Modeler 2004.1
Library Reference Guide
Who Should Read this Guide 2
Who Should Read this Guide
This guide contains reference information on control models, property
procedure types, utility routines, port types, and variable types.
Contents 3
Contents
INTRODUCING ASPEN CUSTOM MODELER..................................................... 10
1 CONTROL MODELS..................................................................................... 11
Time Units in Control Models ................................................................................... 11
Comparator........................................................................................................... 12
Comparator Equation......................................................................................... 12
Configuring Comparator ..................................................................................... 12
Dead_time............................................................................................................ 12
Dead_time Equation .......................................................................................... 12
Configuring Dead_time ...................................................................................... 13
Discretize.............................................................................................................. 13
Discretize Equations .......................................................................................... 13
Configuring Discretize........................................................................................ 13
FeedForward ......................................................................................................... 14
FeedForward Equations...................................................................................... 14
Configuring FeedForward.................................................................................... 15
HiLoSelect............................................................................................................. 15
HiLoSelect Equations ......................................................................................... 15
Configuring HiLoSelect ....................................................................................... 16
IAE ...................................................................................................................... 16
IAE Equation .................................................................................................... 16
Configuring IAE................................................................................................. 17
ISE ...................................................................................................................... 17
ISE Equation .................................................................................................... 17
Configuring ISE................................................................................................. 18
Lag_1................................................................................................................... 18
Lag_1 Equations ............................................................................................... 18
Configuring Lag_1............................................................................................. 19
Lead_lag............................................................................................................... 19
Lead_lag Equations ........................................................................................... 19
Configuring Lead_lag......................................................................................... 20
Multiply ................................................................................................................ 21
Multiply Equations............................................................................................. 21
Configuring Multiply........................................................................................... 21
Contents 4
Noise ................................................................................................................... 21
Noise Equations ................................................................................................ 22
Configuring Noise.............................................................................................. 22
PID...................................................................................................................... 23
PID Algorithms ................................................................................................. 31
PID Controller Faceplates ................................................................................... 32
ClosedLoop Controller Tuning using the ZieglerNichols Technique .......................... 32
Using the ISE and IAE Models with a PID Controller ............................................... 33
PIDIncr................................................................................................................. 34
PID Algorithms ................................................................................................. 41
Anti Reset Windup............................................................................................. 42
PIDIncr Controller Faceplates.............................................................................. 43
Automatic Controller Tuning Context.................................................................... 44
Using Automatic Controller Tuning....................................................................... 44
Using the ISE and IAE Models with the PIDIncr Controller ....................................... 47
PRBS.................................................................................................................... 47
PRBS Equations ................................................................................................ 48
Configuring PRBS.............................................................................................. 49
Ratio.................................................................................................................... 50
Ratio Equations................................................................................................. 50
Configuring Ratio .............................................................................................. 50
Scale.................................................................................................................... 50
Scale Equations ................................................................................................ 51
Configuring Scale.............................................................................................. 51
SplitRange ............................................................................................................ 52
SplitRange Equations......................................................................................... 52
Configuring SplitRange....................................................................................... 52
SteamPtoT............................................................................................................ 54
Sum..................................................................................................................... 54
Sum Equations ................................................................................................. 54
Configuring Sum............................................................................................... 54
Transform............................................................................................................. 55
Transform Equations.......................................................................................... 55
Configuring Transform....................................................................................... 55
Valve_dyn............................................................................................................. 56
Valve_dyn Equations ......................................................................................... 56
Configuring Valve_dyn....................................................................................... 57
2 ASPEN REACTIONS TOOLKIT..................................................................... 59
ART Reaction Model Component Overview ................................................................. 59
Contents 5
Design of ART Reaction Model Component ................................................................. 60
Using ART Reaction Model Component in Reactor Model............................................... 62
Interface to Reaction Global Structures ................................................................ 62
Interface to NonDistributed Portion of a Reaction Model......................................... 63
Interface to Distributed portion of a Reaction Model ............................................... 63
Use Multiple Sets of Reaction Models in a Reactor Model ......................................... 64
Examples......................................................................................................... 65
Configuration of ART Reaction Model Component ........................................................ 68
Adding ART Configure Form to Reaction Global Structure ........................................ 68
ART Configure Form .......................................................................................... 70
Builtin Reaction Classes ......................................................................................... 78
Power Law ....................................................................................................... 78
LHHW.............................................................................................................. 80
GLHHW............................................................................................................ 82
Equilibrium....................................................................................................... 82
Custom Reaction Model ...................................................................................... 83
Building Custom Reaction Model Component .............................................................. 83
Custom Reaction Model Wizard ........................................................................... 83
Writing a Custom Reaction Model ........................................................................ 84
Compiling a Custom Reaction Model..................................................................... 86
Removing a Custom Reactions Model ................................................................... 87
Exporting a Custom Reaction Model .......................................................................... 87
Appendix .............................................................................................................. 88
Example of Assigning Variables and Equations to Hierarchy Levels ........................... 88
Defining Stoichiometry for a Reaction................................................................... 89
Calculation of Concentration Exponents for Reverse Rate ........................................ 90
3 PROPERTY PROCEDURES........................................................................... 96
Property Procedures with Analytic Derivatives ............................................................ 96
Procedure pCond_Liq......................................................................................... 96
Procedure pCond_Vap........................................................................................ 97
Procedure pCp_Mol_Liq...................................................................................... 97
Procedure pCp_Mol_Vap..................................................................................... 98
Procedure pCv_Mol_Liq...................................................................................... 98
Procedure pCv_Mol_Vap..................................................................................... 99
Procedure pDens_Mass_Liq ................................................................................ 99
Procedure pDens_Mass_Vap ..............................................................................100
Procedure pDens_Mol_Liq..................................................................................100
Procedure pDens_Mol_Vap ................................................................................101
Procedure pDiffus_Liq.......................................................................................102
Procedure pDiffus_Vap......................................................................................102
Contents 6
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Liq ..................................................................................103
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Vap.................................................................................103
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Liq...................................................................................104
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Vap .................................................................................104
Procedure pFuga_Liq ........................................................................................105
Procedure pFuga_Vap.......................................................................................105
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Liq.................................................................................106
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Vap ...............................................................................106
Procedure pKllValues ........................................................................................107
Procedure pKValues..........................................................................................108
Procedure pSurf_Tens.......................................................................................108
Procedure pVisc_Liq .........................................................................................109
Procedure pVisc_Vap ........................................................................................109
Property Procedures without Analytic Derivatives.......................................................110
Procedure pAct_Coeff_Liq..................................................................................110
Procedure pBubt ..............................................................................................110
Procedure pDens_Mass_Sol ...............................................................................111
Procedure pDens_Mol_Sol .................................................................................111
Procedure pDewt..............................................................................................112
Procedure pEnth_Mol ........................................................................................113
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Sol ..................................................................................113
Procedure pEntr_Mol ........................................................................................114
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Sol ..................................................................................114
Procedure pFlash .............................................................................................115
Procedure pFlash3............................................................................................115
Procedure pFlash3PH........................................................................................116
Procedure pFlash3PV ........................................................................................117
Procedure pFlash3TH........................................................................................118
Procedure pFlash3TV ........................................................................................119
Procedure pFlashPH..........................................................................................119
Procedure pFlashPV..........................................................................................120
Procedure pFlashTH..........................................................................................121
Procedure pFlashTV..........................................................................................121
Procedure pFuga_Sol ........................................................................................122
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS..........................................................................123
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Sol ................................................................................123
Procedure pMolWeight ......................................................................................124
Procedure pMolWeights.....................................................................................124
Procedure ppH.................................................................................................125
Procedure pPropZ.............................................................................................125
Procedure pPropZPct ........................................................................................126
Procedure pPropZPPct.......................................................................................126
Contents 7
Procedure pSurf_Tensy .....................................................................................127
Procedure pTrueCmp2 ......................................................................................128
Procedure pTrueCmpVLS...................................................................................129
Procedure pTrueComp ......................................................................................129
Procedure pTrueCmp2 ......................................................................................131
Procedure pVap_Pressures ................................................................................132
Procedure pVap_Pressure..................................................................................132
4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SUBMODELS .......................................................134
Key Features ........................................................................................................134
Properties Calculated........................................................................................134
Local Properties ...............................................................................................135
Flash Methods .................................................................................................136
Flash Efficiencies..............................................................................................137
Polymers Support.............................................................................................138
Units of Measurement .......................................................................................138
Summary of Features ......................................................................................138
Using Submodels within your Models .......................................................................139
Instancing a Submodel .....................................................................................139
Conditional Instancing ......................................................................................139
Changing Options.............................................................................................140
Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations..............................................................140
Running Simulations that use the Submodels ............................................................140
Physical Property Submodel Details .........................................................................141
Props_liquid ....................................................................................................141
Props_liq_entr .................................................................................................142
Props_vapor ....................................................................................................142
Props_vap_entr ...............................................................................................143
Props_flash2 ...................................................................................................143
Props_flash2_entr ............................................................................................145
Props_flash3 ...................................................................................................146
Props_flash3_entr ............................................................................................147
Props_flash2w .................................................................................................149
Props_lle.........................................................................................................150
Props_lwe .......................................................................................................151
5 UTILITY ROUTINES ..................................................................................153
ACM_Print Routine ................................................................................................153
Calling Routine ACM_PRINT from Fortran.............................................................153
Calling Routine ACM_Print from C.......................................................................155
ACM_Rqst Routine.................................................................................................157
Contents 8
Calling Routine ACM_RQST from Fortran..............................................................157
ACM_GetComponents Routine.................................................................................161
Calling Routine ACM_GETCOMPONENTS from Fortran ............................................161
Calling Routine ACM_GetComponents from C/C++................................................162
Routines Provided for Compatibility with SPEEDUP 5.5................................................163
Procedure pSpRMod .........................................................................................163
Procedure pLMTD.............................................................................................164
Procedure pLimit ..............................................................................................164
6 PORT TYPES .............................................................................................166
MainPort Port Type................................................................................................166
7 VARIABLE TYPES......................................................................................167
A Variable Types ..............................................................................................167
C Variable Types ..............................................................................................167
D Variable Types..............................................................................................168
E Variable Types ..............................................................................................168
F Variable Types ..............................................................................................169
G Variable Types..............................................................................................170
H Variable Types..............................................................................................170
K Variable Types ..............................................................................................171
L Variable Types ..............................................................................................171
M Variable Types..............................................................................................171
N Variable Types..............................................................................................171
P Variable Types ..............................................................................................172
R Variable Types ..............................................................................................172
S Variable Types ..............................................................................................172
T Variable Types ..............................................................................................173
V Variable Types ..............................................................................................173
GENERAL INFORMATION..............................................................................174
Copyright.............................................................................................................174
Related Documentation..........................................................................................176
TECHNICAL SUPPORT...................................................................................177
Online Technical Support Center .............................................................................177
Phone and Email ..................................................................................................178
INDEX ..........................................................................................................179
Contents 9
Introducing Aspen Custom Modeler 10
Introducing Aspen Custom
Modeler
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 (ACM) is an easytouse tool for creating,
editing and reusing models of process units. You build simulation applications
by combining these models on a graphical flowsheet. Models can use
inheritance and hierarchy and can be reused directly or built into libraries for
distribution and use. Dynamic, steadystate, parameter estimation and
optimization simulations are solved in an equationbased manner which
provides flexibility and power.
ACM uses an objectoriented modeling language, editors for icons and tasks,
and Microsoft Visual Basic for scripts. ACM is customizable and has extensive
automation features, making it simple to combine with other products such as
Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. This allows you to build complete
applications for nonexperts to use.
1 Control Models 11
1 Control Models
This chapter describes the control models:
Model Name Description
Comparator Calculates the difference between two input signals
Dead_time Delays a signal by a specified time
Discretize Discretizes a signal, for example, for use in simulating
an online analyzer
FeedForward Feed forward controller using both leadlag and dead
time
HiLoSelect Selects the higher or lower of two input signals
IAE Calculates the integral of the absolute value of the error
between a process variable and its desired value
ISE Calculates the integral of the squared error between a
process variable and its desired value
Lag_1 Models a first order lag between the input and output
Lead_lag Models a leadlag element
Multiply Calculates the product of two input signals
Noise Generates a Gaussian noise signal
PID A three mode proportional integral derivative controller
using a traditional positional algorithm
PIDIncr A three mode proportional integral derivative controller
using an incremental control algorithm
PRBS Generates a pseudorandom binary signal
Ratio Calculates the ratio of two input signals
Scale Scales an input signal
SplitRange Models a split range controller
SteamPtoT Calculates steam temperature given its vapor pressure
Sum Calculates the sum of two input signals
Transform Performs a loge, square, square root or power transform
Valve_dyn Models the dynamics of a valve actuator
Time Units in Control Models
By default, the control models use time units of hours. This means they are
compatible with process models that are written to use time units of hours,
such as those in Aspen Dynamics.
You can also use the control models in a flowsheet that uses your own models
which work in different time units. To do this:
1 Control Models 12
1 After instancing one or more control models, in Explorer go to Simulation
and open the Globals table.
2 Change the value of GlabalTimeScalar to the number of seconds per time
unit used in your models.
The default value of 3600 is for models written in hours. If your models
are written in minutes, change the value to 60, and if they are written in
seconds, change the value to 1
Note: All process models in a flowsheet must be written to work
in a single, consistent time unit. Where possible, we recommend
that you use hours for consistency with AspenTech models, such
as those in Aspen Dynamics.
Comparator
Input1
Output_
Input2
Comparator calculates its output as the difference of the two input signals.
Comparator Equation
The equation used in the Comparator model is:
Output_ = Input1 – Input2
Configuring Comparator
Comparator has no configuration parameters.
Dead_time
Input_ Output_
Dead_time represents a pure dead time. The output of Dead_time element is
equal to the input delayed by the time delay.
Dead_time Equation
The equation used in the deadtime model is:
Output_ = Delay Input_ by DeadTime
1 Control Models 13
Configuring Dead_time
Dead_time has the following configuration parameter:
Parameter Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
DeadTime Dead time min 0 > 1E6 0.0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
DeadTime for Dead_time
DeadTime specifies the delay between the input and output of Dead_time. It
has units of minutes.
Discretize
Input_
Output_
Discretize discretizes a continuous control signal. It can be used to model the
behavior of an online composition analyzer, which updates its output at
intervals.
Discretize Equations
The following illustration shows the relationship between the input and output
signals:
Configuring Discretize
Discretize has the following configuration parameter:
1 Control Models 14
Parameter Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Interval Sample
interval
min 0 > 1E6 0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
Interval for Discretize
Interval specifies the time between successive updates to the output value.
FeedForward
FeedForward is a generalized feedforward controller, which uses a
combination of a leadlag and a dead time to model the process dynamics. It
includes the following features:
• Clipping and scaling of the process value and output.
• Forward and reverse action.
You can supply the bias by an external connection so that combined feed
forward/feedback control can be implemented.
FeedForward Block Diagram
FeedForward Equations
The main equations for the FeedForward controller are:
For LeadLag:
Alpha*$aux = Gain*(PVs  SPs)  aux
Output_LL = Beta*$aux + aux
For Dead Time:
Output_DT = Delay Output_LL by DeadTime
Where:
1 Control Models 15
Alpha = Lag time constant.
Beta = Lead time constant.
Gain = Process gain.
PVs = Scaled process variable.
SPs = Scaled setpoint.
aux = Auxiliary variable connecting the lead
and the lag.
Output_LL = Output of the leadlag.
DeadTime = Dead time.
Output_DT = Output of the deadtime.
Configuring FeedForward
The FeedForward Configure form has the following parameters:
Parameter Description Units Valid Values Default
Value
Action Controller action  Direct/Reverse Direct
SP Operator set point  1E9 > 1E9 0
Bias Bias  1E9 > 1E9 0
Gain Gain  1E9 > 1E9 1
Alpha Lag time constant min 0.0 >1E6 1
Beta Lead time constant min 0.0 >1E6 1
DeadTime Dead time min 0.0 >1E6 0
PVClipping Clip PV  Yes/No Yes
OPClipping Clip OP  Yes/No Yes
PVMin Minimum value of PV  1E9 > 1E9 0
PVMax Maximum value of PV  1E9 > 1E9 100
OPMin Minimum value of OP  1E9 > 1E9 0
OPMax Maximum value of OP  1E9 > 1E9 100
HiLoSelect
Input1
Output_
Input2
HiLoSelect models a high or low selector. The output is either the larger or
smaller of the two inputs, depending on the select option you specify.
HiLoSelect Equations
When configured as a high selector:
1 Control Models 16
If Input1>Input2 then
Output_ = Input1
Else
Output_ = Input2
Endif
When configured as a low selector:
If Input1<Input2 then
Output_ = Input1
Else
Output_ = Input2
Endif
Configuring HiLoSelect
HiLoSelect has the following configuration parameter:
Parameter Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Select Select high or low input – High
Low
High
Select for HiLoSelect
Select specifies whether the block is to act as a high selector or a low
selector.
IAE
Input
IAE
SP
IAE calculates the integral of the absolute value of the error between its input
and a set point value.
The model provides a timeintegral performance criterion. You can use IAE to
measure how successful a control system has been in keeping a process
variable at its set point (SP) over the entire dynamic response of a controlled
process. SP can be specified within the block or be an input from another
block.
IAE Equation
The equation used in the model is the standard integral of the absolute value
of the error form:
1 Control Models 17
IAE e t dt
T
=
∫
0
 ( ).
Where:
e = Deviation of the variable from the desired set point.
t = Time.
IAE = Integral absolute error value.
T = Current time.
Configuring IAE
IAE has the following configuration parameter:
Parameter Description Units Valid Values Default
Value
SP Set point – 1E9 > 1E9 0.0
SP for IAE
SP specifies the required value of the input variable. The IAE element
calculates its performance criterion as the integral of the absolute difference
between this required value and the input value. SP may be specified within
the IAE block, or supplied through an input signal to the block. If SP is
supplied through an input signal, make sure you change its Spec from Fixed
to Free on the block Configure table.
ISE
Input_
ISE
SP
ISE calculates the integral of the squared error between its input and a set
point value.
The model provides a timeintegral performance criterion. You can use ISE to
measure how successful a control system has been in keeping a process
variable at its set point (SP) over the entire dynamic response of a controlled
process. SP can be specified within the block or be an input from another
block.
ISE Equation
The equation used in the model is the standard integral of the absolute value
of the error form:
ISE e t dt
T
=
∫
0
2
( ) .
1 Control Models 18
Where:
e = Deviation of the variable from the desired set point.
t = Time.
ISE = Integral absolute error value.
T = Current time.
Configuring ISE
ISE has the following configuration parameter:
Parameter Description Unit Valid
Values
Default
Value
SP Set point – 1E9 > 1E9 0.0
SP for ISE
SP specifies the required value of the input variable. The ISE element
calculates its performance criterion as the integral of the squared difference
between this required value and the input value. SP may be specified within
the ISE block, or supplied through an input signal to the block. If SP is
supplied through an input signal, make sure you change its Spec from Fixed
to Free on the block Configure table.
Lag_1
Input_
Output_
Lag_1 models a first order lag between the input and output signals.
Lag_1 Equations
The Laplace domain transfer function for the first order lag is:
1 .
) (
+
=
s Tau
Gain
s g
Where:
Gain = Steadystate gain (ultimate change in output
divided by change in input).
Tau = Time constant in minutes.
The model uses the following equation to implement this in the time domain:
1 Control Models 19
_
_) (
. _ . Output
dt
Output d
Tau Input Gain + =
Configuring Lag_1
Lag_1 has the following configuration parameters:
Parameter Description Units Valid Values Default
Value
Gain Steadystate
gain
– 1E9 > 1E9 1.0
Tau Time constant min 0 > 1E6 0.0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
Gain for Lag_1
Gain specifies the steadystate gain of the first order lag. The steadystate
gain is equal to the ultimate change in the output, divided by the change in
the input.
Tau for Lag_1
Tau specifies the amount of the first order lag that is imposed upon the input
variable. Tau is equal to the time at which the output has reached 63.2% of
its final value following a step change in the input.
The units of Tau are minutes.
Lead_lag
Input_
Output_
Lead_lag models a leadlag element. The output is the input signal passed
through a leadlag function.
A leadlag consists of a firstorder lead of unit gain and a firstorder lag of
unit gain in series. The numerator component introduces phase lead and the
denominator component introduces phase lag. The response of the output can
span from approximate firstorder lag behavior to approximate firstorder
lead behavior.
Lead_lag Equations
The Laplace domain transfer function for the leadlag element is:
1 Control Models 20
1 .
1 .
. ) (
+
+
=
s Alpha
s Beta
Gain s g
Where:
Beta = Lead time constant in minutes
Alpha = Lag time constant in minutes
Gain = Steady state gain
The model uses the following equations to implement this in the time domain:
_ .
) (
Input Gain aux
dt
aux d
Alpha = + (lag component)
aux
dt
aux d
Beta Output + =
) (
_ (lead component)
Where:
aux = Signal after the lag but before the lead.
Configuring Lead_lag
Lead_lag has the following configuration parameters:
Property Description Units Valid
Values
Default Value
Gain Steadystate
gain
– 1E9 > 1E9 1.0
Beta Lead time
constant
min 0 > 1E6 1.0
Alpha Lag time
constant
min 0.01 > 1E6 1.0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
Gain for Lead_lag
Gain specifies the steadystate gain between the input and output.
Beta for Lead_lag
Beta specifies the amount of lead imposed upon the input variable. The units
of Beta are minutes.
1 Control Models 21
Alpha for Lead_lag
Alpha specifies the amount of lag that is imposed upon the input variable. A
pure lead with no lag is physically impractical, and may cause problems when
solving the simulation. Therefore Alpha has a lower limit of 0.01.
The units of Alpha are minutes.
Multiply
Input1
Output_
Input2
Multiply evaluates its output as the product of the two input signals.
Multiply Equations
The equation used in the Multiply model is:
2 . 1 _ Input Input = Output
Configuring Multiply
Multiply has no configuration parameters.
Noise
Input_ Output_
Noise generates a Gaussian noise signal. You can use the Noise model in two
ways:
• To add noise to the input signal.
• To generate a noisy signal.
Noise can be used for testing how well your control system rejects noise.
1 Control Models 22
Noise Equations
The Noise model generates a random value with amplitude which follows a
Gaussian probability distribution. The mean of the noise is zero, and the
magnitude of the noise is determined by the specified standard deviation. The
output of this model is the sum of the input to the model plus the noise.
The model approximates Gaussian white noise, which is often a good
representation of noise found in process measurement and control systems.
The following graph shows the shape of the Gaussian distribution.
−σ
0
σ 2σ 3σ −3σ −2σ
Probability
= Standard deviation
σ
Amplitude
Configuring Noise
To add noise to an input signal, connect to both the Input_ and Output_
connections. To generate a noisy signal, connect Output_ only, and Fix Input_
to the required mean value of the noisy signal.
Noise has the following configuration parameters:
Property Description Units Valid
values
Default
Value
StdDev Standard deviation – 1E9>1E9 0.0
StdDev for Noise
StdDev specifies the standard deviation for the Gaussian distribution of the
amplitude of the noise.
1 Control Models 23
PID
SPRemote
OP PV
PID models a proportional integral derivative controller using a traditional
positional algorithm. Key features of PID include:
• Ideal, series, and parallel algorithms.
• Auto, manual, and cascade operation.
• Optional bumpless transfer between auto and manual modes.
• Optional antireset windup.
• Various input filtering options.
• Dead banding.
You can control which of the three controller modes (Proportional, Integral
and Differential) by using appropriate values of the tuning constants, for
example:
To simulate this
controller type
Use this value for the tuning
constant
Proportional (P) Gain > 0.0, Integral time > 0.0,
Derivative time = 0.0
Proportional Integral (PI) Integral time  as required
Derivative time = 0.0
Proportional Integral Derivative
(PID)
Integral time – as required
Derivative time – as required
PIDIncr and PID
PIDIncr and PID are both models of PID controllers. They have similar
features but are implemented differently. PID uses a positional algorithm to
calculate the controller output from the current error and accumulated
integral error. PIDIncr uses an incremental algorithm which calculates the
change in the output as a function of the error.
The implementation of PIDIncr is closer to that of real industrial controllers,
and it models their detailed behavior more closely. In particular there is no
bump in the output when you change the tuning parameters during a
dynamic simulation, whereas PID may give a bump in the output. This make
PIDIncr better for tuning controllers as a simulation runs.
We recommend the use of PIDIncr for most simulations. PID is retained for
backwards compatibility of existing simulations. If you wish to use PIDIncr in
simulations which previously used PID, you can drag and drop PIDIncr from
Simulation Explorer on to an existing controller and select yes to use PIDIncr
in place of PID. The controller settings will be automatically mapped across.
1 Control Models 24
Configuring PID
Use the Configure form to enter parameters for PID.
The form is divided into four tabs for configuring different aspects of the
controller. Each of these is explained below. You will need to change values
on the Tuning and Ranges tab, but the default values on the Filtering and
Other tab are suitable for most applications.
To help you configure the controller, ensure that you have connected the
Process Variable (PV) and output (OP) connections, and then use the Initialize
Values button on the Configure form.
When you click the button, the current values of the measured variable and
manipulated variable are used to initialize controller parameters as follows:
Name Initialized to
Operator set point Measured Variable
Bias Manipulated Variable
PV range minimum If Measured Variable > 0 0
If Measured Variable < 0 2 x Measured Variable
PV range maximum If Measured Variable > 0 2 x Measured variable
If Measured Variable < 0 0
Output range
maximum
If Manipulated Variable > 0 0
If Manipulated Variable < 0 2 x Manipulated
Variable
Output range
minimum
If Manipulated Variable > 0 2 x Manipulated Variable
If Manipulated Variable < 0 0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
1 Control Models 25
PID Tuning Tab
The PID tuning tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Name Units Valid
values
Default
Value
Operator set point SPo
–
1E9 > 1E9 50
Bias Bias
–
1E9 > 1E9 0
Gain Gain
–
1E9 > 1E9 1
Integral time IntegralTime min 1E3 >
1E12
20
Derivative time DerivTime min 0 > 1E6 0
Controller action Action – Direct
Reverse
Direct
Operator Set Point
Operator set point (SPo) is used when the controller is in auto mode. When
the controller is in Cascade mode, the remote set point is used instead.
Bias for PID
The bias is a constant term added to the controller output. Bias is typically set
to the value of the manipulated variable when the process is at steady
state.Gain for PID
Gain is the proportional gain of the controller. Gain is dimensionless. Gain is
related to the proportional band for the controller as follows:
Gain = 100% / Proportional band
Integral Time for PID
The Integral Time of the controller is also known as reset time. It has units of
time/repeat.
Derivative Time for PID
The controller's derivative time is also known as rate time. It has units of
time.
Action for PID
Controller action determines whether the controller is direct or reverse acting.
The following table shows the effects of direct or reverse action:
When the
action is
And the measured
variable
Then the manipulated
variable is
Direct Increases Increased
Direct Decreases Decreased
Reverse Increases Decreased
Reverse Decreases Increased
1 Control Models 26
PID Ranges Tab
The PID Ranges tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Name Units Valid values Default
Value
Process Variable
Range minimum
PVmin – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Process Variable
Range maximum
PVmax – 1E9 > 1E9 100
Process Variable
Clip to Range
PVClipping – Yes
No
Yes
Output Range
minimum
OPmin – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Output Range
maximum
OPmax – 1E9 > 1E9 100
Output Clip to
Range
OPClipping – Yes
No
Yes
PVmin, PVmax, and PVClipping for PID
Process Variable Range minimum (Pvmin) and Process Variable Range
maximum (Pvmax) represent the range over which the process variable (PV)
can vary, and may correspond to the range of the instrument used to
measure the PV.
PVmin and PVmax are used to determine the scaled process variable (PVs) as
follows:
min max
min
. 100
PV PV
PV PV
PVs
−
−
=
PVs has units of %. It is clipped between 0 and 100%.
PVs is used in the controller equations.
If Process Variable Clip to Range is selected, PV is clipped between PVmin and
PVmax.
OPmin, OPmax, and OPClipping for PID
Output Range minimum (Opmin) and Output Range maximum (Opmax)
represent the range over which the output (OP) can vary, and usually
correspond to the range of the final control element to which the controller
output is connected. If the final control element is a valve, OPmin and OPmax
are usually 0 and 100 respectively.
OPmin and OPmax are used to determine the actual controller output (OP) for
the scaled controller output (OPs) as follows:
min
100
min) max .(
OP
OP OP OPs
OP +
−
=
OPs has units of %. OPs is used in the controller equations.
If Output Clip to Range is selected, then OP is clipped between OPmin and
OPmax.
1 Control Models 27
PID Filtering Tab
The PID Filtering tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Name Units Valid
values
Default
Value
Enable filtering PVFiltering – Yes
No
No
Filter time
constant
PVFilter min 1E3 > 1E6 1
Proportional term
SP change filter
Beta – 0 > 1 1.0
Derivative term
filter constant
Alpha – 0.03 > 1 0.1
Derivative term
SP change filter
Gamma – 0 > 1 1
Enable Filtering and Filter time constant for PID
If Enable filtering (PVFiltering) is selected, the process variable value (PV) will
be passed through a first order filter before being used in the controller
equations. This feature is used in real controllers to help smooth a noisy
measurement.
Filter time constant (PVFilter) has units of time.
In the Laplace domain the filter equation is:
1 .
1
) (
+
=
s PVFilter
s g
Derivative term filter constant for PID
This is the derivative term filter constant (Alpha). To avoid excessive
response to rapid changes in error, the error term is passed through a first
order filter before it is used to calculate the derivative term. The time
constant for this filter is the product of Alpha and the derivative time.
In the Laplace domain the filter equation is:
( ) 1 . .
1
) (
+
=
s DerivTime Alpha
s g
Alpha can be set to any value between 0.03 and 1.0. Normal settings are
between 0.1 to 0.125. Increasing Alpha reduces the effect of the derivative
term.
Proportional Term SP Change filter for PID
The proportional term SP change filter constant (Beta) determines how the
proportional action of the controller is affected by set point changes:
If Beta is The result is
1.0 The proportional action of the controller is the standard error
signal (default).
< 1.0 The amount of controller output from the controller for set
1 Control Models 28
point changes is limited.
0 The proportional action acts only on process variable
movement. This enables smooth integrated response to set
point changes and fast response to disturbances.
The error used in calculating the proportional term is related to Beta as
follows:
Ep = Beta.SP  PV
Where:
Ep = Proportional error
SP = Set point
PV = Process variable
Derivative term SP Change Filter
The derivative term SP change filter (Gamma) determines how the derivative
action of the controller is affected by set point changes:
If Gamma
is
The result is
1.0 The derivative action works in the same way on both set
point and disturbance changes (default)
< 1.0 The derivative action from the controller for set point changes
is limited
0 The derivative action works only on the process variable
signal. Derivative action that works on the set point is usually
not a problem except in cascade loops or other cases in which
the set point is manipulated. Derivative action may become
excessive due to abrupt changes in the set point.
The error used in calculating the derivative term is related to Gamma as
follows:
Ed = Gamma.SP  PV
Where:
Ed = Derivative error
SP = Set point
PV = Process variable
PID Other Tab
The PID Other tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Name Units Valid
values
Default
Value
Controller
algorithm
Algorithm
–
Ideal
Parallel
Series
Ideal
Bumpless
auto/manual
transfer
Bumpless
–
Yes
No
Yes
1 Control Models 29
Antireset windup ARWindup
–
Yes
No
Yes
Range below set
point
DBlo % 0 > 100 0
Range above set
point
DBhi % 0 > 100 0
Algorithm for PID
Commercial PID controllers typically use one of three alternative algorithms.
These algorithms are:
• Ideal: This is the classical form normally found in text books.
• Series: This is also known as the interacting or analog algorithm.
• Parallel: This is also known as the ideal parallel or noninteracting
algorithm.
Anti Reset Windup for PID
Anti reset windup determines whether the controller antireset windup
algorithm is active.
What is Reset Windup?
The integral term of a proportional integral derivative controller causes its
output to continue changing as long as there is a nonzero error. If the error
cannot be eliminated quickly, then eventually the integral term saturates the
control action (the valve is completely open or shut). Then, even if the error
returns to zero, the control action may remain saturated. This phenomenon is
called reset windup or integral windup.
The integral mode of the controller does not reverse the direction of the
controller output until the measurement crosses the set point.
Proportional action, on the other hand, reverses the direction of the controller
output when the controller input reverses:
Proportional error = SP PV −
Integral error =
( )
SP PV dT −
∫
.
Where:
SP = Set point
PV = The measured process variable
Reset Windup Example
The following graph shows what happens to the proportional and integral
error term of a controller with and without antireset windup.
1 Control Models 30
Manipulated variable
Integral error with anti
reset windup
Integral error without
antireset windup
Proportional error
For a controller with antireset windup, when the manipulated variable is at
its minimum value of 10, the antireset windup mechanism prevents the
integral error from increasing further.
For a controller without antireset windup, the integral error term continues to
increase. When the manipulated variable comes off the minimum at time=15,
the proportional error term decreases, while the integral term continues to
increase. The controller has to pull back the extra amount that the integral
term has wound up while the manipulated variable has saturated at its
minimum.
Bumpless for PID
Bumpless determines whether the bumpless transfer option is active. If
bumpless transfer is active, the controller avoids a bump in its output when
you switch between auto and manual modes.
This is achieved as follows:
When
switching
from
The effect is
Auto to manual The output is frozen at the value it was when the
controller was switched to manual mode. The output will
change only when you enter a new value for the
controller output.
Manual to auto
mode
The set point is set to the value of the measured
variable when the controller was switched to auto mode.
The set point will change only when you supply a new
value.
DBlo and DBhi for PID
Sometimes you may wish to specify a dead band either side of the controller
set point. If the process variable is within this dead band, the controller
output is not changed. Specify the lower (Dblo) and upper (Dbhi) limits to
1 Control Models 31
specify the lower and upper limits of this dead band as a percentage of the
process variable range (PVmax–PVmin).
If DBlo and DBhi
are
The result is
0.0 No dead band is active (default)
>0.0 Dead band is active within the ranges specified
PID Algorithms
The equations used in the PID model to describe controller output depend on
the algorithm you choose:
• Ideal algorithm
• Series algorithm
• Parallel algorithm
Ideal Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ∗ + =
∫
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
.
1
Where:
E
P
= Proportional mode error
I
E = Integral mode error
D
E = Derivative mode error
All of these errors are derived from the standard error (E), which is defined
as:
E = set point – process variable
Series Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + =
∫
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
1 . .
1
.
Parallel Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
∫
+ + + =
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
.
1
.
Note: All values of the variables used in these equations are the
scaled values based on the process variable range minimum and
1 Control Models 32
maximum or the output range minimum and maximum.
PID Controller Faceplates
The PID model includes two controller faceplates that you can use to interact
with the controller during a running simulation:
• Full faceplate
• Compact faceplate
The full faceplate is similar to that found on real PID controllers. It includes
three horizontal bars which show the set point (SP), process variable (PV),
and output (OP) as a percentage of range. To the right are the actual
numerical values of SP, PV, and OP in process units.
The first three buttons at the top level enable you to switch between auto,
manual, and cascade modes respectively. When you are in auto mode (as in
the example), the value for SP has a white background, which means you can
type a new value. When you are in manual mode, the value for OP has a
white background, which means you can change the value.
Pressing the fourth button from the left opens the Configure table so that you
can easily change configuration parameters.
The fifth button opens the plot for the controller which shows values of SP, PV
and OP either in process units, or as a percentage of the range versus time.
The sixth button plots the same variables but shows them as percentages of
range, instead of in process units.
The compact faceplate shows a subset of the information found on the full
faceplate.
ClosedLoop Controller Tuning using
the ZieglerNichols Technique
The ZieglerNichols closedloop technique is one of the most popular methods
for tuning controllers. This technique gives approximate values of the
controller's gain, integral time, and derivative time required to obtain a one
quarter amplitude response.
1 Control Models 33
The ZieglerNichols closedloop method is suitable for many singleloop
controllers. For processes that contain interacting loops, openloop tuning
methods are preferred. For more information on openloop tuning, please
consult a text book on controller tuning.
Using the ZieglerNichols Technique
1 To use the ZieglerNichols technique:
2 With the controller in automatic, remove all the reset and derivative
action. To do this, set:
− Integral time to 1.0E6
− Derivative time to 0.0
3 Make a small set point or load change and observe the response.
4 If the response is not continuously oscillatory, increase the controller's
gain and repeat step 2.
5 Repeat step 3 until you obtain a continuous oscillatory response.
The gain that gives these continuous oscillations is called the ultimate gain,
K
U
. The period of the oscillations is called the ultimate period, T
U
.
Obtaining the Approximate Decay Ratio Settings
Use the following expressions to calculate the controller settings from the
ultimate gain K
U
. and the ultimate period T
U
.
Controller Type Gain Integral
Time
Derivative Time
P
u
K 5 . 0
6 le
0
PI
u
K 45 . 0 2 . 1 /
u
T
0
PID
u
K 6 . 0 2 /
u
T 8 /
u
T
Using the ISE and IAE Models with a
PID Controller
The ISE model and IAE model can be used to give a measure of how
successful a control system is at keeping a process variable (PV) at its set
point (SP). When used with a PID controller, it is convenient to link the input
of the ISE and IAE models directly to the setpoint and process variable of the
controller. For this reason, the PID setpoint (SP) and process variable (PV)
are defined as output control connections, and you can use control streams to
connect the PID controller and ISE or IAE block, as in the following table:
Connect this PID controller: To this connection of
the ISE or IAE block:
SP SP
PV Input_
1 Control Models 34
PIDIncr
SPRemote
OP PV
PIDIncr models a proportional integral derivative controller using an
incremental control algorithm, as used in most modern electronic controllers.
Key features of PIDIncr include:
• Ideal, series, and parallel algorithms.
• Auto, manual, and cascade operation.
• Optional tracking of the process variable by the set point when in manual
mode.
• Antireset windup.
• Various input filtering options.
• Dead banding.
• Autotuning capability.
You can control which of the three controller modes (Proportional, Integral
and Differential) by using appropriate values of the tuning constants, for
example:
To simulate this
controller type
Use this value for the tuning
constant
Proportional (P) Integral time – very large e.g. 1e6
Derivative time = 0.0
Proportional Integral (PI) Integral time  as required
Derivative time = 0.0
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Integral time – as required
Derivative time – as required
PIDIncr and PID
PIDIncr and PID are both models of PID controllers. They have similar
features but are implemented differently. PID uses a positional algorithm to
calculate the controller output from the current error and accumulated
integral error. PIDIncr uses an incremental algorithm which calculates the
change in the output as a function of the error.
The implementation of PIDIncr is closer to that of real industrial controllers,
and it models their detailed behavior more closely. In particular there is no
bump in the output when you change the tuning parameters during a
dynamic simulation, whereas PID may give a bump in the output. This make
PIDIncr better for tuning controllers as a simulation runs.
We recommend the use of PIDIncr for most simulations. PID is retained for
backwards compatibility of existing simulations. If you wish to use PIDIncr in
1 Control Models 35
simulations which previously used PID, you can drag and drop PIDIncr from
Simulation Explorer on to an existing controller and select yes to use PIDIncr
in place of PID. The controller settings will be automatically mapped across.
Configuring PIDIncr
Use the Configure form to enter parameters for PID.
The form is divided into four tabs for configuring different aspects of the
controller. Each of these is explained below. You will need to change values
on the Tuning and Ranges tab, but the default values on the Filtering and
Other tab are suitable for most applications.
To help you configure the controller, ensure that you have connected the
process variable (PV) and output (OP) connections, and then use the Initialize
Values button on the Configure form.
When you click the button, the current values of the measured variable and
manipulated variable are used to initialize controller parameters as follows:
Parameter Initialized to
Set point Measured Variable
Initial Output Manipulated Variable
PV range minimum If Measured Variable > 0 0
If Measured Variable < 0 2 x Measured Variable
PV range maximum If Measured Variable > 0 2 x Measured variable
If Measured Variable < 0 0
Output range
maximum
If Manipulated Variable > 0 0
If Manipulated Variable < 0 2 x Manipulated
Variable
Output range
minimum
If Manipulated Variable > 0 2 x Manipulated Variable
If Manipulated Variable < 0 0
1 Control Models 36
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
PIDIncr Tuning Tab
The PID tuning tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Name Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Set point SP
–
1E9 > 1E9 50
Initial output OPMan

1E9 > 1E9 50
Gain Gain
–
1E9 > 1E9 1
Integral time IntegralTime min 1E3 >
1E12
20
Derivative time DerivTime min 0 > 1E6 0
Controller action Action – Direct
Reverse
Direct
Set Point for PIDIncr
The set point is used when the controller is in auto mode. When the controller
is in Cascade mode, the remote set point is used instead. Use this to change
the set point before a simulation, or when a dynamic simulation is paused. If
you wish to change the value while a dynamic simulation is running you
should change the value from the controller faceplate.
Initial Output for PIDIncr
Because PIDIncr uses an incremental algorithm the value of the output at the
start of a dynamic simulation must be defined. If you have previously
performed a steady state simulation this will already be at the steady state
value and you will probably want to leave it unchanged. If you have not
performed a steady state run you should normally specify the initial value.
Gain for PIDIncr
Gain is the proportional gain of the controller. Gain is dimensionless. Some
people use the term Proportional Band, and this is related to gain by the
equation:
Gain = 100% / Proportional Band
Integral Time for PIDIncr
The Integral Time of the controller is also known as reset time. It has units of
time/repeat.
Derivative Time for PIDIncr
The controller's derivative time is also known as rate time. It has units of
time.
1 Control Models 37
Action for PIDIncr
Controller action determines whether the controller is direct or reverse acting.
The following table shows the effects of direct or reverse action:
When the
action is
And the measured
variable
Then the manipulated
variable is
Direct Increases Increased
Direct Decreases Decreased
Reverse Increases Decreased
Reverse Decreases Increased
PIDIncr Ranges Tab
The PID Ranges tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Parameter Units Valid values Default
Value
Process variable
and set point,
Range minimum
PVmin – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Process variable
and set point,
Range maximum
PVmax – 1E9 > 1E9 100
Process variable
and set point, Clip
PV to Range
PVClipping – Yes
No
Yes
Process variable
and set point, Clip
SP to Range
SPClipping – Yes
No
Yes
Output, Range
minimum
OPmin – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Output, Range
maximum
OPmax – 1E9 > 1E9 100
Output, Clip to
Range
OPClipping – Yes
No
Yes
PVmin, PVmax, PVClipping and SPClipping for PIDIncr
Process Variable Range minimum (PVmin) and Process Variable Range
maximum (PVmax) represent the range over which the process variable (PV)
can vary, and may correspond to the range of the instrument used to
measure the PV.
PVmin and PVmax are used to determine the scaled process variable (PVs) as
follows:
min max
min
. 100
PV PV
PV PV
PVs
−
−
=
PVs has units of %.
PVs is used in the controller equations.
1 Control Models 38
If Clip PV to Range is selected, the value of PV used in the controller
equations is clipped between PVmin and PVmax, which means PVs is always
between 0 and 100%.
If Clip SP to range is selected, the value of SP used in the controller equations
is clipped between PVmin and PVmax.
OPmin, OPmax, and OPClipping for PIDIncr
Output Range minimum (OPmin) and Output Range maximum (OPmax)
represent the range over which the output (OP) can vary, and usually
correspond to the range of the final control element to which the controller
output is connected. If the final control element is a valve, OPmin and OPmax
are usually 0 and 100 respectively.
OPmin and OPmax are used to determine the actual controller output (OP) for
the scaled controller output (OPs) as follows:
min
100
min) max .(
OP
OP OP OPs
OP +
−
=
OPs has units of %. OPs is used in the controller equations.
If Output Clip to range is selected, then OP is clipped between OPmin and
OPmax.
PIDIncr Filtering Tab
The PID Filtering tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Parameter Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Filter time
constant
PVFilter min 1E3 > 1E6 0.0333
Proportional term
SP change filter
Beta – 0 > 1 1.0
Derivative term
filter constant
Alpha – 0.03 > 1 0.1
Derivative term
SP change filter
Gamma – 0 > 1 1
Filter time constant for PIDIncr
The process variable value (PV) is passed through a first order filter before
being used in the controller equations. This feature is used in real controllers
to help smooth a noisy measurement.
Filter time constant (PVFilter) has units of time. The default value is 0.0333
minutes, which is 2 seconds.
In the Laplace domain the filter equation is:
1 .
1
) (
+
=
s PVFilter
s g
1 Control Models 39
Derivative term filter constant for PIDIncr
This is the derivative term filter constant (Alpha). To avoid excessive
response to rapid changes in error, the error term is passed through a first
order filter before it is used to calculate the derivative term. The time
constant for this filter is the product of Alpha and the derivative time.
In the Laplace domain the filter equation is:
( ) 1 . .
1
) (
+
=
s DerivTime Alpha
s g
Alpha can be set to any value between 0.03 and 1.0. Normal settings are
between 0.1 to 0.125. Increasing Alpha reduces the effect of the derivative
term.
Proportional Term SP Change filter for PIDIncr
The proportional term SP change filter constant (Beta) determines how the
proportional action of the controller is affected by set point changes:
If Beta is The result is
1.0 The proportional action of the controller is the standard error
signal (default)
< 1.0 The amount of controller output from the controller for set
point changes is limited
0 The proportional action acts only on process variable
movement. This enables smooth integrated response to set
point changes and fast response to disturbances.
The error used in calculating the proportional term is related to Beta as
follows:
dEp = Beta.dSP  dPV
Where:
dEp = Rate of change of proportional error
dSP = Rate of change of set point
dPV = Rate of change of process variable
Derivative term SP Change Filter
The derivative term SP change filter (Gamma) determines how the derivative
action of the controller is affected by set point changes:
If Gamma
is
The result is
1.0 The derivative action works in the same way on both set
point and disturbance changes (default)
< 1.0 The derivative action from the controller for set point changes
is limited
0 The derivative action works only on the process variable
signal. Derivative action that works on the set point is usually
not a problem except in cascade loops or other cases in which
the set point is manipulated. Derivative action may become
1 Control Models 40
excessive due to abrupt changes in the set point.
The error used in calculating the derivative term is related to Gamma as
follows:
dEd = Gamma,dSP  dPV
Where:
dEd = Rate of change of derivative error
dSP = Rate of change of set point
dPV = Rate of change of process variable
PIDIncr Other Tab
The PIDIncr Other tab has these configuration parameters:
Description Parameter Uni
ts
Valid
values
Default
Value
Controller
algorithm
Algorithm
–
Ideal
Parallel
Series
Ideal
SP tracks PV
when in manual
PVTrack
–
Yes
No
Yes
Range above set
point
DBhi % 0 > 100 0
Range below set
point
DBlo % 0 > 100 0
Algorithm for PIDIncr
Commercial PID controllers typically use one of three alternative algorithms.
These algorithms are:
• Ideal: This is the classical form normally found in text books.
• Series: This is also known as the interacting or analog algorithm.
• Parallel: This is also known as the ideal parallel or noninteracting
algorithm.
PVTrack for PIDIncr
PVTrack determines whether the set point tracks (in other words follows) the
process variable when the controller is in manual. This is a common feature of
industrial controllers. It means that when you switch back from manual to
auto, the controller will attempt to keep the process variable at the value it
had when the switch was made.
If PVTrack is set to no the set point remains constant when in manual mode.
DBlo and DBhi for PIDIncr
Sometimes you may wish to specify a dead band either side of the controller
set point. If the process variable is within this dead band, the controller
output is not changed. Specify the lower (DBlow) and upper (DBhi) limits to
specify the lower and upper limits of this dead band as a percentage of the
process variable range (PVmax–PVmin).
1 Control Models 41
If DBlow and DBhi
are
The result is
0.0 No dead band is active (default)
>0.0 Dead band is active within the ranges specified
PID Algorithms
The equations used in the PIDIncr model to describe controller output depend
on the algorithm you choose:
• Ideal algorithm
• Series algorithm
• Parallel algorithm
Ideal Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ∗ + =
∫
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
.
1
Where:
E
P
= Proportional mode error
I
E = Integral mode error
D
E = Derivative mode error
All of these errors are derived from the standard error (E), which is defined
as:
E = set point – process variable
Series Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + =
∫
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
1 . .
1
.
Parallel Algorithm
The equation used to determine the controller output (OP) is:
∫
+ + + =
dt
E d
DerivTime dt E
me IntegralTi
E Gain Bias OP
D
I P
) (
.
1
.
Note: All values of the variables used in these equations are the
scaled values based on the process variable range minimum and
maximum or the output range minimum and maximum.
1 Control Models 42
Anti Reset Windup
In common with modern industrial controllers, PIDIncr implements anti reset
windup. This section explains what anti reset windup is.
The integral term of a controller causes its output to continue changing as
long as there is a nonzero error. If the error cannot be eliminated quickly,
then eventually the integral term saturates the control action (the valve is
completely open or shut). Then, even if the error returns to zero, the control
action may remain saturated. This phenomenon is called reset windup or
integral windup.
The integral mode of the controller does not reverse the direction of the
controller output until the measurement crosses the set point.
Proportional action, on the other hand, reverses the direction of the controller
output when the controller input reverses:
Proportional error = SP PV −
Integral error =
( )
SP PV dT −
∫
.
Where:
SP = Set point
PV = The measured process variable
Reset Windup Example
The following graph shows what happens to the proportional and integral
error term of a controller with and without antireset windup.
Manipulated variable
Integral error with anti
reset windup
Integral error without
antireset windup
Proportional error
For a controller with antireset windup, when the manipulated variable is at
its minimum value of 10, the antireset windup mechanism prevents the
integral error from increasing further.
For a controller without antireset windup, the integral error term continues to
increase. When the manipulated variable comes off the minimum at time=15,
1 Control Models 43
the proportional error term decreases, while the integral term continues to
increase. The controller has to pull back the extra amount that the integral
term has wound up while the manipulated variable has saturated at its
minimum.
PIDIncr Controller Faceplates
The PID model includes two controller faceplates that you can use to interact
with the controller during a running simulation:
• Full faceplate
• Compact faceplate
The full faceplate is similar to that found on real PID controllers. It includes
three horizontal bars which show the set point (SP), process variable (PV),
and output (OP) as a percentage of range. To the right are the actual
numerical values of SP, PV, and OP in process units.
The first three buttons at the top level enable you to switch between auto,
manual, and cascade modes respectively. When you are in auto mode (as in
the example), the value for SP has a white background, which means you can
type a new value. When you are in manual mode, the value for OP has a
white background, which means you can change the value.
The fourth button enables you to switch between viewing values in process
units or percentages of range. To see the process units you can hold the
mouse pointer over the label SP, PV or OP.
To individually switch viewing of SP, PV or OP between percentage and
process units right mouse click on the label and select as required.
1 Control Models 44
Pressing the fifth button opens the Configure form so that you can easily
change configuration parameters.
The sixth button opens the plot for the controller which shows values of SP,
PV and OP either in process units, or as a percentage of the range, versus
time.
The seventh button opens the Tune form which you can use to automatically
determine tuning parameters for the controller.
To save space the compact faceplate only includes the three buttons required
to change controller mode, and does not include bars to represent values.
Otherwise the behavior is the same as for the main faceplate.
Automatic Controller Tuning Context
The PIDIncr Tune form provides access to automatic tuning capabilities which
you can use to determine suitable values for the controller tuning parameters.
This technique is useful when designing control systems for new processes or
improving those for existing processes.
Note: To obtain good results that can be transferred to a real
control system it is important that you accurately model the loop
dynamics. This means modeling the sensor and actuator
dynamics if they have a significant effect on the overall loop
dynamics. It is particularly important to model and dead times in
the control loop.
Using Automatic Controller Tuning
Before using automatic tuning ensure that the controller Process Variable and
Output connections are in place. Also ensure that you have entered the
controller input and output ranges and the Set Point. If you use the Closed
Loop ATV test method you must also have entered the correct controller
action.
Next choose your required test method and test settings.
Start a dynamic simulation and open the controller faceplate. Wait until the
controller PV and OP are stable. This is easiest to see if you plot the values
using the plot button. Then press the Start test button to start the test.
When the test has run press the Finish Test button. For an Open loop test this
is when the PV has stopped changing significantly. For a closed loop ATV test
this is when each cycle looks the same as the previous one.
The test results will then be calculated and displayed automatically.
1 Control Models 45
For step tests, in some cases the automatic tuner may find it difficult to
estimate the Time constant and Dead time from the test results. This can be
true if you are using the Discretize model to simulate the effect of an analyzer
in the control loop. For this reason we recommend you visually check that the
values shown look reasonable. The diagram below shows how the values can
be determined from the step response curve.
Time Hours
S
e
t
P
o
i
n
t
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
50
52.
5
55
57.
5
60
62.
5
65
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
Time constant Dead time
If you would like to change the values used for the calculation of the tuning
parameters type in the values you want to use in place of those determined
by the automatic tuner.
If for any reason you wish to stop a test without calculating the results press
the Cancel test button to abort the test.
To calculate tuning parameters select the Tuning parameters tab. Select the
tuning parameter options and press the Calculate button to calculate the
results. If you wish to update the controller with the calculated values click
the Update controller button.
Tips:
• If your control loop has very fast dynamics, or if you are
using Closed Loop ATV testing on a loop with a very small
dead time, you may need to reduce the Simulation
Communication Interval to ensure that the fast changes in the
PV are adequately captured. You can do this on the Run
Options dialog in the section Time control. You may also need
to reduce the integrator minimum step size. Do this on the
Integrator tab of the Solver Options dialog.
• If you rewind or restart your simulation after clicking the
Update controller button the controller parameters are reset
1 Control Models 46
to their previous values. To prevent this click the Update
controller button after you have rewound or restarted the
simulation.
Test Method and Test Settings for PIDIncr
You can perform either an open loop test or a closed loop ATV test.
For an open loop test the controller is set to manual and the output is
stepped. You can specify whether the step is up or down, and the size of the
step as a percentage of output range. This approach assumes that the
process can be approximated by a first order lag plus deadtime. The response
of the PV is used to estimate an open loop gain, time constant and dead time
for the process.
Tip: You can try different steps directions and sizes to see how
these affect the results. The more nonlinear the process the
greater the differences will be.
For a closed loop ATV test the control operates as a relay controller to create
a limit cycle in the PV. For a Direct acting controller, when the PV is greater
than the set point, the controller moves the output to the initial output plus
the relay amplitude that you specify. When the PV is less than the set point
the controller moves the output to the initial value less the amplitude. If the
controller action is reverse this works the other way round. It is important
that you select the correct controller action before running this test.
The size and period of the limit cycle in the PV is used to determine the
ultimate gain and ultimate period of the process.
Tip: The Closed Loop ATV test method is only effective if you
have some dead time in the control loop. If you have not
modeled loop dead time you should use the Open Loop test
method.
Tuning Parameter Options for PIDIncr
First specify the controller type that you wish to calculate parameters for. This
can be P, PI or PID. Then select the tuning rule to be used. Many methods
have been proposed for determining controller tuning parameters. We have
provided some of the most commonly used methods. The methods available
differ depending upon whether you performed an open loop or closed loop
test. Some methods are not available for all controller types.
Open Loop Methods
ZieglerNichols – Aims to provide a quarter amplitude decay ratio, in other
words for each oscillation to be one quarter the amplitude of the previous one
CohenCoon – Also aims to provide a quarter amplitude decay ratio. Seeks to
improve on ZieglerNichols when the dead time is large compared to the time
constant
1 Control Models 47
IMC – Uses tuning rules developed by Rivera and Morari. Aims to provide
robust control with no oscillation or overshoot. Provides a more damped
response than ZieglerNichols and CohenCoon
If you select the IMC tuning rule you must enter a value for lambda. This is a
filter parameter. It must be greater than 0.2 times the calculated process
time constant. For a PI controller is must be greater than 1.7 times the dead
time, and for a PID controller it must be greater than 0.25 times the dead
time. A smaller value gives a faster response.
IAE – Aims to minimize the integrated absolute error in the response to a
disturbance
ISE – Aims to minimize the integrated squared error in the response to a
disturbance
ITAE – Aims to minimize the integrated time waited absolute error in the
response to a disturbance
Closed Loop Methods:
ZieglerNichols  Aims to provide a quarter amplitude decay ratio, in other
words for each oscillation to be one quarter the amplitude of the previous one
TyreusLuyben – Less aggressive than ZieglerNichols with lower gain and
larger integral times. Minimizes overshoot. Developed specifically for process
applications.
Using the ISE and IAE Models with the
PIDIncr Controller
The ISE model and IAE model can be used to give a measure of how
successful a control system is at keeping a process variable at its set point.
When used with a PIDIncr controller, it is convenient to link the input of the
ISE and IAE models directly to the set point and process variable of the
controller. For this reason, the set point (SP) and process variable (PV) are
defined as output control connections, and you can use control streams to
connect the PIDIncr controller and ISE or IAE block, as in the following table:
Connect this PIDIncr
controller connection:
To this connection of
the ISE or IAE block:
SP SP
PV Input_
PRBS
Output_
PRBS generates a pseudorandom binary signal. You can use the output from
the model in two ways:
1 Control Models 48
• As a noise source added to a signal using the Sum model.
• As the signal itself.
PRBS can be used for testing how well your control system rejects noise.
The output signal can have either a fixed or varying amplitude.
PRBS Equations
PRBS can be used to generate a noise signal with one of the following:
• Fixed amplitude
• Variable amplitude
When fixed amplitude signal is selected, the output is always the datum plus
or minus the amplitude. If a variable amplitude is selected, the output is the
datum plus or minus a random value in the range (amplitude) to
(+amplitude). In both cases, the output signal is recalculated at an interval
defined by the specified period of the noise.
The following graphs show the two types of pseudorandom signals that can
be generated:
Fixed Amplitude
Upper
bound
Datum
Lower
bound
Time
Amplitude
Amplitude
1 Control Models 49
Varying Amplitude
Upper
bound
Datum
Lower
bound
Time
Amplitude
Amplitude
Configuring PRBS
PRBS has the following configuration parameters:
Property Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Amplitude
Type
Type of amplitude variation – Fixed
Varying
Fixed
Datum Datum point for deviation – 1E9 >
1E9
0.0
Amplitude Amplitude of deviation – 0 > 1E9 1.0
Period Period of random change min 1E4 >
1E6
1.0
Seed Seed for random No.
generation
– 1000 >
1E9
12345
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
AmplitudeType for PRBS
AmplitudeType specifies the type of pseudorandom binary signal.
If
AmplitudeType is
The result is
Fixed Deviation around Datum is fixed at Amplitude or
+Amplitude.
Variable Deviation around Datum can vary between Amplitude
and +Amplitude.
1 Control Models 50
Datum for PRBS
Datum specifies the fixed value around which the random deviation occurs.
For steadystate and other nondynamic run modes, the output from PRBS is
fixed at Datum.
Amplitude for PRBS
Amplitude specifies the size of the deviation around the Datum value.
Period for PRBS
Period specifies the period at which the random signal can change. The units
of Period are minutes.
Seed for PRBS
Seed is used to initialize the random number generator used within PRBS.
Make sure Seed is a large number, in the order of thousands. Using the same
seed will give the same random signal for repeated runs of the simulation. To
get different sequences of random numbers, change the value of seed.
Ratio
Input1
Output_
Input2
Ratio calculates its output as the ratio of input1 to input2.
Ratio Equations
The model equation calculates the ratio of the first input signal to the second
input signal:
2
1
_
Input
Input
Output =
Configuring Ratio
Ratio has no configuration parameters.
Scale
Input_ Output_
1 Control Models 51
Scale maps an input signal onto a scale, where a given minimum is 0% and a
given maximum is 100%. The output signal can also be clipped to remain
within the range 0 to 100%.
Scale Equations
Scale uses the following scaling equation:
ScaleMin ScaleMax
ScaleMin Input
Output
−
−
=
) _ .( 100
_
If clipping is enabled, Output_ will never be less than 0 or greater than 100,
even if this equation calculates a value outside of this range.
Configuring Scale
Scale has the following configuration parameters:
Property Description Units Valid Values Default
Value
Clipping Output clipping – Yes
No
No
ScaleMin Scale minimum – 1E9 > 1E9 0.0
ScaleMax Scale maximum – 1E9 > 1E9 100.0
Clipping for Scale
Output clipping determines whether or not the output of the scaler is clipped
between the values of ScaleMin and ScaleMax.
If output clipping
is
The result is
No No clipping (default)
Yes Output is clipped between ScaleMin and ScaleMax
ScaleMin for Scale
ScaleMin specifies the lower limit to which the input of the scaler is clipped if
clipping is active.
ScaleMax for Scale
ScaleMax specifies the upper limit to which the input of the scaler is clipped if
clipping is active.
1 Control Models 52
SplitRange
Input_
Output1
Output2
SplitRange Equations
The following illustration shows the relationship between the input and output
signals:
In this example, the outputs have the following actions:
Output Action Meaning
1 Direct Increases as the input increases
2 Reverse Decreases as the input increases
The plot shows that Output 1 increases from Output1Min to Output1Max as
the input increases from Output1InMin to Output1InMax.
Output 2 decreases from Output2Max to Output2Min as the input increases
from Output2InMin to Output2InMax.
Configuring SplitRange
SplitRange has the following configuration parameter:
Parameter Description Unit
s
Valid
Values
Default
Value
Output1Action Action for Output 1 – Direct
Reverse
Direct
Output1Min Minimum value of Output 1 – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Output1Max Maximum value of Output 1 – 1E9 > 1E9 100
1 Control Models 53
Output1InMin Value of input above which
Output 1 starts to change
– 1E9 > 1E9 0
Output1InMax Value of input above which
Output 1 stops changing
– 1E9 > 1E9 50
Output2Action Action for Output 2 – Direct
Reverse
Direct
Output2Min Minimum value of Output 2 – 1E9 > 1E9 0
Output2Max Maximum value of Output 2 – 1E9 > 1E9 100
Output2InMin Value of input above which
Output 2 starts to change
– 1E9 > 1E9 50
Output2InMax Value of input above which
Output 2 stops changing
– 1E9 > 1E9 100
Output1Action for SplitRange
Output1Action specifies whether output 1 increases or decreases as the input
increases:
If Output1Action
is
The result is
Direct Output 1 increases as Input increases
Reverse Output 1 decreases as Input increases
Output1Min for SplitRange
Output1Min specifies the minimum value of output 1.
Output1Max for SplitRange
Output1Max specifies the maximum value of output 1.
Output1InMin for SplitRange
Output1InMin specifies the value of the input above which Output 1 starts to
change.
Output1InMax for SplitRange
Output1InMax specifies the value of the input above which Output 1 no longer
changes.
Output2Action for SplitRange
Output2Action specifies whether output 2 increases or decreases as the input
increases.
If Output2Action
is
The result is
Direct Output 2 increases as Input increases
Reverse Output 2 decreases as Input increases
Output2Min for SplitRange
Output2Min specifies the minimum value of output 2.
1 Control Models 54
Output2Max for SplitRange
Output2Max specifies the maximum value of output 2.
Output2InMin for SplitRange
Output2InMin specifies the value of the input above which Output 2 starts to
change.
Output2InMax for SplitRange
Output2InMax specifies the value of the input above which Output 2 no longer
changes.
SteamPtoT
PT P
T
SteamPtoT uses the extended Antoine parameters for water (PLXANT) to
calculate steam temperature from steam pressure.
Use SteamPtoT as part of a control scheme for a block where:
• Constant Temperature is the heat transfer option.
• Steam pressure is the manipulated variable (rather than steam
temperature).
Sum
Input1
Output_
Input2
Sum evaluates its output as the sum of the two input signals.
Sum Equations
The equation used in the Sum model is:
2 1 _ Input Input = Output +
Configuring Sum
Sum has no configuration parameters.
1 Control Models 55
Transform
Input_ Output_
Transform can be used to apply one of the following transform operations to a
signal:
• Loge (natural logarithm)
• Square
• Square root
• Power
Transform Equations
The equation used depends on the transform operation selected as follows:
Transform Equation
Loge
_) _ Input ln( = Output
None
_ _ Input = Output
Power Power
Input = Output _ _
Square 2
_ _ Input = Output
Square root
_ _ Input = Output
Configuring Transform
Transform has the following configuration parameters:
Parameter Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
Transform Transform type – Loge
None
Power
Square
Square root
None
Power Exponent for
Power
transform
– 500  > 500 1
Transform for Transform
Transform specifies the type of transform to be applied.
Power for Transform
Power specifies the exponent to be used if the Power transform is selected.
1 Control Models 56
Power
Input = Output _ _
Valve_dyn
Output_
Input_
Valve_dyn models the dynamics of a valve actuator. It relates the input signal
to a control valve to the valve stem position. It includes the following options:
• Direct or reverse action.
• Firstorder, secondorder, or negligible dynamic effects.
• Velocity limiting (when using first or secondorder dynamics).
• Modeling of hysteresis effects caused by valve dead band.
Connect Valve_dyn between a controller output signal and the input signal to
a Valve block. Make sure the input signal is in the range 0 to 100%. The
output signal represents the valve percentage open.
Valve_dyn Equations
When the firstorder dynamics option is used, the valve stem response is
modeled using the following firstorder differential equation:
( )
Input Output Tau
d Output
dt
= + 1.
Where:
Tau1 = Firstorder time constant
For secondorder dynamics, the following secondorder differential equation is
used:
( ) ( )
Input Tau
d Output
dt
GammaTau
d Output
dt
Output = + +
2
2
2
2 . . . .
Tau
StemMass
Hookes
=
Where:
Gamma
= Damping coefficient
Tau
= Natural period
StemMass
= Moving mass of valve stem
Hookes
= Hooke’s law constant for spring
1 Control Models 57
When velocity limiting is used, the rate of change of stem position is clipped
so that it does not exceed the maximum velocity defined by the stroke time.
Configuring Valve_dyn
The properties for Valve_dyn are:
Property Description Units Valid
Values
Default
Value
ValveAction Valve action
–
Direct
Reverse
Direct
Dynamics Actuator dynamics
–
1st order
2nd order
None
1st order
Tau1 Firstorder time
constant
s 0 > 1E4 1E3
StemMass Stem assembly mass kg or lb 1E3 > 1E4 1.0
Hookes Spring Hooke’s law
constant
N/m or lbf/ft 1 > 1E10 100000
Gamma Damping factor  1E9 > 1E9 1.0
StrokeTimeDo Time for full scale
down stroke
s 0.01 > 1E8 1.0
StrokeTimeUp Time for full scale up
stroke
s 0.01 > 1E8 1.0
DBand Dead band % 0 > 100 0.0
If your process models are written to work in time units other than hours, you
will need to change the control model time units. See Time Units in Control
Models, earlier in this chapter.
ValveAction for Valve_dyn
ValveAction specifies whether the valve is direct or reverseacting:
If valve type is As the input signal increases
Direct the valve opens
Reverse the valve closes
Dynamics for Valve_dyn
Dynamics specifies the dynamic relationship between the input signal and the
valve stem position:
If Dynamics is The result is
Second order The valve dynamics are represented by a second order
lag between the input signal and the valve stem
position.
None There are no dynamics, the full effect of a change in the
input is immediately passed to the output
1 Control Models 58
StemMass for Valve_dyn
StemMass is the mass of the stem assembly. A greater mass results in a
slower response to input signal changes.
StemMass has no effect when Dynamics=None.
Hookes for Valve_dyn
Hookes is the Hooke’s law constant. This is the force exerted per unit length
when the valve spring is compressed. A larger value results in a faster
dynamic response to input signal changes.
Hookes has no effect when Dynamics=None.
Gamma for Valve_dyn
The damping factor Gamma determines the amount of oscillation in the
dynamics response of the stem position to the valve input. The default value
of damping factor is 1.0. This is typical, and will give a critically damped
response. A value greater than 1 gives an overdamped response, and a value
of less then 1 gives an underdamped or oscillatory response.
Gamma has no effect when Dynamics=None.
StrokeTimeDo for Valve_dyn
StrokeTimeDo is the minimum time in which the valve can move from fully
open to fully closed. The maximum rate of change in the valve position, in
%/s is then determined as 100/StrokeTime.
When Dynamics= 2nd order, the valve will never open or close faster than
this rate.
StrokeTimeDo has no effect when Dynamics=None.
DBand for Valve_dyn
DBand is the dead band for the valve expressed as a percentage of range.
When the input changes direction, it must move by an amount equal to
DBand before the valve position changes. The following illustration shows the
effect of dead band on the valve position as the input changes.
DBand
0
100
100
Valve
position
Input
signal
Opening
Closing
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 59
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit
The Aspen Reactions Toolkit (ART) is a collection of builtin kinetic model
libraries and utilities in Aspen Custom Modeler to allow building custom
reactor models.
It includes:
• The ART Reaction Model component which is a generic framework for
managing stoichiometry and kinetic models of complex reaction networks.
• A library of kinetic models which are included in the ART Reaction Model
component for building custom reactor models.
• A wizard for building a custom Reaction Model component that contains
custom kinetic models.
This chapter describes:
• How the ART reaction model is implemented.
• How to use the ART Reaction Model component in your reactor model.
• How to configure the ART Reaction Model component.
• How to build a custom Reaction Model component that contains custom
kinetic models.
ART Reaction Model Component
Overview
The ART Reaction Model component is a framework specifically designed to
facilitate the modeling of reaction kinetics. The component manages the
stoichiometry and the kinetic model used in the reactions of a reaction
system. It encapsulates all of the basic calculations within the component,
while providing users with the capability to fully customize the kinetic models.
It also provides a Reaction Activity utility for the simultaneous manipulation of
reaction rates for selected groups of reactions. Using the ART Reaction Model
component in a reactor model will dramatically reduce the effort in writing the
mass balance for the model.
In general, you can think of the ART Reaction Model component as a black
box which takes reaction conditions, temperature (T), pressure (P), and mole
fractions (
i
z ), as input, and based on reaction configuration, returns the
reaction rates and species net generation rates. You can plug in different
kinetic modules, which contain collections of kinetic models, to the ART
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 60
Reaction Model component, so that you can specify the kinetic model (i.e.
rate expression) to be used in each reaction through the configuration.
ART Reactions
Model
T
P
z
i
Species Reaction Rate
Configuration
Kinetic
Module
Custom
Module 1
Builtin
Module
Custom
Module 2
Design of ART Reaction Model
Component
In the ART reactions model component, we have segregated the “data” from
the “model”, so that the “data” can be shared by many instances of a
“model”. The “Data”, which include the kinetic parameters and the reaction
configuration, are implemented as ACM Global Structures (Reaction Global
Structure). Such an implementation is equivalent to the reaction object
implementation in Aspen Plus.
To enhance the performance of a distributed (PDE) system that uses an ACM
reaction model, we have further segregated the “model” into nondistributed
and distributed portions. The nondistributed portion declares the variables
and defines the associated equations which do not change across the
integration domain, and do not need to be discretized. The distributed portion
of the “model” declares the variables and defines the associated equations,
which can vary along the integration domain and are discretized based on the
selected discretization method.
To further optimize the flexibility and scalability of the reaction model, the
reaction global structure, and the distributed and nondistributed portions of
the reaction models are further segregated into three hierarchies, i.e. Module,
Class, and Reaction. Variables declared in the Module level are common to all
classes and reactions, and are accessible in all reaction classes and all
reactions. A class is a group of reactions, which have similar kinetic behavior
and therefore have the same functional form in their rate expression.
Variables declared in the Class level are common to all reactions of the same
class, and are accessible in all reactions within that class. However, each
individual reaction within the same class can still have its own characteristics,
which are captured in the Reaction level of the hierarchy. For example, Power
Law and LHHW are distinct reaction classes.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 61
The following is the schematic for the design of ART reaction model:
Based on this design, each ART Reaction Model has three portions:
• Reaction Global Structures
• This portion of Reaction Model consists of a set of global structures
associated with the reaction configuration in Module, Classes, and
Reactions hierarchies. It encapsulates the declarations of all configuration
parameters and variables (such as intrinsic preexponential constants and
activation energies). The parameters and variables contained in this
portion of the ART Reactions Model component can be shared by many
instances of reactor models of different types (PFR or CSTR).
• Nondistributed portion of the Reaction Model
• This portion of the Reaction Model consists of a set of nondistributed
submodels in Module, Class, and Reaction hierarchies. It encapsulates the
declarations of variables and the equations which do not need to be
discretized for a Distributed system. This nondistributed portion of the
ART Reactions Model component is common for both the Lumped and
Distributed systems, and is called the same way for both systems. The
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 62
variables declared in nondistributed portion of Reaction Model are specific
to each instance of reactor model. An example of a variable that can be
declared as a nondistributed variable is the metal loading of a catalyst in
a reactor.
• Distributed portion of the Reaction Model.
• This portion of Reaction Model consists of a set of distributed submodels
in Module, Class, and Reaction hierarchies. It encapsulates the
declarations of variables (such as reaction rates) and equations which
need to be discretized for a Distributed system. This portion of the
Reactions Model component is called differently depending on whether the
model is a Lumped or a Distributed system.
Using ART Reaction Model
Component in Reactor Model
In general, there are three steps involved in using an ART Reaction Model
component in a reactor:
• Instance an ART Reactions Model component in the model.
• Provide input (reaction conditions) to the ART Reactions Model
component.
• Access output (species reaction rates) from the ART Reactions Model
component.
The ART Reaction Model component is called differently depending on whether
the model using the component is a Lumped system (such as CSTR) or a
Distributed system (such as PFR). As discussed earlier, each ART Reaction
Model is separated into three parts, one for the reaction global structures, one
for the nondistributed portion of the model, and one for the distributed
portion.
The top level Reaction Global Structure that a reactor model needs to
reference for using the builtin ART Reaction Model component is called
ARTRxnCfg. The nondistributed part of the builtin ART Reaction Model
component that a reactor model needs to reference is called
ARTRxnCfgModel, and the distributed part is called ARTRxnModel. In a
custom ART Reactions Model component, the top level Reaction Global
Structure that a reactor model needs to reference is by convention named
ModuleIDRxnCfg. The nondistributed part is named
ModuleIDRxnCfgModel, and the distributed part is named
ModuleIDRxnModel, where ModuleID is the unique identifier of the custom
Reaction Model.
Interface to Reaction Global
Structures
The interface to the Reaction Global Structures of an ART Reaction Model
component is simply a reference to the Reaction Global Structure of the same
type by declaring it as an external property,
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 63
IRxnCfg as external ARTRxnCfg; // using builtin reaction model
or
IRxnCfg as external ModuleIDRxnCfg; // using custom reaction model
There are two parameters in IRxnCfg to provide the reactor model with
information to check if a particular instance of the reaction configuration is
compatible with the reactor configuration. They are: RxnSystem, and
ActivePhase. The input to the reaction model depends on these parameters,
and it’s up to the reactor model to check these parameters and provide the
required input to the reaction model.
The parameter, IRxnCfg.RxnSystem, indicates if the reactions involving a
solid catalyst. It has two options: “Fluid Homogeneous” and “FluidSolid
Catalytic”. The parameter, IRxnCfg.ActivePhase, contains the set of phases in
which the reactions occur
Interface to NonDistributed Portion of
a Reaction Model
The reactor model that uses the ART Reaction Model component has to
reference the nondistributed portion of the reaction model by:
IRxnCfgModel([1]) as ARTRxnCfgModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg); // using builtin
reaction model
or
IRxnCfgModel([1]) as ModuleIDRxnCfgModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg); // using
custom reaction model
The reactor model has to set the following variable in IRxnCfgModel(1):
Mws(componentlist) : Component molecular weight
The Mws’s are required for the calculation of concentration of various
concentration basis. In addition, if the IRxnCfg.RxnSystem is “FluidSolid
Catalytic”, the reactor model has to set the following variables in
IrxnCfgModel(1):
BedVoidage : Fraction of the reactor volume NOT occupied by
solid catalyst
CatDensity : Mass density of the catalyst particles
This information is required for the calculation of reaction rates which are
based on catalyst weight.
Interface to Distributed portion of a
Reaction Model
The reactor model that uses the ART Reaction Model component has to
reference the distributed portion of the reaction model by:
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 64
IRxnModel as ARTRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg); // using builtin reaction
model
or
IRxnModel as ModuleIDRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg); // using custom
reaction model
For a distributed system, the reactor model needs to reference the distributed
portion of the reaction model at all discretization nodes along the distribution:
IRxnModel ([0:X.EndNode] as ARTRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
or
IRxnModel([0:X.EndNode] as ModuleIDRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
where X is the distribution domain.
The variables that need to be passed to the reaction model are:
T: Temperature
P: Pressure
z(IRxnCfgModel.ActivePhase, componentlist): Mole fraction
Rho(IRxnCfg.ActivePhase): Molar density
Holdup(IRxnCfg.ActivePhase): Volume fraction occupied by each phase
CatEff(IRxnCfg.ActivePhase): Catalyst efficiency for each phase
CatEff is only used in a multiplephase system when the RxnSystem is “Fluid
Solid Catalytic”. It is used to indicate the fractional coverage of the catalyst
by different phases. The variables that are calculated by the reaction model
and can be used in the reactor model are:
K(IRxnCfg.RxnSet): Rate constants
Rate(IRxnCfg.RxnSet): Reaction rate for each reaction per reacting phase
volume
CompRate(IRxnCfg.ActivePhase,ComponentList): Component reaction rates in
each phase per reactor volume
Use Multiple Sets of Reaction Models
in a Reactor Model
You can use more than one ART Reactions Model in a reactor model.
However, you have to set the references to the Reaction Global Structure,
and the pointer, iCFG, in ARTRxnModel correctly to ensure the instances of
Reaction Global Structure, Nondistributed and Distributed portions of the
reactions model are consistent. To use more than one ART Reactions Model,
first declare the instances of ARTRxnCfg, ARTRxnCfgModel, and ARTRxnModel
as arrays:
nRxnCfg as Integerparameter(0);
IRxnCfg([1:nRxnCfg]) as external ARTRxnCfg;
IRxnCfgModel([1:nRxnCfg]) as ARTRxnCfgModel;
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 65
IRxnModel([1:nRxnCfg]) as ARTRxnModel;
Then set the references to the Reaction Global Structure and Reactions Model
correctly:
for i in [ 1 : nRxnCfg] do
IRxnCfgModel(i).IRxnCfg : IRxnCfg(i);
IRxnModel(i).IRxnCfg : IRxnCfg(i);
IRxnModel(i).iCfg : i;
Endfor
Examples
To use the builtin Reactions Model component to write a model called
CSTRMassBal for the mass balance calculation of a CSTR (Lumped system):
Model CSTRMassBal
T as Temperature;
P as Pressure;
z(ComponentList) as molefraction;
Rho as dens_mol;
call (Mws) = pmolweights ();
…
// Reference to the Reaction Global Structure
IRxnCfg as external ARTRxnCfg;
// Reference to the nondistributed portion of reaction
model
IrxnCfgModel([1]) as ARTRxnCfgModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
// Reference to the distributed portion of reaction model
IRxnModel as ARTRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
// set input to IRxnCfgModel
IrxnCfgModel(1).Mws = Mws;
// set input to IRxnModel
IRxnModel.T = T;
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 66
IRxnModel.P = P;
IRxnModel.z(“Vapor”) = z; // assume vapor phase only
IRxnModel.Rho(“Vapor”) = Rho;
IRxnModel.Holdup("Vapor") = 1.0
…
// use output (IRxnModel.CompRate) for mass balance
Fin*z(ComponentList) 
Fout*z_OUT(ComponentList) +
V*IRxnModel.CompRate(“Vapor”,ComponentList) =
V*Rho*$z(ComponentList);
Fin  Fout + V*
sigma(IRxnModel.CompRate("Vapor",Componentlist)) = 0;
End
To use the ART Reactions Model component in a distributed system (such as
PFR), the distributed part of the component needs to be instanced for every
node of the distribution. By separating the nondistributed portion of the ART
Reactions Model component from the distributed portion, only the distributed
portion is discretized.
For example, to use a customized Reactions Model component, called New, to
write a model called PFRMassBal for the massbalance calculation of a PFR:
Model PFRMassBal
X as LengthDomain (. . .);
T as distribution1D(XDomain is X) of temperature;
P as distribution1D(XDomain is X) of Pressure;
z(ComponentList) as distribution1D(XDomain is X) of
molefraction;
Rho as distribution1D(XDomain is X) of dens_mol;
Vol as Volume;
call (Mws) = pmolweights ();.
…
// Reference to the Reaction Global Structure
IRxnCfg as external NewRxnCfg;
// Reference to the nondistributed portion of reaction
model
IrxnCfgModel(1) as NewRxnCfgModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
// Reference to the distributed portion of reaction model
// Note: NewRxnModel needs to be discretized NewRxnModel
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 67
IRxnModel([0:x.EndNode]) as NewRxnModel(IRxnCfg:IRxnCfg);
// set input to IRxnCfgModel
IrxnCfgModel(1).Mws = Mws;
// set input to IRxnModel
IRxnModel([0:X.EndNode]).T = T([0:X.EndNode]);
IRxnModel([0:X.EndNode]).P = P([0:X.EndNode]);
IRxnModel([0:X.EndNode]).Rho(“Vapor”) =
Rho([0:X.EndNode]);
For node in ([0:X.EndNode]) do
IRxnModel(node).Holdup("Vapor") = 1.0;
IRxnModel(node).z(“Vapor”, ComponentList)=
z(ComponentList)(node);
Endfor
…
// use output (IRxnModel(node).CompRate) for mass balance
For node in ([X.Interior+X.EndNode]) do
// species mass balance for each node
for comp in componentlist do
 F(node)*z(comp)(node).ddx
 F(node).ddx*z(comp)(node)
+ Vol*IRxnModel(node).CompRate("Vapor",comp)
= Vol*Rho(node)*$z(comp)(node)
+ Vol*$Rho(node)*z(comp)(node);
endfor
// total mass balance for each node
F(node).ddx 
Vol*sigma(IRxnModel(node).CompRate("Vapor",componentlist))+
Vol*$Rho(Node)= 0;
Endfor
End
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 68
Configuration of ART Reaction
Model Component
In the ART builtin Reaction Model component, a form called Configure, is
attached to each instance of the toplevel Reaction Global Structure,
ARTRxnCfg
For a custom Reaction Model component, the form has to be manually added
to the toplevel custom Reaction Global Structure. By convention, this is
usually called ModuleIDRxnCfg when it is generated using the custom
Reaction Model wizard, where ModuleID is the ID of the custom Reaction
Model component.
Adding ART Configure Form to
Reaction Global Structure
To add the form to the custom Reaction Global Structure:
1 In the Simulation Explorer, click the toplevel Reaction Global Structure
you want to add the form to. Then in the Contents pane below, double
click Add Form.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 69
2 In the Add Form Instance dialog box, enter a name for the form.
3 Select Custom OCX from the Available Form Definitions list, and click
OK.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 70
4 Select AspenReaction.ReactionsCfg in the Select Control dialog box, and
click Select.
ART Configure Form
ART configuration form allows you to configure instances of Reaction Global
Structure. This form contains four sheets, Configure, Kinetic, Activity, GLHHW
Ads.orption and Equilibrium. For custom Reaction Model, there is an additional
sheet for additional user variables.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 71
This form contains the following sheets:
Use this sheet To specify
Configuration Reactions, reaction classes, reactants, products, status, and
stoichiometry.
Kinetic Kinetic data and solids options for ratecontrolled reactions,
including driving force data for LHHW and GLHHW reactions
and adsorption parameters for LHHW reactions.
Activity Reaction activity classes.
GLHHW Ads.orption Shared adsorption parameters for GLHHW reactions.
Equilibrium Data required for the calculation of the equilibrium constant
Configuration sheet
Use this sheet to add, edit, and delete reactions from a reaction set. You can
specify a Name for each reaction; names must be unique and a maximum of
8 characters long). You can switch to a different Reaction Class. You can
also set the Status of each reaction to on or off. Set a reaction's status to off
to set its rate to be zero without deleting the reaction from the sheet.
In the Edit Stoichiometry dialog box, you can change the reaction class of a
reaction, specify if the reaction is reversible and specify reactants and
products, and their stoichiometric coefficients.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 72
You can edit the stoichiometry through a freeformat text by clicking on the
Stoichiometry field. The syntax is discussed in detail in the appendix section,
Defining Stoichiometry for a Reaction.
Note: Press the F2 key in the Stoichiometry field to display a list
of component IDs of available species.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 73
Click Apply to have the new configuration take effect.
Kinetic sheet
Use this sheet to specify the reacting phase, concentration basis, rate basis,
and kinetic parameters for ratecontrolled reactions of the powerlaw, LHHW,
GLHHW classes. For GLHHW reactions, you also need to specify the shared
adsorption parameters on the GLHHW Ads. sheet.
Click the Driving Force button to bring up the Driving Force dialog box to
enter parameters for the driving force expression for the selected reaction.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 74
The Adsorption button is active only when the reaction class is LHHW. Click
the Adsorption button to enter adsorption parameters for the adsorption
expression.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 75
Click the Summary button to see a summary of the kinetic parameters in a
grid format. Click Specifications to enter parameters for individual reactions,
including the driving force, and adsorption parameters.
Important Note: You must click Apply for the changes to take
effect.
Activity sheet
Use this sheet to define reaction activity classes and associate them with
reactions. Reaction activity classes are scalar multipliers to the reaction rate.
The net reaction rate for a reaction is calculated as the product of the
reaction's intrinsic rate and all reaction activities associated with the reaction.
The relationship between the intrinsic rate,
intrinsic i
r
,
, and net reaction rate,
net i
r
,
, is:
intrinsic i
j
j net i
r a r
, ,
) (
∏
=
where the
j
a are all the reaction activities associated with the reaction i.
The activity classes defined here create activity variables in a reactor block
that uses the Reaction Model component. The activity values entered here are
only the default values to initialize the activity variables in the block.,
Individual reactor blocks that uses the Reaction Model component can
override them.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 76
Important Note: You must click Apply for the changes to take
effect.
GLHHW Ads. sheet
Use this sheet to enter shared adsorption parameters for GLHHW reactions.
In the current release, only one set of GLHHW parameters is supported.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 77
Equilibrium sheet
Use this sheet to enter data required for the calculation of the equilibrium
constant. The equilibrium constant is computed for reversible kinetic and
equilibrium reactions and can be computed from rigorous thermodynamics or
using an empirical correlation of the form:
T D T C
T
B
A K
eq
× + × + + = ) ln(
Where:
eq
K = Equilibrium constant
T =Temperature in Kelvin
and
A, B, C, D are userspecified constants
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 78
Important Note: You must click Apply for the changes to take
effect.
Builtin Reaction Classes
There are four reaction classeskinetic in the ART builtin Reaction Model
component. They are:
• Power Law
• LangmuirHinshelwoodHougenWatson (LHHW)
• General LangmuirHinshelwoodHougenWatson (GLHHW)
• Equilibrium
Power Law
The general rate expression for a reaction can be written
as
reverse forward
γ γ γ − =
Where:
forward
γ = Rate of forward reaction
reverse
γ = Rate of reverse reaction
For Power Law reactions:
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 79
forward
γ = ( )
i
f
v
i f
C K ∏
where:
C = Component concentration
υ
f
= Concentration exponent for forward reaction
i = Component index
K
f
= Forward kinetic factor
=
( )  To T R E
n
o
a
e
T
T
k
/ 1 / 1 / − −


.

\

if T
o
is specified
=
RT E n
a
e kT
/ −
if T
o
is not specified
and
k = Preexponential factor
T = Temperature in Kelvin
o
T = Reference temperature in Kelvin
n = Temperature exponent
a
E
= Activation energy
R = Universal gas law constant
For a nonreversible reaction:
0 =
reverse
γ
For a reversible reaction:
( )
i r
v
i r reverse
C K ∏ = γ
Where:
K
r
= Reverse kinetic factor
=
f
eq
K
K
and
υ
r
= Concentration exponent for the reverse reaction
The concentration exponents for the reverse rate (υ
r
) can be computed from
the stoichiometry and the concentration exponents for the forward rate(υ
f
).
Details can be found in the appendix section Calculation of concentration
exponents for the reverse rate.
The concentration terms C
i
depend on the concentration basis you select:
[C
i
] basis Concentration term C
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 80
Molarity Component molar concentration (kgmole/m
3
)
Molality Component molality (gmole/kg H
2
O)
Mole fraction Component mole fraction
Mass fraction Component mass fraction
Partial pressure Component partial pressure (N/m
2
)
Mass concentration Component mass concentration (kg/m
3
)
Fugacity Component fugacity (N/m
2
)
Activity Component activity
Mole gamma Component activity coefficient
LHHW
The general rate expression for a reaction can be written as:
reverse forward
γ γ γ − =
Where:
forward
γ = Rate of forward reaction
reverse
γ = Rate of reverse reaction
For LHHW reactions:
forward
γ =
( )
Expression Adsorption
C K
i
f
v
i f
∏
where:
C = Component concentration
υ
f
= Concentration exponent for forward reaction
i = Component index
Adsorption expression= ( ) { }
m
v
j i
j
C K ∏ Σ
K
f
= Forward kinetic factor
=
( )  To T R E
n
o
a
e
T
T
k
/ 1 / 1 / − −


.

\

if T
o
is specified
=
RT E n
a
e kT
/ −
if T
o
is not specified
and
k = Preexponential factor
T = Temperature in Kelvin
o
T = Reference temperature in Kelvin
n = Temperature exponent
a
E
= Activation energy
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 81
R = Universal gas law constant
m = Adsorption expression exponent
i
K = Adsorption equilibrium constants
For a nonreversible reaction:
0 =
reverse
γ
For a reversible reaction:
( )
Expression Adsorption
C K
i r
v
i r
reverse
∏
= γ
Where:
K
r
= Reverse kinetic factor
=
f
eq
K
K
υ
r
= Concentration exponent for reverse reaction
The concentration exponents for the reverse rate (υ
r
) can be computed from
the stoichiometry and the concentration exponents for the forward rate(υ
f
).
Details can be found in the appendix section Calculation of concentration
exponents for the reverse rate.
The concentration terms C
i
and C
j
depend on the concentration basis you
select:
[C
i
] basis Concentration term C
Molarity Component molar concentration (kgmole/m
3
)
Molality Component molality (gmole/kg H
2
O)
Mole fraction Component mole fraction
Mass fraction Component mass fraction
Partial pressure Component partial pressure (N/m
2
)
Mass
concentration
Component mass concentration (kg/m
3
)
Fugacity Component fugacity (N/m
2
)
Activity Component activity
Mole gamma Component activity coefficient
The adsorption equilibrium constants, K
i
, are calculated from the following
correlation:
ln K
i
= A
i
+ B
i
/T + C
i
* ln(T) + D
i
* T
Where:
T = Temperature in Kelvin
A
i
, B
i
, C
i
, D
i
= Usersupplied coefficients
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 82
GLHHW
The rate expression for GLHHW is the same as LHHW. However, the
adsorption term (and therefore parameters in the adsorption term), is not
associated with a particular reaction, instead, it is shared by all reactions of
the same GLHHW class. Since all reactions of the same GLHHW class share
the same adsorption term, they have to be in the same phase and have the
same the [Ci]Basis.
Equilibrium
For an equilibrium reaction, the rate expression is replaced by an equation
relating the equilibrium constant to the concentrations at equilibrium:
si
v
i eq
a K ∏ =
where:
K
eq
= Equilibrium constant
a
i
= Activity of component i
υ
si
= Stoichiometric coefficient of component i
K
eq
can be computed from rigorous thermodynamics or using an empirical
correlation of the form:
T D T C
T
B
A K
eq
× + × + + = ) ln(
Where:
T = Temperature in Kelvin
and
A, B, C, D are userspecified constants
The thermodynamic activity a
i
is defined as:
0 i
i
i
f
f
a =
where:
f
i
= Fugacity of component i
f
i0
= Fugacity of component i in its standard state
The standard state used depends on the species involved
For nonelectrolyte systems, the standard state is assumed to be pure
component ideal gas at the reference pressure (P
ref
=1atm). The activity is
therefore given by :
ref
i
i
P
f
a =
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 83
For electrolyte systems, the standard state is assumed to be an aqueous
solution at infinite dilution and the activity is therefore given by:
i i i
x a γ =
where:
i
γ = Activity coefficient of species i
x
i
= Mole fraction of species I
Custom Reaction Model
The rate expression for custom reaction models can be written as:
) expression force iving factor)(dr kinetic )( expression Custom ( = γ
Where custom expression is an expression written by user in ACM using user
defined variables. Note that the kinetic factor and driving force expression
and their associated parameters are still part of the user reaction models.
Building Custom Reaction
Model Component
As we have discussed in an earlier section, the data and model in a Reaction
Model component are segregated so that reaction configuration and
parameters can be shared by many reactors. To optimize its flexibility and
scalability, the Reactions Model component is structured into three hierarchy
levels: Module, Class, and Reaction. To further enhance the performance
when used in a distributed system (PDE), each hierarchy level in the Reaction
Model component is further separated into distributed and nondistributed
parts.
Due to this hierarchical nature of the Reaction Model component, it is
important that Reaction Global Structures and submodels in each level are
properly structured and referenced so that they can work together seamlessly
among themselves and with the builtin utilities.
To facilitate the effort for building a custom Reaction Model component which
contains a custom kinetic model, the CustomART Reaction Model Wizard
is included in the Reactions Toolkit
Custom Reaction Model Wizard
You can use the Custom Reaction Model Wizard to generate a Reaction
Model component which contains templates for a reaction model that you can
later customize. The wizard will guide you through steps to gather the
necessary information to generate the model templates. The templates
generated by the Wizard will include all the variable declarations and a
dictionary for the proper referencing of the variables from other models of the
Reaction Model component.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 84
The wizard will compile the templates, and all new reaction models will
behave the same as the system builtin Power Law reaction model (see
Writing a Custom Kinetic Model). To create a customized reaction model,
you will need to add your own equations to the model and modify the rate
expression using the newly declared variables. You can invoke the wizard by
selecting Custom Reaction Model Wizard under the Tools menu in ACM.
The wizard consists of the following steps:
• Step 1: Introduction.
• Step 2: Specify ID.
• Step 3: Specify the number of module variables and equations.
• Step 4: Specify the number of reaction classes and their names.
• Step 5: Specify the number of class variables and equations for each
class.
• Step 6: Specify the number of reaction variables and equations for each
class.
• Step 7: Review the summary of the information you have entered in the
wizard before the wizard generates the templates.
At each step when you specify the number of variables and equations, you
will specify numbers of variables for the Reaction Global Structure, and
separate numbers of variables and equations for the nondistributed and
distributed parts of the model. You can also specify the names of the
variables and equations, and the initial values and specifications of the
variables in these steps.
When the wizard finishes generating the templates, a dialog box will display
the list of templates created and compiled in ACM:
Note: You must refresh the ACM Explorer in order to see the
generated templates.
Writing a Custom Reaction Model
The wizard generates and compiles the model templates and builds a working
custom Reactions Model component. However, all the models in this Reactions
Model component are exact copies of the builtin Power Law kinetic model. To
create a customized kinetic model, you will need to add your own equations
to the templates and modify the rate expression (contained in the
ModuleIDRxnRateModel submodel) using the newly declared Reaction Global
Structure and variables.
As you do this, remember the hierarchy levels of the model. All variables in
Reactions Global Structures can be referenced by all submodels in the
Reaction Model component. However, nondistributed variables can be used in
the definition of both nondistributed and distributed equations, but
distributed variables can only be used in the definition of distributed
equations. Similarly, Module variables can be used in the definition of Module,
Class, and Reaction equations; Class variables can be used in the definition of
Class and Reaction equations of the same class (but not in the definition of
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 85
Module equations), and Reaction variables can only be used in the definition
of Reaction equations of the same class.
To reference variables at other hierarchy levels (such as to reference module
variables within the definition of a class equation), you must use an
appropriate prefix. To make this easier, a dictionary is created in each model
template. Each dictionary contains only the variables which can be referenced
by the equations in that level of the model. For example, in the template for
writing module nondistributed equations (in the submodel
ModuleIDModNDModel), only the dictionary of module nondistributed
variables will be listed; none of the Class or Reaction variables and no
distributed variables will be shown.
To define your custom kinetic model, write the equations in the appropriate
submodels. In the initial templates, only the names of the equations, as
declared in the wizard, will appear (as comments). You must add the actual
equations using ACM language. See the following sections for lists of the
templates used for writing the additional equations for custom kinetics.
Module Equations
For each Reaction Model component, there are two templates (submodels) for
writing the module equations. They are ModuleIDModNDModel for writing the
module nondistributed equations, and ModuleIDModDistModel for writing the
module distributed equations, where ModuleID is the ID of the Reaction Model
component.
You are not required to write any module equations. However, if you do, you
may need to change the specification of the variables so that the problem
remains square.
Class Equations
For each reaction class that you declare in the wizard, there are two model
templates (submodels) for writing the class equations. They are
ClassNameClsNDModel for writing the class nondistributed equations, and
ClassNameClsDistModel for writing the class distributed equations, where
ClassName is the name of the reaction class.
You are not required to write any class equations. However, if you do, you
may need to change the specification of the variables so that the problem
remains square.
Reaction Equations
For each reaction class that you declare in the wizard, there are two model
templates (submodels) for writing the reaction equations. They are
ClassNameRxnNDModel for writing the reaction nondistributed equations and
ClassNameRxnRateModel for writing the reaction rate expression and other
reaction distributed equations, where ClassName is the name of the reaction
class.
It is in ClassNameRxnRateModel that the variables for rate constant (K) and
reaction rate (Rate) are declared and the equations for the calculation of rate
constant and rate expression are defined.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 86
These variables and equations are included in every reaction in addition to
any other variables and equations you define. Initially, in a new custom
model, the equations represent the Power Law model.
You can customize the rate expression by modifying the equations for
calculating K and Rate, but do not delete them. To have consistent behavior
with the builtin kinetic model in response to the values of reaction attributes
such as Reaction Type and Status, you should follow the IFTHEN structure of
the rate expression as coded in the template.
Compiling a Custom Reaction Model
Due to its hierarchical nature, in order to compile a Reaction Model
component, its Reaction Global Structures and submodels need to be
compiled in a certain order. Assuming that New is the ID, and Cls1, Cls2, etc
are reaction classes in the New, if you would like to compile the Reactions
Model component manually, you need to compile the Reaction Global
Structures and submodels in this order:
Reaction Global Structures
NewModParam
Cls1ClsParam
Cls2ClsParam
…
NewClsParamUnion
Cls1RxnParam
Cls2RxnParam
…
NewRxnParamUnion
NewRxnCfg
Reaction Submodels
NewModNDModel
NewModDistModel
Cls1ClsNDModel
Cls2ClsNDModel
…
NewClsNDModelUnion
Cls1ClsDistModel
Cls2ClsDistModel
…
NewClsDistModelUnion
Cls1RxnNDModel
Cls2RxnNDModel
…
NewRxnNDModelUnion
Cls1RxnRateModel
Cls2RxnRateModel
…
NewRxnDistModelUnion
NewRxnCfgModel
NewRxnModel
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 87
Removing a Custom Reactions Model
Due to its hierarchical nature, in order to remove a Reaction Model
component, its Reaction Global Structures submodels need to be deleted in a
certain order. Assuming that New is the ID, and Cls1, Cls2, etc are reaction
classes in New, then the order for deleting a Reactions Model component New
is as follows:
Submodels using the new Reactions Model component
Reaction Submodels
NewRxnModel
NewRxnCfgModel
NewRxnDistModelUnion
Cls1RxnRateModel
Cls2RxnRateModel
…
NewRxnNDModelUnion
Cls1RxnNDModel
Cls2RxnNDModel
…
NewClsDistModelUnion
Cls1ClsDistModel
Cls2ClsDistModel
…
NewClsNDModelUnion
Cls1ClsNDModel
Cls2ClsNDModel
…
NewModDistModel
NewModNDModel
Reaction Global Structures
NewRxnCfg
NewRxnParamUnion
Cls1RxnParam
Cls2RxnParam
…
NewClsParamUnion
Cls1ClsParam
Cls2ClsParam
…
NewModParam
Exporting a Custom Reaction
Model
A custom reaction model component created in Aspen Custom Modeler can be
exported for use as a reaction object (type USERACM) in Aspen Plus.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 88
Assuming that New is the ID of the component, take the following steps to
export the custom reaction model for use in Aspen Plus:
1 On the Explorer window, navigate to Custom
Modeling/New/Models/NewRxnModel.
2 From the Right Mouse Button menu, select Export...
3 On the Export dialog, select "Model Installation package (*.msi)" and
click Save.
4 Install the exported model by clicking Yes on the Install exported model
dialog.
Once the installation is complete, the exported model component is ready for
use inside Aspen Plus.
To use the exported Custom Reaction Model component, do the following in
Aspen Plus:
1 Create a new reaction object in Aspen Plus by clicking New on the
Reactions object manager.
2 Select USERACM as the type of the new reaction object.
3 On the Setup sheet of the newly created reaction object, the User model
dropdown box will display a list of all installed custom reaction models.
Select the appropriate model.
More details about USERACM input can be found in the Aspen Plus help.
Appendix
Example of Assigning Variables and
Equations to Hierarchy Levels
To demonstrate how to best structure the kinetic module in terms of module,
class, and reaction hierarchies, consider the following example:
Rxn1: A → B ;
1
1
1 , 0 1
n
A
T R
E
P e A r
⋅
∆ −
=φ
Rxn2: A → C ;
2
2
2 , 0 2
n
A
T R
E
P e A r
⋅
∆ −
=φ
Rxn3: B → C ;
∑
+
=
⋅
∆ −
i
i i ads
n
B
T R
E
P K
P e A
r
,
3
3
3 , 0
3
1
φ
Rxn4: B → D ;
∑
+
=
⋅
∆ −
i
i i ads
n
B
T R
E
P K
P e A
r
,
4
4
4 , 0
4
1
φ
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 89
Rxn5: C → D ;
5
5
5 , 0 5
n
C
T R
E
P e A r
⋅
∆ −
=φ
Where φ is a deactivation function defined as
Coke
e
⋅ −
=
β
α φ , α and β are
constants, Coke is the level of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst which
causes catalyst to deactivate,
i ads
K
,
is defined by
T R
i
H
i ads i ads
e K K
⋅
∆
=
, 0 ,
, and the
index i varies over the four species A, B, C, and D.
Define α, β, Coke, and φ as module variables, since they are used in all rate
laws. Define α and β as module nondistributed variables because they are
constant across the distributed domain. The amount of coke on the catalyst
can vary within the reactor, and therefore Coke should be a module
distributed variable. Since Coke is a distributed variable, φ must also be a
module distributed variable. It is defined by the following equation:
Coke
e
⋅ −
=
β
α φ
As this equation involves only module variables and applies to all reactions, it
is a module equation. Because it depends on distributed variables, it is a
distributed equation.
Reactions which follow the same functional form should belong to the same
class, so we have two reaction classes, PowerLaw and LHHW. Rxn1, Rxn2,
and Rxn5 belong to PowerLaw, while Rxn3 and Rxn4 belong to LHHW.
The variables such as
1 1 1 , 0
, , n E A ∆
are declared in the Reaction Global
Structure at Reaction hierarchy, since they are intrinsic kinetic parameters
and are unique for each reaction. Since the variables in the PowerLaw
reactions are all reactionspecific (no variable is shared among reactions in
the class), there are no class variables. In the LHHW reaction class, define the
i ads
K
, 0
and
i
H ∆ variables as Reaction Global Structure at class hierarchy. The
i ads
K
,
is defined as class distributed variables, since they are all shared by all
reactions in LHHW. The
i ads
K
,
are distributed variables since they depend on
temperature which can vary with reactor length.
Defining Stoichiometry for a Reaction
The stoichiometry of a reaction is specified by a freeformat text description
similar to CHEMKIN. It consists of species symbols, stoichiometric coefficients,
and delimiters:
Species Symbols
Reactant and product species identified by component IDs defined
in the ACM component list.
Coefficients
Integer or real numbers preceding species symbols to indicate the
number of moles of each species present as either reactants or
products. Coefficients are always followed by the * delimiter. A
coefficient of 1 can be omitted.
Currently ART does not check the atom balance. Care must be
taken to ensure the reaction is balanced.
Delimiters
+ Separates species on either side of a reaction.
* Separates a stoichiometric coefficient from its species.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 90
=>=> Separates the last reactant and the first product in an
irreversible reaction. Currently only irreversible reactions are
supported.
<=> Separates the last reactant and the first product in an
reversible reaction.
The syntax for the standard reaction is as follows:
n n m m
P CP P CP R CR R CR R CR * ... * * ... * *
1 1 2 2 1 1
+ + => + + +
Where the
i i
CP CR , are stoichiometric coefficients (real parameters which will
not change during simulation) and the
i i
P R , are component IDs for the
species involved in the reaction.
Example:
C3H8 + 3* H2O => 3*CO + 7*H2
Calculation of Concentration
Exponents for Reverse Rate
Consider a reversible reaction:
a*A + b*B <=> c*C + d*D
Suppose ν
fa
, ν
fb
, ν
fc
and ν
fd
are the concentration exponents for the forward
rate and ν
ra
, ν
rb
, ν
rc
and ν
rd
are the concentration exponents for the reverse
rate.
The forward rate is given by:
       
fD
fC
fB fA
D C B A f forward
C C C C K
ν ν ν ν
γ =
The reverse rate is given by:
       
rD rC rB rA
D C B A r reverse
C C C C K
ν ν ν ν
γ =
Where:
K
f
= Forward rate constant
K
r
= Reverse rate constant
C = Concentration
At equilibrium:
reverse forward
γ γ =
i.e.
               
rD rC rB rA fD
fC
fB fA
D C B A r D C B A f
C C C C K C C C C K
ν ν ν ν ν ν ν ν
=
Since by definition:
r
f
eq
K
K
K =
and
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 91
   
   
b
B
a
A
d
D
c
C
eq
C C
C C
K =
the following relation must be satisfied at equilibrium:
       
       
   
   
b
B
a
A
d
D
c
C
D C B A
D C B A
C C
C C
C C C C
C C C C
fD
fC
fB fA
rD rC rB rA
=
ν ν ν ν
ν ν ν ν
This implies that for consistency with equilibrium conditions, the
concentration exponents for the forward and reverse reactions must be
related as follows:
a
fA rA
= −ν ν
b
fB rB
= −ν ν
c
fC rC
= −ν ν
d
fD rD
= −ν ν
In other words, the concentration exponents for the reverse reaction can be
computed from the concentration exponents of the forward reaction rate and
the reaction stoichiometry.
Reaction Global Structures for Builtin Reaction
Model
The following table summarizes the reaction global structures for the builtin
reaction model:
Structure types Description
ARTRxnCfg This is the topmost structure for reaction configuration of the builtin
reaction model. This structure references the substructures that are
specific to the builtin reaction model. This Structure inherits
ARTRxnBaseCfg.
ARTRxnBaseCfg This structure declares parameters that are common for both builtin
and custom reaction models.
RxnClsDefStruct Define parameters for reaction class attribute. This structure inherits
ARTRxnAttrDef.
ARTRxnAttrDef Define parameters for reaction attributes except reaction class
ARTModParam Declare parameters shared by all classes and reactions. This is only
a dummy structure, since there’s no such parameter in the builtin
reaction model.
ARTClsParamUnion This structure instances the class substructures for all classes in the
builtin reaction model. Specifically, it references GLHHWClsParam
that declares adsorption parameter for GLHHW class reaction. This
structure inherits RxnClsDefStruct.
ARTRxnParamUnion Declare common reaction parameters for all reactions, such as pre
exponential constant, activation constant, etc. It also instances
reaction substructures for all classes in the builtin reaction model.
Specifically, it instances LHHWRxnParam that declares adsorption
parameters for LHHW class reaction. This structure inherits
RxnClsDefStruct.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 92
GLHHWClsParam Declare adsorption parameters for GLHHW class. This structure
inherits RxnClsDefStruct.
GLHHWRxnParam This is only a dummy structure, since there’s no additional reaction
parameter for GLHHW class other than those declared in
ARTRxnParam.
LHHWClsParam This is only a dummy structure, since there’s no additional class
parameter for LHHW class other than those declared in
ARTRxnParam. This structure inherits RxnClsDefStruct.
LHHWRxnParam Declare adsorption parameters for LHHW class.
PowerLawClsParam This is only a dummy structure, since there’s no additional class
parameter for PowerLaw class other than those declared in
ARTClsParam. This structure inherits RxnClsDefStruct.
PowerLawRxnParam This is only a dummy structure, since there’s no additional reaction
parameter for PowerLaw class other than those declared in
ARTRxnParam.
CStoichParam Declare reactions and the corresponding stoichiometric coefficients
that each component participates.
AdsParam Declare components and the corresponding exponents that appear in
the adsorption term.
Reaction Global Structures for Custom Reaction
Model
The following table summarizes the reaction global structures for the custom
reaction model:
Structure types Description
ModuleIDRxnCfg This is the topmost structure for reaction configuration of a
custom reaction model. This structure references the sub
structures that are specific to the custom reaction model.
This Structure inherits ARTRxnBaseCfg.
ModuleIDModParam Declare parameters shared by all custom classes and
reactions. This structure inherits ARTModParam.
ModuleIDClsParamUnion This structure references the class substructures
(ClassIDClsParam) for all custom classes that are specific to
the custom reaction model. This structure inherits
ARTClsParamUnion.
ModuleIDRxnParamUnion This structure references the reaction substructures
(ClassIDRxnParam) for all custom classes that are specific to
the custom reaction model. This structure inherits
ARTRxnParam.
ClassIDClsParam Declare class parameters that are specific to reaction class,
ClassID. There can be more than one reaction classes in the
custom reaction model. Each reaction class has a unique
ClassID, and there will be one ClassIDClsParam sub
substructure for each class.
ClassIDRxnParam Declare reaction parameters that are specific to reaction
class, ClassID. There can be more than one reaction classes
in the custom reaction model. Each reaction class has a
unique ClassID, and there will be one ClassIDRxnParam sub
substructure for each class.
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 93
Collection of submodels for Builtin Reaction
Model Component
The follow table summarizes the submodels contained in the ACM builtin
Reaction Model component:
Model types Description
The following are the nondistributed portion of submodels for the builtin
reaction model:
ARTRxnCfgModel This is the topmost submodel for nondistributed portion of the builtin
reaction model.. This submodel inherits from ARTRxnBaseCfgModel.
ARTRxnBaseCfgModel This submodel declares variables that are common to builtin and
custom reaction nondistributed submodels
ARTModND This is the nondistributed portion of module submodel in the builtin
reaction model. This is a dummy submodel, since there is no non
distributed module variable in the builtin reaction model.
ARTClsNDUnion This is a container for all the nondistributed portion of class sub
models in the builtin reaction model (i.e. GLHHWClsND, LHHWClsND,
PowerLawClsND).
ARTRxnNDUnion This is a container for all the nondistributed portion of reaction sub
models in the builtin reaction model (i.e. GLHHWRxnND, LHHWRxnND,
PowerLawRxnND).
GLHHWClsND This is the nondistributed portion of class submodel for GLHHW. This
is a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed class variable
for GLHHW class.
GLHHWRxnND This is the nondistributed portion of reaction submodel for GLHHW.
This is a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed reaction
variable for GLHHW class.
LHHWClsND This is the nondistributed portion of class submodel for LHHW. This is
a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed class variable
for LHHW class.
LHHWRxnND This is the nondistributed portion of reaction submodel for LHHW.
This is a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed reaction
variable for LHHW class.
PowerLawClsND This is the nondistributed portion of class submodel for PowerLaw.
This is a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed class
variable for PowerLawclass.
PowerLawRxnND This is the nondistributed portion of reaction submodel for PowerLaw.
This is a dummy submodel, since there is no nondistributed reaction
variable for PowerLawclass.
The following are the nondistributed portion of submodels for the builtin
reaction model
ARTRxnModel This is the topmost submodel for distributed portion of the builtin
reaction model. This submodel inherits from ARTRxnBaseModel
ARTRxnBaseModel This submodel declares variables that are common to the distributed
portion of the builtin and custom reaction models.
ARTModDist This is the distributed portion of module submodel in the builtin
reaction model. This is a dummy submodel, since there is no
distributed module variable in the builtin reaction model.
ARTClsDistUnion This is a container for all the distributed portion of class submodels in
the builtin reaction model (i.e. GLHHWClsDist, LHHWClsDist,
PowerLawClsDist).
ARTRxnDistUnion This is a container for all the distributed portion of reaction submodels
in the builtin reaction model (i.e. GLHHWRxnDist, LHHWRxnDist,
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 94
PowerLawRxnDist).
GLHHWClsDist This is the distributed portion of class submodel for GLHHW. This is
where the adsorption terms for GLHHW class get calculated.
GLHHWRxnRate This is the distributed portion of reaction submodel for GLHHW. This is
where the rate constant and reaction rate for GLHHW class get
calculated.
LHHWClsDist This is the distributed portion of class submodel for LHHW. This is a
dummy submodel, since there is no distributed class variable for
LHHW class.
LHHWRxnRate This is the distributed portion of reaction submodel for LHHW. This is
where the adsorption terms, and the rate constant and reaction rate
for LHHW class get calculated
PowerLawClsDist This is the distributed portion of class submodel for PowerLaw. This is
a dummy submodel, since there is no distributed class variable for
PowerLaw class.
PowerLawRxnRate This is the distributed portion of reaction submodel for PowerLaw. .
This is where the rate constant and reaction rate for PowerLaw class
get calculated.
EquilRxnRate This is the distributed portion of reaction submodel for Equilibrium
reactions . This is where the relationship between the equilibrium
constant and the equilibrium concentrations is established.
Collection of Submodels for a Custom Reaction
Model
The follow table summarizes the submodels contained in the ACM custom
reaction model:
Model types Description
The following are the nondistributed portion of submodels for the custom
reaction model of the ID, ModuleID:
ModuleIDRxnCfgModel This is the topmost submodel for nondistributed portion of a
custom reaction model.
ModuleIDModND This is the nondistributed portion of module submodel in a
custom reaction model. This submodel inherits ARTModND.
ModuleIDClsNDUnion This is a container for all the nondistributed portion of class sub
models in a custom reaction model. This submodel inherits
ARTClsND.
ModuleIDRxnND This is a container for all the nondistributed portion of reaction
submodels in a custom reaction. This submodel inherits
ARTRxnND.
ClassIDClsND This is the nondistributed portion of class submodel for reaction
class, ClsID.
ClassIDRxnND This is the nondistributed portion of reaction submodel for
reaction class, ClsID.
The following are the distributed portion of submodels for the custom
reaction model of the ID, ModuleID:
ModuleIDRxnModel This is the topmost submodel for distributed portion of a custom
reaction model.
ModuleIDModDist This is the distributed portion of module submodel in a custom
reaction model. This submodel inherits ARTModDist.
ModuleIDClsDistUnion This is a container for all the distributed portion of class sub
models in a custom reaction. This submodel inherits ARTClsDist.
ModuleIDRxnDistUnion This is a container for all the distributed portion of reaction sub
2 Aspen Reactions Toolkit 95
models in a custom reaction model. This submodel inherits
ARTModDist.
ClassIDClsDist This is the distributed portion of class submodel for reaction class,
ClsID.
ClassIDRxnRate This is the distributed portion of reaction submodel for reaction
class, ClsID.
3 Property Procedures 96
3 Property Procedures
This chapter describes the physical property procedures included in the Aspen
Custom Modeler library.
There are two main categories of physical property procedures. They are
procedures with analytic property derivatives and procedures without analytic
property derivatives.
Important Note:
For information about changing the units of measurement see
About Units of Measurement in the online Help.
For information about procedures with and without analytic
property derivatives, see Aspen Modeler Reference, Chapter 8.
Property Procedures with
Analytic Derivatives
Procedure pCond_Liq
pCond_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates thermal
conductivity of a liquid.
pCond_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCond_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pCond_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCond_Liq are:
3 Property Procedures 97
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid thermal
conductivity
Cond_liq W/m/K
pCond_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pCond_Liq procedure:
call (T_cond) = pCond_Liq (T1, P1, x);
Procedure pCond_Vap
pCond_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the thermal
conductivity of a vapor.
pCond_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCond_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pCond_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCond_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor thermal
conductivity
Cond_vap W/m/K
pCond_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pCond_vap procedure:
call (T_cond) = pCond_Vap (Tv, Pv, y);
Procedure pCp_Mol_Liq
pCp_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar heat
capacity of a liquid at constant pressure.
pCp_Mol_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCp_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
3 Property Procedures 98
pCp_Mol_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCp_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid heat capacity Cp_mol kJ/kmol/K
pCp_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pCp_Mol_Liq procedure:
call (Cpl_in) = pCp_Mol_Liq (Tin, Pin, x_in);
Procedure pCp_Mol_Vap
pCp_Mol_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates molar heat
capacity of a vapor at constant pressure.
pCp_Mol_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCp_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pCp_Mol_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCp_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor heat capacity Cp_mol kJ/kmol/K
pCp_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pCp_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (Cp_in) = pCp_Mol_Vap (Tin, Pin, Out_P.Z);
Procedure pCv_Mol_Liq
pCv_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar heat
capacity of a liquid at constant volume.
pCv_Mol_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCv_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
3 Property Procedures 99
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pCv_Mol_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCv_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid heat capacity Cv_mol kJ/kmol/K
pCv_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pCv_Mol_Liq procedure:
call (Cv1) = pCv_Mol_Liq (T1, P1, x);
Procedure pCv_Mol_Vap
pCv_Mol_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar heat
capacity of a vapor at constant volume.
pCv_Mol_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pCv_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pCv_Mol_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pCv_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor heat capacity Cv_mol kJ/kmol/K
pCv_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pCv_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (CVv) = pCv_Mol_Vap (Tv, Pv, y);
Procedure pDens_Mass_Liq
pDens_Mass_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the mass
density of a liquid.
pDens_Mass_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mass_Liq are:
3 Property Procedures 100
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mass_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mass_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid mass density Dens_mass kg/m3
pDens_Mass_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mass_Liq procedure:
call (RHOml) = pDens_Mass_Liq (T1, P1, x);
Procedure pDens_Mass_Vap
pDens_Mass_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the mass
density of a vapor.
pDens_Mass_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mass_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mass_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mass_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor mass density Dens_mass kg/m3
pDens_Mass_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mass_Vap procedure:
call (RHOmv) = pDens_Mass_Vap (Tv, Pv, y);
Procedure pDens_Mol_Liq
pDens_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar
density of a liquid.
3 Property Procedures 101
pDens_Mol_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mol_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid molar density Dens_mol kmol/m3
pDens_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mol_Liq procedure:
call (rho) = pDens_Mol_Liq (T, P, x);
Procedure pDens_Mol_Vap
pDens_Mol_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar
density of a vapor.
pDens_Mol_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mol_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor molar density Dens_mol kmol/m3
pDens_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (Rhov) = pDens_Mol_Vap (T, P, y);
3 Property Procedures 102
Procedure pDiffus_Liq
pDiffus_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the liquid diffusion
coefficients of components in a mixture.
pDiffus_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDiffus_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDiffus_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDiffus_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid diffusion
coefficients
Diffus_liq(*) cm2/s
pDiffus_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pDiffus_Liq procedure:
call (D_liq) = pDiffus_Liq (T1, P1, X);
Procedure pDiffus_Vap
pDiffus_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the vapor
diffusion coefficients of components in a mixture.
pDiffus_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDiffus_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDiffus_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDiffus_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor diffusion
coefficients
Diffus_vap(*) cm2/s
3 Property Procedures 103
pDiffus_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pDiffus_Vap procedure:
call (D_vap) = pDiffus_Vap (T1, P1, Y);
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Liq
pEnth_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates liquid molar
enthalpy.
pEnth_Mol_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEnth_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEnth_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pEnth_Mol_Liq procedure:
Rig_enth_mol_liq: call (h) = pEnth_Mol_Liq (T, P, x);
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Vap
pEnth_Mol_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates vapor molar
enthalpy.
pEnth_Mol_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEnth_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEnth_Mol_Vap are:
3 Property Procedures 104
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pEnth_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (hv) = pEnth_Mol_Vap (T, P, y);
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Liq
pEntr_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates liquid molar
entropy.
pEntr_Mol_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEntr_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEntr_Mol_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEntr_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid molar entropy Entr_mol kJ/kmol/K
pEntr_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pEntr_Mol_Liq procedure:
call (s) = pEntr_Mol_Liq (T, P, x);
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Vap
pEntr_Mol_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates vapor molar
entropy.
pEntr_Mol_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEntr_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
3 Property Procedures 105
pEntr_Mol_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEntr_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor molar
entropy
Entr_mol kJ/kmol/K
pEntr_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pEntr_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (sv) = pEntr_Mol_Vap (Tv_out, Pv_out, y_out);
Procedure pFuga_Liq
pFuga_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates component liquid
fugacity coefficients.
pFuga_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFuga_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFuga_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFuga_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid fugacity
coefficients
Fuga_liq –
pFuga_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pFuga_Liq procedure:
call (fuga_coeff) = pFuga_Liq (T1, P1, x);
Procedure pFuga_Vap
pFuga_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates component vapor
fugacity coefficients.
pFuga_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFuga_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
3 Property Procedures 106
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFuga_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFuga_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor fugacity
coefficients
Fuga_Vap –
pFuga_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pFuga_Vap procedure:
call (fuga_coeff) = pFuga_Vap (Tv, Pv, Y);
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Liq
pGibbs_Mol_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates liquid molar
Gibbs Free Energy.
pGibbs_Mol_ Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pGibbs_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_ Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pGibbs_Mol_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid Gibbs Free
Energy
Gibbs_mol_liq kJ/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pGibbs_Mol_Liq procedure:
call (Gl) = pGibbs_Mol_Liq (Tx_in, Px_in, x_in);
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Vap
pGibbs_Mol_ Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates vapor molar
Gibbs Free Energy.
3 Property Procedures 107
pGibbs_Mol_ Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pGibbs_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_ Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pGib
bs_Mol_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid Gibbs Free
Energy
Gibbs_mol_vap kJ/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pGibbs_Mol_Vap procedure:
call (Gv) = pGibbs_Mol_Vap (Ty_in, Py_in, y_in);
Procedure pKllValues
pKllValues is a physical property procedure that calculates component liquid
liquid equilibrium K values.
pKllValues Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pKllValues are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pKllValues Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pKllValues are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Component liquidliquid
equilibrium K values
k_value(*) –
pKllValues Example
The following is an example of the pKllValues procedure:
3 Property Procedures 108
call (K) = pKllValues (T, P, x1, x2);
Procedure pKValues
pKValues is a physical property procedure that calculates component vapor
liquid equilibrium K values.
pKValues Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pKValues are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pKValues Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pKValues are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Equilibrium K values k_value(*) –
pKValues Example
The following is an example of the pKValues procedure:
call (Kfc) = pKValues (T_feed, P_feed, xfc, yfc);
Procedure pSurf_Tens
pSurf_Tens is a physical property procedure that calculates liquid surface
tension.
pSurf_Tens Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pSurf_Tens are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pSurf_Tens Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pSurf_Tens are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid surface tension Surf_tens N/m
3 Property Procedures 109
pSurf_Tens Example
The following is an example of the pSurf_Tens procedure:
call (surfL) = pSurf_Tens (T, P, x);
Procedure pVisc_Liq
pVisc_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates the viscosity of a
liquid.
pVisc_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pVisc_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pVisc_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pVisc_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Liquid viscosity Visc_liq cP
pVisc_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pVisc_Liq procedure:
call (viscL) = pVisc_Liq (T, P, x);
Procedure pVisc_Vap
pVisc_Vap is a physical property procedure that calculates the viscosity of a
vapor.
pVisc_Vap Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pVisc_Vap are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pVisc_Vap Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pVisc_Vap are:
3 Property Procedures 110
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor viscosity Visc_vap cP
pVisc_Vap Example
The following is an example of the pVisc_Vap procedure:
call (visg ) = pVisc_Vap (Out_P.T, Out_P.P, y_out);
Property Procedures without
Analytic Derivatives
Procedure pAct_Coeff_Liq
pAct_Coeff_Liq is a physical property procedure that calculates component
activity coefficients of a liquid.
pAct_Coeff_Liq Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pAct_Coeff_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pAct_Coeff_Liq Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pAct_Coeff_Liq are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Component molar
activity
coefficients
Act_coeff_liq(*) –
pAct_Coeff_Liq Example
The following is an example of the pAct_Coeff_Liq procedure:
call (Activ) = pAct_Coeff_Liq (T1, P1, x);
Procedure pBubt
pBubt is a physical property procedure that calculates bubble point
temperature at a fixed pressure.
pBubt Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pBubt are:
3 Property Procedures 111
Description Variable Type Base Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) –
pBubt Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pBubt are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
pBubt Example
The following is an example of the pBubt procedure:
call (T_bubble) = pBubt (P, x_out);
Procedure pDens_Mass_Sol
pDens_Mass_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates the mass
density of a solid.
pDens_Mass_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mass_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mass_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mass_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid mass density Dens_mass kg/m3
pDens_Mass_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mass_Sol procedure:
call (RHOms) = pDens_Mass_Sol (Ts, Ps, s);
Procedure pDens_Mol_Sol
pDens_Mol_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates the molar
density of a solid.
3 Property Procedures 112
pDens_Mol_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDens_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pDens_Mol_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDens_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid molar density Dens_mol kmol/m3
pDens_Mol_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pDens_Mol_Sol procedure:
call (RHOs) = pDens_Mol_Sol (Ts_out, Ps_out, s);
Procedure pDewt
pDewt is a physical property procedure that calculates the dew point
temperature at fixed pressure.
pDewt Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pDewt are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) –
pDewt Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pDewt are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
pDewt Example
The following is an example of the pDewt procedure:
call (T_dew) = pDewt (P_out, x_out);
3 Property Procedures 113
Procedure pEnth_Mol
pEnth_Mol is a physical property procedure that calculates mixed phase molar
enthalpy.
pEnth_Mol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEnth_Mol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEnth_Mol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEnth_Mol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
pEnth_Mol Example
The following is an example of the pEnth_Mol procedure:
call (hin) = pEnth_Mol (Tin, Pin, zin);
Procedure pEnth_Mol_Sol
pEnth_Mol_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates solid molar
enthalpy.
pEnth_Mol_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEnth_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEnth_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
pEnth_Mol_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pEnth_Mol_Sol procedure:
3 Property Procedures 114
call (hs_out) = pEnth_Mol_Sol (Ts_out, Ps_out, s_out);
Procedure pEntr_Mol
pEntr_Mol is a physical property procedure that calculates mixed phase molar
entropy.
pEntr_Mol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEntr_Mol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEntr_Mol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEntr_Mol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Mixed phase molar entropy Entr_mol kJ/kmol/K
pEntr_Mol Example
The following is an example of the pEntr_Mol procedure:
call (sv) = pEntr_Mol (Tv_in, Pv_in, y_in);
Procedure pEntr_Mol_Sol
pEntr_Mol_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates solid molar
entropy.
pEntr_Mol_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pEntr_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pEntr_Mol_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pEntr_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid molar entropy Entr_mol kJ/kmol/K
3 Property Procedures 115
pEntr_Mol_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pEntr_Mol_Sol procedure:
call (ss) = pEntr_Mol_Sol (Ts_in, Ps_in, s_in);
Procedure pFlash
pFlash is a physical property procedure that performs a twophase flash at
the given temperature and pressure.
pFlash Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFlash Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash Example
The following is an example of the pFlash procedure:
call (y_out, x_out, vf, hv_out, hl_out) = pFlash (T, P, z);
Procedure pFlash3
pFlash3 is a physical property procedure that performs a threephase flash at
the given temperature and pressure.
pFlash3 Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash3 are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
3 Property Procedures 116
Threephase flash
model type
String
FULL – Fully rigorous, 3phase
DECANT – 2phase with water
decant
–
pFlash3 Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash3 are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
1st phase liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
2nd phase liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Molar ratio of 2nd liquid phase
to feed
Liqfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
1st liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
2nd liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash3 Example
The following is an example of the pFlash3 procedure:
call (y_out, x_out1, x_out2, vf, lf, hv_out, hl_out1,
hl_out2,) = pFlash3 (T, P, z, rigor);
Procedure pFlash3PH
pFlash3PH is a physical property procedure that performs a threephase flash
at the given pressure and molar enthalpy.
pFlash3PH Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash3PH are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Threephase flash model
type
String
FULL – Fully rigorous, 3phase
DECANT – 2phase with free
water decant
–
pFlash3PH Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash3PH are:
Description Variable Type Base
U it
3 Property Procedures 117
Units
Temperature Temperature C
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
First liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Second liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Molar ratio of second liquid phase to
all phases
Liqfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
First liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
Second liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash3PH Example
The following is an example of the pFlash3PH procedure:
call (T, VF, Y, X1, X2, LF, HV, HL1, HL2) = pFlash3PH (P,
H, Z, rigor);
Procedure pFlash3PV
pFlash3PV is a physical property procedure that performs a threephase flash
at the given pressure and vapor fraction.
pFlash3PV Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash3PV are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Fraction Vapfraction kmol/km
ol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/km
ol
Threephase flash
model type
String
FULL – Fully rigorous, 3phase
DECANT – 2phase with freewater
decant
–
pFlash3PV Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash3PV are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
First liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Second liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Molar ratio of second liquid phase
to all phases
Liqfraction kmol/kmol
3 Property Procedures 118
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
First liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
Second liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash3PV Example
The following is an example of the pFlash3PV procedure:
call (T, Y, X1, X2, LF, HV, HL1, HL2) = pFlash3PV (P, VF,
Z, rigor);
Procedure pFlash3TH
pFlash3TH is a physical property procedure that performs a threephase flash
at the given temperature and molar enthalpy.
pFlash3TH Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash3TH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Threephase flash model
type
String
FULL – Fully rigorous, 3
phase
DECANT – 2phase with
freewater decant
–
pFlash3TH Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash3TH are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
First liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Second liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Molar ratio of second liquid phase to
all phases
Liqfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
First liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
Second liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash3TH Example
The following is an example of the pFlash3TH procedure:
3 Property Procedures 119
call (P, VF, Y, X1, X2, HV, HL1, HL2) = pFlash3TH (T, H, Z,
rigor);
Procedure pFlash3TV
pFlash3TV is a physical property procedure that performs a threephase flash
at the given temperature and vapor fraction.
pFlash3TV Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlash3TV are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Temperature Temperature C
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/km
ol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/km
ol
Threephase flash
model type
String
FULL – Fully rigorous, 3phase
DECANT – 2phase with freewater
decant
–
pFlash3TV Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlash3TV are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
First liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Second liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Molar ratio of second liquid
phase to all phases
Liqfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
First liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
Second liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlash3TV Example
The following is an example of the pFlash3TV procedure:
call (P, Y, X1, X2, HV, HL1, HL2) = pFlashTV (T, VF, Z,
rigor);
Procedure pFlashPH
pFlashPH is a physical property procedure that performs a twophase flash at
the given pressure and molar enthalpy.
3 Property Procedures 120
pFlashPH Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlashPH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFlashPH Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlashPH are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Temperature Temperature C
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlashPH Example
The following is an example of the pFlashPH procedure:
call (T, VF, Y, X, HV, HL) = pFlashPH (P, H, Z);
Procedure pFlashPV
pFlashPV is a physical property procedure that performs a twophase flash at
the given pressure and vapor fraction.
pFlashPV Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlashPV are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFlashPV Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlashPV are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Temperature Temperature C
3 Property Procedures 121
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlashPV Example
The following is an example of the pFlashPV procedure:
call (T, Y, X, HV, HL) = pFlashPV (P, VF, Z);
Procedure pFlashTH
pFlashTH is a physical property procedure that performs a twophase flash at
the given temperature and molar enthalpy.
pFlashTH Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlashTH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol GJ/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFlashTH Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlashTH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Vapor fraction Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlashTH Example
The following is an example of the pFlashTH procedure:
call (P, VF, Y, X, HV, HL) = pFlashTH (T, H, Z);
Procedure pFlashTV
pFlashTV is a physical property procedure that performs a twophase flash at
the given temperature and vapor fraction.
pFlashTV Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFlashTV are:
3 Property Procedures 122
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Temperature Temperature C
Vapor fractioni Vapfraction kmol/kmol
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFlashTV Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFlashTV are:
Description Variable Type Base
Units
Pressure Pressure bar
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor molar enthalpy Enth_mol_vap GJ/kmol
Liquid molar enthalpy Enth_mol_liq GJ/kmol
pFlashTV Example
The following is an example of the pFlashTV procedure:
call (P, Y, X, HV, HL) = pFlashTV (T, VF, Z);
Procedure pFuga_Sol
pFuga_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates component solid
fugacity coefficients.
pFuga_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pFuga_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pFuga_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pFuga_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid fugacity
coefficients
Fuga_Sol –
pFuga_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pFuga_Sol procedure:
call (fuga_coeff) = pFuga_Sol (Ts, Ps, w);
3 Property Procedures 123
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS
pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS is a physical property procedure that calculates
Component Ideal Gas Molar Gibbs Free Energies
pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Ideal Gas Molar
Gibbs Free Energies
Gibbs_mol_vap(*) kJ/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS Example
The following is an example of the pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS procedure:
call (GIdeal) = pGibbs_Mol_IDLGAS (Tv_in, Y_in);
Procedure pGibbs_Mol_Sol
pGibbs_Mol_Sol is a physical property procedure that calculates solid molar
Gibbs Free Energy.
pGibbs_Mol_Sol Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pGibbs_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pGibbs_Mol_Sol Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pGibbs_Mol_Sol are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Solid Gibbs Free
Energy
Gibbs_mol_sol kJ/kmol
3 Property Procedures 124
pGibbs_Mol_Sol Example
The following is an example of the pGibbs_Mol_Sol procedure:
call (Gs) = pGibbs_Mol_Sol (Ts_in, Ps_in, s_in);
Procedure pMolWeight
pMolWeight is a physical property procedure that calculates the average
molar weight.
pMolWeight Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pMolWeight are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pMolWeight Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pMolWeight are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Molar weights Molweight kg/kmol
pMolWeight Example
The following is an example of the pMolWeight procedure:
call (MWout ) = pMolWeight (zin );
Procedure pMolWeights
pMolWeights is a physical property procedure that calculates the component
molar weights.
pMolWeights Input Variable Types
There are no input variable types for pMolWeights.
pMolWeights Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pMolWeights are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Molar weights Molweight(*) kg/kmol
pMolWeights Example
The following is an example of the pMolWeights procedure:
call (Mws) = pMolWeights();
3 Property Procedures 125
Procedure ppH
ppH is a physical property procedure that calculates pH.
ppH Input Variable Types
The input variable types for ppH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
ppH Output Variable Types
The output variable types for ppH are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
pH pH –
ppH Example
The following is an example of the ppH procedure:
call (pH) = ppH (T, P, x);
Procedure pPropZ
pPropZ is a physical property procedure that calculates petroleum properties
which are a function of composition only. The following four property
calculations are available:
Name Description Unit of
Measureme
nt
CETANENO Centane number –
REIDVP Reid vapor pressure bar
SG Specific gravity (60/60 F) –
WAT Watson UOP Kfactor –
pPropZ Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pPropZ are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Property name Stringparameter –
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
3 Property Procedures 126
pPropZ Output Variable Types
The output variable type for pPropZ is:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Petroleum property RealVariable –
pPropZ Example
The following is an example of the pPropZ procedure:
call (SpecificGravity) = pPropZ ("SG", x);
Procedure pPropZPct
pPropZPct is a physical property procedure that calculates petroleum
properties which are a function of composition and liquid volume % distilled.
The following property calculation is available:
Name Description Unit of
Measurement
D86T ASTM D86 Temperature C
pPropZPct Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pPropZPct are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Property name Stringparameter –
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Liquid volume %
distilled
Vol_percent vol%
pPropZPct Output Variable Types
The output variable type for pPropZPct is:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Petroleum property RealVariable –
pPropZ Example
The following is an example of the pPropZ procedure:
call (D86Temperature) = pPropZPct ("D86T", x, xpct);
Procedure pPropZPPct
pPropZPPct is a physical property procedure that calculates petroleum
properties which are a function of composition, property pressure, and liquid
volume % distilled. The following property calculation is available:
3 Property Procedures 127
Name Description Unit of
Measuremen
t
D1160T ASTM D1160 Temperature C
pPropZPPct Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pPropZPPct are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Property name Stringparameter –
Composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Pressure Pressure bar
Liquid volume %
distilled
Vol_percent vol%
pPropZPPct Output Variable Types
The output variable type for pPropZPPct is:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Petroleum property RealVariable –
pPropZ Example
The following is an example of the pPropZ procedure:
Call (D!1160Temperature) = pPropZPPct(“D1160T”, x, P,
xpct);
Procedure pSurf_Tensy
pSurf_TensY is a physical property procedure that calculates surface tension
using vapor and liquid molefractions.
pSurf_TensY Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pSurf_TensY are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Vapor composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pSurf_TensY Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pSurf_TensY are:
3 Property Procedures 128
Description Variable Type Base Units
Surface tension Surf_tens N/m
pSurf_TensY Example
The following is an example of the pSurf_TensY procedure:
call (surfL) = pSurf_TensY (T, P, x, y);
Procedure pTrueCmp2
pTrueCmp2 is a physical properties procedure that calculates the equilibrium
true composition in the slurry phase. Note that the true phase is named the
“slurry” phase since it may contain precipitated solids as well as liquid. The
properties returned are the overall true composition, the liquid true
composition, the solid true composition, the true solid mole fraction and the
true to apparent mole ratio.
Note that pTrueCmp2 is similar to pTrueComp, but is more straightforward to
understand and use. pTrueComp has been retained for backward
compatibility.
PTrueCmp2 Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pTrueCmp2 are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Apparent composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
PTrueCmp2 Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pTrueCmp2 are:
Description Name Variable Type Base
Units
Mole fractions in the
total slurry phase
z_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
liquid phase
x_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
solid phase
s_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
True solid mole ratio sfrac ratio_ –
True apparent mole ratio rat ratio_ –
Note: The input apparent composition and output true
compositions must all be indexed over the same component list.
This component list should contain all of the apparent
components, and all of the true components in the simulation.
The mole fractions of true components will normally be zero in
3 Property Procedures 129
the input composition, and the mole fractions of apparent
components will always be zero in the output true compositions.
Procedure pTrueCmpVLS
pTrueCmpVLS is a physical properties procedure that calculates the 3phase
equilibrium true composition of the slurry phase. The properties returned are
the vapor phase true composition, the liquid true composition, the solid true
composition, the true vapor mole fraction, the true solid mole fraction and the
true to apparent mole ratio.
pTrueCmpVLS is an extension of pTrueCmp which considers liquid and solid
phase only.
PTrueCmpVLS Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pTrueCmpVLS are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Apparent composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
PTrueCmpVLS Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pTrueCmpVLS are:
Description Name Variable Type Base
Units
Mole fractions in the true
vapor phase
y_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
liquid phase
x_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
solid phase
s_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
True vapor mole fraction vfrac vapfraction –
True solid mole fraction sfrac solfraction –
True apparent mole ratio rat ratio_ –
pTrueCmpVLS Example
The following is an example usage of the pTrueCmpVLS procedure:
call (y_out, x_out, s_out, vfrac, sfrac, rat) = pTrueCmpVLS
(T, P, z_in);
lfrac = ( 1.0 – sfrac – vfrac );
Procedure pTrueComp
pTrueComp is a physical properties procedure that calculates the equilibrium
true composition in the slurry phase, along with the solid to true liquid mole
3 Property Procedures 130
ratio and the true to apparent liquid mole ratio. Note that the true phase is
named the “slurry” phase because it may contain precipitated solids as well as
liquid.
pTrueComp Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pTrueComp are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Apparent composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pTrueComp Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pTrueComp are:
Description Name Variable Type Base
Units
Mole fractions in the
total slurry phase
z_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
True solid to true liquid
mole ratio
Srat ratio_ –
True liquid to apparent
liquid mole ratio
Irat ratio_ –
Note: The input apparent composition and output true
compositions must all be indexed over the same component list.
This component list should contain all of the apparent
components, and all of the true components in the simulation.
The mole fractions of true components will normally be zero in
the input composition, and the mole fractions of apparent
components will always be zero in the output true compositions.
pTrueComp Example
The following is an example usage of the pTrueComp procedure:
call (z_out, srat, lrat) = pTrueComp (T, P, Z_in);
The following additional examples provide further explanation of the definition
and use of the output variables from pTrueComp:
TotalTrueFlow = TotalApparentFlow * lrat * (1 + srat);
TrueFlow(i) = z_out(i) * TotalApparentFlow * lrat * (1 +
srat);
3 Property Procedures 131
Note that the equation for TrueFlow(i) is valid irrespective of whether “i” is a
liquid component or a solid component.
Procedure pTrueCmp2
pTrueCmp2 is a physical properties procedure that calculates the equilibrium
true composition in the slurry phase. Note that the true phase is named the
"slurry" phase since it may contain precipitated solids as well as liquid. The
properties returned are the overall true composition, the liquid true
composition, the solid true composition, the true solid mole fraction and the
true to apparent mole ratio.
Note that pTrueCmp2 is similar to pTrueComp, but is more straightforward to
understand and use.
pTrueComp has been retained for backward compatibility.
pTrueCmp2 Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pTrueCmp2 are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure bar
Apparent composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pTrueCmp2 Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pTrueCmp2 are:
Description Name Variable Type Base
Units
Mole fractions in the
total slurry phase
z_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
liquid phase
x_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
Mole fractions in the true
solid phase
s_out Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
True solid to true liquid
mole ratio
sfrac Fraction –
True liquid to apparent
liquid mole ratio
rat ratio_ –
Note: The input apparent composition and output true
compositions must all be indexed over the same component list.
This component list should contain all of the apparent
components, and all of the true components in the simulation.
The mole fractions of true components will normally be zero in
the input composition, and the mole fractions of apparent
components will always be zero in the output true compositions.
3 Property Procedures 132
pTrueCmp2 Example
The following is an example of the pTrueCmp2 procedure:
call (z_out, x_out, s_out, sfrac, rat) = pTrueCmp2 (T, P,
z_in);
TotalTrueFlow = TotalApparentFlow * rat;
TotalTrueLiquidFlow = TotalApparentFlow * rat * (1sfrac);
TrueFlow(i) = z_out(i) * TotalApparentFlow * rat;
TrueSolidFlow(i) = s_out(i) * TotalApparentFlow * rat *
sfrac;
Procedure pVap_Pressures
pVap_Pressures is a physical property procedure that calculates pure
component vapor pressures.
pVap_Pressures Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pVap_Pressures are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
pVap_Pressures Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pVap_Pressures are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Component vapor
pressure
Pressure(*) bar
pVap_Pressures Example
The following is an example of the pVap_Pressures procedure:
call (comp_P_vap) = pVap_Pressures (T_in);
Procedure pVap_Pressure
pVap_Pressure is a physical property procedure that calculates total vapor
pressure.
pVap_Pressure Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pVap_Pressure are:
3 Property Procedures 133
Description Variable Type Base Units
Temperature Temperature C
Liquid composition Molefraction(*) kmol/kmol
pVap_Pressure Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pVap_Pressure are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Total vapor pressure Pressure bar
pVap_Pressure Example
The following is an example of the pVap_Pressure procedure:
call (P_vp) = pVap_Pressure (In_F_T, In_F_z);
4 Physical Properties Submodels 134
4 Physical Properties
Submodels
Aspen Custom Modeler includes a number of physical property submodels
which you can use to perform physical property and flash calculations within
your models.
These submodels provide an alternative approach to the direct calling of
physical property and flash procedures, described in Overview of Property
Procedures.
The key benefits of these submodels are:
• Their ability to perform flash calculations using equation based or
procedural methods.
• Their ability to calculate properties using conventional rigorous property
routines, or faster local property models.
This chapter describes these key features submodels, and explains how to use
them in your models and simulations.
Key Features
Properties Calculated
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid the property
submodels can be used to calculate the following properties:
• Phase molar fractions
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
For each property submodel there is a second model which calculates all of
these properties and also calculates overall and phase entropies. Entropy is
not needed as often as the other properties, so versions of the submodels
have been provided with and without this. You can then choose which is
appropriate and avoid unnecessary calculations which slow down your
simulation.
4 Physical Properties Submodels 135
Local Properties
All property submodels can calculate properties using either rigorous or local
property methods.
Rigorous properties uses direct calls to the physical property system
whenever properties are required.
When using local properties, properties are calculated using relatively simple
functions of temperature and pressure. These functions are fast to evaluate,
and accurate over a limited range of temperature, pressure, and composition.
For example the following equation is used to calculate liquid molar enthalpy.
( ) T B A x hl
i i
nc i
i
i
. .
1
+ =
∑
=
=
Where:
hl = Liquid molar enthalpy
x
i
= Mole fraction of component i
A
i
, B
i
= Local property parameters for component i
T = Temperature
nc = Number of components
These parameters in these functions are fitted using rigorous physical
property values obtained from calls to the AspenTech physical property
system.
To ensure good accuracy, parameter values are updated during a dynamic
simulation. Also, separate sets of parameters are fitted and used at each
location in the flowsheet.
Note: Because it has faster performance, use of local properties
is recommended for most dynamic simulations.
The Rigorous properties option is recommended for:
• Steady state simulations.
• Dynamic optimization or dynamic estimation runs.
• Simulation of systems with very nonideal behavior, such as electrolyte
systems.
• Simulation of single component systems where a phase change occurs.
• Simulations where conditions are near to or beyond the critical point.
Local properties requires the use of an integrator which supports tearing, and
that procedure tearing is set to Update on the Tearing Tab of the Solver
Options dialog.
Local properties can only be used if you are using AspenTech’s physical
property package. Local properties does not work if you use another physical
property package interfaced directly to Aspen Custom Modeler.
4 Physical Properties Submodels 136
Flash Methods
Many of the submodels can be used to perform phase equilibrium flash
calculations. There are different submodels for each of the following
combinations of phases:
• VaporLiquid
• VaporLiquidLiquid
• VaporLiquidWater
• LiquidLiquid
• LiquidWater
For the VaporLiquidWater and LiquidWater phase combinations the water
phase is assumed to be pure water, which is a useful approach for some
petroleum and petrochemical applications.
For all phase combinations the phase equilibrium flash calculations can be
performed using a choice of two proprietary equation formulations. For Vapor
Liquid, VaporLiquidLiquid and VaporLiquidWater phase combinations, the
flash calculations can also be performed using one of two procedural flash
methods.
Each of these flash methods are described in the following table:
Flash Method Description
Equation Formulates the flash as equations. Includes special
algorithms to correctly handle the situation where the
system is superheated or subcooled.
When PropMode = Local, the VaporLiquidLiquid and
LiquidLiquid flashes include special checks to avoid
trivial solutions and ensure that the calculated
equilibrium conditions are correct, and represent the
minimum Gibbs free energy condition. They also include
algorithms to prevent the two liquid phases “flipping”
around during a dynamic simulation.
Equation gives good performance and robustness, and is
recommended for most situations, especially dynamic
simulations.
SmoothEquation Similar to Equation, with the same features. Uses a
smoothing technique to handle the phase transitions.
This has been shown to be more robust than Equation
for models that are exported and run in Aspen Plus. The
smoothing introduces a very small error in calculations
very close to the phase transitions, that is with phase
fractions near 0 or 1. You can reduce the value of the
parameter FlashSmoothTol to reduce this error, or
increase it to improve robustness. Normally the default
of 1e6 is fine.
Procedure Uses the AspenTech procedural flash subroutine, with
temperature and pressure as inputs. This subroutine is
also used in Aspen Plus and Aspen Properties. Use of
Procedure introduces nested iterations in to the
simulation and will usually result in slower performance
than Equation. Procedure can work better in converging
steady state simulations that have a poor initial
estimate. If Procedure is used Rigorous properties are
always used.
ProcedurePH The same as Procedure except that the flash subroutine
4 Physical Properties Submodels 137
is called with pressure and specific enthalpy as inputs.
ProcedurePH can be more robust than Procedure,
especially for single component or narrow boiling
systems.
ProcedurePV The same as Procedure except that the flash subroutine
is called with pressure and vapor molar fraction as
inputs. Caution should be exercised when using this
method with simulations involving subcooled liquids
and/or superheated vapor as the PV flash will only
calculate bubble and dew point pressure conditions
respectively.
ProcedureTV The same as Procedure except that the flash subroutine
is called with temperature and vapor molar fraction as
inputs. Caution should be exercised when using this
method with simulations involving subcooled liquids
and/or superheated vapor as a TV flash will only
calculate bubble and dew point temperature conditions
respectively.
Flash Efficiencies
All of the flash methods support the use of efficiencies. There are two types of
efficiency, Vaporization and Murphree. Both adjust the flash results to allow
for nonequilibrium conditions, and are most commonly used in distillation
stage models.
When Vaporization efficiency is selected the equation
Yi = EFFi.Ki..Xi
is used, where:
EFFi = Efficiency for component i
Ki = Equilibrium K value for component i
Xi = Liquid component mole fraction of component i
Yi = Vapor component mole fraction of component i
When Murphree efficiency is selected the equation
Yi = YINi + EFFi.(Ki.XiYINi)
is used, where:
YINi = Inlet vapor component mole fraction of component i
By default Vaporization efficiency is used, with an efficiency of 1. This means
that efficiency calculations are not active.
The liquidliquid and liquidwater equilibrium models use the equation:
X2i = EFFi.Ki..X1i
Where:
X1i = Liquid 1 component mole fraction of component i
X2i = Liquid 2/water component mole fraction of component I
The efficiency values default to 1.
4 Physical Properties Submodels 138
Polymers Support
The Liquid and VaporLiquid property submodels include support for
calculating properties of polymer systems, using the Rigorous properties
option. Local properties are not supported for polymer systems.
When using these submodels for polymer calculations you need to supply the
zeroth moment, segment first moments and second moment for the polymer,
as well as temperature, pressure and composition.
Use of this feature requires a license for Polymers Plus.
Units of Measurement
All of the property submodels work in the ACM Metric units of measurement
set. To use these submodels it is strongly recommended that you write your
model in these same units of measurement. The documentation for each
submodel shows the units of measurement for each variable.
Summary of Features
The following table summarizes the features are available for each submodel:
Phases Submodel name Equation
flash
Smooth
Equation
flash
Procedure
flash
Procedure
PH flash
Polymer
support
Entropy
calculated
Liquid Props_liquid     Yes No
Props_liq_entr     No Yes
Vapor Props_vapor     No No
Props_vap_entr     No Yes
VaporLiquid Props_flash2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Props_flash2_entr Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
VaporLiquid
Liquid Props_flash3 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Props_flash3_entr Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
VaporLiquid
Water Props_flash2w Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Props_flash2w_entr Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
LiquidLiquid Props_lle Yes Yes No No Yes No
LiquidWater Props_lwe Yes Yes No No No No
4 Physical Properties Submodels 139
Using Submodels within your
Models
Instancing a Submodel
To use a property submodel within your model you need to create a named
instance of the submodel and then relate the variables in the submodel to
those within your model.
This example creates an instance of the submodel Props_liquid called pliq.
pliq as Props_liquid (T=T, P=P, x=x, h=hout, Rho=Rhoout);
In the variable list, the first name is that in the submodel, and the second
name is that in the model. These may be the same or different , for example
the variable Rho in the submodel is related to Rhoout in the model.
In this example, if T, P and x are Fixed in the model, the submodel will
calculate hout and Rhoout. It would also be valid to fix P, x and hout and then
submodel would then calculate T and Rhoout.
If you do not need to calculate the density in your model you can use the
following:
pliq as Props_liquid (T=T, P=P, x=x, h=hout);
Rho is still calculated by the submodel, but it is not related to any variable in
the model.
You can also relate variables in your model to those in the submodel using
the following syntax:
pliq as Props_liquid;
pliq.T = T;
pliq.P = P
pliq.h = hout;
However declaring the submodel and the variable relationships in a single
statement is usually more convenient.
Conditional Instancing
You can instance arrays of property submodels. This is useful when you want
to conditionally instance a submodel dependant upon some parameter. For
4 Physical Properties Submodels 140
example to only instance pliq when the parameter ValidPhases is set to
“Liquid”, use the following:
pliq ([1:(ValidPhases == "Liquid")]) as Props_liquid (T=T,
P=P, x=x, h=hout, Rho=Rhoout);
The expression ValidPhases == "Liquid" evaluates to false (value of 0) if it is
not true, and this make the array index set empty, so nothing is instanced. If
the expression is true (value of 1), the index set is 1, and pliq(1) is instanced.
Changing Options
You can specify nondefault values for the flash method (FlashBasis) and
properties mode (PropMode) in the call to the submodel, for example:
Pflash2 as Props_flash2 (T=T, P=P, z=zin, x=x, y=y,
hl=hlout, hv=hvout, vf=vf, PropMode:”Rigorous”,
FlashBasis:”Procedure”);
Bubble Point and Dew Point
Calculations
To use one of the submodels to perform a bubble point or dew point
calculation you need to specify the required vapor fraction. The calculated
vapor fraction variable (vf) does not uniquely define whether the system is at
dew point or bubble point, for example a value of 1 could mean that the
system is at is dew point, or is superheated.
To handle this situation a separate required vapor fraction variable (vfR) has
been introduced. Fixing this to 1 uniquely defines the system to be at its dew
point, and fixing it to 0 uniquely defines it to be at bubble point.
To perform a twophase dew point calculation you can use the following :
Pflash2 as Props_flash2 (T=T, P=P, z=zin, h=hout);
Pflash2.vfR: Fixed, 1;
The second line Fixes vfR to a value of 1 (dew point). By default vfR is not
fixed. Note that if you fix vfR you should be careful to directly or indirectly fix
only one other of T, P and h.
Running Simulations that use
the Submodels
Once you have created one or more models that use property models and
have assembled a flowsheet that uses these models, you can still control how
the property submodels work.
4 Physical Properties Submodels 141
You can change the property mode and flash basis for individual submodel
instances, or globally for the entire simulation.
To change for an individual submodel, open the AllVariables table for the
block, and scroll down until you find the submodel variables and parameters.
Then change the value of PropMode or FlashBasis within the submodel as
required.
To change the values for all submodels in the simulation globally, open the
Simulation Globals form, and change the values of GlobalPropMode or
GlobalFlashBasis as required.
You can also change the value of the tolerance used by the SmoothEquation
flash method. This is called FlashSmoothTol in the submodel, and
GlobalFlashSmoothTol globally.
Physical Property Submodel
Details
This section describes the model parameters and variables for each property
submodel.
Props_liquid
Props_liquid calculates liquid phase properties at known composition,
pressure, and either temperature or molar enthalpy. It can be used to
calculate polymer properties.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation method
(defaults to GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
PolymerProp Specified whether polymer properties are to
be calculated using Polymers Plus. If Yes,
Rigorous properties are always used.
Yes
No (Default)
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x( ) Liquid mole fractions kmol/kmol
h Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rho Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhom Liquid mass density kg/m3
MW Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
zmomc Polymer zeroth moment (only present if
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
mol/kg
sflowc() Polymer segment flow (only present if
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
mol/kg
smomc Polymer second moment (only present if kmol/kg
4 Physical Properties Submodels 142
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
Example usage:
pliq as Props_liquid (T=Tout, P=P, x=zout, h=hout,
Rho=Rhoout);
Props_liq_entr
Props_liq_entr calculates liquid phase properties, including molar entropy, at
known composition, pressure, and either temperature, molar enthalpy or
molar entropy.
Paramete
r
Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation method
(defaults to GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x( ) Liquid mole fractions kmol/kmol
h Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
s Liquid molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
Rho Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhom Liquid mass density kg/m3
MW Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
Example usage:
pliq as Props_liq_entr (T=Tout, P=P, x=zout, h=hout,
s=sout, Rho=Rhoout);
Props_vapor
Props_vapor calculates vapor phase properties at known composition,
pressure, and either temperature or molar enthalpy.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation method
(defaults to GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
4 Physical Properties Submodels 143
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
h Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rho Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MW Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
Example usage:
pvap as Props_vapor (T=Tout, P=P, y=zout, h=hout,
Rho=Rhoout);
Props_vap_entr
Props_vap_entr calculates vapor phase properties, including entropy, at
known composition, pressure, and either temperature, molar enthalpy or
molar entropy.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation method
(defaults to GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
h Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
s Vapor molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
Rho Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MW Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
Example usage:
pvap as Props_vap_entr (T=Tout, P=P, y=zout, h=hout,
s=sout, Rho=Rhoout);
Props_flash2
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_flash2
performs a vaporliquid flash and calculates:
• Vapor molar fraction
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
If the overall molar enthalpy or vapor molar fraction is known, these can be
specified and temperature or pressure is calculated.
4 Physical Properties Submodels 144
Props_flash2 can be used to calculate properties for polymer systems.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to GlobalPropMode,
which itself defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used (defaults
to GlobalFlashBasis, which itself
defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
Efftype Efficiency method Vaporization (default)
Murphree
PolymerProp Specified whether polymer properties
are to be calculated using Polymers
Plus. If Yes, Rigorous properties are
always used.
Yes
No (Default)
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by SmoothEquation
flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x( ) Liquid mole fractions kmol/kmol
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf Liquid molar fraction kmol/kmol
vf Vapor molar fraction kmol/kmol
vfR Required vapor fraction kmol/kmol
hl Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hv Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rhol Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml Liquid mass density kg/m3
Rhov Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MWl Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
MWv Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
eff() Component efficiencies Default=1.
yin() Inlet vapor mole fractions (used only when
Efftype=Murphree)
kmol/kmol
zmomc Polymer zeroth moment (only present if
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
mol/kg
sflowc() Polymer segment flow (only present if
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
mol/kg
smomc Polymer second moment (only present if
PolymerProp=”Yes”)
kmol/kg
Example usage:
4 Physical Properties Submodels 145
pflash2 as Props_flash2 (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout,
x=xout, y=yout, vf=vf, rhol=rholout, rhov=rhovout);
Props_flash2_entr
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_flash2
performs a vaporliquid flash and calculates:
• Vapor molar fraction
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase and overall molar entropy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
If the overall molar enthalpy, molar entropy or vapor molar fraction is known,
these can be specified and temperature or pressure is calculated.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to GlobalPropMode,
which itself defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used (defaults
to GlobalFlashBasis, which itself
defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
Efftype Efficiency method Vaporization (default)
Murphree
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by SmoothEquation
flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x( ) Liquid mole fractions kmol/kmol
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf Liquid molar fraction kmol/kmol
vf Vapor molar fraction kmol/kmol
vfR Required vapor fraction kmol/kmol
hl Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hv Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
sl Liquid molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
sv Vapor molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
s Overall molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
4 Physical Properties Submodels 146
Rhol Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml Liquid mass density kg/m3
Rhov Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MWl Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
MWv Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
eff() Component efficiencies Default=1.
yin() Inlet vapor mole fractions (used only when
Efftype=Murphree)
kmol/kmol
Example usage:
pflash2 as Props_flash2_entr (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout,
s=sout, x=xout, y=yout, vf=vf, rhol=rholout, rhov=rhovout);
Props_flash3
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_flash3
performs a vaporliquidliquid flash and calculates:
• Vapor and liquid molar fractions
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
If the overall molar enthalpy or vapor molar fraction is known, these can be
specified and temperature or pressure is calculated.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to GlobalPropMode,
which itself defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used (defaults
to GlobalFlashBasis, which itself
defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
Efftype Efficiency method Vaporization (default)
Murphree
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by SmoothEquation
flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x1( ) Liquid 1 mole fractions kmol/kmol
x2( ) Liquid 2 mole fractions kmol/kmol
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
4 Physical Properties Submodels 147
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf1 Liquid 1 molar fraction kmol/kmol
lf2 Liquid 2 molar fraction kmol/kmol
vf Vapor molar fraction kmol/kmol
vfR Required vapor fraction kmol/kmol
hl1 Liquid 1 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hl2 Liquid 2 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hv Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rhol1 Liquid 1 molar density kmol/m3
Rhol2 Liquid 2 molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml1 Liquid 1 mass density kg/m3
Rhoml2 Liquid 2 mass density kg/m3
Rhov Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MWl1 Liquid 1 molar weight kg/kmol
MWl2 Liquid 2 molar weight kg/kmol
MWv Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
eff1() Liquid 1 component efficiencies Default=1.
eff2() Liquid 2 component efficiencies Default=1.
yin() Inlet vapor mole fractions (used only when
Efftype=Murphree)
kmol/kmol
Example usage:
pflash3 as Props_flash3 (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout,
x1=x1out, x2=x2out, y=yout, vf=vf, lf1=lf1, rhol1=rhol1out,
rhol2=rhol2out, rhov=rhovout);
Props_flash3_entr
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid,
Props_flash3_entr performs a vaporliquidliquid flash and calculates:
• Vapor and liquid molar fractions
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase and overall molar entropy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
If the overall molar enthalpy or vapor molar fraction is known, these can be
specified and temperature or pressure is calculated.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to GlobalPropMode,
which itself defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used (defaults
to GlobalFlashBasis, which itself
defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
4 Physical Properties Submodels 148
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
Efftype Efficiency method Vaporization (default)
Murphree
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by SmoothEquation
flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x1( ) Liquid 1 mole fractions kmol/kmol
x2( ) Liquid 2 mole fractions kmol/kmol
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf1 Liquid 1 molar fraction kmol/kmol
lf2 Liquid 2 molar fraction kmol/kmol
vf Vapor molar fraction kmol/kmol
vfR Required vapor fraction kmol/kmol
hl1 Liquid 1 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hl2 Liquid 2 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hv Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
sl1 Liquid 1 molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
sl2 Liquid 2 molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
sv Vapor molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
s Overall molar entropy kJ/kmol/K
Rhol1 Liquid 1 molar density kmol/m3
Rhol2 Liquid 2 molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml1 Liquid 1 mass density kg/m3
Rhoml2 Liquid 2 mass density kg/m3
Rhov Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MWl1 Liquid 1 molar weight kg/kmol
MWl2 Liquid 2 molar weight kg/kmol
MWv Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
eff1() Liquid 1 component efficiencies. Default=1.
eff2() Liquid 2 component efficiencies. Default=1.
yin() Inlet vapor mole fractions (used only when
Efftype=Murphree)
kmol/kmol
Example usage:
pflash3_entr as Props_flash3 (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout,
s=sout, x1=x1out, x2=x2out, y=yout, vf=vf, lf1=lf1,
rhol1=rhol1out, rhol2=rhol2out, rhov=rhovout);
4 Physical Properties Submodels 149
Props_flash2w
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_flash2w
performs a vaporliquidwater flash and calculates:
• Vapor and liquid molar fractions
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar densities
If the overall molar enthalpy or vapor molar fraction is known, these can be
specified and temperature or pressure is calculated.
This submodel requires that the component water is present in your
simulation, and that the name used for this component is assigned to the
Global variable WaterID. This enables the submodel to know which
component is water. The default value of WaterID is “Water”. If you use a
different name, such as “H2O”, the value of WaterID must be changed to
match this.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to GlobalPropMode,
which itself defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used (defaults
to GlobalFlashBasis, which itself
defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
Efftype Efficiency method Vaporization (default)
Murphree
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by SmoothEquation
flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x1( ) Liquid phase mole fractions kmol/kmol
y( ) Vapor mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf1 Liquid molar fraction kmol/kmol
lf2 Water molar fraction kmol/kmol
vf Vapor molar fraction kmol/kmol
vfR Required vapor fraction kmol/kmol
hl1 Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hl2 Water molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hv Vapor molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
4 Physical Properties Submodels 150
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rhol1 Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhol2 Water molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml1 Liquid mass density kg/m3
Rhoml2 Water mass density kg/m3
Rhov Vapor molar density kmol/m3
MWl1 Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
MWl2 Water molar weight kg/kmol
MWv Vapor molar weight kg/kmol
eff1() Liquid component efficiencies. Default=1.
eff2 Water component efficiency. Default=1.
yin() Inlet vapor mole fractions (used only when
Efftype=Murphree)
kmol/kmol
Example usage:
Pflash2w as Props_flash2w (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout,
x1=x1out, y=yout, vf=vf, lf1=lf1, rhol1=rhol1out,
rhol2=rhol2out, rhov=rhovout);
Props_lle
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_lle
performs a liquidliquid equilibrium calculation, and calculates:
• Molar fractions of each liquid phase
• Phase compositions
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar and mass densities
Props_lle includes the option to calculate liquidliquid equilibrium k values
using the following correlation:
Kll
i
= exp(kll_a
i
+ kll_b
i
/Tabs + kll_c
i
.ln(Tabs) + kll_d
i
.Tabs)
Where:
Kll
i
= Liquidliquid k value for component I
Tabs = Absolute temperature (K)
To use this option set KLLSpec to ”KLL correlation”, and enter values for the
coefficients kll_a, kll_b, kll_c and kll_d for each component. If KLLSpec is set
to “Property method” then the Kll values are calculated using either Local or
Rigorous properties as specified by PropMode.
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to
GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
4 Physical Properties Submodels 151
FlashBasis The flash method to be used
(defaults to GlobalFlashBasis,
which itself defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by
SmoothEquation flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
KLLSpec Liquidliquid equilibrium calculation
method
Property method (default)
KLL correlation
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x1( ) Liquid 1 mole fractions kmol/kmol
x2( ) Liquid 2 mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf1 Liquid 1 molar fraction kmol/kmol
lf2 Liquid 2 molar fraction kmol/kmol
hl1 Liquid 1 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hl2 Liquid 2 molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rhol1 Liquid 1 molar density kmol/m3
Rhol2 Liquid 2 molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml1 Liquid 1 mass density kg/m3
Rhoml2 Liquid 2 mass density kg/m3
MWl1 Liquid 1 molar weight kg/kmol
MWl2 Liquid 2 molar weight kg/kmol
eff() Component equilibrium efficiencies. Default =
1.
kll_a() KLL correlation first polynomial coefficients
kll_b() KLL correlation first polynomial coefficients
kll_c() KLL correlation first polynomial coefficients
kll_d() KLL correlation first polynomial coefficients
Example usage:
plle as Props_lle (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout, x1=x1out,
x2=x2out, lf1=lf1, rhol1=rhol1out, rhol2=rhol2out);
Props_lwe
Given the temperature, pressure and composition of a fluid, Props_lwe
performs a liquidwater equilibrium calculation, and calculates:
• Molar fractions of each phase
• Liquid composition
• Phase and overall molar enthalpy
• Phase molar weights
• Phase molar and mass densities
4 Physical Properties Submodels 152
Parameter Description Valid values
PropMode The physical property calculation
method (defaults to
GlobalPropMode, which itself
defaults to Local)
Local
Rigorous
FlashBasis The flash method to be used
(defaults to GlobalFlashBasis,
which itself defaults to Equation)
Equation
SmoothEquation
Procedure
ProcedurePH
ProcedurePV
ProcedureTV
FlashSmoothTol Tolerance for use by
SmoothEquation flash option
0 to 0.1
default=1e6
Variable Description Units
T Temperature C
P Pressure bar
x1( ) Liquid mole fractions kmol/kmol
z( ) Overall mole fractions kmol/kmol
lf1 Liquid molar fraction kmol/kmol
lf2 Water molar fraction kmol/kmol
hl1 Liquid molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
hl2 Water molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
h Overall molar enthalpy GJ/kmol
Rhol1 Liquid molar density kmol/m3
Rhol2 Water molar density kmol/m3
Rhoml1 Liquid mass density kg/m3
Rhoml2 Water mass density kg/m3
MWl1 Liquid molar weight kg/kmol
MWl2 Water molar weight kg/kmol
eff Water equilibrium efficiency. Default = 1.
Example usage:
plwe as Props_lle (T=Tout, P=P, z=zout, h=hout, x1=x1out, lf1=lf1,
rhol1=rhol1out, rhol2=rhol2out);
5 Utility Routines 153
5 Utility Routines
This chapter describes utility routines that you can use from within code
which you interface to Aspen Custom Modeler.
The utility routines are:
• ACM_Print  enables you to display messages within the Aspen Custom
Modeler GUI.
• ACM_Rqst  enables you to access the values of simulation options.
ACM_Print Routine
This section describes using the ACM_Print routine to display diagnostic
messages:
• Calling the ACM_PRINT routine from Fortran code.
• Calling the ACM_Print routine from C code.
Calling Routine ACM_PRINT from
Fortran
You can call the routine ACM_PRINT in your Fortran code as follows:
Syntax for ACM_PRINT Fortran Interface
call ACM_PRINT(status, format, arg1, arg2, arg3, arg4,
arg5)
status Integer code that defines the current state of the
simulation:
0 or positive values. Values in this range indicate
success or information status. Messages are
printed to the Simulation Messages window.
Negative values. Values in this range indicate an
error or fatal error. Messages are printed to both
the Simulation Messages window and a popup
dialog box containing the error message.
Always pass a value of 0 or 1 where 0 means
generic success and 1 means fatal error for
which you return IFAIL=4 in your routine.
Format Character string that contains text and formatting
codes that defines the format of the final
5 Utility Routines 154
message. The format descriptors are based on
the C format codes
argn Values to appear in the message. The order of
the arguments must correspond to the order of
the formatting codes within the formatting string.
ACM_PRINT Remarks for Fortran Interface
Your syntax must contain five arguments (apart from status and format). You
must set any arguments that are not used to 0.
You can use normal C formatting codes (%d, %f, %s, %e, %E, %G),
including any field width and decimal place counts.
The following format characters are valid:
Character Explanation
% Percent character. Lead character for format specification.
 Optional minus sign. A minus sign left justifies the number.
Without the minus sign, the number is right justified.
d Decimal notation
f Decimal notation of the form []mmm.ddd, where the number
of d's is specified by the precision. The default precision is 6;
a precision of 0 suppresses the decimal point.
e, E Decimal notation of the form []m.dddddde+xx or [
]m.ddddddE+xx, where the number of ds is specified by the
precision. The default precision is 6; a precision of 0
suppresses the decimal point.
g,G %e or %E is used if the exponent is less than 4 or greater
than or equal to the precision; otherwise %f is used. Trailing
zeros and a trailing decimal point are not printed.
S Characters from the string are printed until a '\0' is reached
or until the number of characters indicated by the precision
have been printed.
Example Formats
%10.0f Prints whole numbers, with no decimal digits or exponents.
%10.nf Prints numbers with exponents and with n digits to the right of
the decimal point.
%10.nE Prints numbers in exponential notation, with n+1 significant
digits.
%5d Prints an integer in 5 places (use this format for integers).
For Fortran, you would typically use the following escape sequences in your
message:
Sequence Explanation
\n new line
\\ backslash
\? question mark
\' single quote
\" double quote
5 Utility Routines 155
Note: Some Fortran compilers (notably DEC Fortran) pass
CHARACTER* variables as two arguments: the string itself,
followed by its length. This is correctly handled by ACM_PRINT if
the format character is s, but you must reduce the number of
arguments by 1 for each CHARACTER* variable passed. Failure to
do this will result in an unresolved reference to ACM_PRINT
because of the mismatch in the number of its arguments.
Examples of Using ACM_PRINT from Fortran
In the following example, the variable OPEN will be printed to the Simulation
Messages window with a value of 1:
DOUBLE PRECISION OPEN
OPEN = 1D0
CALL ACM_PRINT(0,'OPEN = %f',OPEN,0,0,0,0)
The following example shows how to print a message when a fatal error has
occurred in your Fortran:
CHARACTER*45 TEXT
INTEGER N
:
TEXT = 'The value %d is outside the valid range.\n'
CALL ACM_PRINT (1,TEXT,N,0,0,0,0)
IFAIL = 4
Calling Routine ACM_Print from C
You can call the routine ACM_Print in your C code as follows:
Syntax for C Interface
void ACM_Print(int status, char *_Zform, ...);
status Integer code that defines the current state of the
simulation
0 or positive values. Values in this range indicate
success or information status. Messages are
printed to the Simulation Messages window.
Negative values. Values in this range indicate an
error or fatal error. Messages are printed to both
the Simulation Messages window and a popup
dialog box containing the error message.
Always pass a value of 0 or 1 where 0 means
generic success and 1 means fatal error for which
you return IFAIL=4 in your routine.
Zform Character string that contains text and formatting
5 Utility Routines 156
codes that defines the format of the final message.
The format descriptors are based on the C format
codes.
… Variable number of arguments that are assumed to
be void *. Hence, all variable arguments should be
passed by address.
ACM_Print Remarks for C Interface
Your syntax can contain any number of arguments (apart from status and
format). You must set any arguments that are not used to be omitted.
You can use normal C formatting codes (%d, %f, %s, %e, %E, %G),
including any field width and decimal place counts.
The following format values are valid:
Variable Explanation
% Percent character. Lead character for format specification.
 Optional minus sign. A minus sign left justifies the number.
Without the minus sign, the number is right justified.
D Decimal notation
f Decimal notation of the form []mmm.ddd, where the number
of d's is specified by the precision. The default precision is 6; a
precision of 0 suppresses the decimal point.
e, E Decimal notation of the form []m.dddddde+xx or [
]m.ddddddE+xx, where the number of ds is specified by the
precision. The default precision is 6; a precision of 0 suppresses
the decimal point.
g,G %e or %E is used if the exponent is less than 4 or greater than
or equal to the precision; otherwise %f is used. Trailing zeros
and a trailing decimal point are not printed.
s Characters from the string are printed until a '\0' is reached or
until the number of characters indicated by the precision have
been printed.
Example Formats
%10.0f Prints whole numbers, with no decimal digits or exponents
%10.nf Prints numbers with exponents and with n digits to the right of
the decimal point,
%10.nE Prints numbers in exponential notation, with n+1 significant
digits
You can also include the following escape sequences in your message:
Variable Explanation
\a alert (bell) character
\b backspace
\f form feed
\n new line
\r carriage return
\t horizontal tab
\v vertical tab
5 Utility Routines 157
\\ backslash
\? question mark
\' single quote
\" double quote
\ooo octal number
\xhh hexadecimal number
Example of Using ACM_PRINT from C
The following example shows using ACM_PRINT from C:
int option = ACM_TIME;
int iinfo;
char *sinfo;
int jflag;
double Time;
/* get the value of the current simulation time */ jflag =
ACM_Rqst(&option, &iinfo, &Time, &sinfo);
/* write current time to simulation message – passing by
address */
ACM_Print(0, "Current Time = %g",&Time);
ACM_Rqst Routine
ACM_Rqst is a supplied Fortran or C utility routine that enables your routines
to access the values of parameters that are defined in the Options definition.
ACM_Rqst can be called from both Fortran and C. It is supplied in the library
atdll.lib in the Procedures folder of the Aspen Custom Modeler installation.
Calling Routine ACM_RQST from
Fortran
You can call the routine ACM_RQST in your Fortran code as follows:
Syntax for ACM_RQST Fortran Interface
call ACM_RQST(REQSTR, IINFO, XINFO, SINFO, JFLAG)
REQSTR For valid values, see Values for REQSTR in Fortran and
ACM_Option Tokens in C on page 5159.
IINFO Integer*4
XINFO Double precision real
SINFO String
JFLAG An integer flag set by ACM_RQST to inform the calling routine
of the type of information requested. On exit from the
routine, JFLAG will have one of the following values:
5 Utility Routines 158
1 indicates an illegal request; no information is returned
1 indicates that an integer is returned in IINFO
2 indicates that an double precision real is returned in XINFO
3 indicates that a string is returned in SINFO
4 indicates that a string and an integer are returned in SINFO
and IINFO respectively
5 indicates that a string and a double precision real are
returned in SINFO and XINFO respectively.
Calling Routine ACM_Rqst from C or C++
You can call the routine ACM_Rqst in your C code as follows:
Syntax for ACM_Rqst C Interface
int option = ACM_option;
int iinfo;
double xinfo;
char *sinfo;
int jflag;
jflag = ACM_Rqst(&option, &iinfo, &xinfo, &sinfo);
ACM_option For valid values, see Values for REQSTR in Fortran
and ACM_Option Tokens in C on page 5159.
iinfo int
xinfo double
sinfo char*
jflag A return code from ACM_Rqst which indicates what
kind(s) of information have been returned.
Possible vaules for this are #defined in atdll.h, which
is in the Procedures folder of your Aspen Custom
Modeller installation.
The following values may be returned:
ACM_RQST_ILLEGAL  The ACM_Option requested is
not supported. iinfo, xinfo and sinfo values are
undefined.
ACM_RQST_INTEGER  An integer value has been
returned in iinfo; xinfo and sinfo are undefined.
ACM_RQST_DOUBLE  A double value has been
returned in xinfo; iinfo and sinfo are undefined.
ACM_RQST_STRING  A string may have been
returned in sinfo (see note below); iinfo and xinfo
are undefined
ACM_RQST_STRING_AND_INT  An integer value
has been returned in iinfo and a string may have
been returned in sinfo. xinfo is undefined.
ACM_RQST_STRING_AND_DOUBLE  A double value
has been returned in xinfo and a string may have
been returned in sinfo. iinfo is undefined.
Note: When ACM_Rqst returns a string, it will have
been allocated off the heap, and should be freed by
the user (using delete [] or free()).
If you pass a NULL pointer for the string data, then
5 Utility Routines 159
the string will neither be allocated nor returned; use
this if you do not need the string form of the data.
Note that the return code will still indicate that a
string could be returned.
For Example:
option = ACM_TIME_UOM;
jflag = ACM_Rqst(&option, &iinfo, &xinfo,
&sinfo);
if (jflag == ACM_RQST_STRING_AND_INT)
{
/* xinfo contains the scale factor to
convert Time > hours, sinfo contains the
Time UOM */
ACM_Print(0, "Time is measured in %s, scale
factor=%g",sinfo,&xinfo);
delete [] sinfo; /* In C: free(sinfo). Do
this or you'll have a memory leak */
}
Or, avoiding the allocation of the returned string:
option = ACM_TIME_UOM;
jflag = ACM_Rqst(&option, &iinfo,
&xinfo,NULL);
if (jflag == ACM_RQST_STRING_AND_INT)
{
/* xinfo contains the scale factor to
convert Time > hours */
ACM_Print(0, "Time scale factor=%g",&xinfo);
}
Values for REQSTR in Fortran and ACM_Option Tokens in C
The following values (Fortran) and tokens (C) are allowed.
C and C++ users will find the tokens are #defined in atdll.h in the Procedures
folder of your Aspen Custom Modeller installation.
Strings are returned to Fortran as CHARACTER*40 variables, and to C and
C++ as dynamically allocated strings which the caller should delete (for more
information see Calling Routine ACM_Rqst from C or C++:
Fortran
Value
C
Token
Description Type of
information
returned
1 ACM_ABS_TOL Absolute tolerance Double Precision
2 ACM_BOUND_FRAC Bound fraction Double Precision
3 ACM_DOG_LEG Dogleg switch Integer 0=off, 1=on
4 ACM_VAR_CHANGE_TOL Variable Change
Tolerence
Double Precision
5 ACM_EVENT_TOL Event tolerance Double Precision
(Only used by Gear
11 integrator)
8 ACM_INI_INT_STEP Initial integration step Double Precision
10 ACM_ITERATIONS Iterations Integer
12 ACM_MAX_INT_STEP Maximum integration
step
Double Precision
5 Utility Routines 160
14 ACM_MAX_STEP_RED Maximum number of
consecutive returns
Integer
15 ACM_MAX_VAR_STEP Initial maximum step Double precision real
16 ACM_MIN_NON_ZERO Minimum variable size Double precision real
17 ACM_MIN_INT_STEP Minimum integration step Double precision real
18 ACM_RUN_MODE Current run mode Integer and String:
1  Steady State
2  Optimization
3  Parameter
Estimation or Data
Reconciliation
(returns string
'Estimation')
4  Dynamic
5  Initialization
19 ACM_OPT_TOL Optimization tolerance Double precision real
20 ACM_PRINT_LEVEL Print level Integer
21 ACM_PROP_LEVEL Property print level Integer
22 ACM_RANGE_FRAC Range fraction Double precision real
24 ACM_REINIT Reinitialization Integer and String:
0  Normal
1  Fast
2  Save
25 ACM_REL_TOL Relative tolerance Double precision real
26 ACM_RES_TOL Residual tolerance Double precision real
28 ACM_SINGUL_FACT Arbitrary perturbation Double precision real
30† ACM_TEAR Tearing option Integer and String:
0  Off
1  Update
2  Start
3  Complete
31 ACM_TIME Current integration time Double precision
32 ACM_COMM_INT Communication interval Double precision real
33 ACM_REL_TEAR_TOL Relative tear tolerance Double precision
34 ACM_ABS_TEAR_TOL Absolute tear tolerance Double precision
35 ACM_SOLUTION_MODE Current solution mode Integer and String:
1  SS
2  Init
3  ReInit
4  Dyn
36†† ACM_TEAR_ERR_TOL Absolute tear integration
error tolerance
Double precision
37 ACM_INTEGRATOR Integrator Integer and String:
1  ImpEuler 11.1
2  VSIE 11.1
3  Explicit Euler
4  Runge Kutta 4
5  Gear 11.1
6  Gear
7  Implicit Euler
38 ACM_TEAR_METHOD Tearing update method Integer and String:
5 Utility Routines 161
0  Wegstein
1  Direct
39 ACM_RUN_NUMBER Run number Integer
40
†††
ACM_TEAR_STATE Indicates if tearing is
active
Integer
0 = Inactive
1 = Active
41
††††
ACM_TIME_UOM The units of
measurement of time
Double Precision and
String
42
†††††
ACM_REL_TEAR_ERR_
TOL
Relative tear integration
error tolerance
Double Precision
†
The value returned by ACM_TEAR (30) only depends on the tearing
option specified on the Solver Options, Tearing tab. This value may be
ignored by some integrators: use ACM_TEAR_STATE (40) to determine
if tearing is active.
††
Only valid for VSIE(11.1), Implicit Euler and Gear integrators
†††
The value returned by ACM_TEAR_STATE (40) indicates whether
tearing is active in the current combination of options. The GEAR
integrator does not support tearing and will return 0. The other
integrators will return 1 unless tearing is OFF in the Solver Options,
. Tearing tab.
††††
ACM_TIME_UOM (41) returns 2 things: a character string which is the
currently selected units of measurement for modelling time in the Run
Options. It also returns a double which is the factor required to convert
the units of time back to the default modelling time units (Hours),
according to:
Default Units = Actual Units / factor.
††††
Only valid for Implicit Euler and Gear integrators
ACM_GetComponents Routine
ACM_ GetComponents is a supplied Fortran or C utility routine that enables
your routines to access the names of the components of the relevant stream
type. It is intended to be used from procedures that specify PROPERTIES as
one of the options in the procedure definition. ACM_ GetComponents can be
called from both Fortran and C/C++. It is supplied in the library atdll.lib in the
Procedures folder of the Aspen Custom Modeler installation.
Calling Routine
ACM_GETCOMPONENTS from Fortran
You can call the routine ACM_GETCOMPONENTS from your Fortran as follows:
Syntax for ACM_GETCOMPONENTS Fortran Interface
Call ACM_GETCOMPONENTS(ITYPE, NCOMP, COMPNAMES, STATUS)
ITYPE Integer. This will be passed to your procedure to identify which
component list is associated with the procedure.
5 Utility Routines 162
NCOMP Integer. The number of components in the component list. This
will be the same as the size of one or more array arguments of
the procedure.
COMPNAMES Character*40(NCOMP) Array of strings returned by
ACM_GETCOMPONENTS
STATUS Integer. A zero or positive value indicates success, a negative
value indicates failure.
Calling Routine ACM_GetComponents
from C/C++
You can call the routine ACM_GETCOMPONENTS from your C/C++ as follows:
Syntax for ACM_GetComponents C/C++ Interface
Prototype:
EXT_C_AS_C(ULONG) ACM_GetComponents(const int iType,
const int nComps,
char**ppCompList);
#include “atdll.h”
int iType, nComp;// You need to set these to values passed into your
procedure
char ** ppCompNames = new char*[nComp];
for (int i=0;i<nComp;i++)
ppCompNames[I] = new char[41];
ULONG status = ACM_GetComponents(iType, nComp, ppCompNames)
iType int. This will be passed to your procedure to identify
which component list is associated with the procedure.
nComp int. The number of components in the component list.
This will be the same as the size of one or more array
arguments of the procedure.
ppCompNames char** array of strings returned by
ACM_GetComponent. It is the caller’s responsibility to
allocate and deallocate the memory required. Each
string requires at most 41 bytes of memory.
status ULONG. A zero or positive value indicates success, a
negative value indicates failure. This is in fact an
HRESULT, and the following return values are possible:
E_FAIL – generic failure
5 Utility Routines 163
E_NOINTERFACE – routine could not obtain the required
interface.
E_INVALIDARG – one or more arguments are invalid.
S_OK – The call succeeded.
Note: The caller must eventually free the memory allocated for
the strings:
for (int i=0;i<nComp;i++)
delete [] ppCompNames[i];
delete [] ppCompNames;
Routines Provided for
Compatibility with SPEEDUP 5.5
The following routines are provided for compatibility with SPEEDUP 5.5:
• pSpRMod (returns the current run mode).
• pLMTD (calculates temperature difference).
• pLimit (limits variable values between bounds).
Procedure pSpRMod
The pSpRMod procedure type returns the current run mode of the simulation
as an integer:
Integer Meaning
1 Steady state
2 Optimization
3 Estimation or data reconciliation
4 Dynamic
5 Initialization
pSpRMod Input Variable Types
pSpRMod has no input variable types.
pSpRMod Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pSpRMod are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Run mode Notype –
5 Utility Routines 164
pSpRMod Example
The following is an example of the pSpRMod procedure type:
Call (RunMode) = psprmod (Alpha);
Procedure pLMTD
The pLMTD procedure type calculates the temperature difference.
pLMTD Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pLMTD are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Side 1 inlet temperature Temperature C
Side 2 inlet temperature Temperature C
Side 1 outlet temperature Temperature C
Side 2 outlet temperature Temperature C
Flow direction: Cocurrent or
Countercurrent
StringParameter –
pLMTD Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pLMTD are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Log mean temperature
difference
RealVariable –
pLMTD Example
The following is an example of the pLMTD procedure type:
call (LMTD ) = pLmtd (T, Tmed_in, Out_P.T, Tmed_out,
LMTDFlowDir);
Procedure pLimit
The pLimit procedure limits variable values between upper and lower bounds.
pLimit Input Variable Types
The input variable types for pLimit are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Unlimited variable RealVariable –
Lower bound Real –
Upper bound Real –
5 Utility Routines 165
pLimit Output Variable Types
The output variable types for pLimit are:
Description Variable Type Base Units
Limited variable RealVariable –
pLimit Example
The following is an example of the pLimit procedure type:
call (Pdropc ) = pLimit(P_drop, dpmin, dpmax);
6 Port Types 166
6 Port Types
This chapter describes the port type used to create your own ports:
• MainPort
MainPort Port Type
The MainPort port type is used for unknown or mixed phase flow.
MainPort Variable Types
The variable types for MainPort are:
Description Variable Type Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
Molar flow rate Flow_mol MoleFlow kmol/hr
Mole fractions Molefraction(*) MoleFraction kmol/kmol
Temperature Temperature Temperature C
Pressure Pressure Pressure bar
Molar enthalpy Enth_mol MolarEnthalpy GJ/kmol
MainPort Example
The following is an example of the MainPort port type:
PORT MainPort
F AS flow_mol
Z (componentlist) AS molefraction
T AS temperature
P AS pressure
h AS enth_mol
END
7 Variable Types 167
7 Variable Types
The following tables are a complete list of all the variable types arranged
alphabetically.
A Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
act_coeff_liq 1 0 30 – –
angle 0 7 7 Angle rad
angle_rad USES
angle
– – – – –
area 1 0 1E6 Area m2
C Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
coefficient 1 50 50 – –
conc_mole 0.5 0 100 MolarDensity kmol/m3
conc_mass 10.0 0 2000 MassDensity kg/m3
control_signal 1 1E9 1E9 – –
conductivity 1.0 0.001 500 ThermalConductiv
ity
W/m/K
cond_liq 0.20 0.01 10 ThermalConductiv
ity
W/m/K
cond_vap 0.10 0.001 1 ThermalConductiv
ity
W/m/K
constant 1.0 0.0 1E12 – –
cp_mass 1.0 0.1 10.0 MassHeatCapacity kJ/kg/K
cp_mass_liq
USES
cp_mass
1.0 0.1 10.0 – –
cp_mass_vap
USES
cp_mass
1.0 0.1 10.0 – –
cp_mol 100 1 1E3 MolarHeatCapacit
y
kJ/kmol/K
cp_mol_liq 100 1 1E3 – –
7 Variable Types 168
USES
cp_mol
cp_mol_vap
USES cp_mol
100 1 1E3 – –
cv_mol 100 1 1E3 MolarHeatCapacit
y
kJ/kmol/K
cv_mol_liq
USES
cv_mol
100 1 1E3 – –
cv_mol_vap
USES cv_mol
100 1 1E3 – –
D Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
delta_p 100 1 1E5 PressureDiffS
mall
N/m2
dens_mass 1000 1E30 25E3 MassDensity kg/m3
dens_mass_sol
USES
dens_mass
2000 250 25E3 – –
dens_mass_liq
USES
dens_mass
1000 1E30 10E3 – –
dens_mass_vap
USES
dens_mass
1 1E30 1000 – –
dens_mol 20 1E30 5E3 MolarDensity kmol/m3
dens_mol_sol
USES
dens_mol
20 0.1 5E3 – –
dens_mol_liq
USES
dens_mol
20 0.001 5E3 – –
dens_mol_vap
USES
dens_mol
0.01 1E30 250 – –
diffus_liq 1.5E 5 0 8E5 Diffusivity cm2/s
diffus_vap 0.1 0 1 Diffusivity cm2/s
E Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
energy_act 1 1E9 1E9 MolarEnthalp
y
GJ/kmol
enthflow 1 1E5 1E5 HeatFlow GJ/hr
enth_mass 0.5 10 10 MassEnthalpy MJ/kg
enth_mass_liq
USES enth_mass
0.5 10 10 – –
7 Variable Types 169
enth_mass_vap
USES enth_mass
0.5 10 10 – –
enth_mol 0.050 1000 1000 MolarEnthalp
y
GJ/kmol
enth_mol_sol
USES
enth_mol
0.025 10 10 – –
enth_mol_liq
USES
enth_mol
0.025 1000 1000 – –
enth_mol_vap
USES
enth_mol
0.060 1000 1000 – –
entr_mol 0 1E3 1E3 MolarEntropy kJ/kmol/
K
entr_mol_sol
USES
entr_mol
0 1E3 1E3 – –
entr_mol_liq
USES
entr_mol
0 1E3 1E3 – –
entr_mol_vap
USES
entr_mol
0 1E3 1E3 – –
F Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
flow_mass 1000 0 1E10 MassFlow kg/hr
flow_mass_liq
USES
flow_mass
1000 0 1E10 – –
flow_mass_vap
USES
flow_mass
1000 0 1E10 – –
flow_mass_
USES
flow_mass
– 1e10 – – –
flow_mass_spec
ific
1 1E4 1E4 MassSpecificFlo
w
kg/hr/
m2
flow_mol 10 0 1E8 MoleFlow kmol/h
r
flow_mol_vap
USES
flow_mol
10 0 1E8 – –
flow_mol_liq
USES
flow_mol
10 0 1E8 – –
flow_mol_ USES
flow_mol
– 1E8 – – –
flow_vol 1 0 1E12 VolumetricFlow m3/hr
flow_vol_vap
USES
flow_vol
1 0 1E12 – –
7 Variable Types 170
flow_vol_liq
USES
flow_vol
1 0 1E12 – –
flow_vol_rpm 1 0 1E12 VolFlowPerRPM m3/hr/
rpm
flux_mass 1 1E6 1E6 MassFlux mg/s/
m2
flux_mol 1 1E4 1E4 MolarFlux kmol/s/
m2
flux_vol 1 1E4 1E4 VolumetricFlux m3/s/
m2
fraction 0.5 0 1 – –
fricfactor 0.05 1E5 20 – –
fuga_vap 0.5 0 10 – –
fuga_liq 0.5 0 5 – –
fuga_sol 0.1 0 2 – –
G Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
gibb_mol_sol 0 1E3 1E3 MolarGibbs kJ/kmol
gte_one 1 1 1E30 – –
H Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
head 50 1E6 1E6 Head kJ/kg
heat_react 1 100 100 HeatOfReaction GJ/m3/h
r
heat_flux 1 1E5 1E5 HeatFlux kW/m2
heat_flux_liin 1 1E8 1E8 HeatFluxLinear W/m
heat_trans_coeff 1 0 1E3 HeatTransferCoe
ff
kW/m2/
K
holdup_heat 1 1E5 1E5 Energy GJ
holdup_heat_liq
USES holdup_heat
1 1E5 1E5 – –
holdup_heat_vap
USES holdup_heat
1 1E5 1E5 – –
holdup_mass 2.5 0 1E6 Mass kg
holdup_mass_liq
USES holdup_mass
2.5 0 1E6 – –
holdup_mass_vap
USES holdup_mass
2.5 0 1E6 – –
holdup_mol 2.5 0 1E6 Moles kmol
holdup_mol_liq
USES holdup_mol
2.5 0 1E6 – –
holdup_mol_vap 2.5 0 1E6 – –
7 Variable Types 171
USES holdup_mol
hookes_const 1E5 1 1E10 HookesConstant N/m
ht_coeff_area 10 1E20 1E6 HTCoeffArea kW/K
K Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
k_value 1 1E14 1E30 – –
L Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
length 1 0 5E6 Length m
length_delta 10 0 1000 LengthShort mm
length_short 10 0 100 LengthShort mm
liqfraction 0.5 0 1 MoleFraction kmol/kmo
l
liqmassfraction 0.5 0 1 MassFraction kg/kg
M Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
mass 10 0 1E7 Mass kg
massfraction 0.5 0 1 MassFraction kg/kg
molefraction 0.5 0 1 MoleFraction kmol/km
ol
molweight 75 1 1E8 MolarWeight kg/kmol
moment_inertia 100 1E3 1E4 MomentOfInertia kg m2
momentum 1 5E3 5E3 Momentum tonne
m/s
N Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
negative 1 1E9 1E9 – –
neg_small
1 500 0 – –
neg_large
1 1E30 0 – –
notype 1 1E30 1E30 – –
notype_small 1 500 500 – –
7 Variable Types 172
P Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
percent 50 0 100 Percent %
percentu USES
percent
1 1E5 1E5 Percent %
ph 7 5 20 – –
phasefactor 0 0 1 – –
positive 1 1E9 1E9 – –
pos_small 1 0 500 – –
pos_large 1 0 1E30 – –
power 10 1E8 1E8 Power kW
power_electric
USES
power
10 1E8 1E8 ElectricPower kW
pressure 1 1E30 5E6 Pressure bar
press_diff 0.01 5E6 5E6 PressureDifferen
ce
bar
press_drop 0.01 0 5E6 PressureDifferen
ce
bar
press_drop_coeff 1 0 1E30 PressureDropCoe
ff
m1.5
kg0.5/h
r/bar0.
5
press_drop_coeff
2
1 0 1E30 PressureDropCoe
ff2
bar
hr2/kg/
m3
press_rise 0.01 0 500 PressureDifferen
ce
bar
R Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
ratio_ 1 0 1E3 – –
reaction 10 1E6 1E6 MolarReaction
Rate
kmol/hr/m
3
reaction_mass 1000 1E6 1E6 MassReactionR
ate
kg/hr/m3
rotation 500 0 2000 AngularVelocit
y
rad/s
S Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
surf_tens 0.05 0 1 SurfaceTensio N/m
7 Variable Types 173
n
T Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
temperature 25 246 5000 Temperature C
temperature_ab
s
300 27 5273 AbsoluteTemperatur
e
K
temp_diff 10 1000 1000 TemperatureDifferen
ce
C
temp_drop 10 0 100 TemperatureDifferen
ce
C
temp_rise 10 0 100 TemperatureDifferen
ce
C
time_ 1E4 0.0 1E4 Time hr
timeMin 1 0.0 1E6 TimeMin min
timeSec 1 0.0 1E8 TimeSec s
V Variable Types
Variable Value Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
Physical
Quantity
Base
Units
vapfraction 0.5 0 1 MoleFraction kmol/kmol
vapmassfraction 0.5 0 1 MassFraction kg/kg
velocity 1 0 5E3 Velocity m/s
vel_angular 5000 0 20000 AngularVelocit
y
rpm
visc_liq 1 1E30 1E5 Viscosity cP
visc_vap 0.01 1E30 1E5 Viscosity cP
vol_mass 0.1 2.0E8 1E30 MassSpecificV
olume
m3/kg
vol_mol 0.05 2.0E4 1E30 MolarVolume m3/kmol
vol_mol_liq
USES
vol_mol
0.05 2.0E4 1000 – –
vol_mol_vap
USES
vol_mol
100 4.0E3 1E30 – –
volume 10 0 1E5 Volume m3
General Information 174
General Information
Copyright
Version Number: 2004.1
April 2005
Copyright © 19822005 Aspen Technology, Inc, and its applicable
subsidiaries, affiliates, and suppliers. All rights reserved. This Software is a
proprietary product of Aspen Technology, Inc., its applicable subsidiaries,
affiliates and suppliers and may be used only under agreement with
AspenTech.
Aspen ACOL™, Aspen Adsim®, Aspen Advisor™, Aspen Aerotran®, Aspen
Alarm & Event™, Aspen APLE™, Aspen Apollo Desktop™, Aspen Apollo
Online™, Aspen AssetBuilder™, Aspen ATOMS™, Aspen Automated Stock
Replenishment™, Aspen Batch Plus®, Aspen Batch.21™, Aspen BatchCAD™,
Aspen BatchSep™, Aspen Calc™, Aspen CapabletoPromise®, Aspen
CatRef®, Aspen Chromatography®, Aspen CimIO for ACS™, Aspen CimIO
for Csi VXL™, Aspen CimIO for Dow MIF™, Aspen CimIO for G2™, Aspen
CimIO for GSE D/3™, Aspen CimIO for HewlettPackard RTAP™, Aspen Cim
IO for Hitachi PLC (H04E)™, Aspen CimIO for Intellution Fix™, Aspen CimIO
for Melsec™, Aspen CimIO for WonderWare InTouch™, Aspen CimIO for
Yokogawa Centum CS™, Aspen CimIO for Yokogawa Centum XL™, Aspen
CimIO for Yokogawa EW3™, Aspen CimIO Interfaces™, Aspen CimIO
Monitor™, Aspen CimIO™, Aspen Collaborative Demand Management™,
Aspen Collaborative Forecasting™, Aspen Compliance.21™, Aspen
COMThermo TRC Database™, Aspen COMThermo®, Aspen Cost Factor
Manual™, Aspen Crude Manager™, Aspen Crude Margin Evaluation™, Aspen
Custom Modeler®, Aspen Data Source Architecture™, Aspen Decision
Analyzer™, Aspen Demand Manager™, Aspen DISTIL™, Aspen Distribution
Scheduler™, Aspen DMCplus® Composite, Aspen DMCplus® Desktop, Aspen
DMCplus® Online, Aspen DPO™, Aspen Dynamics®, Aspen eBRS™, Aspen
Enterprise Model™, Aspen ERP Connect™, Aspen FCC®, Aspen FIHR™, Aspen
FLARENET™, Aspen Fleet Operations Management™, Aspen Framework™,
Aspen FRAN™, Aspen Fuel Gas Optimizer Desktop™, Aspen Fuel Gas
Optimizer Online™, Aspen General Construction Standards™, Aspen Hetran®,
Aspen HXNet®, Aspen Hydrocracker®, Aspen Hydrotreater™, Aspen HYSYS
Amines™, Aspen HYSYS Crude™, Aspen HYSYS Dynamics™, Aspen HYSYS
OLGAS 3Phase™, Aspen HYSYS OLGAS™, Aspen HYSYS OLI Interface™,
Aspen HYSYS Tacite™, Aspen HYSYS Upstream Dynamics™, Aspen HYSYS
Upstream™, Aspen HYSYS®, Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator®, Aspen Icarus
General Information 175
Project Manager®, Aspen InfoPlus.21®, Aspen Inventory Balancing™, Aspen
IQ Desktop™, Aspen IQ Online™, Aspen IQmodel Powertools™, Aspen
Kbase®, Aspen LIMS Interface™, Aspen Local Security™, Aspen LPIMS™,
Aspen MBO™, Aspen MIMI®, Aspen MPIMS™, Aspen Multivariate Server™,
Aspen MUSE™, Aspen NPIMS™, Aspen OnLine®, Aspen Operations Manager 
Event Management™, Aspen Operations Manager  Integration
Infrastructure™, Aspen Operations Manager  Peformance Scorecarding™,
Aspen Operations Manager  Role Based Visualization™, Aspen Order Credit
Management™, Aspen Orion Planning™, Aspen Orion™, Aspen PEP Process
Library™, Aspen PIMS Blend Model Library™, Aspen PIMS Distributed
Processing™, Aspen PIMS Enterprise Edition™, Aspen PIMS Mixed Integer
Programming™, Aspen PIMS Simulator Interface™, Aspen PIMS Solution
Ranging™, Aspen PIMS Submodel Calculator™, Aspen PIMS XNLP
Optimizer™, Aspen PIMS™, Aspen PIPESYS™, Aspen PIPE™, Aspen Planning
Accuracy™, Aspen Plant Planner & Scheduler™, Aspen Plant Scheduler Lite™,
Aspen Plant Scheduler™, Aspen Plus OLI Interface™, Aspen Plus®, Aspen
Polymers Plus®, Aspen PPIMS™, Aspen Process Data™, Aspen Process
Explorer™, Aspen Process Manual™, Aspen Process Order™, Aspen Process
Plant Construction Standards™, Aspen Process Recipe®, Aspen Process
Tools™, Aspen Product Margin & Blending Evaluation™, Aspen Production
Control Web Server™, Aspen ProFES® 2P Tran, Aspen ProFES® 2P Wax,
Aspen ProFES® 3P Tran, Aspen ProFES® Tranflo, Aspen Properties®, Aspen
Pumper Log™, Aspen Q Server™, Aspen RateSep™, Aspen RefSYS
CatCracker™, Aspen RefSYS Spiral™, Aspen RefSYS™, Aspen Report Writer™,
Aspen Resource Scheduling Optimization™, Aspen RTO Watch CimIO
Server™, Aspen RTO Watch Server™, Aspen Scheduling & Inventory
Management™, Aspen SmartStep Desktop™, Aspen SmartStep Online™,
Aspen SQLplus™, Aspen Supply Chain Analytics™, Aspen Supply Chain
Connect™, Aspen Supply Planner™, Aspen Tank Management™, Aspen TASC
Mechanical™, Aspen TASC™, Aspen Teams®, Aspen Terminals
Management™, Aspen TICP™, Aspen Transition Manager™, Aspen Turbo
PIMS™, Aspen Utilities™, Aspen Voice Fulfillment Management™, Aspen
Watch Desktop™, Aspen Watch Server™, Aspen Water™, Aspen Web
Fulfillment Management™, Aspen WinRace Database™, Aspen XPIMS™,
Aspen Zyqad Development Version™, Aspen Zyqad™, SLM™, SLM
Commute™, SLM Config Wizard™, the aspen leaf logo, and Plantelligence are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge,
MA.
All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks
of their respective companies.
This document is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This
documentation contains AspenTech proprietary and confidential information
and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of
AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license.
Corporate
Aspen Technology, Inc. Phone: (1) (617) 9491000
Ten Canal Park Toll Free: (1) (888) 9967001
Cambridge, MA 021412201 Fax: (1) (617) 9491030
USA URL: http://www.aspentech.com
General Information 176
Related Documentation
Title Content
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 Getting Started
Guide
Contains basic handson tutorials to
help you become familiar with Aspen
Custom Modeler.
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 User Guide Contains a general overview of ACM
functionality and more complex and
extensive examples of using Aspen
Custom Modeler.
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 Modeling
Language Reference
Contains detailed reference
information about the modeling
language, including syntax details and
examples.
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 Aspen Modeler
Reference
Contains information on using
automation, solver options, physical
properties, the Control Design
Interface (CDI)), Simulation Access
eXtensions, online links, and using
external nonlinear algebraic solvers.
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 DMCplus®
Controllers Interface
Contains information on using
DMCplus with Aspen Custom Modeler
or Aspen Dynamics™.
Aspen Custom Modeler 2004.1 Polymer
Simulations with Polymers Plus
Polymers Plus is a layered product of
Aspen Custom Modeler. It provides
additional functionality to the
properties package, Properties Plus,
enabling polymers to be fully
characterized in Aspen Custom
Modeler models.
Technical Support 177
Technical Support
Online Technical Support
Center
AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance
agreement can register to access the Online Technical Support Center at:
http://support.aspentech.com
You use the Online Technical Support Center to:
• Access current product documentation.
• Search for technical tips, solutions, and frequently asked questions
(FAQs).
• Search for and download application examples.
• Search for and download service packs and product updates.
• Submit and track technical issues.
• Search for and review known limitations.
• Send suggestions.
Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support
eBulletins. These eBulletins proactively alert you to important technical
support information such as:
• Technical advisories.
• Product updates.
• Service Pack announcements.
• Product release announcements.
Technical Support 178
Phone and Email
Customer support is also available by phone, fax, and email for customers
who have a current support contract for their product(s). Tollfree charges are
listed where available; otherwise local and international rates apply.
For the most uptodate phone listings, please see the Online Technical
Support Center at:
http://support.aspentech.com
Support Centers Operating Hours
North America 8:00 – 20:00 Eastern time
South America 9:00 – 17:00 Local time
Europe 8:30 – 18:00 Central European time
Asia and Pacific Region 9:00 – 17:30 Local time
Index 179
Index
A
ACM_Print routine 152
ACM_Rqst routine 156
Algorithms 31, 41
ART Reactions Model Wizard 83
available 177
B
Bounds, pLimit for limiting 163
Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations 139
C
class equations 85
Closed loop tuning 32
Comparator control model 12
Control models
Comparator 12
Dead_time 12
Discretize 13
Feedforward 14
HiLoSelect 15
IAE 16
ISE 17
Lag_1 18
Lead_lag 19
Multiply 21
Noise 21
PID 23, 34
PRBS 47
Ratio 50
Scale 50
SplitRange 52
SteamPtoT 54
Sum 54
time units 11
Transform 55
Valve_dyn 56
creating a new Reactions Model 83
D
Dead_time control model 12
Diagnostic information
ACM_Print routine 152
Discretize control model 13
distributed systems 62
using ART 66
E
Error messages
ACM_Print routine 152
F
Faceplates for PID model 32, 43
Feedforward model 14
H
hierarchy levels
assigning 88
HiLoSelect control model 15
Index 180
I
IAE control model 16
ISE control model 17
K
kinetic models
writing 84
L
Lag_1 control model 18
Lead_lag control model 19
lumped systems 62
M
MainPort port type 165
module equations 85
Multiply control model 21
N
Noise control model 21
O
overview of Reactions Model 59
P
pAct_Coeff_Liq procedure 96, 110
pBubt procedure 110
pCond_Liq procedure 96, 111
pCond_Vap procedure 97
pCp_Mol_Liq procedure 97
pCp_Mol_Vap procedure 98
pCv_Mol_Liq procedure 98
pCv_Mol_Vap procedure 99
pDens_Mass_Liq procedure 99
pDens_Mass_Sol procedure 100, 111
pDens_Mass_Vap procedure 100, 111
pDens_Mol_Liq procedure 100
pDens_Mol_Sol procedure 101, 111
pDens_Mol_Vap procedure 101, 112
pDewt procedure 102, 112
pDiffus_Liq procedure 102, 113
pDiffus_Vap procedure 102
pEnth_Mol procedure 103, 113
pEnth_Mol_Liq procedure 103, 113
pEnth_Mol_Sol procedure 103, 113
pEnth_Mol_Vap procedure 103, 114
pEntr_Mol procedure 104, 114
pEntr_Mol_Liq procedure 104, 114
pEntr_Mol_Sol procedure 104, 114
pEntr_Mol_Vap procedure 104, 115
pFlash procedure 105, 115
pFlash3 procedure 105, 115
pFlash3PH procedure 116
pFlash3PV procedure 117
pFlash3TH procedure 118
pFlash3TV procedure 119
pFlashPH procedure 119
pFlashPV procedure 120
pFlashTH procedure 121
pFlashTV procedure 121
pFuga_Liq procedure 105, 122
pFuga_Sol procedure 105, 122
pFuga_Vap procedure 105, 106
pGibb_Mol_Sol procedure 123
pGibbs_Mol_ Vap 106
pGibbs_Mol_Liq 106
Physical Property Submodel Details
Props_flash2 142
Props_flash2_entr 144
Props_flash2w 148
Props_flash3 145
Props_flash3_entr 146
Props_IIe 149
Props_liq_entr 141
Props_liquid 140
Props_lwe 150
Props_vap_entr 142
Index 181
Props_vapor 141
PID control model 23, 34
faceplates 32, 43
tuning 32
PID model
faceplates 32, 43
pKllValues procedure 107, 124
pKValues procedure 108
pLimit procedure 163
pLMTD procedure 163
pMolWeight procedure 108, 124
pMolWeights procedure 124
ppH procedure 125
pPropZ procedure 125
pPropZPct procedure 126
pPropZPPct procedure 126
PRBS control model 47
pSpRMod procedure 162
pSurf_Tens procedure 108, 127
pSurf_TensY procedure 109, 127
pTrueComp procedure 128
pVap_Pressure procedure 131
pVisc_Liq procedure 109
pVisc_Vap procedure 109
R
Ratio control model 50
reaction equations 85
Reactions Models
compiling 86
creating 83
Reset windup, defined 29, 42
Run mode
pSpRMod procedure 162
Running Simulations that use the Submodels
139
S
Scale control model 50
Simulation Messages window
ACM_Print routine 152
SplitRange control model 52
SteamPtoT control model 54
stoichiometry
defining 89
syntax 89
Sum control model 54
syntax of stoichiometry 89
T
Temperature difference
pLMTD procedure 163
Time units 11
Transform control model 55
U
Using the ISE and IAE Models with a PID
Controller 33, 47
V
Valve_dyn control model 56
Z
ZieglerNichols technique 32