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2.2

The Continuity Equation

A basic principle of science and engineering is the conservation of mass. (Nuclear reactions will not be considered in these notes!) The continuity equation is an expression of this basic principle in a particularly convenient form for the analysis of materials processing operations. Consider a stationary diﬀerential volume element of length ∆x, width ∆y and height ∆z in a Cartesian coordinate system, as illustrated in Figure 2.2.

y

∆y ∆z

∆x

x z

Figure 2.2: An arbitrary diﬀerential volume element. The conservation of mass for this volume element (∆V = ∆x∆y∆z) may be expressed verbally as: Rate of change of mass in ∆V = Rate of mass convected into ∆V Rate of mass convected out of ∆V .

Expressed mathematically this is: ∂ρ = ∆y∆z (ρvx )|x − (ρvx )|x+∆x + ∂t ∆x∆z (ρvy )|y − (ρvy )|y+∆y + ∆x∆y (ρvz )|z − (ρvz )|z+∆z ∆x∆y∆z (2.1)

where ρ is the ﬂuid density in ∆V . Dividing each side of the equation by ∆V , taking lim∆V →0 , and invoking the deﬁnition of the partial derivative

Dt ∂t (2. In rectangular coordinates: ˆ ∇=x ∂ ∂ ∂ +y ˆ +ˆ z .5) Dt D where the substantial derivative Dt is deﬁned as: D ∂ = +v•∇. and spherical) are given in Tables 2.3 is the diﬀerential form of the continuity equation. Application of the conservation of mass to this volume leads to the integral form of the continuity equation: .2.6) Many ﬂuids encountered in polymer processing operations are essentially incompressible: the ﬂuid density is a constant. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (2.Transport Phenomena leads to: 10 ∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂ =− (ρvx ) + (ρvy ) + (ρvz ) . ∂x ∂y ∂z (2.7) The equation of continuity may be equivalently obtained in any appropriate coordinate system. A detailed explanation of the most commonly used coordinate systems can be found in Reference Notebook 1 while vector and tensor operations are explained in Reference Notebook 2.4) Equation 2. spatially ﬁxed closed region of macroscopic size. cylindrical. Its expansions in the three most commonly used coordinate systems (rectangular.3) where v is the velocity vector and ∇ is the “del” or “gradient” operator.3 leads to the equivalent expression: Dρ = −ρ(∇ • v) (2. illustrated in Figure 2. Thus ρ is a function of neither time nor space and the continuity equation reduces to: ∇•v =0.2) This can be expressed more succinctly as: ∂ρ = −∇ • (ρv) ∂t (2. The enclosed volume is called the control volume. Rearrangement of Equation 2.1 and 2. In a similar manner. it is possible to derive the continuity equation over an arbitrary. (2.3.

.2: The equation of continuity for ﬂuids of constant density in several coordinate systems.1: The equation of continuity in several coordinate systems. Rectangular coordinates: ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical coordinates: 1 ∂vθ ∂vz 1 ∂ (rvr ) + + =0 r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z Spherical coordinates: 1 ∂ 1 ∂vφ 1 ∂ 2 (r vr ) + (vθ sin θ) + =0 2 ∂r r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ Table 2.Transport Phenomena 11 Rectangular coordinates: ∂ ∂ρ ∂ ∂ + (ρvx ) + (ρvy ) + (ρvz ) = 0 ∂t ∂x ∂ ∂z Cylindrical coordinates: 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ρ 1 ∂ + (ρrvr ) + (ρvθ ) + (ρvz ) = 0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z Spherical coordinates: 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ρ + 2 (ρr2 vr ) + (ρvθ sin θ) + (ρvφ ) = 0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ Table 2.

3: An arbitrary macroscopic control volume. d ρdV = − (ˆ • ρv)dS .9) Thus the surface integral in Equation 2. The divergence theorem of Gauss states that if V is a volume bounded by a closed surface S and A is a continuous vector ﬁeld.3 and 2.Transport Phenomena 12 y S V x z ^ n Figure 2.10) dt V V Since the control volume is ﬁxed in space. n (2.8 may be converted to a volume integral: d ρdV = − (∇ • ρv)dV . the integrand must vanish.8) dt V S The equivalence of Equations 2. n (2. (2. then: V (∇ • A)dV = S (ˆ • A)dS . leading the the same expression which was derived from the inﬁnites- . the ordinary derivative may be brought inside of the integral and changed into a partial derivative. ∂t (2.11) V Because this equation holds for an arbitrary volume V . allowing both sides of the equation to be consolidated within the integral: ∂ρ + (∇ • ρv) dV = 0 .8 may be easily demonstrated through use of the divergence theorem.

The chemical reaction produces a blowing agent which reduces the density of the ﬂuid according to the equation: ρ = ρf + (ρ0 − ρf )e−t/τ . ∂vz dρ = −ρ . This may be integrated directly to give: vz = β(t)z + g(t) (2. dt ∂z (2. this is clearly a one-dimensional problem.12) 2. What is the velocity distribution within the sample as a function of time and position within the rising sample? What is the ﬁnal height of the foam? Solution: Spatially. The trough is suﬃciently large that the walls have no eﬀect on the rise of the foam. Some rearrangement leads to: 0 f −t/τ e ∂vz τ = β(t) = ∂z ρf + (ρ0 − ρf )e−t/τ ρ −ρ (2.Transport Phenomena timally small volume element: ∂ρ + (∇ • ρv) = 0 . ∂t 13 (2.16) where the function β(t) has been deﬁned for convenience.14) Since the density is a function of time but independent of position. the density of the material is constant throughout the sample. The continuity equation reduces immediately to: ∂ρvz ∂ρ =− . The trough is initially ﬁlled to a height of H0 by the reacting liquid.2.13) At any given time. ∂t ∂z (2.15) The left hand side may be evaluated directly from the equation given for the kinetics of density evolution.17) . the left hand side may be changed to an ordinary derivative and the density may be removed from the partial derivative on the right hand side. (2. with the critical coordinate in the direction of rise of the foam.1 Example: The Freely Rising Foam A block of foam is produced by pouring a reacting mixture into the bottom of a trough.

it is necessary that g(t) = 0. This immediately provides: ρ0 (2. (2.2. In order for this to be the case. 2.2 Problems 1. (a) What is the ﬁnal thickness of the coating on the web. what is the net volumetric ﬂow rate of ﬂuid? . Consider a slot coating operation where an incompressible ﬂuid is coated onto a moving web. The velocity distribution is thus given by: vz = β(t)z . Both the slot die and the web have depth W (into the page). The Incompressibility Assumption.20) Hf = H0 . In the analysis of polymer processing operations. Since the total mass in the system is conserved throughout the process.18) The ﬁnal height of the ﬁlm is easily obtained through a macroscopic mass balance. Slot Coating. t) = 0. ρf 2. The ﬂuid to be coated is pumped through a slot die at a constant volumetric ﬂow rate Q. it is often assumed that the polymer melt is incompressible. The material at the very bottom of the trough (z = 0) never rises oﬀ of the bottom so that the boundary condition is vz (z = 0. Is it accurate to assume that the density of an isothermal polymer melt is constant? Support your answer with data. The web moves at a constant velocity V . what is the net volumetric ﬂow rate of ﬂuid? What potential problem with the slot coating operation does this analysis suggest? (c) On a vertical plane between the die and the web at a point to the right of the injection slot.Transport Phenomena 14 where g(t) is an unknown function of time which is to be determined by a boundary condition. H∞ ? (b) On a vertical plane between the die and the web at a point to the left of the injection slot.4. as illustrated in Figure 2. The gap height between the bottom of the die and the top of the web is H0 .19) where Area is the cross-sectional area of the trough. we have: mass = ρ0 H0 (Area) = ρf Hf (Area) (2.

H∞ ? (b) In the region where both molten and solid portions of the polymer exist (such as at cross section A in the close-up). Film Casting. A melt of density ρL ﬂows through a die of width W and slot thickness HO at a volumetric ﬂow rate of Q.5 in cross-section. The melt ﬁlm is taken up by the chill roll of radius R which rotates at an angular velocity ω. The polymer solidiﬁes on the wheel.com. PolymerProcessing. Copyright 2001. how is the rate of increase in the thickness of the solidiﬁed portion of the ﬁlm related to the rate of decrease in the total thickness of the ﬁlm on the wheel? In this region. (a) What is the ﬁnal thickness of the ﬁlm produced. as illustrated in Figure 2. and is later stripped oﬀ in ﬁlm form. The process is operated at steady state. The radius of the chill roll is much larger than the thickness of the ﬁlm. A thin polymer ﬁlm of width W is prepared using ﬁlm casting. .4: Schematic of a slot coating operation. 3. R >> H∞ .Transport Phenomena 15 Q H0 Hoo V Figure 2. The density of the solidiﬁed polymer is ρS . you may assume that the horizontal velocity of both the molten and solid portions of the ﬁlm are the same as that of the rotating wheel.

Transport Phenomena 16 Die Q gap H0 Molten polymer A Solidified polymer H Wheel Hoo R Figure 2.5: Schematic of a ﬁlm casting operation. . A close-up of the solidiﬁcation zone is given at right.

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