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Greek architecture refers to the architecture of the Greek-
speaking peoples who inhabited the Greek mainland and the
Peloponnese, the islands of the Aegean Sea, the Greek colonies
in Ionia (coastal Asia Minor), and Magna Graecia (Greek colonies
in Italy and Sicily). Greek architecture stretches from c. 900
B.C.E. to the first century C.E. (with the earliest extant stone
architecture dating to the seventh century B.C.E.). Greek
architecture influenced Roman architecture and architects in
profound ways, such that Roman Imperial architecture adopts and
incorporates many Greek elements into its own practice. An
overview of basic building typologies demonstrates the range and
diversity of Greek architecture

The most recognizably “Greek” structure is the temple (even though the
architecture of Greek temples is actually quite diverse). The Greeks
referred to temples with the term ὁ meaning "dwelling;" temple derives
from the Latin term, The earliest shrines were built to honor divinities and
were made from materials such as a wood and mud brick—materials that
typically don't survive very long. The basic form of the emerges as early as
the tenth century B.C.E. as a simple, rectangular room with projecting walls
(antae) that created a shallow porch. This basic form remained unchanged
in its concept for centuries. In the eighth century B.C.E. Greek architecture
begins to make the move from ephemeral materials (wood, mud brick,
thatch) to permanent materials (namely, stone).
The multi-phase architectural development of sanctuaries such as that
of Hera on the island of Samos demonstrate not only the change that
occurred in construction techniques over time but also how the Greeks re-
used sacred spaces—with the later phases built directly atop the preceding
ones. Perhaps the fullest, and most famous, expression of Classical Greek
temple architecture is the Periclean Parthenon of Athens—a Doric order
structure, the Parthenon represents the maturity of the Greek classical form.
Doric order

The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and
later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and
the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognised by the simple circular capitals at the
top of columns. It was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though
still with complex details in the entablature above.
The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced,[1] and had no base, dropping
straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The
capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is
very wide in early versions, but later more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the
complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features originally unique to the Doric,
the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of
the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples.[2] In stone they are
purely ornamental.
In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement
(the stylobate) of a temple without a base. With a height only four to eight times their
diameter, the columns were the most squat of all the classical orders; their vertical
shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves; and they were topped by a
smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection
with the horizontal beam (architrave) that they carried. The Parthenon has the Doric
design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period (750-480 BC) in mainland
Greece, and also found in Magna Graecia (southern Italy), as in the three temples
at Paestum. These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the
column compared to later Classical forms, as exemplified in the Parthenon.

The Doric order emerged on the Greek mainland during the course of the
late seventh century BCE and remained the predominant order for Greek
temple construction through the early fifth century BCE, although notable
buildings built later in the the Classical period—especially the canonical
Parthenon in Athens—still employed it. By 575 BCE, the order may be
properly identified, with some of the earliest surviving elements being the
metope plaques from the Temple of Apollo at Thermon. Other early, but
fragmentary, examples include the sanctuary of Hera at Argos, votive
capitals from the island of Aegina, as well as early Doric capitals that were
a part of the Temple of Athena Pronaia at Delphi in central Greece. The
Doric order finds perhaps its fullest expression in the Parthenon, c. 447-432
BCE., at Athens designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates.
As its names suggests, the Ionic order originated in Ionia, a coastal region of

central Anatolia—today Turkey—where a number of ancient Greek settlements

were located. Volutes, scroll-like ornaments, characterize the Ionic capital, and a

base supports the column, unlike the Doric order. The Ionic order developed in

Ionia during the mid-sixth century BCE and had been transmitted to mainland

Greece by the fifth century BCE. Among the earliest examples of the Ionic capital

is the inscribed votive column from Naxos, dating to the end of the seventh century

The monumental temple dedicated to Hera on the island of Samos, built by the

architect Rhoikos

c. 570-560 BCE, was the first of the great Ionic buildings, although it was

destroyed by earthquake in short order. The sixth century BCE Temple of Artemis

at Ephesus, a wonder of the ancient world, was also an Ionic design. In Athens, the Ionic
order influenced some elements of the Parthenon, 447-432 BCE, notably the Ionic frieze that

encircles the cella of the temple. Ionic columns are also employed in the interior of the

monumental gateway to the Acropolis, known as the Propylaia, c. 437-432 BCE.

The Corinthian order is both the latest and the most
elaborate of the Classical orders of architecture. This
order was employed in both Greek and Roman
architecture with minor variations and gave rise, in turn, to
the Composite order. As the name suggests, the origins of
the order were connected in antiquity with the Greek city-
state of Corinth, where, according to the architectural
writer Vitruvius, the sculptor Callimachus drew a set of
acanthus leaves surrounding a votive basket (Vitr. 4.1.9-
10). In archaeological terms, the earliest known Corinthian
capital comes from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at
Bassae and dates to c. 427 BCE.
Legacy of the Greek
architectural canon
The canonical Greek architectural orders have exerted influence on

architects and their imaginations for thousands of years. While Greek

architecture played a key role in inspiring the Romans, its legacy also

stretches far beyond antiquity. When James “Athenian” Stuart and

Nicholas Revett visited Greece during the period from 1748 to 1755 and

subsequently published The Antiquities of Athens and Other Monuments

of Greece, 1762, in London, the Neoclassical revolution was underway.

Captivated by Stuart and Revett’s measured drawings and engravings,

Europe suddenly demanded Greek forms. Architects like Robert Adam

drove the Neoclassical movement, creating buildings such as Kedleston

Hall, an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire.


 www.wikipedia .com