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Domain

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Example

of T (say, 1 month).

The bank pays a certain interest on the account balance during the

period T and mails out a periodic statement of the account balance (the

output) to the depositor.

Find the equation relating the output y[k] (the balance) to the input x[k]

(the deposit).

In this example, the deposit x[k] is the input (cause) and the balance y[k]

is the output (effect).

formulation can handle deposits as well as withdrawals.

It also applies to a loan payment problem with the initial value y[0] = −M,

where M is the amount of the loan.

a loan of M dollars taken at k = 0 as an input of −M at k = 0

Delay operator form

the previous balance y[k − 1],

the interest on y[k − 1] during the period T

the deposit f[k]

Delay operation form

of delay is a causal, and hence realizable

Basic operations

this equation:

addition,

delay

Operators

Block diagram representation

basically a road map to hardware (or software)

realization of the system

have a pickoff node (d), which is used to provide multiple

copies of a signal at its input.

operators

Rewrite delay operator equation as

the pickoff node N.

value a to yield ay[k − 1].

Next, we generate y[k] by adding the input x[k] and ay[k − 1] according

to Eq.

Observe that the node N is a pickoff node, from which two copies of the

output signal flow out; one as the feedback signal, and the other as the

output signal.

Advance operation form

In contrast, advance operation, being noncausal, is

unrealizable.

mathematical convenience over the delay form

Example-1

Example-2

continuous-time signals. This differentiator is used in

an audio system having an input signal bandwidth

below 20 kHz.

derivative of the input x(t). The discrete-time

processor (system) G processes the samples of x(t)

to produce the discrete-time output y[k].

apart of the signals x(t) and y(t), respectively,

• The signals x[n] and y[n] are the input and

the output for the discrete-time system G.

Now, we require that

• Therefore, at t = nT

• This is the input-output relationship for G required to achieve

our objective.

• In practice, the sampling interval T cannot be zero.

• Assuming T to be sufficiently small, the equation just given

can be expressed as

• A discrete-time processor G to realize eq. is shown inside

the shaded box

• The system in fig. acts as a differentiator.

This example shows how a continuous-time signal can be

processed by a discrete-time system.

(Nyquist Th.)

choice is T < 25us

BITS Pilani

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Example

Digital integrator design

Digital integrator design

For an integrator, the input x(t) and the output y(t) are

related by

Therefore, at t = nT

so on, this equation can be expressed

Assuming that T is small enough to justify the

assumption T → 0, we have

system.

This digital integrator equation can be expressed in an

alternate form. From above eq. it follows that

Example 2

certain textbook. The publisher sells y[k] new copies of the

book in the nth semester. On the average, one-quarter of

students with books in salable condition resell the texts at the

end of the semester, and the book life is three semesters.

Write the equation relating y[k], the new books sold by the

publisher, to x[k], the number of students enrolled in the nth

semester, assuming that every student buys a book.

BITS Pilani

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classical solution

Solution of Linear difference equation

Example—iterative method

Simple method of system analysis--

-using Operational notation

Impulse response h(k)—input

System response of LTID system to

impulse input—convolution method

Convolution Sum

Response to Arbitrary input

apply in the discrete case.

Condition for BIBO stable

discrete system

Properties of conv. sum

Width property

The operation of convolution has the following property for all discrete

time signals f 1 ,f 2 where Duration(f) gives the duration of a signal f .

for all n for which there is a k such that

When viewing one function as reversed and sliding past the other, it is

easy to see that such a k exists for all n on an interval of length

Duration(f 1 )+ Duration(f 2 )−1 .

Note that this is not always true of circular convolution of finite length

and periodic signals as there is then a maximum possible duration

within a period.

Impulse convolution

all discrete time signals f where δ is the unit sample

funciton

f∗δ=f

Proof—

TIME SHIFT PROPERTY

Graphical procedure

Sliding tape method

Discrete convolution—

matrix method

De-convolution

Example

Total response of LTID system

to any input

Useful equalities

Example1

Example2

Example 3

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Zero input response—3 cases

Example—

Zero input response—real , distinct root

Diff in natural/ forced ,

zero input/ zero state resp.

Cases---Real equal roots,

complex roots

System stability of LTID

system

Graphical representation of

stability

Stability summary

Stability-------Real roots<1, >1

Stability -----

complex roots<1, >1

Stability---- real distinct roots,

complex roots=1

Stability----repeated real,

complex roots=1

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LTID system to everlasting exp. zk

Total response of LTID system to any input

Zero input response—3 cases

• Real, distinct roots

Example--Zero input response—real , distinct

root

Diff in natural/ forced , zero input/ zero

state resp.

Cases---Real equal roots, complex roots

System stability of LTID system

Graphical representation of stability

Stability summary

Stability-------Real roots<1, >1

Stability -----complex roots<1, >1

Stability----unrepeated real, complex roots=1

Stability----repeated real, complex roots=1

LTID system to everlasting exp. zk

Impulse Response

Example 1

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