed Ajanta caves and Ellora caves. present in this city. along with the rough landscape draw tourists in large numbers to Hampi. The name of Hassan has been derived from the Goddess ‘Hasanamba’ the main deity of this town. the Taj Bawdi or the water tank. which is also called as Dakhni or Deccani. The . the Diwan-e-Am and the Royal Pavilion. rice. A Palegar by the name of Channa Krishnappa Naik constructed it in the 11th century. Some of the other temples of Hassan are Halebid. The Sat Manzil or the seven-storied palace. The original town was close to the village Channapatna. The construction work of the Chennakeshava temple took 103 years and is packed with sculptures and intricate carvings. Upli Burj or the watch tower and Asar Mahal are some of the other attractions in Bijapur. Bara Kaman or the twelve arches. A big jatra or fair is organized on this occasion. Hampi is famous as one of the world heritage sites where one can get to see the ruins which belong to the erstwhile Vijayanagara kingdom. Bidar was once the capital city of Bahamani dynasty of southern India. Mughal emperor. Belur and Sharavanabelagola. The monolithic sculptures. The major crop grown in this region is cotton. It is located in the middle of blue mountains of the Nilgiris in the state of Tamil Nadu. temples and monuments. Belur was the capital of the Hoysala kings.

Mysore possesses a number of palaces.D. In the earlier history. This is the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh. boulevards and parks as well as cultural centers and museums. It presents some of the pleasant parks and a number of historical monuments. Hyderabad was constructed around the Hussain Sagar Lake. The Jama Masjid was believed to have been constructed by Spain’s Moorish architect in the later parts of the 14th century on the lines of the famous Cordoba Mosque in the southern parts of Spain. The celebrations and festivals of Deccan Plateau have an exclusive similarity and this region of the country still has a beaming prominence in terms of industrial and geographical significance. the Wenlock Downs. the tomb of Khwaja Bande Nawaz (a renowned local Muslim saint). Belgaum is a little town in the state of Karnataka which is known for the presence of the Masjid Sata mosque and Jain temples. was known as a commercial trading city during ancient times. Bengaluru considered to be the garden city of India. Gulbarga is placed in the Karnataka state of India. Other places of interest include the impressive tombs of the Bahamani rulers. Vasco-da-Gama landed in Kappad. a place situated in close proximity to Calicut in the year 1498. the major facts demonstrated are the emergence and growth of the Maurya Empire and details of the invasion of the Scythic tribes known as the Pallavas. Some of the prominent attractions are the Charminar. Lists of monuments dating from 13th to the 15th century are present here. The Sunset Point and Watchtower provide a bird’s eye view of the distant hills and the flat countryside. COASTAL PLAINS . The city is renowned as the center of timber industry and for boat building. the region witnessed the institution of the power of the Kshaharata satraps in western parts of India. This little town is well-known for its links with the Bahamani kingdom of medieval India. The reliable history of the Deccan Plateau only starts with the 13th century A. the Mecca Masjid. The Gulbarga fort is one of the major tourist attractions of this region. etc. Birla Mandir. Ketty Valley and Doddabetta Peak are things worth seeing. Finally. Bangalore and Mysore are generally called as twin cities. the Golconda Fort. the Haft Gumbaz and the Sharana Basaveshwara temple. Even if the area of the Deccan Plateau is vast. Salar Jung Museum. and Mahakali Temple. Sakas and Yavanas. The Vrindavan Gardens is the major attraction for the tourists visiting Mysore.picturesque Botanical Gardens. The city was founded by Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah in the 16th century and afterwards it became the kingdom of the fabled Nizams of Hyderabad. it mirrors a united taste and culture. In Karnataka state. Kozhikode (Calicut) is situated in the state of Kerala.

The eastern coastal plains are characterized by a temperature that exceeds 30 degrees Celsius and also experiences high levels of humidity. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. These rivers that flow into the region lead to the forming of estuaries that are found in the western coastal plains of India. the Coromandel and the Sandy Coastal regions. The six regions of the eastern coastal plains of India are the Mahanadi Delta. Kaveri and Krishna rivers drain these plains and their deltas occupy most of the area. The coastal plains of India are relatively expansive regions which contribute significantly to the geography of the region. It is also of note that this region of the eastern coastal plains is subject to both northeast and southwest monsoon rains when these storms are in season. however grasses and trees are not uncommon. Coastal plains are characterized by an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent to a water body often a sea or ocean. The region of the eastern coastal plains is an expansive area and is divided into six regions. The western coastal plains are located in the west of India between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The rainfall of the region is also abundant in the region with rainfall amounts in excess of 1000mm annually with the amount usually approaching 3000mm.Coastal plains are a geologic feature found around the world and on both the eastern and western coasts of India. the Krishna Godavari deltas. The southwest monsoon splits into two branches. The region receives both the northeast and southwest monsoon rains. The maximum storm activity on the western coastal plains occurs in the month of March. The western coastal plains are divided into the regions of Konkan. The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. the Bay of . and the Malabar Coast. The eastern coastal plains extend from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. The eastern coastal plains have rivers draining into them and river deltas also occupy the valleys. Coastal plains have limited vegetation. The storm activity here is considerably less than on the eastern coastal plains. Eastern Coastal Plains The eastern coastal plains are located on a wide stretch of land between the Eastern Ghats of India and the Bay of Bengal. This stretch of land stretches to 120 km in width at parts. the Southern Andhra Pradesh Plain. Godavari. The western coastal plains are smaller than their eastern counterpart and the region is divided into three parts. It is also of note that coastal plains are separated from the interior of the larger land mass by other unique features. The temperature in the coastal regions exceeds 30 °C (86 °F) coupled with high levels of humidity. They extend from Gujarat in the north down 50 km to the south in Kerala and are characterized by numerous backwaters and rivers that flow into the region. Kanara. The Mahanadi. the Kanyakumari Coast. Western Coastal Plains The western coastal plain of India in contrast to the eastern coastal plain is located on a narrow strip of land.

Narmada. Since Prehistoric times. after the First War of Independence. leading to the formation of estuaries. the Andaman group of islands are the Great Andamanese. and Sentinatese. The sandy beaches on the edge of meandering coastline are fringed with coconut-palms that sway to the rhythm of the sea. Annual rainfall in this region averages between 1.Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch. ranging from 50 to 100 km (30 to 60 miles) in width. cast of the Indian mainland is the archipelago of 572 emerald islands. with crystal clear water and mangrove-lined creeks. Jarawas. The first settlement by the British took place in 1789. It extends from Gujarat in the north and extends through Maharashtra.. The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of land sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Major rivers flowing into the sea are the Tapi. The Arabian Sea branch moves northwards and discharges much of its rain on the windward side of Western Ghats. which is situated in Maharashtra. Mythologicaly.000 mm (40 in) and 3. the name Andaman was presumed to be derived from Hanuman. taken up in 1858.Goa and northern parts of Karnataka. underwater marine life and corals. but the Malabar Coast moist forests constitute a unique ecoregion. who was known to the Malays as Handuman. while the tribes of Nicobars are the Nicobarese and Shompens. snorkeling. Adventure tourism like trekking. The tribes of. these islands were the home of aboriginal tribes. which was later abandoned in 1796. The second settlement was basically a penal settlement. The rare flora and fauna. offer a dream-view of the rare gifts of nature. islets and rocks known as Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The topography of the islands is hilly and abounds in evergreen forests. Mandovi and Zuari. Karnataka and Kerala.000 mm (120 in). who seek absolute peace and tranquility in the lap of mother nature. Burma and Sri Lanka as well as ex-servicemen. Onges. free of filth as well as unpolluted fresh air attract any nature-lover. the Kanyakumari coast. the rivers are fast-flowing and mostly perennial. from north to south with 36 inhabited islands. . both of Mongoloid stock. some criminal tribes from Central and United Provinces. these undulating islands are covered with dense forests and endless variety of exotic flowers and birds. A visit to these islands is a memorable lifetime experience. Originating in the Western Ghats. This Union Territory is stretched over an area of more than 700 Km. Konkan. refugees from erstwhile East Pakistan. The clean and wide roads. Moplas. the Coromandel Coast and sandy coastal. island camping. Numerous rivers and backwaters inundate the region. Vegetation is mostly deciduous. are the real attractions. The coast is divided into 3 parts namely. The Bay of Bengal branch moves northwards crossing northeast India in early June. Once a hill range extending from Burma (Myanmar) to Indonesia. the Krishna-Godavari deltas. the southern Andhra Pradesh plain. the Kanara in Karnataka and the Malabar Coast in Kerala. The sea around the islands offer excellent scope for water sports. all of Negrito origin. scuba diving etc. Goa.[28] The plains are divided into six regions — the Mahanadi delta. ISLANDS loating in splendid isolation. The width of the plains varies between 100 and 130 km (62 to 80 miles). followed by the settlement of convicts.

the people of Minicoy. A Pallava inscription of 7th century CE refers to the islands as Dveepa Laksham and lists . the language of the Maldives. the smallest union territory of India. About 50 % of the forests has been set aside as Tribal Reserves.33% Malayali. Ten of the islands are inhabited.. Nicobari etc.. More than 150 plant and animals species are endemic in nature. and 15. traditionally called in English the Laccadive Islands.67% Mahl. Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park is rich in corals. out of which 39 are endemic. the southernmost and largest island. According to local folk beliefs. Swiftlet. perhaps the richest in the world. The locals of all the islands except Minicoy call themselves the Div-i or the Aminidivi ("from the mother island"). Their total land area is 11 sq mi or 32 km². Tamil. occupy nearly II. a variant of Divehi. live together in complete peace and harmony. However. Inhabitants of Minicoy. 5 % of the territory. Mahl: ު‫ލަކޝަދީބ‬ ް Lakshadīb). closely resemble Maldivians. Muslims. the southernmost atoll. Sikhs etc. and of all languages like Hindi. Megapode. besides other marine life. Bengali. he people of all the northern islands speak a dialect of Malayalam. Luxuriant mangroves. which are inviolate. This amazing racial and cultural mix is correctly described as Mini-India. Lakshadweep is the northern part of the erstwhile Lakshadweepa. There are references to the control of the islands by the Cheras in the Sangam literature Pathitruppaththu. and were influenced by Arab traders. The reserved and protected forests extend over 86% area of the territory and the forest cover is more than 92 %.Hindus. is a group of islands 200 to 300 km off of the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala in the Laccadive Sea.In these islands people of all faiths . Most of the indigenous population is Muslim. akshadweep ( listen (help·info). It is a birds paradise . Malayalam: ലകദവ്ീപ് Lakṣadvīp. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Malayalam. Hornbill and Nicobar Pigeon are some of the specialties of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.more than 271 varieties of birds inhabit the idyllic landscape. Lakshadweep's ethnic groups can be classified as 84. Christians. varieties of colored fishes. speak Mahl. Inter-religion and inter-regional marriages are common. Forests are the green extend over gold of the islands. they descended from traders who were washed up on the islands during a particularly heavy storm. Telugu. The islanders are ethnically similar to coastal Kerala's Malayali people. [edit] Main Languages • • • Malayalam (official) Mahl Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) [edit] History Little is known about the early history of the Lakshadweep islands. sea turtles etc. Punjabi..

[edit] Politics The union territory is administered by an Administrator appointed by India's central government. Lakshadweep is India's largest producer of coconuts. the islands came under the rule of Ali Rajahs/Arakkal Bheevi of Kannur. They passed to British control after the Third AngloMysore War and were attached to South Canara. It was earlier believed that the Lakshadweep islanders were originally Hindus who later converted to Islam in the 14th century. During the 11th century. Coconuts cultivated in the Lakshadweep are also rich in coconut oil. forming a new union territory by combining all the islands. There are dweep (island) panchyats and district panchayat in each island. Islam was brought to Lakshadweep by an Arab named Ubaidulla in 41 AH (661 CE). The Territory also elects one member to the Lok Sabha. the islands came under the rule of the third (or last) period Cholas. However.310. The islands are also mentioned in great detail in the stories of the Arab traveller Ibn Batuta. These islands were attached to the Malabar district of the Madras Presidency. [edit] Agriculture Coconut is the main crop cultivated in the islands. In the 17th century. After a while. Kiltan. Chetlat and Bitra) came under the rule of Tipu Sultan in 1787. [edit] Economy Lakshadweep's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $60 million at current prices. recent archaeological evidence has established that Buddhist settlements had existed in the islands as early as the 6th or 7th century. The panchayat raj system is implemented in the islands. Coconut fibre extraction and production of fibre products is . According to popular tradition. Kadmat. each dweep panchayat has its own elected chairperson. Kavaratti and Agatti. who received them as a gift from the Kolathiris. despite the fact that most of the Islanders were Malayalis. The rest of the islands came under the suzerainty of the Arakkal family of Cannanore in return for a payment of annual tribute. Andrott. The Amindivi group of islands (Amini. Muslim grave stones dated to 139 AH (756 CE) have also been discovered here. most power resides with the Administrator.[3] The Portuguese took control to exploit coir production until the islanders expelled the Portuguese. In 1956. the States Reorganisation Act separated these islands from the mainland administrative units. Lakshadweep is under the jurisdiction of the High Court of Kerala at Ernakulam. His grave is located in the island of Androth.them as part of the Pallava domain. The oldest inhabited islands in the group are Amini.598 hectares are under coconut cultivation and the productivity per hectare is 22. the British took over the administration of those islands for non-payment of arrears. About 2. Democracy is limited to Pachayats and the sole member of the Lok Sabha.

1-4. coir yarn. with only small unvegetated sand cays above the high water mark. These units produce coir fibre. one of the Indian Lakshadweep islands. Lakshadweep is emerging as a major tourist attraction for Indians. This brings in significant revenue. Source: Gov of India Press Information Bureau. curled fibre and corridor mattings.Lakshadweep's main industry. Banks One of the uninhabited islands in Lakshadweep Worms-eye view of the lighthouse in Minicoy Island Lakshadweep officially consists of 12 atolls. There are five coir fibre factories. The technology was developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). Two banks further north are not considered part of the group: . enclosing a lagoon. Reefs. although mostly submerged. currently INR 220-250/m³ (EUR 4.55-1. 23 May 2005 [edit] Islands. The reefs are in fact also atolls. Production costs. It can not only be used to produce drinking water but also for power generation and air conditioning. 3 reefs and 5 submerged banks. The submerged banks are sunken atolls.000 litres/day of potable water from sea water. The cold water for the Kavaratti plant is drawn at a depth of 350m some 400m from the shore. which is likely to increase. Due to its isolation and scenic appeal.000) and will produce 100. and a mostly submerged reef on the western rim. the deep sea water contains extra nutrients for fish. The world’s first ever low temperature thermal desalination plant (LTTD) was opened in Kavaratti. with a total of about 36 islands and islets. Almost all the atolls have a northeast-southwest orientation with the islands lying on the eastern rim. an important source of food and income for the local population.11/m³) as the capacity is increased. five production demonstration centres and seven fibre curling units run by the government of India.6/m³). In addition. The government plans to set up desalination plants with a capacity of 10 million litres/per day on all islands and coastal areas. The plant cost about INR 50 million (EUR 922. Since such a small region cannot support industries. are expected to go do down to INR 30-60/m³ (EUR 0. LTTD technology involves flashing relatively warm sea water (28-30 deg Celsius) inside a vacuum flash chamber and condensing the resultant vapour using deep sea cold water (7-15 °C). the government is actively promoting tourism as a means of income.

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