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Fixture Design

Introduction to Jigs and Fixtures:
A device that holds the work and locates the path of the tool. Jig: Fixture: A device fixed to the worktable of a machine and locates the work in an exact position relative to the cutting tool.

Fixture Design Fundamentals:
• • • • Fixture planning, Fixture layout design, Fixture element design, Tool body design.

Basic fixture concepts:
• • • • Fixture design deals with the establishment of the basic fixture concepts: Fixture layout is an conceptual in the form of a configuration of the fixture. Fixture element design is concerned with the concrete details of the locators, clamps and supports Tool body design produces a structure combining the fixture elements in the desired relationship with the machine tool.

Fixture planning:
Fixture planning is to conceptualise a basic fixture configuration through analysing all the available information regarding the material and geometry of the workpiece,operations required, processing equipment for the operations, and the operator. The following outputs are included in the fixture plan: • Fixture type and complexity • Number of workpieces per fixture
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The following outputs are included in fixture layout: • Positions of locators • Positions of clamps • P ositions of supports • Type of locators • Type of clamps • Type of supports • Clamping forces and sequence Fixture design procedure: In the design of a fixture.Fixture Design • • • • Orientation of workpiece within fixture Locating datum faces Clamping surfaces Support surfaces. a definite sequence of design stages is involved. The locating scheme. This is usually built around the work piece as a single element which links all the other elements used for locating. all the critical dimensions and feasible datum areas are examined in detail. etc. Stage Three is the design of the structure of the fixture body frame. A clamping scheme is devised in such a way that it will not interfere with the tools or cutters and are fully compatible with proposed locating surfaces or areas. Fixture layout: Generation o f fixture layout is to represent the fixture concepts in a physical form. examining the processing equipment and considering operator safety and ease of use. These include product analysis such as the study of design specifications. is designed to be consistent with clamping and tool-guiding arrangements. In this stage. They can be grouped into three broad stages of design development. into an integral frame work. process planning. pads. etc. clamping tool-guiding. Stage Two involves the consideration of clamping and locating schemes. using standard elements such as pins. Stage One deals with information gathering and analysis. Types of Fixtures: • • • • • Plate fixtures: From a plate by adding locators and clamps & Reference surface is parallel to the mounting surface Angle plate fixtures Vise jaw fixtures Indexing fixtures Multipart fixtures EXTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Flat-Surface Machining: 1) Milling fixtures 3) Planing fixtures Cylindrical-Surface Machining 1) Lathe fixtures Irregular-Surface Machining 1) Band-sawing fixtures 2) Surface-Grinding fixtures 4) Shaping fixtures 2) Cylindrical-grinding fixtures 2) External-broaching fixtures PGDPTD-2009 Page 2 .

The simplest type of milling fixture is a milling vise mounted on the machine table. etc. stitching.Fixture Design NON-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Assembly 1) Welding fixtures 2) Mechanical-assembly fixtures (Riveting. as the workpiece size. or complexity becomes more sophisticated so does the fixture PGDPTD-2009 Page 3 . shape. pinning. stapling. However.) 3) Soldering fixtures Inspection 1) Mechanical-inspection fixtures 2) Optical-inspection fixtures 3) Electronic-inspection fixtures Finishing 1) Painting fixtures 2) Plating fixtures 3) Polishing fixtures 4) Lapping fixtures 5) Honing fixtures 1. Milling Fixtures: It is most common type of fixture in use.

In cases where it is either impossible or impractical. Chip removal and coolant drainage must be considered when designing the fixture. additional supports or jacks must be provided.Fixture Design Design Criteria of Milling Fixture: • • • • • • • • • The design should permit as many surfaces of the part to be machined as possible. Sufficient space should be permitted to easily remove chips with a brush. Moving the part to accommodate one cutter for several operations is not as accurate or efficient as changing cutters. Set blocks or cutter-setting gages must be provided in the fixture design to aid the operator in properly setting up the tool in production. Milling fixtures should be designed and built with a low profile to prevent unnecessary twisting or springing while in operation. Locators must be designed to resist all tool forces and thrusts. Whenever possible. The entire workpiece must be located within the fixture’s area. Clamps should not be used to resist tool forces. PGDPTD-2009 Page 4 . without removing the part. Clearance space or sufficient room must be allowed to provide adequate space to change cutters or load and unload the part. the tool should be changed to suit the part.

Lathe fixtures must be balanced. The only major difference between the two is the relationship between the workpiece and the cutting tool. This situation creates another condition the tool designer must deal with-centrifugal force. Lathe Fixtures: • • • • • The same basic principles as milling fixtures. PGDPTD-2009 Page 5 . or collets. this setting device should later be removed. or centrifugal. The complete fixture must be designed and constructed to resist the effects of the rotational. As with other fixtures. However. Projections and sharp corners should be avoided. the workpiece is stationary and the cutting tool revolves. since these areas will become almost invisible as the tool rotates and they could cause serious injury. Clamping over an area to be bored to a very thin-wall thickness could cause the part to warp or deform.Fixture Design 2. standard lathe accessories should be adapted in the design of turning fixtures. can and should be modified for many fixturing applications. In most fixtures. Whenever possible. thus causing the hole to be bored incorrectly. Parts to be fixtured should. whenever possible. a standard lathe chuck. balance is achieved by using counterweights positioned opposite the heaviest part (or area) of the workpiece. some means of cutter setting should be incorporated into the design. forces present in turning. be gripped by their largest diameter or cross section. Lathe faceplates are an ideal method to mount large fixtures. Design Criteria for Lathe Fixture: • • • • • • • • • • • Since lathe fixtures are designed to rotate. high rotational speeds require the fixture to be well-balanced. Clamps should be positioned on rigid surfaces or areas before and after machining. While perfect balance is not normally required for slow speed turning operations. However. Likewise. In milling. they should be as lightweight as possible. The part should be positioned in the fixture so that most of the machine operation can be performed in the first fixturing. with turning operations. since the workholder will be rotating. the workpiece revolves and the cutting tool is stationary.

• Since cylindrical grinding is normally a secondary operation. it is often desirable to use the same center holes for grinding as turning the part. • Whenever practical. 4. l Broaching fixtures are designed to simply hold and locate a part relative to either an internal or external broach. Most broaching performed today is of the pull type and tends to PGDPTD-2009 Page 6 . Since there is a great deal of cutting force exerted during broaching. • Fixture elements in contact with the magnetic chuck should be made from ferrous materials if they are to be held on the chuck. • Incorporate provisions for wheel dressing and truing into the design. l Boring fixtures. performed after turning. like milling fixtures. it is also good practice to include alignment areas on the fixture to ensure proper alignment with the machine. • All locators must be accurately and positively positioned. the fixture is simply a device to contain the workpiece and prevent any lateral or transverse movement of the part. These fixtures differ from boring jogs in that they do not have any provision for guiding or supporting the boring bar.Fixture Design 3. In cases where a boring fixture is to be used on a very large machine. use magnetic chucks to hold the workpiece. • Coolant buildup is seldom a problem with cylindrical grinding. l Internal broaching fixtures need only locate and hold the part in proper position relative to the hole in the broaching machine. • If they are not to be held to the chuck. • In these cases. then a nonferrous metal should be specified. should have some provision for setting the position of the cutting tool relative to the part. l Fixture must be built more substantially than those for other processes. chucks. the complete. l Boring fixtures are normally used for large parts with large holes where the boring bar is rigid enough to provide additional support. use standard accessories and attachments. • Cylindrical grinding fixtures should always be perfectly balanced to achieve the desired results. such as a boring mill or vertical turret lathe. however. Grinding Fixtures: It’s family of fixtures rather than a single classification. sludge removal must always be considered. Boring Fixtures: Design Criteria l Boring fixtures are designed to hold the workpiece while the part is bored. but made to much closer tolerances. • When possible. • Provide adequate room or slots to permit the escape of coolant and easy removal of built -up grinding sludge. Major types are • surface grinding fixtures and • cylindrical grinding fixtures Design Criteria of Grinding Fixture: Surface grinding fixtures: • Similar in design to milling fixtures. These include grinding collets. A pilot bushing is not needed. and drive plates with special right angled holders called dogs. • Provide coolant containment devices or splash guards to keep the fixture from spilling coolant on the floor around the machine. Cylindrical grinding fixtures: • Are very similar to lathe fixtures. • Include provisions for rapid wheel dressing and truing in the design of the fixture. if not built into the machine.

l Fixtures are considered to be of a more general character and not so specialized as jigs. or similar fixture details must be kept clear of the blade path. it permits the changing of the position of the work during the actual welding. Since the area occupied by the saw blade on both types of band saws extends above and below the actual working area. standard saw accessories and attachments should be used in conjunction with fixturing elements.Fixture Design l l l l keep the part firmly seated on the fixture. With both types of machines. Provisions for coolant drainage and chip disposal must be planned into the fixture design. the fixture must be designed to resist both pulling and perpendicular thrust that tends to try to push the part away from the broach. Imparting movement (usually referred to as travel or traveling) to name but a few. This may require designing a means to secure the power-feed chain to the fixture. and wedges etc. or surface broaching. Fixtures may include rollers. the principle purpose for a broaching fixture is to maintain the proper relationship between the part and the cutting tool. clamps. Welding Fixture Characteristics:The actions provided by welding fixtures may be i. However. 5. Grounding and iv. l Mostly Used Welding Equipment Fixtures . When possible. External. The following are a few design characteristics peculiar to these saws and the sawing process in general. Use power feed whenever possible. and to prevent the part from moving. in addition.or it may include all of the equipment in the welding circuit.Welding equipment fixtures (some are called welding manipulators) may provide only stationary support or both support and travel to the welding equipment. requires a different approach to fixturing. Sawing Fixtures: Two primary machines commonly used for sawing operations are the vertical bandsaw and the horizontal bandsaw. table slots should be used to reference the fixture to the saw blade. Clamping iii. locaters. a significant amount of chips also will collect in the fixture unless some means for their elimination is planned.. clamping devices are necessary to establish the proper relationship and maintain the position of the part until the broaching pressure pulls the part against the table. While most band saws have an internal chip disposal system. 6. the main intent is to accurately position and gold the workpiece so it can be either sawed into pieces or slotted with the saw blade. l This increases welding speed. including the power sources and even the flux-recovery unit. supports. Clamps. Welding Fixtures: l A welding fixture serves the same purpose as a welding jig. so as to place the welds in a plane convenient to the operator at all times. but. Supporting ii. used for convenience in positioning of the work. PGDPTD-2009 Page 7 . In either case. l The equipment may be no more than a welding head or welding gun . any overhanging fixture elements could interfere with normal operation of the saw. Since this type of broaching is performed on the outside of a part. When practical.

For example. even 1he simple act of pushing the start button is eliminated. simplicity and cost often are the important factors for the selection of fixtures. Joint Geometry:l Joint geometry plays an important role in the selection of a welding fixture. to the very complex installations common in continuous mill welding. Movability of the welding head. This may mean combining a variety of work supporting or holding devices with a simple beam-with-carriage fixture. and clamping devices. iii. l The fixture should permit quick and easy positioning (by one hand. b. In selecting fixtures for mechanized welding. l Some fixtures are designed so that the weight of the incoming work activates the positioning. Movable Welding Head:In this case. l In this case fixture adaptability.Fixture Design l The fixtures for holding the head stationary. Principles Governing Design of Welding Fixtures: l The fixture should be strong and light but rigid enough to ensure accurate alignment. Stationary Welding Head:l Because a stationary welding head requires work movement. d. Thus. range from a simple arm and mounting bracket. In this case both the welding equipment and workpiece are traveling but in opposite directions to keep the weld puddle in the flat position. the engineer must evaluate considerations such as: Production volume. and then initiates the welding cycle. ii. l Whenever possible. balancing of the fixture may be necessary. o Welds in a straight line usually require a welding equipment fixture that travels the (welding) head along the joint with a stationary work fixture providing clamping to maintain part alignment and fit up. o Travel of a tractor riding the workpiece surface. enabling all welds to be brought to a convenient welding position. c. Head movement may result from o Travel of a carriage on a beam or rail o A traveling boom mounted on a stationary column. a fixture should be positioned. o The travel of the entire manipulator riding on a track in the floor. Production volume:l Elaborate welding equipment or work fixtures cannot be justified unless the part volume is substantial. In fact. PGDPTD-2009 Page 8 . Joint geometry. the work remains stationary and the welding head travels along the joint. it invariably calls for complex fixturing. As a result. o Circular welds are usually made with the welding head stationary and the work rotating. a. the work fixturing necessary for stationary head applications can be highly automated. if possible). Considerable Point in Fixture Selection (Design Criteria): i.

Design should permit heat dissipation to release. l Joints must be readily accessible for welding. clamps and locating devices should be integral with. l A fixture should be built around the work and should locate and clamp components in position so th at assembly. Rams or bumpers may be used to dislodge heat bound parts. l Welded construction is best. l Clamps must operate quickly. Only essential dimensions should be controlled in a fixture. l The use of light alloys for moving parts reduces weight. water. springs. rivets. the fixture should readily present seams on the reverse side of the object.registering it on the critical datum's. tool room work should be avoided and machining should be kept to a minimum. and hinged to. l This has included handling: injection molded components. o 8. Air or electric motors should be used for revolving. tape. tacking. o Measuring fixture indicates exactly where and by how much a part is out of tolerance. There are two general types of inspection fixtures: o Gauging fixtures are used to check a part against a preset standard size. l The fixture should permit freedom of movement in one plane to avoid residual stress. the assembly being welded. They are used to hold a part. the fixture. PGDPTD-2009 Page 9 . l Fusion to a fixture or to clamps can be avoided by the use of slots or copper backing. By slots or other means. and air or hydraulic rams for tilting the fixture assembly. plugs. If possible. clips and other components found in the manufacture of the automobile. fins or insulated handles can be used. and welding may be carried out in one fixture. Screws and moving parts should be protected against weld spatter. Inspection fixtures: l l l l Inspection fixtures are designed to check tolerances at various stages of assembly. It contains only those elements needed to check the specified sizes of forms.Fixture Design l Design should be as simple and inexpensive as possible. screws. furniture and other mass produced products. Assembly fixtures: l They are used for assembling a wide range of products. stamped metal components. 7. Appearance should be disregarded. l Fixtures should be kept cool enough to handle air. The fixture should ensure one way correct' assembly only. accuracy and elaboration should be no greater than required. rather than bind.

which is "charged" with the abrasive. and are suited for cross-hole deburring and edge radiusing applications PGDPTD-2009 Page 10 . gauging and self-diagnostic controls. in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them. l The lap is then used to cut a harder material the workpiece.) 10. typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or glass l The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the lap. The first type of lapping (traditionally called grinding). by hand movement or by way of a machine. 9. l This can take two forms. Honing fixtures: l Tools are available in silicon carbide and aluminum oxide in 60-320 grit sizes. Lapping fixtures : l Lapping is a operation.Fixture Design l These fixtures have ranged from simple. manually operated assembly aids up to sophisticated units with component sensing.