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# Signals & Systems

## EEE/ INSTR F243

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Domain
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Example

## A person makes a deposit (the input) in a bank regularly at an interval

of T (say, 1 month).

The bank pays a certain interest on the account balance during the
period T and mails out a periodic statement of the account balance (the
output) to the depositor.

Find the equation relating the output y[k] (the balance) to the input x[k]
(the deposit).

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 In this example, the deposit x[k] is the input (cause) and the balance y[k]
is the output (effect).

##  A withdrawal from the account is a negative deposit. Therefore, this

formulation can handle deposits as well as withdrawals.

 It also applies to a loan payment problem with the initial value y[0] = −M,
where M is the amount of the loan.

##  A loan is an initial deposit with a negative value. Alternately, we may treat

a loan of M dollars taken at k = 0 as an input of −M at k = 0
Delay operator form

## The balance y[k] is the sum of

the previous balance y[k − 1],
the interest on y[k − 1] during the period T
the deposit f[k]

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Delay operation form

## The delay operator form is more natural because operation

of delay is a causal, and hence realizable

Basic operations

this equation:

delay

Operators

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Block diagram representation

## Represent this system in a block diagram form ,which is

basically a road map to hardware (or software)
realization of the system

## shows their schematic representation. In addition, we also

have a pickoff node (d), which is used to provide multiple
copies of a signal at its input.

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operators
 Rewrite delay operator equation as

##  To understand this realization, assume that the output y[k] is available at

the pickoff node N.

##  Unit delay of y[k] results in y[k − 1], which is multiplied by a scalar of

value a to yield ay[k − 1].

 Next, we generate y[k] by adding the input x[k] and ay[k − 1] according
to Eq.

 Observe that the node N is a pickoff node, from which two copies of the
output signal flow out; one as the feedback signal, and the other as the
output signal.

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In contrast, advance operation, being noncausal, is
unrealizable.

## We use the advance operator form primarily for its

mathematical convenience over the delay form

Example-1

Example-2

## Design a discrete-time system, to differentiate

continuous-time signals. This differentiator is used in
an audio system having an input signal bandwidth
below 20 kHz.

## In this case, the output y(t) is required to be the

derivative of the input x(t). The discrete-time
processor (system) G processes the samples of x(t)
to produce the discrete-time output y[k].

## Let x[k] and y[k] represent the samples T seconds

apart of the signals x(t) and y(t), respectively,

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• The signals x[n] and y[n] are the input and
the output for the discrete-time system G.
Now, we require that

• Therefore, at t = nT
• This is the input-output relationship for G required to achieve
our objective.
• In practice, the sampling interval T cannot be zero.
• Assuming T to be sufficiently small, the equation just given
can be expressed as

## • The approximation improves as T approaches 0.

• A discrete-time processor G to realize eq. is shown inside
• The system in fig. acts as a differentiator.
 This example shows how a continuous-time signal can be
processed by a discrete-time system.

(Nyquist Th.)

##  That is to process frequencies below 20 kHz, the proper

choice is T < 25us

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Example
Digital integrator design
Digital integrator design

 For an integrator, the input x(t) and the output y(t) are
related by

 Therefore, at t = nT

##  Using the usual notation x(nT) = x[n], y(nT) = y[n], and

so on, this equation can be expressed

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 Assuming that T is small enough to justify the
assumption T → 0, we have

##  This equation represents an example of accumulator

system.
 This digital integrator equation can be expressed in an
alternate form. From above eq. it follows that

Example 2

## In an nth semester, x[k] students enroll in a course requiring a

certain textbook. The publisher sells y[k] new copies of the
book in the nth semester. On the average, one-quarter of
students with books in salable condition resell the texts at the
end of the semester, and the book life is three semesters.

Write the equation relating y[k], the new books sold by the
publisher, to x[k], the number of students enrolled in the nth
semester, assuming that every student buys a book.

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## Time domain analysis of Discrete system –

classical solution
Solution of Linear difference equation
Example—iterative method

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Simple method of system analysis--
-using Operational notation

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Impulse response h(k)—input
System response of LTID system to
impulse input—convolution method

Convolution Sum

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Response to Arbitrary input

## The commutative, associative, and distributive properties also

apply in the discrete case.

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Condition for BIBO stable
discrete system

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Properties of conv. sum

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Width property
The operation of convolution has the following property for all discrete
time signals f 1 ,f 2 where Duration(f) gives the duration of a signal f .

## Proof---In order to show this informally, note that (f 1 ∗f 2 )(n) is nonzero

for all n for which there is a k such that

## f 1 (k) f2 (n−k) is nonzero.

When viewing one function as reversed and sliding past the other, it is
easy to see that such a k exists for all n on an interval of length
Duration(f 1 )+ Duration(f 2 )−1 .

Note that this is not always true of circular convolution of finite length
and periodic signals as there is then a maximum possible duration
within a period.

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Impulse convolution

## The operation of convolution has the following property for

all discrete time signals f where δ is the unit sample
funciton

f∗δ=f

Proof—

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TIME SHIFT PROPERTY

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Graphical procedure

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Sliding tape method
Discrete convolution—
matrix method

De-convolution
Example

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Total response of LTID system
to any input

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Useful equalities

Example1

Example2

Example 3

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## Zero input response

Zero input response—3 cases

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Example—
Zero input response—real , distinct root

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Diff in natural/ forced ,
zero input/ zero state resp.

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Cases---Real equal roots,
complex roots

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System stability of LTID
system

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Graphical representation of
stability

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Stability summary

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Stability-------Real roots<1, >1
Stability -----
complex roots<1, >1

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Stability---- real distinct roots,
complex roots=1

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Stability----repeated real,
complex roots=1

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## Method of Fourier series

LTID system to everlasting exp. zk
Total response of LTID system to any input
Zero input response—3 cases
• Real, distinct roots

## • Complex conjugate roots

Example--Zero input response—real , distinct
root
Diff in natural/ forced , zero input/ zero
state resp.
Cases---Real equal roots, complex roots
System stability of LTID system
Graphical representation of stability
Stability summary
Stability-------Real roots<1, >1
Stability -----complex roots<1, >1
Stability----unrepeated real, complex roots=1
Stability----repeated real, complex roots=1
LTID system to everlasting exp. zk
Impulse Response

Example 1