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Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, SD India, Panipat, India Computing, Staffordshire University, U.K. Abstract: This paper first presents four essential characteristics of Smart Airport System in the upcoming era of ubiquitous
computing: natural user interface, automatic capture of class events and experience, context-awareness and proactive service, collaborative work support. Then it elaborates the details in the design and implementation of the ongoing Smart Classroom project. Finally, it concludes by some self-evaluation of the project¶s present accomplishment and description of its future research directions. Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Intelligent Environment, Multimodal Human- Computer Interaction, Smart Airport System.


Introduction: Smart Airport System

With the growth of population in major urban areas and the accelerated increase in number of airports, the airport management system is becoming generically complex. The problem of airport complexity, differently from what many might think, not only affects the day-to-day life of citizens but also has a great impact on business and economic activities. These issues therefore generate less income, affecting the sustainable growth of cities throughout the world. Considering current problems of airport, traffic management, security management, parking management, and control and planning, especially fearing the consequences of their medium and long term effects, both practitioners and the scientific communities have make every effort to tackle overcrowding in large urban networks. Research has been carried out basically towards the design and specification of future airport management solutions featuring autonomy, putting the user in the centre of all concerns and largely oriented to services. Such efforts were eventually to culminate in the emergence of the concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), basically relying on a distributed and advanced communication infrastructure favoring interaction in virtually all level, from users to services, vehicles to vehicles, vehicles to infrastructure, security and so forth. Interoperability and integration are critical in this scenario. More futuristic though is the perspective in which users will play rather a passive role and be taken off the whole process, which will ultimately be managed by the system only, to which, autonomous driving is expected to be an important ingredient. Although this view may seem quite hypothetical, it is capable to stimulate and encourage much advancement in a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary fields, from engineering and computer science to sociology and urban planning and design. In this work we basically recall many of the different aspects involved in the original definition of ITS and identify potential applications of the ubiquitous computing concept (sometimes hereafter referred to as ubicomp). Instead of defining a novel perspective for what has been recently coined Ubiquitous Transportation Systems (UTS), we prefer to see ITS from a ubiquitous perspective, emphasizing those characteristics that actually turn ITS into ubiquitous systems. Therefore, ITS is inherently ubiquitous! Besides ubiquity, pervasiveness, ambient awareness and intelligence are equally addressed as complementary and conceptually related technologies. In this system, I will discuss on requirements for future urban smart airport system so as it is possible for us to better understand why the whole bunch of technologies presented later on are important. Those are then presented and briefly discussed in the following section. Ubiquitous transportation is then presented later on, finally followed by some observations, conclusions drawn and suggestions for future work. Basic Airport Operations In the Airport 1.0 phase, airports focus on capabilities necessary for safe and efficient management of landings, departures, and other aircraft operations. They offer basic passenger services, including check-in, boarding, security, baggage pick-up, and moderate retail, food, and beverage services. Typically, these airports operate in a landlord model, where the airport/landlord provides the real estate, while airlines, concessionaires, and other tenants design and implement their own business environments.

Smart Airports The smart airport comprises that fully develop the power of emerging and growing technologies. making it difficult for different entities to collaborate across business boundaries. By enabling the exchange of real-time information. and advanced security capabilities. Broad process integration among airlines. passenger services.Airports exhibit highly evolved operational efficiencies. and business units are likely to be highly siloed. They also take passenger experience to new heights by delivering a range of personalized services enabled by seamless exchange of passenger data to anticipate needed services. Systems are built around a ³digital grid´: a single. and other ecosystem partners creates new benefits along the entire value chain. but pay insufficient attention to passenger experience. converged. systems. airlines. The digital grid is the airport¶s nervous system. Figure. caterers. airport city. logistics. with little ability for information sharing and centralized management without costly and often suboptimal systems integration. authorities. and other parties. smart airports significantly improve operational efficiencies. and airport-wide process integration. fuel providers. including the airport. the airport business units and tenants procure and implement technologies in a stovepipe fashion. touching and managing every point of interaction. with advanced sense evaluate react capabilities. retailers. While there is always an airport-wide master strategic plan. seaport. often carrier-class IP network that enables highspeed broadband traffic throughout the entire ecosystem.1 . Operations.

2.agents that can relocate their execution onto different processors. Current scenario: particular exhibiting some aspect of Artificial Intelligence. over time. Figure 3. Autonomous Agents .1. in pursuit of its own agenda and so as to effect what it senses in the future. Autonomous Agents: Autonomous agents can be a software and robotic body that are capable of independent action in open.capable of modifying the way in which they achieve their objectives. random environments. Autonomous agents.Figure 1.2. Multi-agent systems. Some of the related agents include:     Intelligent agents. Distributed agents. The agents are not strictly invoked for a task. such as learning and reasoning.being executed on physically distinct computers. We can say that it is an organism surrounded by a part of an environment that senses that environment and acts on it. Agents are the set of programs that perform tasks such as retrieving and delivering information and automating repetitive tasks. In other words we can define agents as a person who is authorized to act on behalf of another party and show their interest. Agents 2. but activate themselves. Agents: Agents can be defined as a piece of software that operates for a user or other program in a relationship of agency.distributed agents that do not have the capabilities to achieve an objective alone and thus must communicate.  Mobile agents. It is active without the need for the direct interference of other agents (software or human).

4. The implementations of internal and external interactions between the various agents and with system users respectively are shown in Figure 4. The intelligent agent software may consist of embedded technology within the mobile device. including control processes. Multi Agent: Multi-agent is a type of agent where multiple agents (including software agents. it acts as the problem-solving and control architectures for both single-agent and multiple-agent systems. The multi-agent system has a number of applications.3. airtraffic management and intelligent information retrieval. Intelligent Agents: Intelligent agents are programs that carry out a task unconfirmed and apply some degree of intelligence to the task. and programs within applications on the mobile network. Intelligent Agent 2. mobile robots. robots and people) may interact. Figure 3. Figure 4: Multi agent . servers on the Internet.2.

disappearing. sentient. such as pervasive. All of our ATM technology solutions are built using a collaborative process that ensures end user and customer acceptance.1. Technologies involved in Smart Airport in the field of ubiquitous computing The anyplace/any time/any means vision of ubiquitous computing has explosive impact on academics.1. handheld. Each system is flexible and scalable in order to meet the unique traffic demands of each site. distributed computing. Collision-Avoidance Tool for Air Traffic: The Collision-Avoidance tool for air traffic systems provide greater traffic management capacities than is available in without this tool. .1. We have generalized four characteristics of Smart Airport. using touch sensitive display screens. invisible.safely. context-awareness and proactive service. ambient intelligence. amorphous. We deliver these services using innovative air traffic management (ATM) technologies developed by NAV CANADA engineers for use in our own system. mobile computing. sustainable. context-aware. ensuring a safe and secure investment with continual product growth. The air traffic management system automates flight data transactions. Air Traffic management Technology: As owner and operator of Canada's civil air navigation system. government and daily life. everyday. 3. etc. which are: Air Traffic Control. autonomic. palpable. automatic capture of class events and experience. embedded computing. autonomic computing and communication. airport and enroots coordination system that permits controllers to manage electronic flight data online. spray. industry. System deployment is supported by comprehensive training and lifecycle support. This emergence is the natural result of research and technological advances in wireless and sensor networks. The massive scalability of this engine together with its superior algorithms puts customers in a position to efficiently manage much higher air traffic volumes than previous systems.The advantages of having a multi-agent system are:    They allow agents to work at a problem in parallel (and so are fast) They allow agents to team up dynamically to solve a problem (and so are flexible) They allow agents to take over where others fail (and so increase reliability) 3. reducing voice communications and minimizing heads down time. proactive. eliminating the need for paper handling. efficiently and cost effectively. workstation. NAV CANADA provides air navigation services for over 11 million aircraft movements per year . collaborative work support. These operationally proven technology solutions are now available to other ANS providers. wearable. Air Traffic Control System: The air traffic management system is an advanced overlook. This tool has a combined computational geometry algorithms with high-performance hardware to develop one of the fastest and most efficient collision-avoidance engines worldwide. Many novel but more specific computing mechanisms and paradigms have been recently driven from the broad view of ubiquitous computing. organic. agent technologies. embedded systems. 3.

com/KB/architecture/Agents. if the passenger is at risk of being late. with a further twelve RFID units integrated into the early-storage baggage system.1. a location-sensitive version of this solution. making the airport an effective virtual service . the RFID Tunnel arrangement achieves near-perfect read and assignment rates of no less than 99.airport-information-systems.cengeloglu. plus personalized hospitality and retail offerings. It can also provide location-based services and alerts to help passengers through the terminal to the gate. RFID Baggage management System Large numbers of people pass through airports every hour. A total of twelve hybrid RFID Tunnels will be installed on the transfer lines at Doha International Airport. Real-time travel services keep passengers informed of any travel problems and offer premium services. which comprises high-speed tilt-tray sorters with 28 high-speed inductions and 172 discharge positions. Upper-level control systems include 25 state-of-the-art servers in a fully redundant configuration. They address all aspects of the journey in concert with airport-related services available anytime.2. the high concentration of people on large airliners. and the ability to use a hijacked airplane as a dangerous weapon may provide an attractive target for terrorism. The without RFID technology in door security can encourage the terrorism and other forms of crime due to the undetected weapons in small area. can track a traveler via a GPS-enabled Smartphone and provide pre-trip travel information. Crisplant has also installed the RFID Tunnels.codeproject. Smart Transport and Parking Services: The smart airport systems provide a complete. 4. and flight status.5%. in Helsinki Airport and has a system on permanent demonstration at their test centre in Aarhus. Denmark.500 items of luggage an hour passing through the baggage-handling system. with an estimated 19. Similarly. When accessed on a mobile phone. Reference 1. 88 information monitors.psu. end-to-end passenger experience. 2.aspx http://www.html http://www. Crisplant will continue to maintain the baggage-handling system as part of a five-year service contract which was part of the original contract. with more than 25 workstations and laptops. Value-added services such as porters and nearby or valet parking can be offered to passengers based on their loyalty and on-time travel status.ercim. The new hybrid scanners will help to increase security whilst providing faster transfer times and minimising the number of lost or miss-routed http://www. route advice based on traffic conditions. In addition to the installation at Doha. Following the hand-over.html http://homelandsecurity. Crisplant is the main contractor for the baggage-handling system at Doha. 3. All the units feature dual controllers with full redundancy to ensure maximum availability. Intelligent transport services. 5. The RFID passageway is the first system to combine RFID and barcode technologies into a single unit. 7. 9 video walls and a fully redundant Cisco network.2. A trip concierge provides details and flight status of all trip stages on a smartphone. As a major break-through in scanner anywhere. 6. http://www. Passenger numbers at the New Doha International Airport are predicted to reach 24 million per year.html http://www. it can operate as an e-boarding pass as well. or via an airport kiosk. such as valet parking or route switching.2.