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Unit 2: Menulis Ilmiah Papers

Sebuah ilustrasi komik menunjukkan seorang pria di kursi tinggi-kembali duduk di belakang meja.
Seorang wanita duduk di meja, di seberang pria itu. Pria itu menggenggam kertas di tangannya dan
gelembung kutipan menunjukkan dia berkata, "Tidak, tidak, jika Anda membuat kertas terlalu
mudah dibaca, semua orang akan tahu bagaimana Anda mendapatkan hasil!"
Sebagai seorang ilmuwan, Anda diharapkan untuk berbagi pekerjaan penelitian Anda dengan orang
lain dalam berbagai bentuk. Mungkin yang paling menuntut bentuk ini adalah makalah yang
diterbitkan dalam jurnal ilmiah. Makalah tersebut memiliki standar kualitas yang tinggi, dan mereka
secara resmi disebarluaskan dan diarsipkan. Oleh karena itu, mereka merupakan yang berharga,
referensi abadi bagi para ilmuwan lainnya - dan untuk Anda juga. Bahkan, jumlah kertas yang Anda
mempublikasikan dan pentingnya mereka (seperti yang disarankan oleh faktor dampaknya) sering
dipandang sebagai cerminan prestasi ilmiah Anda. Penulisan karya ilmiah yang berkualitas tinggi
membutuhkan waktu, tetapi waktu dengan baik diinvestasikan.

Seperti Anda mungkin telah menyadari, bagaimanapun, banyak karya ilmiah gagal berguna
mengkomunikasikan karya penelitian untuk audiens mereka. Mereka fokus pada penulis bukan pada
pembaca dengan tidak mengklarifikasi motivasi untuk bekerja atau dengan memasukkan rincian
yang tidak perlu. Atau mereka mencoba untuk mengesankan pembaca daripada memberitahu
mereka. Akibatnya, mereka menarik atau dipahami oleh hanya sekelompok kecil pembaca sangat
khusus. Karya ilmiah yang efektif, sebaliknya, menarik dan berguna untuk banyak pembaca,
termasuk pendatang baru ke lapangan.

Unit ini akan membantu Anda menulis karya ilmiah baik dalam bahasa Inggris. Secara khusus, ini
akan membantu Anda memilih dan mengatur konten Anda, menyusun kertas, dan merevisi tulisan
Anda sehingga tugas akhir Anda berguna untuk khalayak luas - tidak hanya beberapa spesialis.



Bibliographic sources

1. Reference lists - Once you find a single good article, you can use the reference list at
the end of the article to find an ever-expanding list of related articles. (See also Citation
Index below.)

2. Reliable journals - People will often page through two or three of their favorite
journals just to look for interesting articles and to generally keep up with what is going on in
science. Most libraries (and in particular, Lane - medicine, and Falconer - biology) have
designated sections where they display recent received journals.

however. however. Bioabstracts 8. they are even more likely to contain erroneous statements.Very hit or miss as far as quality. 5. Colleagues. One can get interesting leads on what will be coming out. Remember. comprehensible pictures and diagrams. so it is worthwhile to read on that basis alone. Web searches . For example. 9. Others.The press often receives advanced copies of journals even before they are sent to scientists or libraries. Because no one person can possibly screen the literature. 1. This is a way to find a more recent article on the same topic. Therefore. Index Medicus 2. 3. See how strong the evidence is. they are published less frequently. It is a compilation of all the articles that were referenced by recently published articles. professors. you can look that article up and see what other articles used it as a reference in the past month for instance. and human interest aspects of a scientific story. even for an article that is accurately written. This is a way of rapidly perusing the titles of a large number of articles in order to decide which ones bear further scrutiny. However. such as The National Enquirer should be assumed to be fictionalized and are of no value (except perhaps as entertainment). Popular press . Computer searches .To me this is one of the most valuable resources there is.In concept. Therefore. NEVER take the findings presented in a newspaper article at face value. and they contain not only the title of the article but the abstract or summary as well. and friends. Always look up the citation for yourself and see what it says. these are like Current Contents. They are written to catch the eye and to conform to space requirements. I have found Lycos to be more useful than Yahoo.This is a journal that consists of the table of contents reprinted from a number of other journals. Remember that different search engines will produce different results. I have been very impressed at the ability to locate hard to find trivia. It is imperative to do an appropriate job of restricting the search topic or you will end up with more references than you know what to do with. but you do not have a good starting place. . 7. In this case. that only a miniscule proportion of findings reach the popular press so the selection is often biased and/or sensationalized. most of which will be extraneous. See if they got the message right.This is a good way to go if you know what topic you want to study. Web Crawler will search using a variety of search engines at the same time. * 6. Compilations of Abstacts . this is an excellent way to find out about interesting articles. if you find an excellent article from two years ago. Certain papers such as the New York Times are much more likely to get the facts straight. You should realize that the headings for articles are NOT written by the authors. this is the view that the lay public has about science and medicine. Citation Index . It allows one take take a reference "forward in time". 4. Current Contents .

all the while deciding whether or not to give it further attention. I will discuss one approach. Those of you who have had significant experience reading such articles will have developed a style of you own. three. or four times. Furthermore. 2) You may be interested in a specific aspect of the article rather than the entire thing. there will be things you simply do not understand because 1) you do not have the adequate background. 2) looking things up in textbooks.READING SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES There are many appproaches to reading scientific articles. You should be prepared to do some work in order to acquire sufficient background for adequate understanding of an article. There are simply too many articles and it would require too much work. 3) Understanding of one part of an article will often require backward or forward reference to another part of the article. *** For adequate understanding of an article. 4) asking questions of people who may know. appears to make perfect sense on subsequent readings. In general. people do not try to conquer every article they encounter. For those of you who have not. There are several reasons for this: 1) The information is too dense to comprehend it with a simple reading. Do not overlook this last possibility simply because you see something in print. One does not read a journal article like a novel or a newspaper article. The decision is based on several factors: 1) Whether the article is of sufficient interest 2) Whether the article is relevant to their work 3) Whether the article is of general importance 4) Whether the article is if high quality and or accurate . The special structure of such articles allows one to find the desired section more easily. They tend to go through a sequential process of studying the article . You should be comforted to know that even experienced scientists must read articles over and over again. This will include: 1) looking up points made in the references. 3) looking up words in dictionaries (particularly biological and medical dictionaries). You will often be amazed to discover that what seemed completely incomprehensible on the first reading. you should be prepared to read an article at least two. 2) they are just too complicated. or 3) they simply do not make sense.

3) Look at the date. You will not understand them this first time through but this will help you know what to look for when you actually read the article. Interestingly. 2) Read introduction. In addition to the publication date. the date is less important than the quality of thought. Read the title slowly until it makes sense. Some authors will also present the punch line of their research in a way that is easier to understand than the way it is presented in the abstract. This is an important process in trying to judge the quality of the data. 5) Whether the article is clearly written and accessible at least after reasonable amount of effort 6) Whether the article is "meaty" 7) Whether the article is short. In molecular biology. Read the first few paragraphs and the last few paragraphs. read the whole thing. You will want to go back to the reference page over and over again. when the article gets written and when it gets published. journals that are refereed (see below) are more likely to be delayed in their publication. Read the abstract slowly until it makes sense. but in consolidating background information. many journals list the date when the article was received. the date may be all-important.not so much in terms of presenting new information. whose work you know. 2) Look through the authors to see if there is anyone whose name you recognize. 3) The introduction will often cite many of the references. . With policy issues. 2) Go to the discussion. and the date when the article was accepted. Phase II: Getting the punch line. 4) Some articles have a brief list of key words. where information is rapidly changing. Although they are sometimes misleading (as anyone who has done a computer reference search knows) they are usually quite informative and should be looked at early on. If it is short and/or easy to understand. The introduction is often the easiest part of an article to read. it is also the most informative . The references are particularly informative if they contain the titles of the articles being cited. In some cases. Phase III: Understanding the approach 1) Peruse the figures and tables. 1) Read the abstract once fast looking for key words. Some specific suggestions: Phase I: Screening the article 1) Read the title once fast looking for key words. but are less likely to contain inaccurate or frivolous articles. Bear in mind that there is a definite lag period between when the research gets done. This is an excellent time to begin looking at them.

Jot down further ideas or questions. X-off things that are wrong. Other parts of the methods may remain obscure even after the rest of the article is fairly clear. Phase V: Increasing understanding 1) Reread the article in its entirety. You may wish to read several times. The monetary investment will surely be trivial in comparison to the investment of your time. Question things you do not understand or that do not appear to make sense. 4) Read the results section. reread the abstract once again Statistic Abstract: Statistical power. plays a critical role in empirical research. 2) Be sure to write on the article. such as where the chemicals were purchased or whence the viral strains were obtained do not actually contribute to an understanding of the article and may be safely omitted. the methods should be studied only in so far as they contribute to the understanding of the rest of article. specifies procedures for calculating power. 6) Study the figures and tables. At this point you should be able to have an adequate understanding of them. and assesses the power of empirical research published in Research in the Teaching of English during a three-year period. 4) Before leaving the article. Circle words you do not know. the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. 2) Skim the abstract and the introduction once again. Consult textbook to clarify points of general biology. 3) Consult the references. The methods section will need to be studied carefully only if you intend to use some of the procedures in your research. Check important points.Phase IV: First reading 1) If you get this far you may wish to photocopy the article if you have not already done so. Look up points that were not fully explained. Look up words that are unfamiliar. For our purposes. 5) Read the discussion. This report suggests why power is of special importance to English Education researchers. Certain parts of the methods. 3) Skim the methods section. Results of the analysis indicate English Education research to be of low power but .

menentukan prosedur untuk menghitung daya. This means that the reader is able to gain pleasure and understanding for the literature. Nilsen and Donelson (2005) further determined that a main goal of teaching literature is to elicit a response from students so they can explore their own lives and improve their logical thinking skills. metaphor. Hasil analisis menunjukkan penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris untuk menjadi daya rendah. Therefore.relative to other fields. character. Tiga rekomendasi untuk pelaporan yang memadai hasil penelitian disajikan The Definition of Literary Appreciation and Criticism Posted on March 19. probabilitas menolak hipotesis nol. Level 1: Pleasure and Profit (literary appreciation is a social experience) Level 2: Decoding (literacy is developed) Level 3: Lose yourself (reading becomes a means of escaping) . This can foster love for reading and improve their language arts skills as well. the key to developing appreciation for reading is first selecting appropriate adolescent literature in which students can identify and make connections. relatif tinggi. Laporan ini menunjukkan mengapa daya penting khusus untuk peneliti Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. 2013 by Marlin Dwinastiti Standard Stages of Literary Appreciation (reflection) Ogenlewe (2006) posits that ‘literary appreciation refers to the evaluation of works of imaginative literature as an intellectual or academic exercise. According to Donelson and Nilsen (2009). comparatively high. Literary appreciation focuses on the adequate grasp of the definitions and applications of traditional literary devices such as plot. Donelson and Nilsen (2009) echo this sentiment and add that it is the process by which one ‘gauges one’s interpretive response as a reader to a literary work’.’ In this process the reader interprets. understand its value and importance and admire its complexity. setting and symbolism which may be encountered within texts. evaluates or classifies a literary work with a view to determining the artistic merits or demerits or such a work. memainkan peran penting dalam penelitian empiris. literary appreciation occurs in seven stages. Three recommendations for the adequate reporting of research results are presented Abstrak: Kekuatan statistik. dan menilai kekuatan penelitian empiris diterbitkan dalam Penelitian di Pengajaran bahasa Inggris selama periode tiga tahun. tetapi relatif terhadap bidang lain.

Though the two activities are closely related. . Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory. Transaction reading journals and literature circles can be helpful as students can document their progress and reflect on them. This sentiment is supported by Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development at which children are said to go through mental development at different ages. because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works. Literary Criticism Literary criticism is the study. appreciates the artistic value of reading) Margaret Early’s Stages of Growth in Literary Appreciation determines that the personal attitudes. Stages which readers go through are added unto without dropping the previous stages. evaluation. the New York Times Book Review. reading and observing skills are all part of literary appreciation. Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory. and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. This may occur as a result of a student’s late or early cognitive maturity. which is the philosophical discussion of its methods and goals. Knickerbocker and Rycik (2002) asserts that it is important to understand literary development that teachers should consider students stages of development and select materials and methods appropriate to them. They should be provided with a forum to respond to literature in the classroom. assessing the world around them) Level 6: Variety in reading (reads widely and discusses experiences with peers) Level 7: Aesthetic purposes (avid reader. and The New Yorker. ideas and deductions with other students. the New York Review of Books. is a matter of some controversy. For example. As teachers. Academic literary critics teach in literature departments and publish in academic journals. Literary criticism is often published in essay or book form. occasionally students are ill-equipped to handle transition from childhood literature to adolescent literature and fail at establishing literary appreciation. while theory may be more general or abstract. we must understand that in order to appreciate literature students must experience pleasure from their reading. This will also allow them to make text to text connections. and have not always been. However. Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory. Thus. literary appreciation is a lifelong process. the London Review of Books. the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism.Level 4: Find yourself (discovering identity) Level 5: Venture beyond self (‘going beyond me’. The Nation. and more popular critics publish their criticism in broadly circulating periodicals such as the Times Literary Supplement. They affirm that each level must provide a sense of satisfaction for the reader if he or she is expected to move unto the next stage. theorists. literary critics are not always. discuss personal responses. and interpretation of literature. or conversely from book reviewing.

Later classical and medieval criticism often focused on religious texts. Definition of Literary Criticism Literary criticism is simply the attempt to explain a literary work. which are still crucial in literary study. secondary. Literary criticism was also employed in other forms of medieval Arabic literature and Arabic poetry from the 9th century. Classical and medieval criticism Literary criticism has probably existed for as long as literature. historical or cultural contexts. Plato’s attacks on poetry as imitative. Psychoanalytic Criticism and Marxist Criticism. or does life imitate literature?” Didacticism in literature asks the question. Psychoanalytic Criticism . Around the same time. and false were formative as well. This was particularly the case for the literary traditions of the three Abrahamic religions: Jewish literature. and the several long religious traditions of hermeneutics and textual exegesis have had a profound influence on the study of secular texts. In the 4th century BC Aristotle wrote the Poetics. A literary critic is one who explains or interprets a literary work–its meaning. A New Critic approach to a literary work is only concerned with the meaning. ambiguity. A literary theory is a method for analyzing a literary work. Literary mimesis asks the question. and historical value. without any regard to authorial intent. aestheticism. production. “How does the text lend itself as an instructional or moral guide to life?” Tools of Literary Criticism The tools with which a literary critic uses to interpret a text are literary theories. a typology and description of literary forms with many specific criticisms of contemporary works of art. Some critical theories include New Criticism. Both philosophers expressed ground breaking opinions about literature. wrote literary criticism on ancient Indian literature and Sanskrit drama. Christian literature and Islamic literature. and by Abdullah ibn al-Mu’tazz in his Kitab al-Badi.History of Literary Criticism Aristotle’s Poetics clearly defines aspects of literature and introduces many literary terms still used today. Bharata Muni. in his Natya Shastra. New Criticism New Criticism is characterized by its emphasis solely on the text. irony. notably by Al-Jahiz in his al-Bayan wa-‘l-tabyin and al- Hayawan. symbols and universal themes of the text. “Does literature imitate life. specifically on the issues of literary mimesis (imitation and representation) and didacticism. History The history of literary criticism dates back to Plato and Aristotle. Poetics developed for the first time the concepts of mimesis and catharsis.

Psychoanalytic Criticism also explores how the psyche of the author informs the text. pengaturan dan simbolisme yang mungkin ditemui dalam teks. kunci untuk mengembangkan apresiasi untuk membaca pertama memilih sastra remaja yang tepat di mana siswa dapat mengidentifikasi dan membuat koneksi. Marxist Criticism Marxist Criticism approaches a literary work from a socioeconomic standpoint. karakter. mengevaluasi atau mengklasifikasikan karya sastra dengan maksud untuk menentukan manfaat artistik atau kerugian atau Ciptaan tersebut. "Dalam proses ini pembaca menafsirkan. A Marxist critique of a literary work explores how the text intentionally or unintentionally supports capitalism. metafora. memahami nilai dan pentingnya dan mengagumi kompleksitasnya. Apresiasi sastra berfokus pada pemahaman yang memadai tentang definisi dan aplikasi perangkat sastra tradisional seperti plot. Donelson dan Nilsen (2009) menggemakan sentimen ini dan menambahkan bahwa itu adalah proses dimana seseorang pengukur respon seseorang interpretatif sebagai pembaca untuk sebuah karya sastra '. Ini berarti bahwa pembaca dapat memperoleh kesenangan dan pemahaman untuk literatur. Hal ini dapat menumbuhkan cinta untuk membaca dan meningkatkan keterampilan seni bahasa mereka juga. Nilsen dan Donelson (2005) lebih lanjut menetapkan bahwa tujuan utama pengajaran sastra adalah untuk mendapatkan respon dari siswa sehingga mereka dapat mengeksplorasi kehidupan mereka sendiri dan meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir logis mereka. Oleh karena itu. . imperialism or other philosophies Definisi Apresiasi Sastra dan Kritik Posted on 19 Maret 2013 oleh Marlin Dwinastiti Standar Tahapan Apresiasi Sastra (refleksi) Ogenlewe (2006) berpendapat bahwa 'apresiasi sastra mengacu pada evaluasi karya sastra imajinatif sebagai latihan intelektual atau akademis.Psychoanalytic Criticism uses psychoanalysis as a means of explaining the behavior and motives of the characters in a literary work.

Dengan demikian. .Menurut Donelson dan Nilsen (2009). Membaca jurnal transaksi dan lingkaran sastra dapat membantu mahasiswa dapat mendokumentasikan kemajuan mereka dan merenungkan mereka. Tingkat 1: Kesenangan dan Laba (apresiasi sastra adalah pengalaman sosial) Level 2: Decoding (literasi dikembangkan) Level 3: Menurunkan sendiri (membaca menjadi sarana melarikan diri) Level 4: Menemukan diri (identitas menemukan) Level 5: Venture luar diri ('akan luar saya'. Tahapan yang pembaca melalui ditambahkan kepada tanpa menjatuhkan tahap sebelumnya. Hal ini dapat terjadi sebagai akibat dari akhir atau awal kematangan kognitif siswa. Knickerbocker dan Rycik (2002) menegaskan bahwa penting untuk memahami perkembangan sastra yang guru harus mempertimbangkan siswa tahap perkembangan dan pilih bahan dan metode yang tepat untuk mereka. Ini juga akan memungkinkan mereka untuk membuat teks teks koneksi. apresiasi sastra terjadi dalam tujuh tahap. Mereka menegaskan bahwa setiap tingkat harus memberikan rasa kepuasan bagi pembaca jika ia diperkirakan akan bergerak kepada tahap berikutnya. menghargai nilai seni membaca) Tahapan Margaret awal tentang Pertumbuhan Apresiasi Sastra menentukan bahwa sikap pribadi. Mereka harus diberikan dengan forum untuk menanggapi sastra di kelas. membaca dan mengamati keterampilan adalah bagian dari apresiasi sastra. membahas tanggapan pribadi. Namun. Sentimen ini didukung oleh Tahapan Piaget Pengembangan Kognitif di mana anak-anak dikatakan mengalami perkembangan mental pada usia yang berbeda. kadang-kadang siswa tidak siap untuk menangani transisi dari masa kanak-kanak literatur sastra remaja dan gagal membangun apresiasi sastra. apresiasi sastra adalah proses seumur hidup. Sebagai guru. ide dan pemotongan dengan siswa lain. kita harus memahami bahwa untuk menghargai siswa sastra harus mengalami kesenangan dari membaca mereka. menilai dunia di sekitar mereka) Level 6: Ragam dalam membaca (membaca secara luas dan membahas pengalaman dengan rekan- rekan) Tingkat 7: tujuan Aesthetic (pembaca setia.