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Brain-Computer Interface

Overview, methods and opportunities
Emtiyaz (Emt) CS, UBC

opportunities Two examples of BCI : P300 and ERD/ERS ERD/ERS BCI – Methods ERD/ERS BCI – Our Work . challenges. structure.Overview • • • • BCI : application.

youtube. we will watch videos http://www.Please don’t .

use BCI Military Applications Other Fancy Use Image Bayliss’ Thesis. and various webpages .Use the capabilities of remaining pathways 2.Detour around the points of damage (FES) 3.Or if you have enough time to kill.Why a Brain-Computer Interface? Locked-in Syndrome Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis 1.

Why a Brain-Computer Interface? .

A General Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Evoked Potentials Operant Conditions Implanted Methods Image Pfurtscheller 2006 .

BCI: Challenges and Opportunities Evoked Potentials P300 Operant Conditions ERD/ERS Implanted Methods Challenges High Signal Variability Underlying Physics unknown Linear or nonlinear Model? Man-Machine learning dilemma One obvious opportunity Optimization of Electrode position Image Pfurtscheller 2006 .

de/projects/bci/competition_ii/albany_desc/albany_desc_ii.html .fraunhofer. Discrete o/p. Correlation based models Non-task relevant response Average Task relevant stimuli BCI competetion II Dataset Images from http://ida.P300 BCI Sequential data.first.

ERD/ERS BCI Amplitude attenuation/ enhancement in the specific frequency bands Sequential data. Continuos o/p. Strong Spectral charasteristics C3 C4 Photographs from Pfurscheller 2002 .

ERD/ERS – Methods .

Inter-trial Variance (IV) Method Sensitive to frequency band selection Only offline Photographs from Pfurtscheller 1998 .

RLS Approach Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) Model observation noise Solved with Recursive least square (RLS) algorithms and features classified with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Photographs from Pfurtscheller 2000 .

7. 54. No. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering . Bangalore. Dutt. E.Our Work Done at the Indian Institute of Science. India in 2002-04 Published M. "An Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Based Kalman Smoother Approach for Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) Estimation from EEG". Vol. July 2007. Khan and D. N.

Q. x0. S0) .Time-varying AR Model RLS RLS algorithm EMKS Kalman filters KS Use EM to get the parameters {A. R.

Effect of EM Learning on Tracking Signal Single Trial Optimization Average Improved AR coefficients Tracking. and variance is reduced .

Spectrum Estimation Optimization Average Signal Single Trial Improved Frequency Tracking Variance is reduced .

Motor Imagery Data: Spectrum estimates Right Hand Signal Left Hand Single Trial Spectrum Estimate .

Motor Imagery Data : ERD estimation .

Final Comments • BCI datasets provide opportunity to test new algorithms • Every two year there is a BCI competition. Some free datasets can be found there (just google BCI competition) • Do it for fun and blame it on humanity!! .