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The Bosnian Triangle: Ethnicity,
Politics and Citizenship

Eldar Sarajli
Working Paper 2010/06



The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336.
Universily of Idinburgh, SchooI of Lav
The Iuropeanisalion of Cilizenship in lhe Successor Slales of lhe Iormer YugosIavia
(CITSII)















Thc Bnsnian Triang!c: Ethnicity, Pn!itics and Citizcnship

IIdar Sara|Iic









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cn Ciiizcnsnip (|UOO-Ciiizcnsnip) an! nas |ccn na!c atai|a||c as a |UOO ccuniru rcpcri cn
uuu.cu!c-ciiizcnsnip.cu. Tnc papcr jc||cuc! inc |UOO siruciurc jcr ccuniru rcpcris prcscniing
nisicrica| |ackgrcun!. currcni ciiizcnsnip rcgincs an! rcccni !c|aics cn ciiizcnsnip naiicrs in inc
ccuniru un!cr scruiinu. Oincr naicria|s inai ccnp|cncni inis papcr sucn as ciiizcnsnip-rc|aic!
|cgis|aiicn. ciiizcnsnip ncus. cnrcnc|cgu. a!cpic! inicrnaiicna| ccntcniicns an! |i||icgrapnu arc a|sc
atai|a||c cn inc |UOO uc|siic.



The Iuropeanisalion of Cilizenship in lhe Successor Slales of lhe Iormer YugosIavia
(CITSII)
CITSII Working Iaper Series 2010/06
Idinburgh, ScolIand, UK


© 2010 IIdar Sara|Iic
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AddilionaI reproduclion for olher purposes, vhelher in hard copies or eIeclronicaIIy,
requires lhe consenl of lhe aulhors.

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lhe officiaI posilion of lhe Iuropean Union.




















IubIished in lhe Uniled Kingdom
The Universily of Idinburgh
SchooI of Lav
OId CoIIege, Soulh ßridge
Idinburgh, IH8 2OL
ScolIand, UK
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The Iuropeanisalion of Cilizenship in lhe Successor Slales of lhe Iormer YugosIavia
is funded by an Advanced Invesligalor Avard for basic research made lo Io Shav by
lhe Iuropean Research CounciI and runs for five years from 1 ApriI 2009 (IRC
230239)

Ior informalion aboul lhe Iro|ecl pIease visil lhe pro|ecl vebsile al
hllp://Iav.ed.ac.uk/cilsee
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

1
Thc Bnsnian Triang!c: Ethnicity, Pn!itics and Citizcnship

IIdar Sara|Iic, SchooI of Lav, Universily of Idinburgh
1



Abstract
This paper aims lo anaIyse conlemporary cilizenship issues in ßosnia and
Herzegovina in lhe conlexl of lransilion, confIicl and idenlily poIilics. Il lries lo
conlexluaIize lhe deveIopmenl of cilizenship poIicies and praclices in hisloricaI
perspeclive and lo assess lhe currenl slale of affairs. Il exlends lhe cIaim lhal
cilizenship in ßosnia and Herzegovina has been sel vilhin a lriangIe of sociaI and
poIilicaI reIalions in vhich elhnic idenlily and poIilics pIay lhe olher lvo sides. This
lriangIe - cilizenship, elhnic idenlily and poIilics - represenls key anchor poinls
around vhich discussions on lhe ßosnian slalehood revoIve. The paper aIso provides
a hisloricaI overviev of cilizenship in ßosnia and Herzegovina in differenl phases,
incIuding a delaiIed accounl of lhe currenl cilizenship regime.

Kcywnrds:
ßosnia and Herzegovina, YugosIavia, cilizenship, elhnicily, confIicl, poIilics


1 Intrnductinn
2


As in olher simiIar neighbouring counlries, cilizenship poIicies in ßosnia and
Herzegovina have been delermined by lhe recenl hisloricaI, poIilicaI and cuIluraI
deveIopmenls lhe enlire region of former YugosIavia has experienced. In addilion lo
lhe maIaise of poslsociaIisl lransilion, shared by aII lhe YugosIavian successor slales,
lhe exisling ßosnian cilizenship regime has been slrongIy infIuenced by a herilage of
elhnic confIicl and lhe provisionaI conslilulionaI selup of lhe counlry, ilseIf a resuIl
of a peace agreemenl belveen beIIigerenl groups. ßul more profoundIy, lhe
concepluaIisalion of cilizenship in ßosnia and Herzegovina has been dependenl on
lhe definilion of lhe communily of cilizens vho conslilule lhe slale. Since ßosnia and
Herzegovina is nol a nalion-slale (and has never been one) bul a federaI union based
on lhe sovereignly of elhnic groups vhich have poIilicaI supremacy over individuaIs,
making cIear-cul assumplions and definilions of ßosnian cilizenship is cIose lo
impossibIe.
Given cilizenship's cruciaI roIe in crealing and defining of nalion-slale and ils
inescapabIe idenlily dimension, anaIysing cilizenship in a counlry such as ßosnia
and Herzegovina inevilabIy raises queslions aboul ils reIalion lo nalionaIily. The
confIalion belveen cilizenship and nalionaIily vhich oflen occurs vilhin veslern

1
IIdar Sara|Iic, Associale Researcher, CITSII pro|ecl. ImaiI: eIdarsara|+holmaiI.com.
2
I vouId Iike lo lhank Io Shav and Igor Sliks for lheir commenls and supporl in vriling lhis reporl.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

2
poIilicaI discourse poses difficuIlies in lhe anaIysis of ßosnia and Herzegovina,
preciseIy because nalionaIily (nacicna|ncsi) is, as in many olher parls of Iaslern
Iurope, underslood in ßosnia excIusiveIy in elhnic lerms, vhiIe lhis is nol
necessariIy lhe case vilh cilizenship (!rzat|jansitc). Hovever, since bolh lerms
invoIve calegories of slale and idenlily, lheir correIalion is cruciaI for underslanding
conlemporary lhe cilizenship issues and diIemmas in lhis counlry.
Cilizenship in ßosnia and Herzegovina has been sel vilhin a lriangIe of sociaI
and poIilicaI reIalions in vhich elhnic idenlily and poIilics pIay lhe olher lvo sides.
This lriangIe - cilizenship, elhnic idenlily and poIilics - represenls key anchor poinls
around vhich discussions on lhe ßosnian slalehood revoIve. This chapler aims lo
anaIyse conlemporary cilizenship issues in ßosnia and Herzegovina in lhe conlexl of
lransilion, confIicl and idenlily poIilics. Il aims lo conlexluaIize lhe deveIopmenl of
cilizenship poIicies and praclices in hisloricaI perspeclive and lo assess lhe currenl
slale of affairs. The main focus is on lhe IegaI definilion or 'slale cilizenship',
invoIving 'lhe idenlificalion of cilizenship vilh lhe eIaboralion of a formaI IegaI
slalus' belveen individuaIs and slale (Slevarl 1995: 63). The broader, democralic
underslanding of cilizenship is deaIl vilh onIy briefIy vhere conlexl and evenls
render such references necessary lo undersland lhe issue. AddilionaIIy, lhe chapler
lries lo expIain more cIearIy lhe counlry's compIicaled cilizenship regime as
eslabIished by lhe Daylon conslilulionaI framevork and lo discuss some of lhe
currenl debales.

2 Thc histnry nI Citizcnship in Bnsnia and Hcrzcgnvina

2.1 Bosnlu und Herzegotlnu ulthln emµlres

The hislory of ßosnian poIilics has aIvays been delermined by more poverfuI forces
lhan lhe counlry ilseIf. This vas especiaIIy lhe case vilh ils earIy modern and
modern hislory. As a counlry al lhe crossroads of conquesl and vars of greal
empires, bolh Iuropean and Asian, ßosnia's slalehood and independence have been
shorl-Iived. As of lhe mid fifleenlh cenlury, vhen lhe counlry feII under lhe Olloman
ruIe, unliI lhe mid lvenlielh cenlury, vhen lhe firsl modern repubIic vas crealed
under sociaIisl supervision, ßosnia and Herzegovina had been a parl of grealer
imperiaI framevorks, a periphery lo lhe Iarger pover.
ßosnian cilizenship regimes evoIved accordingIy. The firsl modern IegaI
definilions of beIonging vere deveIoped during lhe Iale Olloman ruIe. The Tanzinai
reforms (1839-1878) lhal aimed al crealing an overarching Olloman nalionaIily and
slemming lhe lide of nalionaIisl uprisings provided lhe firsl IegaI framevork lhal
corresponded lo lhe modern concepl of cilizenship. ßesides lhe GüIhane Idicl (1839)
lhal Iaid lhe ground for lhe reform across lhe board, lvo olher cruciaI documenls are
reIevanl for lhe inceplion of lhe Olloman cilizenship pro|ecl: lhe Hall-i Hümayun
Idicl of 1856 vhich promised fuII IegaI equaIily for cilizens of aII reIigions, and lhe
NalionaIily Lav of 1869 lhal crealed lhe common Olloman cilizenship, lranscending
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reIigious or elhnic divisions (KöksaI 2008: Imamovic 2006). The eslabIishmenl of a
modern-lype cilizenship in lhe Iale Olloman Impire had been infIuenced by
Iuropean ideas of civiI righls, bul aIso by lhe need lo reform lhe oId IegaI
framevork, delermined by reIigion (ßerkes 1964). Wilhin such framevork, MusIims
had been sub|ecls of Sharia Iav vhiIe non-MusIims exisled under lhe ni||ci susicn.
vhich recognised lheir minorily righls and Iefl cerlain parls of IegaI affairs, primariIy
civiI slalus and famiIy reIalions lo be governed by lheir reIigious or canon Iav
(Imamovic 2004: 110).
Hovever, lhe reforms vere unsuccessfuI, mainIy because of slrong opposilion
from beIov exerled by lhe IocaI (miIilary) Ieaders and MusIim Iandovners vho feIl
lhey vere Iosing lheir hilherlo dominanl sociaI posilion, as veII as non-MusIims vho
desired nalionaI independence and lhus opposed cenlraIisalion efforls. ßosnia and
Herzegovina vas one of lhe provinces vhere Olloman ruIe faced fierce opposilion,
proving lhe fuliIily of reform efforls on bolh grounds (Karóic 1999: 46). The Olloman
response lo lhis opposilion vas lo avoid direcl confIicl and graduaIIy incorporale
some of lhe oId praclices inlo lhe cenlraIisalion efforls. One of lhe praclices vas lhe
'Iegacy of lhe miIIel syslem, vhich recognised righls of communilies, unIike lhe
nolion of cilizenship lhal is based on individuaI righls' (KöksaI 2008: 1503). In lhal
vay, lhe Olloman cilizenship pro|ecl, lhough aimed al Iessening lhe elhnic
differences belveen ils sub|ecls and al increasing IoyaIly lo lhe Impire lhrough
eslabIishmenl of common nalionaIily, uIlimaleIy reinforced lhe miIIel dislinclions il
soughl lo diminish. The righls of cuIluraIIy and reIigiousIy defined communilies
remained lhe dominanl poIilicaI ruIe lhal delermined lhe adminislralive framevork,
bolh al lhe IocaI and lhe slale IeveI. LegaI reIalions belveen lhe slale and lhe
individuaI remained slrongIy lied lo communilies lhe individuaIs beIonged. This facl
vouId have profound consequences on lhe deveIopmenl of cilizenship in Ialer parls
of lhe ßosnian hislory.
UIlimaleIy, lhe Olloman reform efforls lo eslabIish a common cilizenship
reached a peak al lhe lime of lhe procIamalion of lhe firsl Olloman Conslilulion in
1876. ßul, by lhe lime il came lo Iife, ßosnia and Herzegovina vas occupied by
anolher imperiaI force, lhe Habsburg Impire, and cilizenship in lhe counlry
foIIoved a nev hisloricaI palh.
Iursuanl lo lhe decision of lhe Iuropean povers al lhe ßerIin Congress in
1878, lhe Auslrian-Hungarian Impire occupied ßosnia and Herzegovina and
eslabIished ils ovn IegaI regime. In IegaI lerms, lhe Auslrian-Hungarian period of
ßosnian hislory had lvo parls. The firsl parl encompassed lhe period belveen lhe
miIilary occupalion in 1878 and lhe formaI annexalion of lhe counlry in 1908. During
lhese lhirly years, under lhe lerms of lhe Trealy of ßerIin (arl. 25), lhe DuaI
Monarchy had lhe righl lo occupy and adminisler ßosnia and Herzegovina, vhiIe
lhe Olloman SuIlan relained lhe sovereign righls over lhe province. The second parl
vas delermined by lhe Habsburg decision lo annex lhe counlry and impose ils ovn
IegaI order lhal Iasled unliI lhe Impire's end in 1918. OnIy afler 1908 did ßosnians
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formaIIy become sub|ecled lo lhe ruIe of lhe Habsburg Impire. ßelveen 1878 and
1908 lhey had been considered as sub|ecls of lhe Olloman SuIlan.
There vere lvo imporlanl characlerislics of Habsburg IegaI ruIe in ßosnia and
Herzegovina. Iirsl, Auslria-Hungary relained some parls of lhe Olloman IegaI and
adminislralive selup, from lhe adminislralive organisalion, IegaI order, and lax
syslem lo agrarian reIalions. These norms vere aIlered and improved graduaIIy, bul
lhe basic sociaI slruclure remained organisalionaIIy lied lo ßosnia's communaI and
reIigious order (Imamovic 2004: 200). This selup infIuenced lhe poIilicaI slalus of
ßosnian cilizens, vhose Iimiled parlicipalion in lhe poIilicaI Iife of lhe counlry vas
delermined by lheir elhnic and reIigious beIonging. The second imporlanl
characlerislic vas lhe specific posilion of ßosnia and Herzegovina vilhin lhe DuaI
Impire, as a ccrpus scparaiun adminislered by lhe common Minislry of Iinance and
consequenliaIIy a compIex silualion vilh regard lo cilizenship. Auslrian-Hungarian
Monarchy had no common cilizenship. There had been lvo separale cilizenship
Iavs, defined by lhe Auslrian CiviI Code of 1811 and lhe Lav on Hungarian
Cilizenship from 1879, perlaining lo Iands under Auslrian and Hungarian ruIe
respecliveIy. Since ßosnia and Herzegovina vas adminislered as a separale lerrilory,
none of lhese cilizenship Iavs vas appIied lhere. Thus, lhe inhabilanls of ßosnia and
Herzegovina vere neilher Auslrian nor Hungarian cilizens. Inslead, lhey had lhe
IegaI slalus of 'members of lhe Iand of ßosnia and Herzegovina' (Imamovic 2004:
242). This slalus vas furlher defined vilh lhe procIamalion of lhe Land Slalule
(Conslilulion) in 1910 lhal inlroduced universaI civic equaIily and reguIaled a
uniform cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina as a dislincl adminislralive enlily
(icrriicriun scparaiun) vilhin lhe Habsburg Impire.
Afler lhe Iirsl WorId War and lhe disappearance of lhe DuaI Monarchy,
ßosnia and Herzegovina became a parl of lhe Slale and Ialer lhe Kingdom of Serbs,
Croal and SIovenes, vhich vas superseded by lhe Kingdom of YugosIavia. RoyaI
YugosIavian ruIe and lhe Cilizenship Lav from 1928 eslabIished a singIe
YugosIavian cilizenship for lhe vhoIe lerrilory of lhe Kingdom, lherefore aIso
defining lhe slalus of ßosnians vilhin lhe Soulh SIavic slale.

2.2 Bosnlun reµubIlcun cltlzenshlµ ln socluIlst YugosIutlu

The hislory of ßosnian cilizenship under sociaIisl YugosIavia lracked lhe evoIulion of
ils federaI syslem. Il vas defined by lhe firsl cilizenship IegisIalion enacled in 1945.
Irom lhal momenl, lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina, as a consliluenl parl
of lhe common YugosIav slale, evoIved logelher vilh lhe overaII conslilulionaI
deveIopmenl of lhe YugosIav federalion. The mosl saIienl characlerislic of lhe
cilizenship regime eslabIished and mainlained during lhe SociaIisl YugosIavia vas
ils bifurcaled nalure, vilh federaI and repubIican cilizenships exisling
simuIlaneousIy. This meanl ßosnian cilizens had repubIican (ßosnian) and federaI
(YugosIavian) cilizenship al lhe same lime. Their reIalion vas delermined by lhe
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conslilulions and lhe federaI and repubIican cilizenship Iavs enacled lhree limes
over a period of roughIy lhirly years, from 1945 lo 1977.
SociaIisl YugosIavia venl lhrough a number of conslilulionaI phases lhal
refIecled lhe ideoIogicaI and geopoIilicaI shifls lhe ruIing Communisl Iarly pushed
forvard bul aIso delermined lhe poIilicaI nalure of lhe counlry and ils consliluenl
parls - lhe RepubIics (KardeI| 1980: 385-403: Iovic 2003). Hovever, lhe roIe of lhe
conslilulionaI deveIopmenl of YugosIavia can be aIso seen lhrough lhe prism of
poIilicaI idenlilies deveIoped in direcl reIalion vilh lhe slrucluraI evoIulion of lhe
counlry and lhe posilion of parlicuIar repubIics vilhin il, incIuding ßosnia and
Herzegovina. There vere lhree dislincl phases vilhin YugosIavia's conslilulionaI
evoIulion lhal refIecled bul aIso delermined lhis reIalionship. The firsl phase
invoIved lhe period belveen lhe officiaI crealion of lhe nev YugosIav slale in 1943
and lhe procIamalion of lhe firsl conslilulion in 1946, vhen lhe counlry acquired ils
ideoIogicaI and conslilulionaI slruclure. The Democralic IederaI YugosIavia (DIY)
(1943) and Ialer lhe IederaI IeopIe's RepubIic of YugosIavia (IIRY) (1946) vere bolh
defined in lerms of a federaI repubIican slale, consliluled by communilies of 'equaI
peopIes vho hoId lhe righl of seIf-delerminalion'.
3
The second phase began afler
1953 vhen lhe ConslilulionaI Lav defined lhe IIRY as a 'sociaIisl and democralic
federaI slale of lhe sovereign and equaI peopIes' and ended in 1963 vhen lhe nev
Conslilulion furlher defined lhe sociaIisl characler of lhe slale and procIaimed a nev
name lhal vouId Iasl unliI ils dissoIulion in lhe ninelies - lhe SociaIisl IederaI
RepubIic of YugosIavia (SIRY). IinaIIy, il vas onIy in lhe lhird phase, beginning in
1974, lhal lhe YugosIav federalion vas delermined as a federaI slale of 'voIunlariIy
uniled peopIes and lheir sociaIisl repubIics' (Ibrahimagic and Kurlóeha|ic 2002: 48-
53).
Throughoul SociaIisl YugosIavia's enlire poIilicaI hislory, lhere vas a cerlain
lrade off belveen federaI and repubIican IeveIs of pover lhal became discernibIe
lhrough lhe pallern of YugosIavian conslilulionaI changes. In a slricl ideoIogicaI
sense, unily al lhe IeveI of poIilicaI ideas vas beyond queslion, al Ieasl during lhe
firsl lhirly years of lhe YugosIav federalion, and lhe respeclive federaI conslilulions
refIecled lhis facl. ßul, since lhe revoIulion and uprising againsl lhe foreign occupiers
and lheir inlernaI aIIies during lhe Second WorId War vere underslood nol onIy in
lerms of cIass, bul aIso as elhnic and nalionaI Iiberalion, lhe concepl of nalionaIily
and nalion-slale never ceased lo infIuence lhe inlernaI poIilics of YugosIavia. This
vas cIearIy refIecled in lhe reIalionship belveen lhe federalion and ils consliluenl
repubIics, eslabIished and changed according lo lhe evoIulion of lhe YugosIavia's
conslilulionaI Iav. If lhe iniliaI founding documenls relained a considerabIy
ambiguous lerminoIogy and avoided expIicil nalion-slale IabeIs lo describe bolh lhe
federalion and consliluenl repubIics by hoIding onlo more vague lerms of 'peopIe',
lhe Ialer conslilulionaI deveIopmenl cIeared lhe ambiguily and eslabIished a more

3
Uslav IederaIne Narodne RepubIike IugosIavi|e (Conslilulion of IederaI IeopIe's RepubIic of
YugosIavia), S|uz|cni |isi |N|j, br. 10/46.
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confederale reIalion belveen lhe federalion and lhe repubIics as nalion-slales of lheir
respeclive elhnic ma|orilies. This vas especiaIIy evidenl vilh lhe Conslilulion of 1974
and ils definilion of lhe slale as a communily of 'uniled peopIes and incir sociaIisl
repubIics' (emphasis added).
Thus, lhe poIilics of YugosIavian cilizenship musl be underslood in lhese
lerms. The evoIulion of cilizenship Iavs foIIoved lhe changes in lhe federaI
conslilulion and framed lhe vays individuaIs beIonged bolh lo lheir respeclive
repubIic and lo lhe common federalion. The firsl Iav on federaI cilizenship vas
rendered immedialeIy afler lhe Second WorId War, during lhe firsl session of lhe
Temporary NalionaI AssembIy on 23 Augusl 1945 and had lhe expIicil poIilicaI roIe
of defining lhe main body of YugosIav cilizens vho had aclive and passive voles in
lhe forlhcoming eIeclions. The Lav on Cilizenship of lhe Democralic IederaI
YugosIavia vas confirmed by lhe ConslilulionaI AssembIy's procIamalion of lhe nev
YugosIav Conslilulion on 31 Ianuary 1946 (Medvedovic 1998: 23-24). Wilh severaI
subsequenl modificalions and amendmenls, from 1946 lo 1976, lhis Cilizenship Lav
vouId remain lhe basic piece of IegisIalion for delermining lhe federaI cilizenship of
SociaIisl YugosIavia.
The provision of lvo forms of cilizenship - lhe federaI and lhe repubIican -
vas eslabIished in lhe iniliaI piece of IegisIalion of 1946. Il provided lhal every
cilizen vas 'simuIlaneousIy a federaI cilizen and every federaI cilizen (vas) in
principIe a counlry cilizen' (Medvedovic 1988: 39). The lerm 'counlry cilizen' vas
Ialer changed lo lhe 'cilizen of lhe peopIe's repubIic' lo refIecl lhe changes in lhe
federaI IegisIalion, bul lhe basic slruclure of bifurcaled cilizenship remained lhe ruIe
for lhe enlire period of YugosIavia's sociaIisl exislence. This vas aIso lhe case vilh
lhe excIusivily of repubIican cilizenship: lhe 1946 Iav provided lhal a cilizen of lhe
IIRY couId hoId lhe cilizenship of onIy one of lhe peopIe's repubIics. Since no
simiIar provisions exisled in lhe Kingdom of YugosIavia, nev crileria for lhe
eslabIishmenl of lhe repubIican cilizenship had lo be crealed. The Lav on
Cilizenship of lhe DIY (in lhe arl. 37 para. 1) defines lhe counlry of residence
(domiciIe) as lhe main ground for lhe delerminalion of lhe repubIican cilizenship.
YugosIav cilizens vho had a 'domiciIe or membership in a counly on lhe lerrilory of
lhe respeclive counlry' on 6 ApriI 1941 - lhe day lhe Axis povers invaded YugosIavia
- became cilizens of lhe respeclive federaI unils (Medvedovic 1988: 41).
Hovever, lhe mosl imporlanl IegaI source for repubIican cilizenship vas lhe
Iav enacled al lhe repubIican IeveI. Ior ßosnia and Herzegovina, lhree Iavs in lhe
period of roughIy lhirly years defined ils repubIican cilizens: lhe Lav on Cilizenship
of lhe IeopIe's RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina from 1950,
4
lhe Lav on
Cilizenship of lhe SociaIisl RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina from 1965
5
and lhe
Lav on lhe Cilizenship of lhe SociaIisl RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina from

4
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu Narodne RepubIike ßosne i Hercegovine, S|uz|cni |isi BiH. br. 5/50.
5
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu Soci|aIislióke RepubIike ßosne i Hercegovine, S|uz|cni |isi S|BiH. br. 6/65.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

7
1977.
6
AIlhough lhe lerms of acquisilion of lhe repubIican cilizenship had been
oulIined by lhe federaI Iav from 1946, lhe firsl delaiIed provisions on lhe acquisilion
and lerminalion vere eslabIished afler lhe repubIican cilizenship Iavs vere rendered
in 1950. As vilh lhose of lhe olher YugosIav repubIics, ßosnian repubIican
cilizenship Iavs provided lhal lhe primary principIe for lhe acquisilion of cilizenship
vas origin (ius sanguinis). Olher principIes lhough combined vilh ius sanguinis (such
as ius sc|i and naluraIisalion) vere of a secondary reIevance.
Since lhe federaI Iav slipuIaled lhe unily of federaI and repubIican
cilizenship, lhe lerminalion of lhe YugosIav federaI cilizenship aulomalicaIIy
represenled lhe lerminalion of lhe individuaI's respeclive repubIican cilizenship.
Hovever, lhe lerminalion of repubIican did nol invoIve simuIlaneous lerminalion of
lhe federaI cilizenship. One couId Iose ils repubIican and relain federaI cilizenship,
bul lhese silualions occurred in lhe cases of lhe change of lhe repubIican cilizenship.
In lhe case of ßosnia and Herzegovina, lhe 1977 Lav (arl. 8, para. 1) provided lhal an
individuaI from anolher YugosIav repubIic couId acquire ßosnian repubIican
cilizenship if he or she vas above eighleen and resided on lhe lerrilory of ßosnia and
Herzegovina.
7

The bifurcaled nalure of lhe YugosIav cilizenship raised a number of
lheorelicaI issues perlaining lo lhe queslion of lhe supremacy of federaI or repubIican
cilizenship. AIlhough no consensus on lhis issue has yel been reached among IegaI
schoIars, cerlain faclors indicale lhal federaI cilizenship vas 'derivalive', vhiIe
repubIican cilizenship vas 'primary' (Rakic 1998: 58: on lhe debale aboul lhe
primacy see aIso Muminovic 1998: 73: Sliks 2006: 485). This vas especiaIIy lhe case
vilh lhe Ialer YugosIav IegisIalion lhal had inlroduced more confederale reIalions
belveen lhe federalion and lhe repubIics, Ieading evenluaIIy lo a higher degree of
repubIican sovereignly in delermining cilizenship provisions. The federaI
conslilulion of 1974 and lhe corresponding repubIican cilizenship Iavs, adopled
belveen 1975 and 1979, provide lhe IegaI ground for such argumenlalion. The
ßosnian 1977 cilizenship Iav slipuIaled lhal lhe 'decision on lhe acquisilion and
lerminalion of lhe cilizenship of lhe SIRY and SRßiH viII be rendered by lhe
RepubIican Secrelarial for InlernaI Affairs' (arl. 24, para. 1), indicaling lhal lhe
sovereignly in lerms of cilizenship Iied al lhe repubIican IeveI.
Hovever, regardIess of lhal facl, cilizens of aII repubIics had equaI righls and
dulies on lhe lerrilory of lhe enlire federalion, as provided by lhe 1974 federaI
Conslilulion. Thus, repubIican cilizenship had fev praclicaI consequences on lhe
Iives of ßosnian cilizens in YugosIavia, and many peopIe vere nol even avare lhal
lhey had a repubIican cilizenship. The significance of il vouId appear much Ialer
vhen lhe dissoIulion of YugosIavia and lhe nev IegaI silualion lhal ensued crealed
nev cilizenship praclices based on lhe ruIe of repubIican IegaI conlinuily.

6
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu Soci|aIislióke RepubIike ßosne i Hercegovine, S|uz|cni |isi S|BiH. br. 10/77.
7
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu Soci|aIislióke RepubIike ßosne i Hercegovine, S|uz|cni |isi S|BiH. br. 10/77,
page 277.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

8
2.3 The dlssoIutlon of YugosIutlu und the neu cltlzenshlµ reglme ln Bosnlu und
Herzegotlnu

The dissoIulion of YugosIavia and lhe emergence of nev slales raised a number of
IegaI issues lhal had lo be delermined on compIeleIy nev grounds and crealed
unprecedenled IegaI and poIilicaI compIexilies. This vas especiaIIy evidenl in ßosnia
and Herzegovina. Combined vilh lhe dissoIulion of lhe federalion, IegaI succession,
elhnic confIicl and lhe posl-confIicl poIilics based on lhe primacy of group (elhnic)
over individuaI righls, a unique cilizenship silualion has been crealed. Il vouId have
far-reaching consequences for lhe oulIook and lhe fulure of ßosnia and Herzegovina
as a slale.
Modern IegaI doclrine slipuIales lhal issues of cilizenship faII excIusiveIy
vilhin lhe |urisdiclion of slales. Though conlemporary IegaI deveIopmenl and lhe
inlroduclion of cilizenship as a basic human righl have significanlIy undermined lhe
prerogalives of slales in reguIaling cilizenship, lhis issue sliII represenls one of lhe
mosl saIienl manifeslalions of slale sovereignly (UNHCR 1997: Cok 1999). This vas
lhe case vilh lhe independenl RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina, eslabIished in
1992 on lhe basis of lhe popuIar referendum, afler lvo olher YugosIav repubIics,
SIovenia and Croalia, seceded from lhe YugosIav federalion. The Iresidency of
ßosnia and Herzegovina enacled lhe Cilizenship Acl on 6 Oclober 1992, seven
monlhs afler lhe officiaI decIaralion of independence and amid heavy fighling in
Iarge parls of ßosnia and in ils besieged capilaI. Defining lhe iniliaI body of cilizens
vilhin lhe conlexls of slale succession, compIex IegaI hislory and lhe var
represenled significanl chaIIenges for ßosnian aulhorilies. The iniliaI delerminalion
of ßosnia and Herzegovina's cilizenry vas based on IegaI conlinuily vilh lhe
previous repubIican cilizenship and Ialer, unIike in lhe olher former YugosIav
repubIics, lerriloriaI residence for lhose vho did nol have il. This makes lhe ßosnian
case simiIar lo vhal Rogers ßrubaker caIIs lhe incIusive 'nev-slale modeI' according
lo vhich lhe ma|orily of lhe former Soviel repubIics lransformed aII residenls on lhe
lerrilory inlo cilizens of nev slale (1992: 279: UNHCR 1997: 29). This means lhal lhe
1992 Cilizenship Acl vas based on lhe IegaI conlinuily vilh lhe former cilizenship of
lhe SociaIisl RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina. IeopIe vho had lhe counlry's
repubIican cilizenship during YugosIavia vere aulomalicaIIy considered as cilizens
of lhe nev slale. On lhe olher side, lhe cilizens vho had anolher repubIican
cilizenship vilhin YugosIavia, bul vere residing in ßosnia and Herzegovina on 6
ApriI 1992 vere aIso considered as cilizens of lhe nev ßosnian slale.
8


8
The iniliaI provision in lhe Cilizenship Acl of 1992 slipuIaled lhal a person had lo be residenl in
ßosnia and Herzegovina uninlerrupledIy for five years prior lo 6 ApriI 1992, bul vas amended in 1993
providing lhal aII SIRY cilizens aulomalicaIIy received ßosnian cilizenship if residenl on ils lerrilory
al lhe designed dale. Il has been argued lhal, lo a cerlain exlenl, lhis refIecled lhe slralegic aims of lhe
ßosnian governmenl lo incIude as many individuaIs possibIe inlo lhe miIilary obIigalion and defense
of lhe slale (UNHCR 1997).
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9
The coIIeclive naluraIisalion of peopIe vilh cilizenships of olher former
repubIics of lhe SIRY, based on lhe appIicalion of a residence requiremenl, vas
suppIemenled by addilionaI provisions governing lhe acquisilion of ßosnian
cilizenship by aIiens (non-SIRY nalionaIs) vho had lo fuIfiII a number of
requiremenls, incIuding an age Iimil (eighleen years), a requiremenl of len years of
uninlerrupled residence in lhe counlry, and a requiremenl lo have financiaI means
for suslenance. Spouses of ßosnian cilizens had lo fuIfiII a residence requiremenl of
five years. Some of lhe provisions vere laken over from lhe previous sociaIisl
cilizenship Iav (1977).
AddilionaIIy, lhe naluraIisalion of aIiens (bolh former SIRY and non-SIRY
persons) vas furlher faciIilaled lhrough amendmenls enacled in 1993 lhal provided
individuaI naluraIisalions of lhe members of lhe Armed Iorces of ßosnia and
Herzegovina vho had nol been ßosnian cilizens. The amendmenl lo arl. 2 of lhe
Cilizenship Acl provided lhal members of lhe Armed Iorces couId acquire lhe
cilizenship vilhoul having lo fuIfiII any speciaI requiremenls
9
(Muminovic 1998: 79).
This parlicuIar provision vouId have significanl IegaI and poIilicaI consequences
since il enabIed a significanl number of individuaI naluraIisalions of foreign
nalionaIs vho |oined lhe ßosnian armed forces and remained in lhe counlry afler lhe
end of lhe var. AIlhough lhe provision vas eIiminaled vilh lhe enaclmenl of lhe
Daylon Conslilulion and lhe corresponding cilizenship IegisIalion (vilh aII
individuaI naluraIisalions granled belveen 6 ApriI 1992 and 31 December 2006
pending a reviev by a speciaI Commission)
10
lhe issue sliII represenls a maller of
bolh IegaI and poIilicaI conlroversy. Mosl of lhe individuaI naluraIisalion cases on
lhe basis of arl. 2 perlained lo peopIe vho foughl in lhe Army of ßosnia and
Herzegovina (incIuding fighlers vho came from lhe MiddIe Iasl or Africa).
11

Through subsequenl IegisIalive aclion, lhe Cilizenship Acl from 1992 became
lhe Lav on Cilizenship of lhe RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina in 1994. Il look
over mosl of lhe provisions oulIined in lhe previous IegisIalion and amended fev
olher lhings. SliII, lhe cilizenship IegisIalion enacled by lhe formaI aulhorilies of
ßosnia and Herzegovina had lhe effecl onIy in lhe parls of lhe counlry's lerrilory
conlroIIed by lhe ßosnian Army. The olher varring side - lhe inlernalionaIIy
unrecognised RepubIic of Srpska - had ils ovn cilizenship Iav, enacled in December

9
Uredba sa zakonskom snagom o izm|enama i dopunama Uredbe sa zakonskom snagom o
drzavI|anslvu RepubIike ßosne i Hercegovine S|uz|cni |isi |BiH, br. 11/93, 251.
10
This provision excIudes naluraIisalions of individuaIs vho vere cilizens of one of lhe former SIRY
repubIics and vho vere residenl in ßosnia and Herzegovina on 6 ApriI 1992 for al Ieasl lvo years
uninlerrupledIy afler lhe enaclmenl of lhe Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina (1999), as
veII as former cilizens of lhe SIRY vho look permanenl residence in lhe counlry belveen 31
December 1998 and 3 Seplember 1999 and remained residenl uninlerrupledIy for lhree years (see
more in Daulbasic 2003: 59).
11
Given lhal lhe breakavay Serb RepubIic (RepubIika Srpska) did nol recognise lhe aulhorily of lhe
ßosnian governmenl, lhe individuaI naluraIisalions in lhis parl of ßosnia and Herzegovina did nol
foIIov lhe same IegaI provisions.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

10
1992.
12
The Lav on Serb Cilizenship (Zakcn c !rzat|jansitu srpskcn
13
) vas a prime
exampIe of an elhnocenlric IegisIalion (UNHCR 1997: 30), cIearIy aimed al 'elhnic
engineering' (Sliks 2006) and as such couId be underslood in lhe broader conlexl of
elhnic cIeansing in lhe parls of ßosnia under lhe Serb conlroI. Irom lhe democralic
slandpoinl, il had many highIy conlroversiaI provisions, such as lhose on lhe
'acceplance of Serb cuIlure' and knovIedge of 'Serb Ianguage and CyriIIic scripl' as
one of lhe prerequisiles for naluraIisalion (arl. 7) or lhose on lhe acquisilion of
cilizenship for any person of elhnic Serb origin, vilhoul having lo fuIfiII lhe reguIar
condilions for naluraIisalion of foreign individuaIs (arl. 15).
In 1993 lhe ßosnian confIicl look on anolher dimension vhich aIlered lhe
cilizenship silualion: lhe var belveen ßosniaks (ßosnian MusIims) and Croals broke
oul. Il vouId be resoIved vilh lhe Washinglon Agreemenl of 1994 vhich eslabIished
lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina, an enlily lhal Ialer became a conslilulive
parl of lhe Daylon-shaped ßosnian slale. The Conslilulion of lhe Iederalion and lhe
Lav on Cilizenship of lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina provided lhe
cilizenship of lhis enlily, as parl of lhe broader slale cilizenship.

2.4 Duµton cltlzenshlµ

Wilh lhe peace agreemenl brokered by lhe CIinlon Adminislralion of lhe Uniled
Slales in 1995, ßosnia and Herzegovina enlered a nev phase in ils poIilicaI hislory.
The peace agreemenl ended lhe four-year var and delermined lhe adminislralive
and poIilicaI shape of lhe counlry, vilh lvo enlilies as ils consliluenl parls - lhe
RepubIic of Srpska, vhich vas defined as an enlily of lhe Serb peopIe, and lhe
Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina, defined as an enlily of ßosniaks and Croals.
The lexl of lhe peace agreemenl, accepled in Daylon, Ohio and signed in Iaris by lhe
presidenls of ßosnia and Herzegovina, Croalia and Serbia, aIso conlained lhe
Conslilulion of lhe counlry. Il vas one of lhe len annexes lo lhe agreemenl ilseIf. The
impIemenlalion of lhe peace agreemenl provisions vas deIegaled lo lhe nevIy
crealed inslilulion lhal vouId prove crilicaI for suslaining lhe poIilicaI order in lhe
counlry for many years lo come: lhe Office of lhe High Represenlalive for ßosnia and
Herzegovina (OHR). In addilion lo lvo enlilies, lhe subsequenl arbilralion of lhe
inlernalionaI communily eslabIished a separale Dislricl ßróko in norlhern ßosnia, lhe
onIy area in lhe counlry ruIed and adminislered independenlIy of lhe elhnicaIIy-
defined enlilies.

12
AIlhough lhere vere al Ieasl lhree varring sides during lhe confIicl, onIy lhe officiaI aulhorilies of
ßosnia and Herzegovina and lhe RepubIic of Srpska enacled Iavs on cilizenship. The Croal-conlroIIed
Herzeg-ßosnia never had any IegisIalion perlaining lo cilizenship, since il never opled for a fuII-bIovn
independence: ralher, il lried lo achieve lhe higher degree of aulonomy vilhin ßosnia and
Herzegovina or merge vilh Croalia al some Ialer poinl in hislory.
13
Iven lhe name of lhe Lav indicales ils highIy elhnocenlric nalure. UnIike lhe Ialer Daylon-
delermined and inlernalionaIIy supervised IegisIalion, lhe 1992 Lav on Serb Cilizenship is expIicilIy
focused on and concerned abou lhe elhnic 'subslance' of lhe body of ils cilizens.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

11
The cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina vas defined in lhe arl. 1, para. 7 of
lhe Conslilulion, providing lhal 'lhere shaII be a cilizenship of ßosnia and
Herzegovina, lo be reguIaled by lhe IarIiamenlary AssembIy, and a cilizenship of
each Inlily, lo be reguIaled by each Inlily'.
14
The same paragraph gives a provision
lhal echoes lhe former reIalion belveen lhe federaI and repubIican cilizenships in lhe
SIRY, slipuIaling lhal 'aII cilizens of eilher Inlily are lhereby cilizens of ßosnia and
Herzegovina'. As had been lhe case vilh YugosIav cilizenship, lhis provision raised a
number of queslions concerning lhe 'primary' or 'derivalive' nalure of enlily
cilizenships and lhe subsequenl emphasis on lhe sovereignly of lhe slale or ils
adminislralive unils (Muminovic 1998: 84).
The conslilulionaI provisions on cilizenship vere confirmed and furlher
delermined by lhe Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina, enacled by lhe
slale parIiamenl in 1999, afler lhe inlernalionaI communily's High Represenlalive for
ßosnia and Herzegovina imposed il lvo years before. Il provided lhe IegaI ground
for lhe subsequenl enaclmenls of lhe enlily cilizenships, lhe Lav on Cilizenship of
RepubIic of Srpska (1999) and lhe Lav on lhe Cilizenships of lhe Iederalion of
ßosnia and Herzegovina (2001). ßolh enlily Iavs equaIIy provided lhal cilizens of lhe
enlily 'are lhereby cilizens of ßosnia and Herzegovina'.
15
The reIalionship belveen
lhe slale and enlily cilizenships is furlher defined in arls. 25-29 of lhe Lav on
Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina. These provisions seem lo indicale lhal enlily
cilizenships are primary, vhiIe lhe slale cilizenship is derivalive. This is especiaIIy
lhe case vilh provisions such as lhose lo be found in arl. 27 vhich slipuIales lhal a
person vho Ioses lhe cilizenship of one enlily, vilhoul acquiring lhe cilizenship of
lhe olher, aulomalicaIIy Ioses lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina.
16
Hovever,
lhere are olher provisions lhal indicale lhe opposile (for exampIe, lhe arl. 1 of lhe
Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina lhal provides lhal enlily cilizenship
Iavs musl be in accordance lo lhe slale Iav). ConsequenlIy, lhe reIalionship belveen
lhe lvo musl be underslood as somevhal ambiguous, providing grounds for
differing inlerprelalions.
The Daylon Conslilulion and lhe Lav from 1999 annuIIed aII lhe previous
IegisIalion on cilizenship, incIuding lhe acls and Iavs of bolh lhe RepubIic of ßosnia
and Herzegovina and lhe previousIy unrecognised RepubIic of Srpska. Hovever, il
impIied lhe conlinuily vilh lhe RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina. ßolh lhe
Conslilulion and lhe Lav on Cilizenship expIicilIy provided lhal aII persons hoIding
lhe cilizenship of lhe RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina are aulomalicaIIy cilizens
of ßosnia and Herzegovina (Muminovic 1998: 84). The Lav on Cilizenship aIso
provided lhal lhe slalus of naluraIised persons in ßosnia and Herzegovina in lhe
period belveen 1992 and 2006 vouId be delermined by a speciaI commission.


14
The Daylon Ieace Accords, Annex 4, Conslilulion of ßosnia and Herzegovina, arl. 1, para. 7.
15
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu RepubIike Srpske, óIan 2. S|uz|cni g|asnik |cpu||ikc Srpskc. 35/99: Zakon o
drzavI|anslvu Iederaci|e ßosne i Hercegovine, óIan 2. S|uz|cni g|asnik |c!cracijc BiH. 43/01.
16
Zakon o drzavI|anslvu ßosne i Hercegovine, óIan 27. S|uz|cni g|asnik BiH. 13/99.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

12
3 Thc currcnt citizcnship rcgimc

3.1 Acqulsltlon of cltlzenshlµ ln Bosnlu und Herzegotlnu

The Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina provides severaI modes for lhe
acquisilion of cilizenship:

a) Acquisilion |u !csccni is delermined by arl. 6. Cilizenship of ßosnia and
Herzegovina is acquired by a chiId born afler lhe enlry inlo force of lhe slale
Conslilulion. The chiId acquires lhe cilizenship if: bolh of his or her parenls
vere ßosnian cilizens al lhe lime of lhe chiId's birlh, regardIess of lhe pIace of
his or her birlh: one of his or her parenls vas a ßosnian cilizen al lhe lime of lhe
chiId's birlh, and lhe chiId vas born on lhe ßosnian lerrilory: one of lhe parenls
vas a cilizen of ßosnia and Herzegovina al lhe lime of lhe chiId's birlh, and lhe
chiId vas born abroad if lhe chiId vouId olhervise be slaleIess: lhe chiId vas
born abroad and one of his or her parenls vas a ßosnian cilizen al lhe lime of
lhe chiId's birlh: he or she has been regislered for lhe purpose of being enlered
in cilizens regisler vilh lhe compelenl ßosnian aulhorily al home or abroad, or
he or she has laken up permanenl residence in lhe ßosnian lerrilory.

b) Acquisilion |u |irin cn inc icrriicru cj Bcsnia an! Hcrzcgctina (arl. 7). ßosnian
cilizenship is acquired by a chiId vho has been born or found on lhe lerrilory of
ßosnia and Herzegovina afler lhe enlry inlo force of lhe Conslilulion and bolh
of vhose parenls are unknovn or of unknovn cilizenship or slaleIess, or if lhe
chiId is slaleIess. A chiId coming vilhin lhese provisions Ioses lhe cilizenship if,
by lhe age of fourleen years, he or she acquires lhe cilizenship of anolher slale
by descenl.

c) Acquisilion |u a!cpiicn, defined in arl. 8. A chiId under lhe age of eighleen vho
has been fuIIy adopled by a cilizen of ßosnia and Herzegovina afler lhe enlry
inlo force of lhe Conslilulion acquires ßosnian cilizenship.

d) Acquisilion |u naiura|isaiicn (arls. 9-14). A foreigner vho has submilled a
requesl for acquisilion of lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina may
acquire il by naluraIisalion if he or she fuIfiIs lhe foIIoving condilions: reaching
eighleen years of age: having a permanenl pIace of residence regislered on
ßosnian lerrilory for al Ieasl eighl years before submilling a requesl: having
knovIedge of one of lhe ßosnian consliluenl Ianguages: has nol been an ob|ecl
of a securily measure of expuIsion of a foreigner from lhe counlry or of lhe
proleclive measure of removing a foreigner from ßosnian lerrilory underlaken
by an aulhorily eslabIished in accordance vilh lhe Conslilulion, and lhis
measure is sliII in force: has nol been senlenced lo a lerm of imprisonmenl for a
premedilaled criminaI acl for Ionger lhan lhree years vilhin eighl years of lhe
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

13
submission of a requesl: renouncing or olhervise Iosing lhe former cilizenship
upon lhe acquisilion of lhe ßosnian cilizenship, unIess a biIaleraI agreemenl
belveen ßosnia and Herzegovina and lhal slale (as referred lo in arl. 14)
provides olhervise.

e) Acquisilion |u jaci|iiaic! naiura|isaiicn provides addilionaI requiremenls and
condilions. Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina may be acquired by lhe
foreign spouse of a ßosnian cilizen if: lhe marriage Iasled for al Ieasl five years
before submilling lhe requesl and lhal il sliII Iasls vhen lhe requesl is
submilled: a person renounces or olhervise Ioses ils former cilizenship upon
acquisilion of ßosnian cilizenship unIess a biIaleraI agreemenl provides
olhervise: a person has been a permanenl residenl for al Ieasl lhree years on lhe
lerrilory of ßosnia and Herzegovina. AddilionaIIy, lhe arl. 11 provides lhal a
chiId under lhe age of eighleen, one of vhose parenls has acquired ßosnian
cilizenship, has lhe righl lo ßosnian cilizenship by naluraIisalion, if he or she is
permanenlIy residenl on ßosnian lerrilory. Under lhis provision, a parenl vho
has lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina may appIy for acquisilion of his
or her cilizenship on behaIf of a minor chiId. If lhe chiId is over fourleen years
of age, his or her consenl is required. Arl. 12 provides lhal lhe foIIoving
persons are enlilIed lo acquire ßosnian cilizenship by appIicalion vilhoul
meeling lhe oulIined naluraIisalion requiremenls: emigranls vho have relurned
lo ßosnia and Herzegovina and lheir spouses, as veII as firsl and second
generalion descendanls of emigranls vho have relurned lo lhe counlry.
IndividuaI cases of naluraIisalion vilhoul meeling lhe oulIined requiremenls
may aIso occur, if a person is, according lo lhe arl. 13, considered lo be of
parlicuIar benefil lo ßosnia and Herzegovina. Hovever, no delaiIs of vhal lhis
benefil vouId represenl are given in lhe arlicIe. IinaIIy, in aII cases vhere lhe
Lav provides for lhe Ioss of lhe previous cilizenship by persons acquiring
ßosnian cilizenship, lhese persons are enlilIed lo conlinue lo hoId lhe
cilizenship of lhe previous slale vhenever lhis is provided for by a biIaleraI
agreemenl belveen ßosnia and Herzegovina and lhal slale.

3.2 Termlnutlon of cltlzenshlµ ln Bosnlu und Herzegotlnu

The Ioss of ßosnian cilizenship is delermined by provisions oulIined in arls. 15-24.
Hovever, arl. 15 provides lhal lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina may nol be
Iosl if lhe person concerned vouId lhereby become slaleIess (save from cases of lhe
cilizenship acquired by means of frauduIenl conducl, faIse informalion or
conceaImenl of any reIevanl facls allribulabIe lo lhe appIicanl, defined in arl. 23).
Olhervise, ßosnian cilizenship is lerminaled:

a) Bu cpcraiicn cj |au (arls. 17-18). Under lhis provision, cilizenship is Iosl by lhe
voIunlary acquisilion of anolher cilizenship, unIess a biIaleraI agreemenl
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belveen ßosnia and Herzegovina and lhal slale, approved by lhe IarIiamenlary
AssembIy in accordance vilh arl. IV (4) (d) of lhe Conslilulion, provides
olhervise. AIso, cilizenship is Iosl by a chiId if, foIIoving a fuII adoplion, he or
she acquires lhe cilizenship of anolher slale.

b) Bu rcnunciaiicn (arls. 19-20). Arl. 19 provides lhal a cilizen vho has reached lhe
age of eighleen and habiluaIIy resides abroad and has acquired or has been
guaranleed lhe cilizenship of anolher slale has lhe righl lo renounce lhe
cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina. A simiIar provision appIies lo a chiId
vho Iives abroad and has been guaranleed lhe cilizenship of anolher slale: he
or she ceases lo have ßosnian cilizenship by renuncialion upon lhe requesl of
parenls vhose ßosnian cilizenship ceased lo exisl by renuncialion, or upon lhe
requesl of one parenl vhose cilizenship ceased lo exisl by renuncialion, if lhe
olher parenl is dead vas deprived of parenlaI responsibiIilies, or is a foreigner
or slaleIess or upon lhe requesl of an adopling parenl if his or her ßosnian
cilizenship vas Iosl by renuncialion and lhe reIalionship belveen lhe adopling
parenl and lhe adopled chiId is one of fuII adoplion. If lhe chiId is over fourleen
years of age, his or her consenl is required.

c) Bu rc|casc, as defined in arls. 21-22. ReIease from ßosnian cilizenship may be
granled upon requesl lo a person Iiving in lhe lerrilory of ßosnia and
Herzegovina and meeling lhe condilions of: being eighleen years of age, having
no criminaI proceedings insliluled againsl him or her for criminaI acls
proseculed ex officio, having served lhe senlence if senlenced lo imprisonmenl
in ßosnia and Herzegovina, having sellIed aII required conlribulions, lax or
olher IegaI obIigalions for paymenl slipuIaled by a IegaI decision of lhe
aulhorised bodies: having acquired or have been guaranleed lhe cilizenship of
anolher slale, and having fuIfiIIed miIilary obIigalions. A chiId under eighleen
years of age vho has acquired or has been guaranleed lhe acquisilion of
anolher slale's cilizenship and vho sliII Iives on lhe ßosnian lerrilory ceases lo
have lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina by reIease upon lhe requesl of
one or bolh parenls vhose ßosnian cilizenship vas lerminaled by reIease.

d) Bu uiin!raua| (arl. 23). The cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina may be
vilhdravn if: lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina vas acquired by
means of frauduIenl conducl, faIse informalion or conceaImenl of any reIevanl
facl allribulabIe lo lhe appIicanl: a ßosnian cilizen performs voIunlary service
in a foreign miIilary force in spile of an in|unclion lo lhe conlrary: or if lhe
ßosnian cilizenship vas acquired afler lhe enlry inlo force of lhis Lav, vilhoul
lhe fuIfiImenl of lhe naluraIisalion condilions.


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3.3 Cltlzenshlµ of the ReµubIlc of Srµsku und the lederutlon of Bosnlu und
Herzegotlnu

The Daylon Conslilulion of ßosnia and Herzegovina provided a duaI, slale and
enlily cilizenship for lhe counlry. Ivery cilizen of one of ils enlilies (lhe RepubIic of
Srpska and lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina) is, lhereby, a cilizen of lhe
slale of ßosnia and Herzegovina. The reIalion belveen lhe slale and enlily
cilizenships is defined in lhe Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina. In arl.
1, il provides lhal lhe cilizenship Iavs of lhe enlilies musl be compalibIe vilh lhe
Conslilulion of ßosnia and Herzegovina and lhe Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia and
Herzegovina. AddilionaIIy, lhe Lav provides lhal a person, vho Ioses his or her
enlily cilizenship, vilhoul receiving lhe cilizenship of lhe olher enlily, Ioses his or
her ßosnian cilizenship. The person vho Ioses lhe slale cilizenship simuIlaneousIy
Ioses lhe enlily cilizenship (arl. 27).
ßolh of lhe enlily cilizenship Iavs are accorded lo lhe slale cilizenship Iav
and have simiIar provisions on mosl of lhe issues. The acquisilion and Ioss of enlily
cilizenships foIIov lhe same modes eslabIished in lhe slale cilizenship Iav, incIuding
principIes of ius sanguinis, ius soIi, adoplion, naluraIisalion and inlernalionaI
agreemenl for acquisilion and principIes of operalion of Iav, renuncialion, reIease,
vilhdravaI and inlernalionaI agreemenl for lhe lerminalion of cilizenship.
Inlily cilizenship Iavs provide lhal aII cilizens of ßosnia and Herzegovina
vho have resided on lhe lerrilory lhal loday beIongs lo one of lhe enlilies on 6 ApriI
1992 are lo be considered as cilizens of lhal enlily. Hovever, lhe Cilizenship Lav of
RepubIic of Srpska differs from lhe Iederalion cilizenship Iav in addilionaI
provisions slaling lhal persons vho resided on lhe lerrilory of Iederalion of ßosnia
and Herzegovina on 6 ApriI 1992 bul moved lo lhe RepubIic of Srpska by 1 Ianuary
1998 viII be aIso considered as cilizens of RepubIic of Srpska (arl. 39). The difference
basicaIIy refIecls lhe somevhal opposile poIilicaI slralegies of lhe lvo ßosnian
enlilies. WhiIe poIilicians from lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina pIace more
emphasis on lhe compIelion of lhe refugee relurn process in lhe counlry and
advocale more enlily inlegralion in lhe slruclures of lhe slale, lhe RepubIic of Srpska
seeks lo mainlain lhe slalus quo and lo prevenl inlegralion by discouraging lhe
relurn of refugees lo lheir pre-var residences. Irovisions granling aulomalicaIIy lhe
cilizenship of RepubIic of Srpska lo Serb refugees from Iederalion, cIearIy, aid lo lhe
process of elhnic homogenisalion of lhe enlilies.
In addilion lo lhal, lhe Cilizenship Lav of RepubIic of Srpska has anolher,
sIighlIy conlroversiaI poIilicaI provision, differenl from lhe one in lhe Iederalion of
ßiH. Arl. 40 of lhe RepubIic of Srpska Iav provides a reguIalion lhal defines lhal aII
persons vho had been cilizens of lhe former SIRY and look residence in RepubIic of
Srpska belveen 6 ApriI 1992 and 1 Ianuary 1998 and mainlained il for more lhan lvo
years are eIigibIe lo acquire lhe cilizenship of RepubIic of Srpska. Il has been argued
lhal lhis provision has lhe poIilicaI aim of reguIaling lhe slalus of Serb refugees from
Croalia and lhus aIlering lhe elhnic slruclure of lhe RepubIic of Srpska lo lhe
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delrimenl of Croals and ßosniaks. The provision has spurred some resenlmenl
among ßosniak and Croal poIilicians in lhe counlry and il remains an unsoIved
poIilicaI ralher lhan IegaI issue (Imeri el aI 2006: 63).
The change of enlily cilizenships is provided in bolh of lhe enlily Iavs (arl. 31
for RepubIic of Srpska and arl. 27 for lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina). A
cilizen of one of lhe enlilies residing in lhe olher may change his or her enlily
cilizenship if desires lo do so, if lhe change of residence occurred afler lhe Lav
enlered inlo force. Upon lhe acquisilion of cilizenship of one enlily, peopIe
aulomalicaIIy Iose lhe cilizenship of lhe olher enlily.

3.4 Cltlzenshlµ lssues ln µructlce. µrocedures und resµonslblIltles

The praclicaI inslilulionaIisalion of cilizenship IegisIalion in ßosnia and Herzegovina
oves much lo lhe counlry's dependence on lhe inlernalionaI communily and ils
represenlalives. The varlime cilizenship Iavs, bolh of lhe RepubIic of ßosnia and
Herzegovina and of lhe RepubIic of Srpska vere infIuenced by poIilicaI priorilies
and elhnocenlric slralegy respecliveIy. The inlernalionaI communily made sure lhe
firsl posl-var cilizenship IegisIalion diverged from lhese principIes. Tvo years afler
faciIilaling negolialions in Daylon, lhe inlernalionaI communily's High
Represenlalive in ßosnia and Herzegovina imposed lhe Lav on Cilizenship of
ßosnia and Herzegovina (17 December 1997) vhich vas subsequenlIy adopled (vilh
idenlicaI vording) by lhe IarIiamenl of ßosnia and Herzegovina. In addilion lo
imposing lhe Iav, lhe High Represenlalive has aIso imposed severaI subsequenl
amendmenls lo lhis Iav as veII as lo enlily Iavs on cilizenship (in 2002 and 2009).
Some of lhe amendmenls addilionaIIy aIlered lhe cilizenship slruclure in lhe counlry
and provided lhe freedom for ßróko Dislricl residenls lo choose lheir ovn enlily
cilizenship since lhe dislricl is a seIf-governing body under direcl ßosnian
sovereignly lhal officiaIIy beIongs lo bolh enlilies.
CIearIy, vilhoul lhe slricl inlernalionaI supervision and imposilion of
cilizenship IegisIalion, lhe silualion mighl have been much vorse and more
compIicaled. The invoIvemenl of lhe Office of lhe High Represenlalive (OHR) in lhe
cilizenship mallers enabIed refIeclion of lhe main democralic principIes in
cilizenship IegisIalion and provided cIear guidance on lhe dislribulion of
compelencies and responsibiIilies regarding cilizenship.
The inslilulionaI responsibiIily on cilizenship issues in ßosnia and
Herzegovina is dislribuled belveen lhe slale and enlily IeveIs. The Lav on
Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina (arl. 30) provides lhal enlily aulhorilies
(Minislry of InlernaI Affairs in lhe Iederalion of ßiH and Minislry of LocaI
Governance and SeIf-Governance in lhe RepubIic of Srpska) decide on cases of
acquisilion of cilizenship by descenl, acquisilion of cilizenship by birlh, acquisilion
of cilizenship by naluraIisalion and faciIilaled naluraIisalion, and decisions on Ioss of
cilizenship by reIease. On lhe olher side, lhe slale-IeveI Minislry of CiviI Affairs is in
charge of lhe Ioss of cilizenship by operalion of Iav and Ioss of cilizenship by
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vilhdravaI, incIuding lhe cases lhal have nol been oulIined as being under lhe enlily
compelencies (see Imeri 2006: 59).
Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina is proved by a passporl or cilizenship
cerlificale, issued by lhe aulhorilies in charge of keeping lhe birlh regislers, vhich
are lhe Minislry of InlernaI Affairs in lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina (and
lhe canlonaI IeveI minislries) and lhe Minislry of LocaI Governance and SeIf-
Governance in lhe RepubIic of Srpska. The cilizenship cerlificale slales bolh lhe
enlily and lhe slale cilizenship of lhe individuaIs. Idenlily cards, hovever, conlain no
reference lo lhe enlily cilizenship. The passporl aIso onIy records lhe individuaI's
cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina, vilh no menlion of lhe person's enlily
beIonging. Hovever, lhe passporl conlains informalion aboul lhe inslilulion lhal
issued il lhereby indireclIy indicaling lhe enlily cilizenship of lhe passporl hoIder,
excepl for residenls of lhe ßróko Dislricl.
The regisler of residence and idenlificalion documenls is lhe responsibiIily of
lhe Agency for Idenlificalion Documenls, Regislers and Dala Ixchange. The Agency
vas crealed as a parl of lhe CIIS pro|ecl, vhose main ob|eclive vas lo eslabIish a
syslem for lhe impIemenlalion of lhe Lav on Idenlificalion Documenls, Regislers
and Dala Ixchange, enacled in 2008.

4 Currcnt Pn!itica! Dcbatcs and RcInrm P!ans

4.1 Lthnocentrlc cltlzenshlµ

Slricl reIiance on lhe Daylon conslilulionaI framevork and lhe poIilicaI consleIIalion
crealed by il has been considered as one of lhe main characlers of lhe ßosnian
cilizenship regime. The poIilicaI consleIIalion crealed by lhe provisions of lhe Daylon
Agreemenl is highIy elhnocenlric and refIecls lhe elhnopoIilicaI aims and priorilies
of lhe once varring sides of lhe ßosnian confIicl. The poIilicaI domain in ßosnia and
Herzegovina is divided across elhnic Iines and lhese divisions have aIso been
enlrenched in lhe counlry's IegisIalion. In a slricl communilarian fashion, lhe lhree
dominanl elhnic groups in ßosnia share pover and delermine lhe oulIook of lhe
slale and enlily inslilulions. On lhe enlily IeveIs, Croals and ßosniaks dominale in
lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina, vhiIe Serbs dominale in lhe RepubIic of
Srpska. The slale IeveI is shared belveen lhe lhree, vilh elhnic quolas delermined for
bolh Houses of lhe IarIiamenl, lhe Slale Iresidency as veII as governmenl minislries
and olher slale inslilulions.
As a resuIl of lhis inslilulionaI framevork, lhe overaII parlicipalion of cilizens
in lhe poIilicaI Iife of lhe counlry is circumscribed by lhe elhnic idenlilies and
aIIegiances. Iven lhe voling syslem prevenls individuaIs from lranscending elhnic
boundaries and eIecling members of olher elhnic groups as lheir represenlalives.
This is parlicuIarIy lhe case vilh lhe lhree-member Iresidency and lhe House of lhe
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IeopIes of lhe Slale IarIiamenl, vhich are direclIy eIecled by lheir elhnic
consliluency.
17

CorrespondingIy, cilizenship, as a Iink belveen lhe individuaIs and lhe slale,
is IargeIy underslood lhrough lhe prism of elhnicily (Guzina 2007: 227). The
communilarian emphasis on lhe imporlance of elhnic groups prevenls cerlain groups
of individuaIs from en|oying lhe fuII speclrum of lheir civiI righls. IrimariIy, lhis
perlains lo lhe conslilulionaI selup of lhe counlry lhal excIudes individuaIs on lhe
basis of lheir elhnic idenlily. The scaIe of lhis excIusion vas significanlIy high before
2000, since enlily conslilulions conlained a provision lhal defined enlilies as
excIusive dominions of lheir elhnic ma|orilies. The RepubIic of Srpska vas defined as
a slale of lhe Serb peopIe and lhe Iederalion as a slale of ßosniacs and Croals. The
ConslilulionaI Courl of ßosnia and Herzegovina evenluaIIy changed lhis vilh a
decision from 2000. Il concIuded lhal provisions of lhe enlily conslilulions, vhich
gave speciaI righls lo respeclive elhnic ma|orilies, vere nol in accordance vilh a slale
conslilulion lhal slipuIales lhe equaI conslilulionaI slalus of aII lhree elhnic groups
on lhe enlire lerrilory of ßosnia and Herzegovina.
18
The Courl's decision, regardIess
of cerlain conlroversies il provoked in defying lhe elhnic excIusion Iogic of lhe
counlry's consocialionaI selup, significanlIy aIlered lhe IegaI ground providing for
civic parlicipalion in poIilics and a more democralic environmenl. Hovever, il did
nol subslanliaIIy change lhe elhnocenlric slruclure of lhe generaI IegaI and poIilicaI
syslem lhal conlinued lo favour elhnic groups over individuaIs in lhe enlilIemenls of
civic righls. Moreover, by Iimiling poIilicaI righls lo members of lhree dominanl
groups, il has been argued lhal even lhis decision conlribuled lo lhe excIusion of
olher elhnic groups (minorilies) in lhe counlry, such as Ievs, Roma and olher, vho
are denied cerlain poIilicaI righls on lhe basis of such IegaI provisions.
The debale over lhe elhnocenlric nalure of lhe ßosnian poIilicaI syslem is al
lhe core of lhe academic and experl discussions on lhe pIans and suggeslions for lhe
poIilicaI reform of lhe counlry. On one side of lhe debale are lhose vho favour
communilarian and consocialionaI emphasis on group righls and pover sharing
belveen elhnic eIiles (Kasapovic 2005: VIaisavI|evic 2006): vhiIe on lhe olher are
lhose vho advocale individuaI righls and principIes of democralic deIiberalion for
poIilicaI managemenl of a muIlielhnic slale (Mu|kic 2007: Haveric 2006). IssenliaIIy,

17
The eIeclion Iav slipuIales lhal cilizens of lhe RepubIic of Srpska are lo eIecl lhe Serb member of lhe
Iresidency, vhiIe Croal and ßosniak members are eIecled by lhe cilizens of lhe Iederalion of ßosnia
and Herzegovina. IssenliaIIy, lhis ruIe refIecls lhe communilarian principIe of group righls and
enlilIemenls and defines ßosnia and Herzegovina as a consocialionaI poIilicaI communily. Hovever,
lhere had been cerlain devialions from lhis ruIe lhal have produced poIilicaI quarreIs and
dissalisfaclion, such as lhose afler lhe 2006 eIeclions, vhen a Croal member of lhe Iresidency vas
eIecled from a non-elhnic (SociaI Democral) parly lhanks lo lhe voles of many non-Croals in lhe
Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina. Croal elhnic parlies al firsl refused lo recognize lhe Iegilimacy
of lhe vole and asked for a more slringenl eIeclion ruIes lhal viII Iimil cross-elhnic voling in lhis
enlily.
18
See more in |asi |urcpcan Ccnsiiiuiicna| |cticu, 10 (1) Winler 2001.
hllp://vvv1.Iav.nyu.edu/eecr/voI10num1/conslilulionvalch/bosnia.hlmI.
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lhe debale dravs upon differenl visions of lhe nalure of probIems in ßosnian
poIilicaI hislory, bul aIso corresponds lo conlemporary discussions in poIilicaI lheory
and foIIovs lhe IiberaI - communilarian divide (ßenhabib 2002: IarreIIy 2004). Il
affecls lhe underslanding of cilizenship lo a greal exlenl, since il shapes lhe modeIs
of reIalion belveen individuaIs and lhe slale lhal viII delermine fulure IegisIalion
oulcomes in lhis area.

4.2 The reglonuI context. the cuse of duuI cltlzenshlµ

One of lhe parlicuIarIy saIienl characlerislics of lhe cilizenship silualion in ßosnia
and Herzegovina is lhe issue of duaI cilizenship. The Lav on Cilizenship of ßosnia
and Herzegovina (arl. 4) provides lhal cilizens of ßosnia and Herzegovina may hoId
cilizenship of anolher slale if lhere is a biIaleraI agreemenl belveen lhal slale and
ßosnia and Herzegovina. As al lhe lime of vriling lhis paper, such agreemenls have
been signed and ralified onIy vilh Serbia and Sveden, and around 9,000 duaI
cilizenships have been acquired on lhal basis. Wilh no slalislicaI dala or breakdovns,
one can onIy assume aboul lhe dislribulion of lhis figure lo bolh cases. Sveden
accepled a Iarge number of ßosnian refugees belveen 1992 and 1995, many of vhom
vere subsequenlIy granled Svedish cilizenship. Hovever, lhe number of ßosnian
cilizens hoIding Serbian cilizenship cannol be considered insignificanl. This perlains
nol onIy lo elhnic Serbs vho mighl have acquired Serbian cilizenship as refugees
from parls of ßosnia and Herzegovina conlroIIed by ßosnian Army or Croal forces,
bul lo elhnic MusIims from lhe Sandzak area vho migraled lo ßosnia and
Herzegovina as veII. One vave of lhis migralion occurred during lhe var, vhen
many of abIe-bodied men escaped being drafled inlo lhe YugosIav Army for lhe
vars in Croalia, ßosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo (from 1991 lo 1999) vhiIe lhe
olher foIIoved lhe pallern of economic and parliaIIy elhnic migralion.
Hovever, lhe currenl regionaI poIilicaI conlexl, logelher vilh lhe common
hislory of YugosIav successor slales, creales an even more compIex silualion vhen il
comes lo duaI nalionaIily of ßosnian cilizens. This especiaIIy perlains lo hoIders of
bolh ßosnian and Croalian cilizenships, a figure reaching more lhan 500,000
individuaIs. The Lav on Croalian Cilizenship (arl. 16) provided lhe possibiIily for
Croals (and lhose idenlifying lhemseIves as Croals) residing oulside of Croalia lo
oblain Croalian cilizenship (Ragazzi and Sliks 2009: 345). The eslimales say mosl of
lhe Croal cilizens of ßosnia and Herzegovina used lhis possibiIily (16 per cenl of lhe
ßosnian popuIalion), logelher vilh a significanl number of non-Croals, especiaIIy in
lhe veslern parls of lhe counlry. Hovever, since lhe biIaleraI agreemenl on duaI
cilizenship belveen Croalia and ßosnia and Herzegovina has nol yel been ralified by
lhe ßosnian parIiamenl and since arl. 17 of lhe ßosnian cilizenship Iav slipuIales lhal
a person Ioses his or her ßosnian cilizenship upon acquiring cilizenship of anolher
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slale,
19
lhe finaI slalus of lhese cilizenships avails ralificalion of lhe agreemenl, or
addilionaI IegisIalive aclion lhal viII aIler lhe probIemalic provisions.
20
NonelheIess,
ßosnian cilizens hoIding Croalian passporls effecliveIy en|oy various civiI and
poIilicaI benefils, such as visa-free lraveI lo lhe IU and voling in Croalian
presidenliaI and parIiamenlary eIeclions.
21
These possibiIilies are aIso oflen used by
lhose vho break lhe Iav or face a lriaI in one counlry and find IegaI refuge in
anolher. These kinds of silualions occurred on numerous occasions in previous years
vhen many individuaIs used lhe opporlunily lo escape lhe Iav and lo avoid
delenlion by fIeeing across lhe border.
22
The eslimales say lhere are as many as 500
individuaIs vilh criminaI records vho use lheir duaI cilizenship slalus as a looI for
proleclion from proseculion. So far, afler being found guiIly, 282 persons escaped
ßosnia and Herzegovina (106 of lhem fIed lo Croalia, 100 lo Serbia, 24 lo Monlenegro
and 56 unknovn), vhiIe 46 convicled individuaIs from Croalia fIed lo ßosnia and
Herzegovina.
23
The negolialions belveen ßosnia and Herzegovina and Croalia on
finding IegaI soIulions lo lhis probIem are ongoing.
The currenl poIilicaI debales on duaI cilizenship issues revoIve around
possibIe amendmenls lo lhe Iav lhal viII aIler lhe provision in arl. 17 lhal slipuIales
Ioss of ßosnian cilizenship upon acquiring anolher cilizenship if no biIaleraI
agreemenl exisls. Iaced vilh lhe necessily of renouncing lheir ßosnian cilizenship
vhen acquiring lhe cilizenship of anolher slale lhal does nol aIIov for duaI
cilizenships (such as Germany), more lhan 50,000 have aIready renounced lheir
ßosnian cilizenship.
24
Some poIicy makers are fearfuI lhal, unIess lhe provisions from

19
Arl. 17 refIecls lhe provision from lhe arl. 4, lhal says lhal ßosnian cilizens of may hoId lhe
cilizenship of anolher slale, provided lhal lhere is a biIaleraI agreemenl belveen ßosnia and
Herzegovina and lhal slale.
20
The iniliaI version of lhe Cilizenship Lav had sel lhe deadIine for ßosnia and Herzegovina lo sign
lhe biIaleraI agreemenls al 1 Ianuary 2003. Hovever, since lhe agreemenls have unliI lhen been signed
and ralified onIy vilh lvo counlries (Sveden and Serbia) lhe former High Represenlalive for ßosnia
and Herzegovina, Mr Iaddy Ashdovn imposed amendmenls lo lhe Lav lhal exlended lhis deadIine
unliI 1 Ianuary 2013. See more al hllp://vvv.ohr.inl/ohr-
depl/presso/pressr/defauIl.asp`conlenl_id·28837.
21
Ior inslance, 97,735 volers from ßosnia and Herzegovina casl lheir voles al lhe second round of lhe
2010 IresidenliaI IIeclions in Croalia. This represenls around 37 per cenl of aII regislered Croalian
volers in ßosnia and Herzegovina. See more al
hllp://vvv.izbori.hr/2009Ireds|ednik/rezuIlali2K/r_00_9901.hlmI.
22
The mosl nolorious cases being ßranimir GIavas, a Croalian poIilician and a former miIilary officer
facing charges for var crimes commilled in Croalia in earIy 1990s vho fIed lo ßosnia and
Herzegovina in 2009 lhanks lo his Herzegovinian origins and a ßosnian passporl, and Anle IeIavic,
lhe former head of lhe mosl prominenl Croal poIilicaI parly in ßosnia and Herzegovina, HDZ and a
former member of lhe slale Iresidency, vho fIed lo Croalia afler being found guiIly for corruplion
and embezzIemenl in ßosnia and Herzegovina in 2005.
23
Onctni Ataz |daiIy nevspaper], 25 November 2009, 3.
24
See lhe reporl by Radio Iree Iurope al
hllp://vvv.sIobodnaevropa.org/Conlenl/ArlicIe/1195830.hlmI.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

21
lhe Cilizenship Lav are changed, more simiIar cases may occur in lhe fulure.
25

ßearing in mind lhal lhere are around one miIIion cilizens of ßosnia and
Herzegovina residing abroad (moslIy in Norlh America and Iurope) vho have by
nov acquired lhe cilizenship of lheir hosl counlry, lhe issue of amending lhe
probIemalic provisions of lhe cilizenship Iav viII probabIy remain on lhe reform
agenda of lhe ßosnian decision makers.

4.3 NuturuIlsutlon of forelgn lndltlduuIs

Among lhe mosl conlesled issues in lhe ßosnian cilizenship silualion is lhe case of
individuaI naluraIisalions lhal look pIace during lhe var (1992-1995). The mosl
probIemalic parl of lhese naluraIisalions perlains lo lhe individuaIs from IsIamic
counlries of Africa and lhe MiddIe Iasl vho arrived in ßosnia and Herzegovina lo
|oin one of lhe varring sides in lhe ßosnian confIicl, lhe Army of ßosnia and
Herzegovina. Their naluraIisalions vere made possibIe by lhe provisions of lhe Lav
on Cilizenship of lhe RepubIic of ßosnia and Herzegovina (arl. 2) lhal enabIed
members of ßosnian Armed Iorces lo acquire lhe counlry's cilizenship. Il is
eslimaled lhal lhis silualion affecls around lvo lhousand individuaIs, aIlhough no
cIear slalislicaI indicalion has yel been offered.
26

IvenluaIIy, afler severaI allempls lo reguIale lhis issue by governmenlaI
decisions, lhe provisions from lhe amendmenls lo lhe Daylon-based Lav on
Cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina in 2005 required revisions of lhese individuaI
naluraIisalions. Iursuanl lo arls. 40 and 41 of lhe Lav, lhe Commission on lhe
Revision and Revocalion of IndividuaI NaluraIisalions belveen 6 ApriI 1992 and 1
Ianuary 2006 vas eslabIished. Ils lask vas lo revise and revoke iIIegaIIy acquired
cilizenships. The Commission operaled from March 2006 lo December 2009 and
revieved lvo sels of naluraIisalion cases: individuaIs from lhe former YugosIav
repubIics vho vere assumed lo have gained lheir cilizenships vilhoul meeling lhe
necessary residency requiremenls (around 20,000 cases) and individuaIs from 36
olher slales, moslIy from Iaslern Iurope, MiddIe Iasl and Norlh Africa vho gained
cilizenship on various grounds (1,300 cases). The Commission revoked around 660
cilizenships heId by individuaIs from lhe Ialler group, on lhe grounds of iIIegaI
acquisilion and uliIisalion of iIIegaI means, such as faIse personaI dala, faIsified
documenls, ficlilious addresses, and armed forces cerlificales.
27
The remaining 600

25
SlrangeIy, aIlhough bolh arlicIes lhal provide exislence of biIaleraI agreemenls and renuncialion
(arl. 4 and arl. 17) pose probIems, lhe ongoing debales revoIve moslIy around amending arl. 17.
26
Il is very difficuIl lo keep lrack of exacl dala aboul lhis issue. The main reason for lhis is lhe
exlremeIy sensilive poIilicaI nalure of lhe probIem delermined bolh by lhe gIobaI conlexl as veII as
regionaI and IocaI reIalions of pover. Very fev officiaI sources are viIIing lo provide any indicalion
on lhe numbers of lhese cases, so lhe onIy possibIe sources for some dala are media reporls. See for
exampIe hllp://vvv.isn.elhz.ch/isn/Currenl-Affairs/Securily-Walch/DelaiI/`ols591·4888CAA0-ß3Dß-
1461-98ß9-I20I7ß9C13D4&Ing·en&id·52180 .
27
Inlerviev vilh Mr V|ekosIav Vukovic, former Chairman of lhe Commision for Revision and
Revocalion of IndividuaI NaluraIisalions, 5 Iebruary 2010.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

22
vere considered as IegaI and lhese individuaIs conlinued lo en|oy lheir civiI and
poIilicaI righls as ßosnian cilizens. Hovever, mosl of lhese individuaIs (originaIIy
nalionaIs from counlries in Norlh Africa and MiddIe Iasl) have aIready Iefl ßosnia
and Herzegovina for IU counlries, so lhe eslimales are lhal onIy around 200 of lhese
persons remain in lhe counlry.
28
The ma|orily of lhem reside in |usl one of lhe
counlry's enlilies, lhe Iederalion of ßosnia and Herzegovina. The revision of lhe
naluraIisalion of 20,000 individuaI cases from former YugosIav repubIics is sliII
pending, and lhe Minislry for CiviI Affairs look over lhe responsibiIily of revision. So
far, onIy 350 of lhese cilizenships have been revoked.
The issue of individuaI naluraIisalions of persons from MiddIe Iasl and Norlh
Africa has become a parlicuIarIy significanl yel very sensilive dimension afler lhe 11
Seplember 2001 lerrorisl allacks in lhe Uniled Slales. IoIIoving US pressure lo lackIe
lhe probIem of former IsIamic fighlers vho vere suspecled of using ßosnia and
Herzegovina as a base for lerrorisl operalions in lhe Wesl, ßosnian aulhorilies
responded vilh arresls, delenlions and deporlalions of some of lhese individuaIs
vho slayed in lhe counlry afler lhe var. The mosl nolorious case vas lhe so-caIIed
'AIgerian Group'.
29
Six men vere arresled and handed over lo lhe US aulhorilies
vho lransferred lhem lo Guanlanamo prison in Ianuary 2002 under suspicion of
invoIvemenl in lerrorisl aclivilies and a pIanned allack on lhe US and UK embassies
in ßosnia and Herzegovina. In five individuaI cases from lhis group, cilizenship vas
revoked immedialeIy afler lheir deporlalion lo Guanlanamo. ApparenlIy, lvo of
lhese persons vere abIe lo regain lhe cilizenship of ßosnia and Herzegovina,
foIIoving lheir reIease from prison in 2008.
30
The US aulhorilies faiIed lo prove lheir
invoIvemenl in any form of lerrorisl aclivilies. Their imprisonmenl vas nol based on
sufficienl evidence and lheir case resuIled in lhe firsl Guanlanamo reIease under a
courl order. Il foIIoved a ruIing from lhe US Supreme Courl lhal delainees vere
enlilIed lo a courl reviev of lheir cases. Given lhe gIobaI conlexl and lhe IocaI
poIilicaI sensilivily, lhe issue had vide media allenlion and cIearIy infIuenced

28
The facl lhal ma|orily of lhem have Iefl indicales lheir molives for lhe iniliaI acquisilion of ßosnian
cilizenship. According lo some eslimales lhe number of individuaIs from lhe MiddIe Iasl and Norlh
Africa vho iIIegaIIy acquired ßosnian cilizenship, in lhe counlry or abroad al lhe ßosnian consuIales
(lhrough frauduIenl means, such as buying passporls) lo reach and sellIe in IU counlries vilh il and
use lhe slalus of ßosnian refugees is significanlIy higher, up lo 10,000 cases. The Commission vas said
lo be veII avare of lhis facl, bul no cIear slalislics on lhese cases are avaiIabIe, since mosl of lhese
individuaIs have renounced or abandoned using cilizenship of lhe respeclive IU slale in vhich lhey
have sellIed and fuIfiIIed necessary condilions. Islimales and inlerprelalion based on lhe ilerviev
vilh Mr V|ekosIav Vukovic, former Chairman of lhe Commision for Revision and Revocalion of
IndividuaI NaluraIisalions, 5 Iebruary 2010.
29
The group incIuded six men: ßensayah ßeIkacem, ßoudeIIa eI Ha||, Lakhdar ßoumediene, Sabir
Mahfouz Lahmar, Muslafa Ail Idr and Mohammad NechIe. AII of lhem had vorked for IsIamic
charily organisalions in ßosnia and Herzegovina, originaIIy run from Saudi Arabia, Uniled Arab
Imirales and lhe Uniled Kingdom. Afler lhe end of lhe var, lhey married IocaI vomen and gained
ßosnian cilizenship.
30
See hllp://vvv.isainleI.com/sile/index.php`oplion·com_conlenl&lask·viev&id·212.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

23
debales and issues around ßosnian cilizenship poIicies during and immedialeIy afler
lhe var.
31

The enlire case acquired a human righls dimension, because lhe allempls of
lhe ßosnian governmenls lo reclify mislakes made lhrough naluraIisalion poIicies in
lhe pasl have caused nev human righls vioIalions. The HeIsinki Commillee for
Human Righls in ßosnia and Herzegovina, vhich incIuded olher inlernalionaI
organisalions, such as Iuropean IarIiamenl and lhe CounciI of Iurope, vas
parlicuIarIy concerned vilh lhe governmenl aclions on lhe revocalions of cilizenship
and exlradilion of individuaIs suspecled of lerrorisl aclivilies, especiaIIy lhe
'AIgerian Group'. The HeIsinki Commillee considered lhe exlradilion of lhe six men
from lhis group lo lhe US a vioIalion of lhe main inlernalionaI convenlions on
human righls and cilizenship.
32


4.4 Cltlzenshlµ und humun rlghts

Iver since ils eslabIishmenl, lhe Daylon inslilulionaI framevork in ßosnia and
Herzegovina has faced crilicism on lhe basis of a lrade-off belveen slabiIily and
human righls (ßaIasz 2008: 105). ßy ensuring slabiIily afler lhe end of hosliIilies
belveen lhe beIIigerenl groups lhe Daylon Agreemenl crealed a framevork lhal
favours lhe dominanl bul marginaIises minorily elhnic and olher groups (ßieber
2004: Hilchner 2005: Haveric 2006: Mu|kic 2007: Saróevic 2008). ßefore lhe ruIing of
lhe ConslilulionaI Courl on lhe 'conslilulionaIily of peopIes' in 2000, aII lhree of lhe
main elhnic groups faced inslilulionaIised excIusion in lhe areas of lhe counlry
vhere lhey vere in a minorily posilion. AIlhough lheir excIusion vas somevhal
reduced afler lhis decision, lhe ruIe of dominanl groups in ma|orily areas has
remained a defining characlerislic of ßosnian poIilicaI syslem.
33

The need lo lransform lhe conslilulionaI slruclure of ßosnia and Herzegovina
and lo enabIe higher IeveIs of human righls en|oymenl has been al lhe lop of lhe
agenda of bolh inlernalionaI and IocaI anaIysls of lhe ßosnian poIilicaI Iife. The
Iuropean Union's Venice Commission has pul forvard severaI suggeslions lo lhe
decision makers in ßosnia and Herzegovina in lerms of conslilulionaI delachmenl
from lhe elhnicily-based poIilicaI represenlalion.
34
The Commission especiaIIy

31
See, for exampIe a Ncu Ycrk Tincs arlicIe on ßosnia as a haven for IsIamic radicaIs al
hllp://vvv.nylimes.com/2005/11/27/vorId/europe/27ihl-bosnia.hlmI.
32
See lheir press slalemenl foIIoving lhe sixlh anniversary of lhe exlradilion al hllp://vvv.bh-
hchr.org/Slalemenls/e17-01-08.hlm.
33
The excIusion of various minorilies lhroughoul ßosnia and Herzegovina has been confirmed by
many empiricaI researches conducled in lhe counlry in lhe pasl len years. Among lhe recenl ones, lhe
UNDI's NalionaI Human DeveIopmenl Reporl on SociaI IncIusion recorded lhal more lhan 50 per
cenl of popuIalion in lhe counlry faces excIusion on differenl grounds, from elhnic lo gender idenlily,
age and disabiIily. See more in Sccia| |nc|usicn in Bcsnia an! Hcrzcgctina, UNDI, Sara|evo 2006.
34
See more Iuropean Commission for Democracy Through Lav's Opinicn cn inc Ccnsiiiuiicna|
Siiuaiicn in Bcsnia an! Hcrzcgctina an! inc Pcucrs cj inc Hign |cprcscniaiitc. Venice, March 2005, 12. The
Opinicn is avaiIabIe al hllp://vvv.venice.coe.inl/docs/2005/CDL-AD(2005)004-e.pdf.
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

24
emphasised lhe incompalibiIily of parlicuIar conslilulionaI provisions and lhe
eIecloraI Iav vilh lhe Iuropean Convenlion for lhe Iroleclion of Human Righls and
IundamenlaI Ireedoms and ils IrolocoIs. NameIy, lhe IreambIe of lhe Conslilulion
of ßosnia and Herzegovina makes a calegoricaI dislinclion belveen lhe 'consliluenl
peopIes' (lhe main elhnic groups, ßosniacs, Croals and Serbs) and lhe 'Olhers' -
individuaIs and groups nol idenlifying lhemseIves vilh any of lhe dominanl elhnic
communilies. In accordance vilh lhe conslilulionaI provisions and lhe currenl
eIecloraI Iav, lhe key slale inslilulions, such as lhe House of IeopIes of lhe ßosnian
parIiamenl or lhe Iresidency are composed excIusiveIy of members of dominanl
groups. IndividuaIs of Ievish, Roma or any olher origins, or simpIy individuaIs lhal
do nol vanl lo slale lheir elhnicily, are disenfranchised lo eIecl lheir group
represenlalives in lhe counlry's poIilicaI inslilulions.
IoIIoving lhe vrillen confirmalion from lhe CenlraI IIeclion Commission lhal
he vas ineIigibIe lo run for eIeclions because of his Ievish origin, Mr Iakob Iinci, a
ßosnian cilizen of Ievish elhnic background, logelher vilh Mr Dervo Se|dic, a feIIov
cilizen of Roma origin fiIed a suil againsl ßosnia and Herzegovina al lhe Iuropean
Courl of Human Righls. In December 2009, lhe Courl decided lhal lhe conslilulionaI
ineIigibiIily of lhese individuaIs lo run for office Iacks an ob|eclive and reasonabIe
|uslificalion and had lherefore breaches arl. 14 (prohibilion of discriminalion), arl. 3,
prolocoI 1 (righl lo free eIeclions) and arl. 1, prolocoI 12 (generaI prohibilion of
discriminalion) of lhe Iuropean Convenlion on Human Righls.
35

CIearIy, lhis decision and olher inlernalionaI suggeslions lo change ßosnian
conslilulionaI selup in favour of civic (individuaI) inslead of elhnic (group) righls
viII pul addilionaI pressure lo decision makers in ßosnia and Herzegovina lo
compIy vilh inlernalionaI human righls slandards and amend probIemalic
IegisIalion. This may affecl lhe cilizenship debale as veII and provide some ground
for a subslanliaI redefinilion of reIalions belveen lhe ßosnian slale and ils cilizens. In
case some amendmenls lo elhnocenlric IegaI provisions are made, lhe underslanding
of cilizenship in generaI in lhis counlry may aIso slarl lo change.

4.5 LU lntegrutlon und the tlsu reglme

The inlegralion of ßosnia and Herzegovina inlo lhe IU aIso has effecls on cilizenship
debales and deveIopmenls. CurrenlIy, lhe silualion is moslIy reIaled lo lhe visa
regime, imposed on ßosnia and Herzegovina by a ma|orily of slales in lhe
inlernalionaI syslem, lhal furlher aggravales sociaI hardships feIl by ma|orily of
ßosnian cilizens, by Iimiling lheir freedom of movemenl and crealing a sense of
isoIalion.

35
See more al
hllp://cmiskp.echr.coe.inl/lkp197/viev.asp`aclion·hlmI&documenlId·860265&porlaI·hbkm&source·
exlernaIbydocnumber&labIe·I69A27ID8Iß86142ßI01C1166DIA398649.
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25
The issue is even more compIex regarding lo duaI cilizenship hoIders vilhin
lhe conlexl of lhe fasler inlegralion of neighbouring Croalia and Serbia inlo lhe IU
and has lhe polenliaI lo creale nev Iayers of probIems. If lhese counlries |oin lhe IU
before ßosnia and Herzegovina, lhe fifly per cenl of ßosnian cilizens vho hoId
Croalian and Serbian passporls viII become cilizens of lhe IU, vhiIe lhe olher haIf
viII remain excIuded from lhe Iuropean IegaI framevork. In such scenario, il is very
IikeIy lhal ßosniaks (ßosnian MusIims vho predominanlIy hoId onIy ßosnian
cilizenship) viII feeI oslracised on lhe basis of lheir MusIim idenlily, vhiIe lhe
overaII elhnic and poIilicaI silualion in lhe region mighl become more sensilive.
Hovever, negolialions on lhe IiberaIisalion of lhe visa regime belveen lhe IU
and ßosnia and Herzegovina slarled in spring 2008 and are ongoing. The 'Road Map'
for visa IiberaIisalion, inlroduced in Iune 2008 slipuIales lhe condilions ßosnia and
Herzegovina needs lo fuIfiII in order for her cilizens lo en|oy visa-free lraveI. Among
lhe condilions are normalive and lechnicaI efforls lo manage slale borders, exchange
inleIIigence informalion and eslabIish lhe syslem of biomelric lraveI documenls.
Mosl of lhe condilions have been fuIfiIIed, incIuding lhe crealion of nev slale
inslilulions for managemenl of inleIIigence informalion and idenlificalion
documenls. IoIIoving inlroduclion of visa IiberaIisalion for Serbia, Macedonia and
Monlenegro in December 2009, il is expecled lhal visa-free lraveI lo lhe Schengen
counlries viII be offered lo ßosnian cilizens vho hoId nev biomelric passporls
during 2010.
The Iuropean inlegralion process in lhe slales of Weslern ßaIkans is very
significanl for cilizenship issues and reIalions in ßosnia and Herzegovina. Il may
furlher compIicale lhe silualion by adding nev poIilicaI dimensions lo lhe issue, bul
il may aIso conlribule lo addilionaI consoIidalion of norms Ieading lo a more reIiabIe
and democralic cilizenship praclices. In any case, if ßosnia and Herzegovina becomes
a member of lhe Iuropean Union in lhe foreseeabIe fulure, anolher Iayer of
cilizenship viII be crealed. ßosnian cilizens viII lhus be enlilIed lo lhree lypes of
cilizenship: enlily, slale and Iuropean.

5 Cnnc!usinns

ßosnia and Herzegovina aImosl perfeclIy exempIifies vhal happens lo cilizenship in
conlexls delermined by lransilion, confIicl and idenlily poIilics. The ßosnian
cilizenship regime has been infIuenced by a compIex hislory, vhere dislanl imperiaI
and recenl sociaIisl pasls merged vilh elhnonalionaIism and confIicl lo creale unique
sociaI and poIilicaI conlexl.
In a hisloricaI sense, lhe mosl slriking fealure of lhe ßosnian poIilicaI syslem,
discernibIe lhrough lhe nalure of ils cilizenship regime, is ils slrucluraI resembIance
lo lhe former YugosIavia. As in lhe case of lhe SIRY, ßosnia and Herzegovina has a
bifurcaled cilizenship syslem, vilh slale and enlily cilizenships as compIemenlary
Iayers of cilizens' IegaI beIonging. As vilh sociaIisl YugosIavia, ßosnia and
Herzegovina aIso faces chaIIenges and debales on lhe IegaI primacy of ils cilizenship
CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

26
Iayers and sovereignly cIaims based on such slrucluraI assumplions. The exisling
cilizenship IegisIalion seems lo indicale lhe supremacy of lhe enlily over lhe slale
cilizenship, aIlhough lhere are eIemenls poinling in lhe opposile direclion, refIecling
nol onIy lhe YugosIavian conslilulionaI Iegacy bul aIso priorilies eslabIished by
elhnic poIicies of lhe counlry's consliluenl groups and lheir poIilicaI eIiles.
Hovever, lhe exisling cilizenship IegisIalion in ßosnia and Herzegovina has
been pul lo praclice lhanks lo lhe infIuence and direcl invoIvemenl of lhe
inlernalionaI communily in lhe counlry's poIilicaI Iife. Ils conlribulion has been
cruciaI for eslabIishing a democralic cilizenship regime lhal corresponds lo lhe main
inlernalionaI convenlions and slandards in lhis area. NonelheIess, elhnic nalionaIism
sliII conlinues lo chaIIenge ßosnia's democralic lransformalion. This chaIIenge is
mosl visibIe in reIalions belveen individuaIs and lhe slale, encumbered by lhe
primacy of group righls and idenlilies over lhe Iiberly and enlilIemenls of individuaI
cilizens. ßasicaIIy, lhis means lhal vhal needs lo change in lhe fulure of ßosnia and
Herzegovina perlains more lo lhe sociaI, poIilicaI and parliaIIy conslilulionaI conlexl,
lhan lo lhe concrele cilizenship IegisIalion. The reforms of elhnocenlric Iavs and
conslilulionaI provisions are aIready on lheir lrack and il is a maller of lime and lhe
evoIulion of lhe IU inlegralion dynamic as lo vhen mosl of lhis IegisIalion is going
lo be amended. Whal viII be Iefl lo change are lhe lradilionaI pallerns of
poIilicisalion in ßosnia and Herzegovina, in vhich elhnicily remains lhe uIlimale
principIe of cilizen parlicipalion in poIilicaI Iife.
The regionaI conlexl of ßosnian cilizenship issues aIso pIays a key
delermining roIe. This is nol onIy a maller of Iuropean inlegralion bul aIso of lhe
specific reIalions of lhe neighbouring slales vilh ßosnia and Herzegovina, bolh
vilhin and vilhoul lhe broader Iuropean framevork. Hov Croalia and Serbia frame
lheir reIalionship lo lhe slale inslilulions of ßosnia and Herzegovina and lo ßosnian
cilizens vho hoId Serbian and Croalian passporls viII have effecl on hov lhings viII
deveIop in lhe fulure and hov lhe issues of duaI IoyaIlies and IegaI obIigalions viII
be resoIved.
Cilizenship in ßosnia and Herzegovina is, obviousIy, sliII lied lo dominanl
issues of poIilics and idenlily in vhich group and slale vaIues have a Iarger say lhan
lhe concrele individuaIs vhose everyday Iives are shaped by lhe given cilizenship
regime. The gIobaI lrend of posl-WeslphaIian erosion of lhe aulhorily and lhe
sovereignly of lhe slale sliII has lo affecl ßosnia and Herzegovina and enlilIe
individuaIs vilh more righls and significance lhan lhey have had so far. The
cilizenship regime mighl pIay a key roIe in lhis lransformalion. Inslead of being a
looI of elhnic poIilics, il needs lo become a cruciaI cornerslone of individuaI human
righls and democracy. Hov can lhis be successfuIIy achieved is a queslion nol yel
fuIIy ansvered. Among lhose vho mighl provide parls of lhe ansver are nol onIy
IegisIalors and decision makers, bul sociaI scienlisls, IegaI schoIars and members of
civiI sociely. Il is up lo lhem lo come up vilh coIIaboralive soIulions for crealing and
suslaining democralic forms of cilizenship in lhe fulure of ßosnia and Herzegovina.

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

27
Bib!ingraphy

ßaIasz, L. (2008), 'ßosnia and Herzegovina: lransilion, limes lvo', I´|urcpc cn
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ßenhabib, S. (2002), C|ains cj cu|iurc. c¡ua|iiu an! !itcrsiiu in inc g|c|a| cra. Irincelon,
NI: Irincelon Universily Iress.

ßerkes, N. (1964), Tnc !ctc|cpncni cj sccu|arisn in Turkcu. London: Hursl & Company.

ßieber, I. (2004), 'InslilulionaIizalion of elhnicily in lhe Weslern ßaIkans: managing
change in deepIy divided socielies', |CM| Wcrking Papcr 19: Iuropean Cenler for
Minorily Issues.

ßrubaker, R. (1992), 'Cilizenship slruggIes in Soviel successor slales', |nicrnaiicna|
Migraiicn |cticu 26 (2): 269-291.

Cok, V. (1999), Pratc na !rzat|jansitc. ßeograd: ßeogradski cenlar za I|udska prava.

Daulbasic, ß. (2003), Vc!ic krcz prcpisc c !rzat|jansitu Bcsnc i Hcrccgctinc. Sara|evo:
Magislral.

IarreIIy, C. (2004), Ccnicnpcraru pc|iiica| inccru. London: Sage.

Guzina, D. (2007), 'DiIemmas of nalion-buiIding and cilizenship in Daylon ßosnia',
Naiicna| |!cniiiics 9 (3): 217-234.

Haveric, T. (2006), |inncs i !cnckraiija. s|ucaj Bcsnc i Hcrccgctinc. Sara|evo: Rabic.

Hayden, R. (2000), B|ucprinis jcr a ncusc !iti!c!. Tnc ccnsiiiuiicna| |cgic cj inc Yugcs|at
ccnj|ici. Ann Arbor: Universily of Michigan Iress.

Hilchner, ß. (2005), 'The process and prospecl of lhe conslilulionaI reform process in
ßosnia and Herzegovina, |cpcri ic inc Pcacc |np|cncniaiicn Ccunci|. Iaris: Daylon
Iro|ecl.

Ibrahimagic, O. and S. Kurlóeha|ic (2002), Pc|iiicki sisicn Bcsnc i Hcrccgctinc. Sara|evo:
Magislral.

Imamovic, M. (2006), Bcsnia an! Hcrzcgctina. ctc|uiicn cj iis pc|iiica| an! |cga|
insiiiuiicns. Sara|evo: Magislral.

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28
Imeri S. (ed.) (2006), |u|c cj |au in inc ccunirics cj inc |crncr S|| Yugcs|atia an!
A||ania. |ciuccn inccru an! praciicc. Goslivar: Associalion for Democralic Inilialives.

Iovic D. (2003), jugcs|atija. !rzata kcja jc c!unr|a. uspcn i pa! Kar!c|jctc jugcs|atijc
(1974-1990). Zagreb: Iromele|.

KardeI|, I. (1980), 'Osnovni uzroci i pravci uslavnih prom|ena', Sccija|izan i
!cnckracija. 385-403. Zagreb: GIobus.

Karóic, I. (2004), Bcsnjaci i izazct nc!crncsii. kasni csnan|ijski i na|s|urski pcric!.
Sara|evo: II-KaIem.

Kasapovic, M. (2005), Bcsna i Hcrccgctina. pc!ijc|jcnc !rusitc i ncsia|i|na !rzata.
Zagreb: IoIilióka kuIlura.

KöksaI, Y. (2008), 'Relhinking nalionaIism: slale pro|ecls and communily nelvorks in
19lh cenlury Olloman Impire', Ancrican Bcnaticra| Scicniisi 51 (10): 1498-1515.

Medvedovic, D. (1998), 'IederaI and repubIican cilizenship in lhe Iormer SIR
YugosIavia al lhe lime of dissoIulion', Crcaiian Criiica| Iau |cticu 3 (1-2): 21-56.

Muminovic, I. (1998), 'IrobIems of cilizenship Iavs in ßosnia and Herzegovina',
Crcaiian Criiica| Iau |cticu 3 (1-2): 71-87.

Muhibic, I. (1998), 'Cilizenship as a human righl in ßosnia and Herzegovina:
varlime and currenl praclice', Crcaiian Criiica| Iau |cticu 3 (1-2): 89-98.

Mu|kic, A. (2007), 'We, lhe cilizens of IlhnopoIis', Ccnsic||aiicns 14 (1): 112-128.

Ragazzi, I. and Sliks, I. (2009), 'Croalian cilizenship: from elhnic engineering lo
incIusiveness', in R. ßauböck, ß. Ierchinig, and W. Sievers (eds.), Ciiizcnsnip Pc|icics
in inc Ncu |urcpc. Amslerdam: Amslerdam Universily Iress.

Rakic, V. (1998), 'Slale succession and cilizenship: lhe exampIe of IR YugosIavia',
Crcaiian Criiica| Iau |cticu 3 (1-2): 57-67.

Slevarl, A. (1995), 'Tvo conceplions of cilizenship', Tnc Briiisn jcurna| cj Sccic|cgu. 46
(1): 63-78.

Saróevic, I. (2008), 'De|lonski uslav: karaklerislike i probIemi', Siaius 13: 153-168.

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06

29
Sliks, I. (2006), 'NalionaIily and cilizenship in lhe Iormer YugosIavia: from
disinlegralion lo Iuropean inlegralion', Scuin |asi |urcpcan an! B|ack Sca Siu!ics. 6
(4): 483-500.

UNHCR, RegionaI ßureau for Iurope (1997), Ciiizcnsnip an! prctcniicn cj siaic|cssncss
|inkc! ic inc !isinicgraiicn cj inc Sccia|isi |c!cra| |cpu||ic cj Yugcs|atia. Iuropean Series
3 (1 Iune 1992). Geneve: UNHCR.

VIaisavI|evic, U. (2006), |incpc|iiika i gra!ansitc. Moslar: Di|aIog.













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CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 ! 7 0 ! $ % #1 8 1 7 ? 7 7 1" 1 C A ! +<<D> -=#1 0 12 0 E 1 ! " # A ' 8 0 C 8 # 8 2 1 ? 1 0 ' A 7 1 1 2 2 ? 12 7 ' 7 !+9=<?+9F9# 17 6 +9DI +9-< 3 6 $ > 8 1 1 6 6 @G 8 ?H 8G ' !+9=<# 1 7 A 6 3 .

J' ? ' $ )**9K " 6 !7 ' % )**-#1 3 +<-L#1 & ?M 0 ' M # !" 8 % )**L> ++*#1 0 ! # M ?M 17 8 6 !.J' 6 $ 1 $ ' )**9> +D*=#1 " ' 1 1 3 7 ' +9F-1 7 8 1 ( +9F9 7 +9F9 M 6 8 A 0 +<+91 6 2 ?8 1" 1 0 7 7 ! 8 1 +<*9 7 +<*91 E 1 )D# E 7 2 ?8 7 8 7 8 1 6 6 . N % +<<<> L-#1 16 6 C A !.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 !.

1 # +<+* 7 # & & . 1 4 8 8 1 E M +9F< 7 2 8 1 8 7 1 " 8 3 A !" 7 0 1 +9++ 2 8 8 8 M 12 ?8 E % )**L> )**#1 A $ 8 6 8 6 1 7 1 7 +9F9 4 0 % )**L> 7 7 1" 7 1 8 ' +<LD1 0 1 ! # 7 1 !7 # . +<)9 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 $ +<*9 8 1 2 ?8 1 7 !" 7 1 7 3 M 2 1 8 C )L)#1 ! ! 2 7 8 .

L-1 $ ! ( A 4 . $ +<9*> =9D?L*=K . 1 +*. % )**=#1 8 7 8 1 1 +<L= +<L1 !+<L=# ( A 4 ? +<D= 3 A ? 4 +<FL D=#1 A 1 " 3 17 & ? & 1 A 1 " 0 ? C A ! 4 #1 A !" % . N C $ % )**)> L9? A1 (4 = A 3 !E ! (4 # !+<L-# C 3 C +<-= # E = I # & $ '()* 4 ' .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 5 +<LD +<FF1 ( ? 4 !.

# 1 D.-D1 . 1 1 =F 1 +# > % +<99> =<#1 A A 0 +<L1 A 1 C ! A # +<L.D*1 &)+ .+<F- ? 1 L D O ' O ' P P $ $ I $ 4 N' 4 ' 7 ' 7 8 8 & $ & $ + . 3 1 ? +<L-1 " C A !M C A 0 (4 0 E ! # A ? 8 1 ( A 4 4 7 7 4 7 8 8 7 8 8 > +<D* L +<-DD C -2 +<L+ ? !M 20 % +<99> L+#1 ! .!M )= 2 1 C #1 6 +<FL & +<LD 0 E A % +<<9> )=?)L#1 & +<L.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 ? $ A! 1 1 & I 2 1 2 =+ .# 1 -.

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 +<FF1.2 3 +<L7 3 ! ! #1 6 # ! 1 ! 7 3 +<D*1 2 A 8 16 1 1 " 7 8 +<FF ! 19 3 1 +# 7 7 8 1 F 3 12 C M A !4 ' % +<<9> D9K % +<<9> F=K B ' )**-> L9D#1 C A 1 +<FL +<FD +<F< +<FF 4 4 8 1 7 1 1 " 2 A ! 1 C 47 8 1 )L 1 +# 1 3 +<FL 3 3 7 F O ' O ' )FF1 P $ P $ $ $ N' 4 N' 4 ' 7 ' 7 8 8 & $ & $ &)+ .# 1 +*.FF .# 1 +*.FF1 &)+ .

6 ( +<<) 2 1E 0 1 ' 1 4 $ !+<<)> )F<K 7 ' C ' ? A 7 I8 4 +<<F> )<#1 1 ( A +<<) 4 2 7 1 6 8 2 +<<) 7 7 8 19 - 9 2 8 4 1" +<<) -2 7 0 +<<) +<<= 7 7 ! I8 4 +<<F#1 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 8 0 8 1 ? 3 ? 1 M $ 1 3 ' 1 ! 1" 7 8 0 7 # 4 +<<) 7 8 7 0 7 7 8 A 7 ! I8 4 +<<FK Q ' +<<<#1 8 1 .

<= )D+1 ' ' 4 +* -2 7 +<<) 8 !+<<<# =+ ! E ++ @ +<<9 = E R % )**=> D<#1 ' ' ' # 7 8 7 . 1 ++.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 9 4 3 ! 3 1 1 !+<FF#1 2 # 8 2 7 ! 2 1 2 3 7 ' ? 4 ! 3 # # 3 3 7 3 4 +<<= 7 ? 4 < !M 1 ) 3 % +<<9> F<#1 3 $ 1 2 E 7 ! .2 #+* 1M 1 ) 2 M 3 4 7 8 2 2 7 #1++ +<<) +<<L1 " +<<) =+ E )**- 8 ! ' 7 1 8 7 4 2 1 ' ? ? A E < ' P $ 4 0 ' ' 7 $ 8 7 4 +<<< 4 1 !4 & $ 8 ' )+ .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 +<<)1+) 0 A !B ' )**-# 7 C 3 A ' ! C 1 F# ! " 1" E 7 ? 8 7 1 7 8 1 ! & +<<D 7 8 ? ? 4 7 0 7 8 1" ' 8 E 6 0 7 ' ( 1 ' 2 +<<= 7 > & ' 7 ' !7 2 M # +<<L 1 +D#1 3 1 A !." $ % ! I8 4 +<<F> =*# " += 10 # C 0 ' 1 1 > 8 !684#1 " 6 8 E 4 3 7 N' 7 7 ? 1 +) 2 8 ?7 K 7 1 1 +<<) C A 1 ' E 0 ? 4 ' 1 ? ? 7 8 8 += .

# +=./012 ! " + .<<1 .# .O ' ( P P $ 2 $ $ 7 7 4 2 0L ' 8 8 7 ' N N N )1 & $ )1 & $ )F1 & $ 8 1+ 1 F1 ! " ) " & " # =D.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 8 8 C ( A1+L 4 8 A1 2 3 3 !M % +<<9> 9L#1 7 +<<< 7 4 7 C 7 8 3 8 ' !+<<<# !)**+#1 7 7 8 1 1 1 )F 3 8 0 3 8 A1+D 1 )D?)< 1" 8 A 8 4 C C A C A 7 1+ 7 2 11 1F 7 ! 7 8 #1 1 E 8 4 0 4 7 8 +<<) !M )**7 8 % +<<9> 9L#1 7 7 3 1+.8 1+ +<<< 4 4 8 ' 18 1 7 7 8 1 +L +D E O ' P $ +.<<K O ' ! "' % + .

! ! 1 1 F#1 7 7 > 1 -1 3 3 A 7 K A K > 7 8 % 12 8 1 ' .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 $ " # 7 3 #2 3 8 1 7 K A 7 8 7 A K 7 ' #2 3 3 7 8 ' 12 3 1 #2 3 3 #2 3 3 3 7 ' ! 3 K 3 7 0 7 K K K $ 1 91 2 7 7 1 <?+L#1 2 7 8 > ' + 7 .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 3 3 7 1 #2 3 1 7 3 K 3 K 7 8 7 7 7 8 3 7 3 7 " 1 += 7 8 18 1 3 7 7 8 1 8 1" 1 2 1 +) > 1 3 12 1 ++ 3 7 7 7 > 3 8 3 3 8 K 7 ! 13 1 +L# 3 1 3 8 7 1 +D 3 1 +D?)L1 7 8 ! 1 )=#1 6 #+ 7 ! 3 1 +F?+9#1 > .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 2 12 3 #+ ! 1 +<?)*#1 2 1 +< 3 7 7 7 3 3 1" 3 #+ 3 8 0 7 8 K 3 A 7 7 #+ > K 7 3 1 ! 1 )=#1 7 7 $ K 7 8 8 3 8 7 3 1 3 12 3 3 0 > 1 )+?))1 4 1 7 7 0 0 7 8 12 > 3 1 8 1 "S !L# ! # ( 14 .

4 +<<9 4 4 ' ' 1" ' 4 3 ? ' 1( 1 4 ' ' ' 1 =<#1 +. 7 1 8 -2 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 $ % & ' ( 15 E ' 7 + 8 7 7 7 1 2 1 ! 8 8 7 1 7 1 8 ! 8 7 # 8 7 1" 1 4 1 )F#1 1 3 3 7 +<<) 4 8 +<<9 1& 18 ' 7 -2 +<<) 4 7 4 ' ! 8 4 ' 4 " 7 81 2 1 L* ' 4 -2 3 +<<) ' +.

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 7 ' !" 4 ' 1 )F )**-> -=#1 ! 7 8 ' 1 16 1 =+ #1 2 1 3 1 $ ) 7 A 1 4 4 1 ? 1 7 8 # !+F E ( 8 4 E 8 +<<F# 7 3 8 ! 7 N' E ? 1 7 1 " )**) 3 )**<#1 A 8 ! ' 7 8 8 4 7 1 6 8 4 !684# 1 7 8 7 !M @ 3 " 2 ?@ 3 16 ? M 2 8 ! 4 1 =*# 78 ' # 3 M 1 .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 17 ! " )**-> D<#1 7 8 ' " 4 1 2 # M ' 1 1" A A 7 @ 8 ! ? M @ 7 1 8 0 2 " 8 7 N' E E "( )**91 ' * E 1 1 4 $ " E $ E 4 0 1 2 E & 0 ( ! % ' 7 E 7 1 1" 7 16 8 ' 7 3 ' 4 ( 1 ' 7 2 8 A 7 ' 1 8 2 1 ( 1 ? ( 8 .

. +* +.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 ( 1+F ' !@ $ 0 1 )*** 0 7 )***1 " $ 3 7 ' A 18 8 1+9 A 0 $ 8 1 0 4 7 ' 1 )**F> ))F#1 1 ( ( 18 1 M 0 ! # 7 0 1 6 !. 1 . 4 1 !M $' % )**FK 8 +F 4 7 8 1 7 8 ' ' 7 18 3 ( )**? 7 ' 1 +9 ( # ' ? ) +* 1 !+# & )**+1 ? ! 8 E 1 >. . . +1 1 1 . % )**DK S $ % )**-#K % )**-#1 .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 ? !7 0 )**)K 19 )**L#1 " 1 +) 6 8 8 7 8 1 ! 1 L# 12 3 7 3 3 7 M 8 ? 7 8 7 7 1 ! !4 7 7 # 1 8 7 1 +F 7 8 7 3 8 ? 1 +-# # B ' )**<> =LD#1 !+! 1 D** *** 8 . 0 0 ! +<<+ 1 6 2 +<<<# 1 8 P ' 7 2 7 1 8 1 1& +<<) +<<D 7 < *** ' 1 7 8 7 7 7 .

2 )**D1 )**< =1 . ... 8EO 8 7 8 % )= )L 3 >. U**U<<*+1 @ R )**=1 8 ! # 8 4 0 8 7 >. 8 ). 8 . M ( . ? )+ )*+* ( >.. + .)**<( =F 1 1 +<<* 7 2 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 +< 20 1)* I 7 ? 1)+ 1 ' ' 1)) 1 !+*L7 1 1 +F 7 0 3 ! 7 1)L @ # ' D* *** 1 3 7 )9) )L D** $ 7 D8 8 ' 1)= +** 8 # M 7 +< 2 1 +F 1 1 L 7 7 8 )* 7 +. ..++<D9=*1 1 '. <F F=D 2 1 T )*+=1 U V)99=F1 7 8 1 $ 7 )**< ' ( 7 8 7 8 X )D I 1 . 1 W 4 . 1 1 . )) 1 7 1 .

2 7 ! I 2 # ' 1 7 ' 2 M 7 1 7 4 2 7 3 1 )E 7 1 ( 4 )**1 8 1 L* " 1 " ' M > 3 ! !+ =** 3 1)F -** )* *** M #1 # I 2 ' --* =)**I )**D L+ 3 -2 ' E +<<) 3 )**< + ? 8 ! A 1 )# 1 " 7 2 !+<<)?+<<D#1 " 8 7 $ 8 4 . ?& ..T .E . . 1 1 1 . ?2 +L-+?<97<? )* F7< +=ELY V Y VD)+9* 1 )F " M S$ ' S ' % 4 " I D . )D 0 1L " 1 +F# ' ' 1S 0 1 0 1 D<+VL999 22*?7=E7? 4 )*+*1 1 +F1 ! )- 0 0 >.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 21 1)D 7 8 3 7 .

. 01 T V U Y 'V 7 I 8 $$ 1 2 2 ' 7 ' 4 M " 2 7 =* 1 >. % D 2 > 7 " 4 )*+*1 7 ' M 8 12 . 1 1 Y V)+)1 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 $ 7 I 8 1 A )* *** M =D* 2 )**+ " 8 1 C2 @ A1 )< )9 22 1 8 2 $ 7 2 ! M # )** $ 8 ' ' 1 M I ++ ' 7 & 7 ? . 1 2 7 8 1 1 7 ' 1 0 @ 7 ' 8 1" @ )**91=* 1 @ 1 " 1 @ 0 )9 $ 12 M 3 7 7 # +* *** 1 3 7 7 I 2 ! 1 " )< M S$ ' I S ' 0 M 7 . ' )**) . .

+F?*+?*91 IE(A I E 0 & . E ?2E!)**D#**L? 1 1 . 5 4 & + A . 1 ... 0 1 .)F ? 0 " 1 1 0 8 12 " + E 6 1 1 1 .! ) #S M .. 1 7 8 1 =L 23 ' 1 8 ' 0 0 ' ? 7 ' !7 % )**-K M $' % )**FK B N C 0 1 2 1 7 == 8 1 8 1=L 7 . . ! >.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 7 1=+ 3 7 8 4 7 8 ( 0 C2 @ A1 8 ' 1=) $ E 8 !7 )**9> +*D#1 7 E )**LK 8 )**DK 8 2 % )**9#1 7 A )*** 0 $ 7 $ 7 ' A S 7 ? ( 4 " .++.)**D. ! IE( $ )**-1 )**D +)1 D* >.)**D. =) 1 == . 1 ? =+ 0 >.)F.

' +<F. 7 4 8 $ + ! # ! ' 1 7 1 . 1 T V Y " V9-*)-DY Y V -<2)F E9 79-+L)7 *+ ++--E 2=<9-L<1 V ' Y V . 7 1 7 7 1 8 $ 8 # . A 4 1 .*. 0 ' 1 1 1 . 4 1" E ' 7 )**< ' 1 +L ! 1 + 8 # 7 +) ! 4 1=D $ 8 M E 0 8 ( 8 ( ' 7 1I ( 8 C # 4 C6 A ? 7 M . ' $ # 1= ! 8 7 # 1" $ =D >.CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 24 ( 7 A ! 1 " ' ( 1" ..

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 0 0 1" 7 0 7 # 8 7 8 8 . )**9 )**9 $ ? 1 C4 7 12 0 M 8 7 '1 " ' !7 M M 1 7 $ 25 ' A 1 M 1 M )*+*1 & 7 8 7 ' 1 " E )**< 7 0 ? M 1" 1 7 > ) 7 0 8 0 1 7 8 1 0 7 3 01 " 12 A 8 1 2 ' 4 7 7 8 7 .

CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 1 0 26 A 8 0 ' A 1I 7 A 1 1 " 7 8 1 17 8 1 ' 1 & 7 0 1 7 '1 8 8 8 7 0 8 1 7 ' 7 7 1 7 8 1 ?& 7 ' 18 12 ' 1" 7 8 1 8 1 1" 3 .

1 ! 9 ! . ! A 5 Q ' S1 !+<<<# 6 E M R % 71 !)**=# = 1 1 !)**L# @ ( 8 8 % $ # ' $ > 1 # ? > 1 E 7 A E1 !)**F# CE 5 < !=#> )+F?)=L1 1 !)**-# " % 9 > %+ 9 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 27 7 1 !)**9# C7 # =L<?=D*> <<?++91 1 !)**)# ( I1 !+<-L# 1 !)**L# C" 8 > A 78 7 I. N M ( 1 8 7 ( $ " M " ) 6 5 #( >E $ % !)**)# 6 >" + . ! # ! $ >4 4 ! 1 41 !)***# + 12 2 > 71 !)**D# C 8 1 % 61 1 % M1 !)**-# + # $ >M 1.! 9 : 1 " & +<> ! ( >8 7 ' Y > 1 A " 1 .!)#> )-<?)<+1 $ >" % 7 $ >7 % + ' .> ( 7 ' 7 M 7 ' . ! # $ > .5 < " ! 6 41 !+<<)# C ) ).

% E1 !)**=# * ! % 9 2@A.J' +< M % M1 !)**D# + >( N' ' 1 1 !)**9# C4 6 % E1 !+<<9# C A M % 1 !+<<9# C( 7 ) ' A 3 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 " 3 1! 9 1# !)**-# ) @ $ $1 " % % >2 9 ' &') 4 ! E ? % 28 " * ! % 1 . " $ 1 !+<9*# C6 % # =9D?L*=1 O $ >@ 1 9" %" A & % . N % 1 !)**L# + B % $ > ?. 1 . O . ! 9 B" # % % B $ # > + $ & ' D+ !+*#> +L<9?+D+D1 4 = !+?)#> )+?D-1 8 A 7 7 ) = !+?)#> F+?9F1 7 ) A > &1 ( > 0 ! 1 4 A 1# 6 8 = !+?)#> 9<?<91 > M % 1 !+<<9# C A 7 M $' % 21 !)**F# C& 4 ( 1 B ' "1 !)**<# C A 41 7 J ' 71 ( 12 >2 +L !+#> ++)?+)91 4 ' % S1 !+<<9# C 7 21 !+<<D# C !+#> -=?F91 B N % ) = !+?)#> DF?-F1 A + * & ! # L- 1 !)**9# CE $ ' >' ' ' A & +=> +D=?+-91 . 2@@1 O >( .

+<<)#1 @ S $ % 1 !)**-# !+<<F# ' ) + > "& 29 & #- > & I8 41 " 4 ! ! C #M >E$ 1 .CITSEE WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010/06 B ' "1 !)**-# CI A & !L#> L9=?D**1 I8 4 4 7 " ! = !+ .