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“Año del Buen Servicio al Ciudadano”

UNIVERSIDAD PRIVADA “SAN JUAN BAUTISTA” FILIAL ICA

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

ESCUELA ACADEMICA PROFESIONAL DE MEDICINA HUMANA

INVESTIGACIÓN FORMATIVA

PARACAS CULTURE

CURSO

INGLÉS

AUTORES

REBAZA MATEO, ALFREDO JESÚS

GUTIERREZ MITACC, ESTEFANIA MILAGROS

PACHECO SOTIL, MARIA VALERIA

PIMENTEL RAMOS, LUCIA DE LOS ANGELES

RAMOS HUAMAN, LUIS GUILLERMO

LEVANO CARLOS, BRAYAN HAROLD

QUINTANILLA ZEGARRA, EDUARDO

CICLO II
SECCIÓN: MA
ICA-PERU

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many mummies have been found wrapped in many layers of the best embroidered tapestries that symbolize a person of power in the Paracas society. . anthropomorphic and animal designs. the remains of surgical operations to the brain (craneal trepanations) with the patients' survival. They developed advanced agricultural techniques and one of their most important crops was cotton. givenig them a 'lengthened head’. just as they demonstrated.5 meters long and used geometric. such as birds and felines. Using cotton. These people used to deform their skulls while still alive. Textiles were considered a symbol of status and wealth. PARACAS CULTURE This culture dates back to around 600 BC and expanded on the south coast of the Chincha Valley in the department of Ica. vicuna and alpaca wool they wove fine tapestries and multicolored blankets and dyed their creations with natural dyes of which they created more than 190 different shades. 200 km south of Lima. The size of the textiles was on average 2. Its textile is considered the best produced in pre-Columbian America. Their knowledge of medicine was advanced.

likewise there is the existence of a chain of centers ceremonies in charge of these priests. located in what is now the Paracas district of the province of Pisco. which is why it is believed it was not inhabited. DISCOVERY OF PARACAS CULTURE This culture was discovered by Julio Cesar Tello in 1925 The place of the findings was Cerro Colorado. in the Ica Region. The social organization was divided by priests. However. this influence was reflected above all in their religious life and in the theocratic government that were in the hands of the priests who implanted an oppressive system. warrior nobility and the people. maintained the political and technological religious domain. where Tello installed a camp. SOCIAL AND POLITICAN ORGANIZATION The Paracas culture was very influenced by the Chavín culture. Tello discovered some caverns where he found 39 burial bundles. due to their knowledge of the stars and the control of irrigated water. In the Paracas culture there was a group of military priests who. near Cerro Colorado with 429 mummified bodies. In 1927 the archaeologist found another cemetery. The population of the Paracas culture was composed mainly of peasants who accepted everything the priests said because they feared the punishment of the gods if they did not obey. in the south of the country. It is an arid and very hot zone.GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION It was developed in the Paracas peninsula. The settlers accepted that the priests would govern in the name of the Gods. . located 18kms from the city of Pisco. In these bales were the corpses of important people of the civilization.

the Paracas believed a lot in life after death and prepared for that. and when it took the color of the wood. headbands. The corpses before being buried had to go through a process of mummification. Generally. and then exposed the body to the sun to dry it. shell collars. two cultures or successive phases are distinguished. In conclusion. they placed the corpse in a fetal position and then wrapped it in many cloaks until it became a funerary bundle.MUMMIFICATIONS The techniques were secret and magical. plumes. clothing. The art of mummification was developed in paracas necropolis. They placed feather fans. and even small animals stuffed like monkeys. but they probably extracted the brain. parrots or dogs. weapons. the gastrointestinal mass. they also burned them and reduced them to a minimum size to be buried. When the person was important they wrapped it with more colorful textiles and more textiles. according to the eminent archaeologist Julio C. Which must have been related to beliefs from beyond the grave. The dry desert climate is an ideal environment for the conservation of these mummies. obsidian mirrors. canes. nose rings. PERIODS OF THE PARACAS CULTURE: In the Paracas culture. The Paracas thought there was life after death. foodstuffs. In this process they got rid of the organs and body parts of the corpse. Tello. it was burned. taking into account the way they buried their dead: Paracas-cavernas and Paracas-necropolis. .

Some of the corpses show trepanations and cranial deformations. They were communal graves. probably due to motives ECONOMY The Paracas economy in this period depended basically on intensive agriculture and fishing (given its proximity to the sea. The bodies are mummified. In the textile industry of this period there is influence of the Chavín culture. on the banks of the Ica River. TEXTILE In the Paracas Cavernas period the fabrics were characterized by being geometric and rigid. since they represent anthropomorphic. in whose bottom of about 6 meters in diameter. with a shape that looks like an "inverted cup". due to the climatic conditions and the terrain. The main population of the Paracas culture at this time was developed in Tajahuana. which gave them the ability to produce artificial sources of water. they placed the funerary bales. This is proved by the findings of the burial bundles found in Cerro Colorado. The tombs found in the Paracas Cavernas culture were underground dug into the rocks. were skilled fishermen aboard their reed horses) Agricultural advances were developed include the construction of aqueducts in the deserts. and the use of guano as a fertilizer. where the double-cloth technique predominated.C. The name Paracas Cavernas is due to the way in which the Paracas were buried in fetal form. in the Ocucaje sector. feline beings. although it is not known if the burials corresponded to the same family. predominantly the double- . The fabrics or mantles of the Paracas caverns culture are characterized by being geometric and rigid. or bottle with a high neck. PARACAS CAVERNS The Paracas Cavernas stage is 700 years old a.

black and white. The motifs of the ceramics of the Paracas culture show the repetition of the jaguar or other felines along with the snake. The designs were made with incised lines. are its ceramics modeled with a variety of decorative shapes. associated with religious representations. The type of vessel is globular with double peak and bridge handle that is used for the first time in this culture and that would use later cultures in the area. One of these supernatural characters. these ceramics were painted post-cooking (therefore. especially the "flying feline". together with the adornments and anthropomorphic and zoomorphic sculptural vessels. The Paracas ceramics are dark in color but the pigments used were of a wide range of colors. They . vicuna) and in some special cases. camelid wool (llama. the most important of the pantheon Paracas Cavernas. The pottery of the Paracas Caverna is very colorful and is characterized by being decorated with drawings of supernatural beings. named for his eyes exaggeratedly large and without eyelids. is the "oculate being". This. They were baked and painted with colored pigments mixed with vegetable resin. The polychrome pottery consisted of complexes decorated with various colors. such as the Nazca Culture. human hair. CERAMICS The most characteristic of Paracas Caverna. such as red and yellow. brown cotton. The ceramics were finished with two peaks and joined by a bridge handle. In them there is still a strong evocation in the representation of feline or geometrized anthropomorphic beings with hair in the form of serpent (serpentiform). the colors were not preserved for a long time). It seems that these animals were considered Paracas divinities. alpaca. MANTLES These ancient weavers used threads of white cotton.cloth technique. make the Paracas Cavernas pottery one of the most specialized in pre-Hispanic Peru.

while at present it is used as surgical access in some neurosurgical operations. Formerly it was carried out with the aim of eliminating diseases considered to be of cerebral origin. . red and black. yellow.used the colors green.Designs of mythological beings represented in the textiles of Paracas Cavernas MEDICINE Trepanation: trepanation is a medical practice that consists in piercing the skull. as it is the case of brain tumors or to treat the subdural hematoma (accumulation of blood on the surface of the brain) or when they present with intracranial hypertension (medical term that defines an increase in the hydrostatic pressure inside the cranial cavity).

the gorge of Topa and the Paracas Peninsula. is considered to be necropolis like the city and the dead since etymologically comes from the Greek "Necro" which means death and "polis" that means city. . since these did not have the perfection that if they possessed those ceramics of the time of Paracas Caverns. Tello who called "Paracas Necropolis". The Paracas culture emerged from another culture. this belongs to another culture which is called "culture will stumble". Paracas culture practiced high quality textiles made of (wool and cotton). were responsible for making trepanation cranial. which was "the Nazca culture" A great cultural affinity. which were buried a few meters high. One of the most highlighting features of this era was the rectangular form possessed by its cemeteries. consisting of several rows of subterranean rooms. this issue is still strongly discussed. was discovered by the Peruvian archaeologist Julio Cesar Tello and his disciple Toribio Mejía Xesspe. These graves consisted of large burial chambers.C. Another activity that characterized this epoch was the realization of its ceramics. to achieve understanding its end Specific. This term has generally been used to describe cemeteries belonging to large cities. some specialists have argued that the end of the Paracas culture for were the beginnings of the Nazca culture. Its development area found in the Pisco River. occurred in the year of 1920. It was Julio C. It has been considered that there were categories in terms of burials since those powerful characters were very adorned unlike the rest. located in the north of Chincha. also practiced pottery and basketry very elaborate. where dozens of funerary bales could be accommodated. PARACAS NECROPOLIS Culture Paracas Necropolis comprises its beginning from the years 200 years BC to the first years d.

. They had a political-military chief in charge of leading the people. this arose in the current province of Chincha of the Department of Ica. These were of varied colors and very intense. north. was a pre-columbian culture of ancient Peru. This has been developed between the year 200 and 100 A.. so diversity of beings are used in mythology as symbols of situations. was extended to Cañeta. these were less frequent. influenced the initial stage of the Nazca culture. from where they hung the heads of the enemies. it was known as intermediate early. manifestations of power or for purposes of socialization. the manufacture of its ceramics consisted of being monochrome and very little decoration.PARACAS CAPITAL NECROPOLIS His discoverer was Toribio Mejía Xesspes. • Philosophy: Each element plays an essential role in the whole. PARACAS CULTURE AND PHILOSOPHY • Religion: In this part it is considered that the Paracas could have worshipped the same gods as the Chavín. is the capital of Paracas Necropolis. and the Paracas Peninsula.D. the men wore belts. these had their lips sewn. this was one of his most representative rituals. One of his practices of the Paracas was that of the trophy heads. they have made representations of the god of the staff. all had decorative purposes of high complexity (Paracas mantles). after the decline of the Chavín culture. They will meet them practicing textiles based on (cotton and camelid wool). The settlers maintained continuous stuggles to secure their territory. Political-Economic Organization It became a militaristic state. to the South.

but his painting was precooked and became monochrome. His textiles were harmonious and with many colors. the decorations were of animals (especially fish). Textile His textile art is considered as the best of all pre-Columbian cultures. Ceramics Its ceramics did not reach a remarkable development. plants and people. The aesthetic forms of the cavernas period were manteneid . In this period the warrior nobility stenghened its power lo the destrimed of the priests “specialists” who take second place in te paracas society. More gods appear.Ocucaje is considered as te center-capital. they use drawings of animals. . anthropomorphic and geometric in their designs. Priests lose power. They used vicuña and cotton wool.

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