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Tank Advantages Disadvantages

CSTR  Steady stage via  Wash-out tendencies when input is
Chemostat/Turbidostat greater than bacterial growth
 Ideal for yeast and bacteria  Need for shaft seals and bearings
 Primary metabolites  Size limitation by motor size, shaft and
 Mostly for wastewater weight
treatment
 Ideal for autocatalytic
 Continuous operation
 Good temp control
 Good control
 Construction simplicity
 Low labor cost
 Easy to clean
Fed-Batch  Production of high cell  Requires analysis of microorganism
densities  Requires understanding of physiology
 Controlled conditions during with productivity
fermentation, particularly of  Accumulation tendency of toxins that
substrate concentrations may cause inhibition
 Control over byproduct
formation
 Allow replacement of water
loss from evaporation
 Increase of antibiotic marked
plasmid stability by
providing the correspondent
antibiotic during the time
span of the fermentation
Airlift  Operating cost reduction  Greater air throughput requires higher
 Lesser parts = lesser pressures
maintenance  Inefficient foam breaker
 Easier sterilization  No bubbles breaker
 Low energy requirement
 Better heat removal

Fluidized bed  Uniform particle mixing  Increased reactor vessel size due to  Suited for exothermic particle expansion -> increased initial processes costs  Uniform Temperature  Pumping requirements and pressure gradient drop -> increased power requirement  Ability to operate in  Lack of understanding continuous state  Expensive maintenance due to  Allow continuous product internal erosion withdrawal  Dangerous pressure loss scenarios Packed bed  High conversion per unit mass  Undesired heat gradients of catalyst than catalytic  Poor temperature control reactor  Cleaning difficulty  Low operating costs  Difficult catalyst replacement  Continuous operation  Undesirable side reactions  No moving parts to wear out  Catalyst stays in the reactor  Reaction mixture is easy  Simple design  Effective at high temp and pressure Photobioreactor  Cultivation of algae in  High capital cost controlled environments  Not much better as compared to open  Large surface area to volume pond cultures ratio  Sterilization difficulty for  Better control of gas transfer pharmaceutical products  Reduction of medium  evaporation  Uniform temperature  Better protection from outside contamination  Space saving  Reduced fouling .

Membrane  Loss of enzyme is reduced due  to ultrafiltration of the product from the enzyme  Enzyme lost by denaturation can be made up thru periodic addition  Substrate and enzyme can be easily replaced Rotary Drum  High oxygen transfer  Scaling up difficulty  Good mixing for better growth  Lesser hydrodynamic stress   .

controller failure  Sterility maintenance is a high issue as it is difficult to maintain sterility for months  Consequence from loss of sterility is more severe in continuous than batch Batch  High productivity for secondary products  Suffer from great variability causing downstream  Ideal for genetically mutated strains process problems  Allows product flexibility  Mostly used in the industry Use of Multistage Chemostat for secondary metabolite products: - Blue .Shuler 3 .High CRITERIA WEIGHT AIRLIFT FLUIDIZED STIRRED (conventional) .Average 1 .Poor 2 . Advantage Disadvantage Continuous  High Xm/Xo than batch – higher productivity  Single stage: Only produces growth related products  Ideal for a dedicated product (I think 1o metabolites iyang pasabot)  Multistage continuous is able to separate the  Long term continuous operations may lead to growth curve (good for secondary metabolite) maintenance failures such as broken pumps.

Capital/Initial 5 3 Maintenance 10 Ease of 5 installation & operation Mode of 15 operation Product Yield Heat and Mass Transfer Aeration requirements Mixing Requirement Energy requirement TOTAL .