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Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Communication Engineering

MAY 2007

To my beloved mother: Thank you for your understanding and giving me the chance to be what I can be. .

I would like to thank again to everyone that has been involved in this project directly or indirectly for their help and contribution. Habsah Saad for your kind of understanding and moral support that never ending to me during carry out this final year project. ii . Azremi Abdullah Al. Amir Razif Arief Jamil Abdullah for his invaluable guidance. Not to forget to all my friends those also help me in order to accomplish my project. Thank you so much to my beloved family especially my mother.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my thankfulness and my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Mr. patience and support through the completion of this final year project. My deeply gratitude to Mr. Soh Ping Jack for their help and guidance during accomplish this project until successful.Hadi and Mr. Finally.

Checked and Approved by _______________________ (AMIR RAZIF ARIEF JAMIL ABDULLAH) Project Supervisor School of Computer and Communication Engineering Universiti Malaysia Perlis May 2007 iii .APPROVAL AND DECLARATION SHEET This project report titled Developments of Microstrip Patch Array Antenna for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) was prepared and submitted by Azizan Mat Hashim (Matrix Number: 031080626) and has been found satisfactory in terms of scope. quality and presentation as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Engineering (Communication Engineering) in Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP).

higher directivity. Microwave Office (MWO) will be introduce as an effective tool for modeling electromagnetic structure. The expected result from this project is the antenna will has a high gain. The objective of this project is to develop the antenna that has higher gain. Some methods for optimize the Microstrip Patch Antenna are studied and implemented to produce the desired antenna. better directivity.DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ARRAY ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) ABSTRACT In this project. a 4x1 Rectangular Microstrip Patch Array Antenna at frequency 2. The antenna was fabricated based on simulation and measured using Wave and Antenna Training System (WATS2002). This is due to the Rectangular Microstrip Patch Array Antenna which the bandwidth is determined by the dielectric constant and the height of substrate. Theoretically. The patch array also has a better directivity than the single patch. larger bandwidth and high efficiency. the objective of this project can be achieve through the use of high quality substrate such as RT Duroid 5870 which is have low relative permittivity or dielectric constant and higher substrate that will improve the bandwidth. wide bandwidth and higher efficiency.45 GHz for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) will be designed. fabricated and tested. The antenna will be design base on optimization and characteristics analysis. Low loss-tangent will increase the efficiency of the antenna. iv .

4x1 Antena Susunan Tampal Mikrojalur Segiempat Tepat yang beroperasi pada frekuensi kendalian 2. Secara teori.PEMBANGUNAN ANTENNA SUSUNAN TAMPAL MIKROJALUR UNTUK RANGKAIAN TEMPATAN TANPA WAYAR (WLAN) ABSTRAK Di dalam projek ini. hasil yang dharapkan adalah membangunkan antenna yang mempunyai gandaan yang tinggi. lebarjalur dan kecekapan yang tinggi. Objektif projek ini adalah untuk menghasilkan antenna yang mempunyai gandaan. Daripada projek ini. Ini adalah kerana bagi Antena Tampal Mikrojalur Segiempat Tepat. kearahan yang lebih baik. Antena ini telah difabrikasi berdasarkan kepada simulasi dan diuji menggunakan peralatan Sistem Latihan Antenna dan Gelombang (WATS 2002). kearahan. Antenna ini akan direkabentuk untuk mengoptimakan prestasi dan ciri-cirinya akan dianalisis. Perisian Microwave Office (MWO) diperkenalkan dan digunakan untuk tujuan simulasi yang mana ianya merupakan perisian yang efektif untuk permodelan struktur elektromagnet khususnya mikrojalur. objektif projek ini dapat dicapai melalui penggunaan substrat berkualiti tinggi seperti RT Duroid 5870 yang mempunyai pemalar dielektrik dan ketinggian subtrat yang tinggi untuk menhasilkan lebarjalur yang lebih luas. Beberapa kaedah untuk meengoptimumkan prestasi antena dikaji dan dipraktikkan. Kehilangan tangen yang rendah dapat meningkatkan kecekapan antenna. lebarjalur yang lebih luas dan kecekapan yang tinggi. difabrikasi dan diuji. v . lebarjalur adalah bergantung kepada pemalar dielektrik dan ketinggian substrat.45 GHz yang digunakan untuk rangkaian tempatan tanpa wayar akan direkabentuk.

1 Introduction 5 5 vi .3 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Objectives and Scope Project Introduction Array Elements Project Implementation Strategy Dissertation Overview 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.TABLES OF CONTENTS Page DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT APPROVAL AND DECLARATION SHEET ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS i ii iii iv v vi xi xii xvii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 1.

1.6.6 2.4.6 Polarization Microstrip Patch Antenna 2.2.4 Design of a Multi-layer Transmit / Receive Dual-Frequency Microstrip Patch Antenna Array New Considerations in the Design of Microstrip Antennas Microstrip Patch Antenna Receiving Array Operating in the Ku Band Microstrip Antenna with Parasitic Elements Guidelines for Design of Electromagnetically Coupled Microstrip Patch Antennas on Two-Layer Substrates High-Gain Microstrip Patch Array Antenna Using a Superstrate Layer Planar Square and Diamond Microstrip Patch Array Antennas for Dual-Polarization Operation Basic Antenna Theory Antenna Properties Right Angle Bends Factors Affecting Microstrip Design vii .2.Page 2.5 Impedance Bandwidth Radiation Pattern Gain 2.4 2.6.3 VSWR 10 11 11 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 19 19 20 20 9 9 8 8 7 7 5 6 2.2 Microstrip Line Step Discontinuity 2.3 2.1 2.4.5 2.7 2.1 2.5 2.1 Open End 2.4 2.2 Research Paper Literature Review 2.3 2.1 Introduction to Microstrip Patch Antenna Operation of Microstrip Antenna Shape of Microstrip Antenna Microstrip Discontinuity 2.1 2.4.

2 3.6.1 Quarter-Wave Transformer and 50 Ω Feedline Calculations Radiation Pattern Calculation Array Calculation 3.4 2.5.Page 2.6.3 3.4 Microstrip Line Feed 3.1 Patch Calculations 3.3 3.6.1 3.3.3 Proximity Coupling 3.1 Calculation of Patch Dimension 3.1 Coaxial Probe Feed 50 Ω.1 Patch Calculation 3.2 Calculation Of The Impedance For Quarter-Wave Transformer 2.2 Aperture Coupling 2.3 Fringing Field Feeding Techniques 2.5 Substrate Selection Patch Dimensions 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 CHAPTER 3 DESIGN OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ARRAY ANTENNA 3.3 Introduction Design Specifications Single Microstrip Patch Antenna Design 3.2 3.6.2 3. 70 Ω and 100 Ω Transmission Line Calculation Radiation Pattern Calculation Layout Based Simulation Radiation Pattern Generation 27 27 27 29 30 30 32 33 35 35 38 38 39 39 41 41 43 50 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna Design Introduction to Microwave Office viii .1.2 Calculation Of The Impedance For Quarter-Wave Transformer

3.2.1 Microwave Office Simulation 4.3 NetStumbler Test Radiation Pattern Simulation Result 4. NetStumbler Result 56 56 56 57 57 58 60 62 62 64 66 68 68 69 70 71 71 72 74 76 76 79 81 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.3 S 11 Response Radiation Pattern.4.1 4.5 Discussion 4.4 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna 4.Page CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Microwave Office Simulation 4.2 5.3.1 Optimization of Array Antenna 5.2 Measurement Results Measurement Result 4.3 Introduction Conclusion Recommendation of Future Work 82 82 82 83 ix .1.1 Optimization of Patch Antenna 4.2 Radiation Pattern Measurement 4.2 Radiation Pattern Simulation Result 4.1 4.1.3 Introduction Characteristics of Designed Antennas Single Patch Microstrip Antenna S 11 Measurement 4.4.2 Radiation Pattern Measurement 4.2.1 S 11 Measurement 4.3 NetStumbler Test 4.5.4.

Page REFERENCES 84 APPENDICES Appendix A Appendix A(i) Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E 86 86 87 88 90 91 95 x .

2 4.3 4.0 3.0 3.5 Common Substrate Materials for Microstrip Antenna Single Patch Antenna Design Specifications Dimension of Rectangular Patch Antenna Dimension of Rectangular Patch Array Antenna Various Dimension Effect on S 11 Response Optimise Dimension Versus Original Dimension (Single Patch) Optimise Dimension Versus Original Dimension (Array Patch) Summarization of the Single Patch Antenna Summarization of the Array Patch Antenna Summarization of the Radiation Pattern Page 25 28 34 40 59 59 69 77 77 80 xi .LIST OF TABLES Tables No.1 4.4 4.2 4. 2.1 3.0 4.

1.5 2.4 2.7 2.8 Flow Chart of the Project 2 X 2 Dual-Polarized Sub-arrays Frequency Response for the Antenna Radiation Pattern and 3dB Beamwidth Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Circular Patch Antenna Open End Equivalent Circuit Open End Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit for Bend Top View of Patch and a Demonstration of the Electric Fringing Fields that is Responsible for Radiation A Side View Of Microstrip Patch Antenna and the Demonstrating the Electric Fringing Fields Page 3 6 12 13 16 17 19 20 20 21 2.9 21 xii .0 2.LIST OF FIGURES Figures No.1 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.6 2.

3 3.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.13 Patch Antenna with Quarter-Wave Transformer Screenshot of the Txline Calculator Single Patch Antenna Design Layout Example of Series Feed One Dimension Parallel Feed Network Four Elements Array Line Impedance Design Layout Design Layout of Array Antenna The Microwave Office Welcome Page The Circuit Schematic Based Environment The Layout Schematic Based Environment The Substrate Information Option Window (Enclosure Tab) The Substrate Information Option Window (Dielectric Tab) The Substrate Information Option Window (Boundaries Tab) The Rectangular Conductor Button Located At the Top Toolbar Used For Initial Drawing and Sizing The Create Graph Pop-Up Window Option Indicating Types of Graphs 29 33 34 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 3.5 3.10 3.12 3.Page 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.11 3.14 48 xiii .

Page 3.2 4.3 55 58 60 61 63 4.21 3.20 3.17 The Add Measurement Option Window The Project Options Option Window Add Measurement Option Windows When Adding PPC_Ephi and PPC_Etheta Exporting the Existing EM Structure Re-Importing the Existing EM Structure The Options Window (Frequencies Tab) Selecting the E-Field Settings Option Checking the Layer 1 Check Box So That E-Field Is Computed For That Layer The Analyze Button and Simulation Process Window S 11 Simulation Response for Original Single Patch Dimension Optimize S 11 Simulated Response Single Patch Optimized Radiation Pattern S 11 Measurement Process Using Agilent E5062A Network Analyzer Measured S 11 Result 49 50 51 3.18 3.15 3.0 4.4 64 xiv .16 3.1 4.22 52 52 53 54 54 3.19 3.23 4.

18 73 73 74 75 xv .5 4.15 4.7 4.12 4.14 72 4.13 70 71 4.8 4.6 4.Page 4.17 4.16 4.11 69 4.9 4.10 Single Patch Antenna Measurement Setup Measured Single Patch Radiation Pattern Wireless Router Setup for NetStumbler Test Single Patch Antenna NetStumbler Test Configuration Single Patch Antenna NetStumbler Test Result Simulated S 11 Response for Original Array Antenna Dimensions Optimize S 11 Array Antenna Response Optimized Simulated Radiation Pattern Measured S 11 Response for Array Antenna S 11 Measurement Process for Array Antenna Using Agilent E5062A Network Analyzer Radiation Pattern Measurement Setup for Array Antenna Measured Radiation Pattern for Array Antenna Wireless Router Setup for Array Antenna Microstrip Patch Array Antenna NetStumbler Testing Configuration 65 65 66 67 67 68 4.

19 4.20 SNR versus Time for Patch Array Antenna Single Patch Antenna S 11 Response Simulation versus Measurement Array Antenna S 11 Response Simulation versus Measurement Comparison of Cell Size Effect for Simulation Comparison of SNR between Single Patch and Array Antenna 75 76 4.Page 4.23 79 81 xvi .21 77 4.22 4.

LIST OF SYMBOLS. ABBREVIATIONS OR NOMENCLATURE c BW HPBW f L w h Q t tan δ V G E Velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space Bandwidth Half Power Bandwidth Frequency Length of the Microstrip Patch Antenna Width of the Microstrip Patch Antenna Substrate thickness Quality factor Thickness of conductor Loss tangent of dielectric material voltage Gain Electric field Charge Density Input impedance Output Impedance Quarterwave (λ/4) Transformer Impedance Characteristic Impedance (Real) of the Input Transmission Line Relative Permittivity Effective Relative Permittivity Resonant Frequency. Operating Frequency Fringe factor Resistance at the edge of the patch ρ Z in Z out Z1 Z0 εr εeff f0 ΔL Rin xvii .

1416) Ohms Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Front to back ratio Conductivity Angle S-Parameter that represented an input reflection Degree Signal to Noise Power Ratio xviii .π Ω VSWR f/b σ θ S 11 ° SNR A constant (=3.