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1. a present habit or routine e.g. She eats healthy food. (She always eats healthy.)
2. a general truth e.g. Water boils at 1oo0 C
3. a present situation (not temporary) e.g. He lives in Paris, he works there.
4. always with STATE VERBS:
a. verbs of the senses e.g. Do you hear anything?
b. verbs of opinion and understanding e.g. He doesn't understand English.
c. verbs of emotions and feelings e.g. She hates Japanese food.
5. in the first conditional
e.g. He will help you with the homework, if you ask him!

1. a present and temporary activity e.g. Paul is studying a lot. (He doesn’t normally.)
2. an on-going activity of limited duration e.g. She is doing her homework now.
3. a future arrangement e.g. He is seeing his lawyer tomorrow. (an appointment)
4. repeated actions that irritate the speaker e.g. He is always screaming like that!.

1. you know precisely when the action took place in the past. e.g. I met her last week. (when? last week)
2. a past habit which is now finished e.g. She participated in tennis competitions. (not anymore now)
3. in the second conditional e.g. I would help you if I knew that you were in trouble.
4. a state or situation which started in the past and is now finished.
e.g. I worked in this company for 10 years. (I am working somewhere else now.)
5. a finished state or activity and the period of time in which it has taken place is finished.
e.g. I made lunch for my son this afternoon. (thelunch is finished and it is no longer afternoon)

1. a continuous action in the past which is interrupted by another action or a time:
e.g. I was sleeping when the phone rang.
2.background information, to give atmosphere to a story:
e.g. It was a great day. The sun was shining, the birds were singing, the children were playing on the
3. an annoying and repeated action in the past, usually with “always”:
e.g. He was always leaving the window opened.
4. for two actions which happened at the same time in the past:
e.g. I was cooking and my mother was washing the dishes.

1. you know that the action took place in the past, but you don't know when precisely.
e.g. I have seen this movie three times. (when? …you don’t know)
2. very recent past e.g. He has just left.
3. to announce news e.g. He has been elected President of the Company.
4. a state or situation which has started in the past and is continuing up to now.
e.g. I have learned in this school for 5 years.
5. a finished state or activity but the period of time in which it has taken place is not finished.
e.g. I have read a story this weekend. (the story is finished and it is still weekend)
6. a present result e.g. Paul has broken the window, we need to replace it.

. to make a guess about the present. (and often with 'by') to talk about an action that will finish before a certain time in the future. e. to express irritation e. FUTURE SIMPLE 1.a future fact: e. as the future perfect continuous. (= he arrived in London six years before he graduated and lived there continuously until he graduated. or feel. I have been waiting for hours and hours. Stative verbs only: something that started in the past and continued up to another action in the past.g. but I'm not completely certain) FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE 1.g. When we arrived.g.prediction based on opinion: e. to explain or give a reason for something in the past.g. I would have called you.The Government will be making a statement later. 3.g.g. e. FUTURE CONTINUOUS 1. 2. then later we arrived) 2. I am so tired. I'll help you with your homework.g. I had drunk a juice so I was not thirsty.g. 3. Will you give me a hand? I will give up smoking! 5. e. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE 1. something that started in the past and continued up to another action or event (tells us 'how long') e. A: 'I am hungry'. I will have retired. but we don't know exactly when. in the present (focus on action).g. Will you be taking your car to the meeting? 3. When he the same way as the future continuous. e.00 o’clock. e.g. I think the Conservatives will win the next election. 2. e. hear. If I had known you were home. unfinished actions which started in the past and continue to the present (we often use this with for and since). the film had started. My mother will be working now (= I think she is working now.g. he had been in London for six years. e. a completed action before something else in the past.g. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. or even longer) 4: As part of the third conditional. B: 'I'll prepare you a sandwich'. 4. I have been waiting for you for ten minutes.promises / requests / refusal / willingness: e.g. 3. She had been working at that company for a year when she met James. which we can often see. We don't know exactly when. e.g. By the time I'm sixty. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. The pavement was wet. I'll be at the station when you arrive. but we don't know exactly when) e.a decision at the moment of speaking: e. With a future time word. but with stative verbs. 2. but with state verbs: e. By 10 o'clock I will have finished my homework.g. it had been raining. a complete action in the future that will happen in the normal course of events. 2. (=I will finish my homework some time before 10.g. but definitely before my sixtieth birthday) 2. we often use this tense to ask politely about what someone is going to do: e.g. I have been studying a lot lately.g. The sun will set at 21. (= first the film started. (= I will retire sometime before I'm sixty. e.g. cause of something in the past e. actions which have just stopped (though the whole action can be unfinished) and have a result.

with a time word. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. (=I started in April 2007 and still teach here now. . I will have been teaching here for two years. probably I will continue after April 2009 but we are not sure).g. e. to talk about an action which starts before a time in the future and continues up to that time. In April 2009.