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# Physics II

Electromagnetism and Optics

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Jan 2009

Charge Distributions
There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions.

Charge Distributions
There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions.

Example
Consider two situations:

A: Two Point charges, of magnitude q each, are located at
(0, d , 0) and (0, −d , 0).
B: One Point charge of magnitude 2 q at (0, 0, 0)

Charge Distributions
There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions.

Example
Consider two situations:

A: Two Point charges, of magnitude q each, are located at
(0, d , 0) and (0, −d , 0).
B: One Point charge of magnitude 2 q at (0, 0, 0)
The electric eld at a point (x , 0, 0) is given by

q (x x̂ − d ŷ) (x x̂ + d ŷ)
" #
EA = +
4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2

0) The electric eld at a point (x . 0) is given by q (x x̂ − d ŷ) (x x̂ + d ŷ) " # EA = + 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 1 (2q ) x x̂ = 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 . d . of magnitude q each. are located at (0. 0.Charge Distributions There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions. 0. 0) and (0. Example Consider two situations: A: Two Point charges. −d . B: One Point charge of magnitude 2 q at (0. 0).

are located at (0. 0) is given by q (x x̂ − d ŷ) (x x̂ + d ŷ) " # EA = + 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 1 (2q ) x x̂ = 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (2q ) x̂ 3d 2   1 = 1− + · · · 4π0 x 2 2 2 x . 0) The electric eld at a point (x . 0) and (0. 0.Charge Distributions There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions. of magnitude q each. −d . 0. B: One Point charge of magnitude 2 q at (0. d . 0). Example Consider two situations: A: Two Point charges.

−d . 0). 0. B: One Point charge of magnitude 2 q at (0. 0.Charge Distributions There are no point charges or smooth charge distributions. of magnitude q each. are located at (0. 0) is given by q (x x̂ − d ŷ) (x x̂ + d ŷ) " # EA = + 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 1 (2q ) x x̂ = 4π0 (d 2 + x 2 )3/2 (2q ) x̂ 3d 2   1 = 1− + · · · 4π0 x 2 22 x And 1 (2q ) x̂ EB = 4π0 x2 . 0) and (0. Example Consider two situations: A: Two Point charges. 0) The electric eld at a point (x . d .

Charge Distributions Example If d = 1 mm and x = 1 m then .

EA − EB .

.

.

−6 .

EB .

≈ 10 .

.

.

Charge Distributions Example If d = 1 mm and x = 1 m then .

EA − EB .

.

.

−6 .

EB .

≈ 10 .

.

I As far as measurements are concerned. modelling two distinct charges as a single point charge is ne. .

Charge Distributions Example If d = 1 mm and x = 1 m then .

EA − EB .

.

.

−6 .

EB .

≈ 10 .

.

I As far as measurements are concerned. modelling two distinct charges as a single point charge is ne. I Fundamental Laws? But Electromagnetism is not about charges and currents but about electric and magnetic eld. We have correct laws for elds! .

Charge Distributions I Volume charge density is dened as ∆Q ρ(r) = lim . ∆ V →0 ∆V .

∆V must be much larger than the atomic sizes. ∆ V →0 ∆V I Can ρ(r) = 0 in any material? It is common to model ρ(r) = 0 inside conductors! In reality.Charge Distributions I Volume charge density is dened as ∆Q ρ(r) = lim . of the order of one cubic µm. . Say.

Charge Distributions
I Volume charge density is dened as

∆Q
ρ(r) = lim .
∆ V →0 ∆V
I Can ρ(r) = 0 in any material? It is common to model ρ(r) = 0 inside
conductors! In reality, ∆V must be much larger than the atomic sizes.
Say, of the order of one cubic µm.
I This will work if we are measuring elds outside the materials.

Charge Distributions
I Volume charge density is dened as

∆Q
ρ(r) = lim .
∆ V →0 ∆V
I Can ρ(r) = 0 in any material? It is common to model ρ(r) = 0 inside
conductors! In reality, ∆V must be much larger than the atomic sizes.
Say, of the order of one cubic µm.
I This will work if we are measuring elds outside the materials.

I Surprisingly, such averaging works inside materials, too!

Charge Distributions
Four types of distributions

I 3D charge distributions: volume charge density

∆Q
ρ(r) = lim .
∆ V →0 ∆V

Charge Distributions
Four types of distributions

I 3D charge distributions: volume charge density

∆Q
ρ(r) = lim .
∆ V →0 ∆V

I 2D charge distributions: surface charge density, σ(r).

λ(r). . ∆ V →0 ∆V I 2D charge distributions: surface charge density. I 1D charge distributions: linear charge density. σ(r).Charge Distributions Four types of distributions I 3D charge distributions: volume charge density ∆Q ρ(r) = lim .

Charge Distributions Four types of distributions I 3D charge distributions: volume charge density ∆Q ρ(r) = lim . ∆ V →0 ∆V I 2D charge distributions: surface charge density. I 0D charge distributions: point charges. . λ(r). I 1D charge distributions: linear charge density. σ(r).

I Are there any point charges in this distribution? .Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 .

Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 . I Are there any point charges in this distribution? I How much charge at a point? .

I Are there any point charges in this distribution? I How much charge at a point? I How much charge on the surface of a sphere of radius R? .Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 .

eventually. be represented as volume charge densities. I Are there any point charges in this distribution? I How much charge at a point? I How much charge on the surface of a sphere of radius R? All charge distributions can.Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 . .

I Are there any point charges in this distribution? I How much charge at a point? I How much charge on the surface of a sphere of radius R? All charge distributions can. y0 . be represented as volume charge densities. eventually. z0 ) ρ(r) = q δ 3 (r − r0 ) = q δ(x − x0 )δ(y − y0 )δ(z − z0 ) .Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 . Example Volume charge density of I a point charge q at r0 = (x0 .

z0 ) ρ(r) = q δ 3 (r − r0 ) = q δ(x − x0 )δ(y − y0 )δ(z − z0 ) I a uniform surface charge density σ0 on xy-plane ρ(r) = σ0 δ(z ) . y0 . be represented as volume charge densities. Example Volume charge density of I a point charge q at r0 = (x0 .Charge Distributions Example Let ρ(r) = ρ0 . I Are there any point charges in this distribution? I How much charge at a point? I How much charge on the surface of a sphere of radius R? All charge distributions can. eventually.

φ) = σ0 cos θ. Surface charge density σ(θ. Find the total charge on upper hemisphere. If S0 is upper hemisphere.Charge Distributions Example Let S be a spherical surface given by r = R . total charge is given by ˆ Q= σ(r) ds S0 .

If S0 is upper hemisphere. Surface charge density σ(θ. total charge is given by ˆ Q= σ(r) ds S0 Remember: Elementary area of spherical surface in spherical coordinates is ds = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ. Then ˆ Q = σ0 cos θ R 2 sin θ d θ d φ S0 . φ) = σ0 cos θ.Charge Distributions Example Let S be a spherical surface given by r = R . Find the total charge on upper hemisphere.

If S0 is upper hemisphere. total charge is given by ˆ Q= σ(r) ds S0 Remember: Elementary area of spherical surface in spherical coordinates is ds = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ. Surface charge density σ(θ. φ) = σ0 cos θ. Then ˆ Q = σ0 cos θ R 2 sin θ d θ d φ S0 ˆ ˆ 2π σ0 R 2 π/2 = sin 2θ d θ dφ 2 0 0 . Find the total charge on upper hemisphere.Charge Distributions Example Let S be a spherical surface given by r = R .

2 2 0 Total charge on S is zero. . If S0 is upper hemisphere. Find the total charge on upper hemisphere. Surface charge density σ(θ. total charge is given by ˆ Q= σ(r) ds S0 Remember: Elementary area of spherical surface in spherical coordinates is ds = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ. Then ˆ Q = σ0 cos θ R 2 sin θ d θ d φ S0 ˆ ˆ 2π σ0 R 2 π/2 = sin 2θ d θ dφ 2 0 0 2 π/2 σ0 R  cos 2θ = − (2π) = πσ0 R 2 .Charge Distributions Example Let S be a spherical surface given by r = R . φ) = σ0 cos θ.

I Such simple form is also applicable when charges are moving at very low speeds and accelerations. I It is relevant to study Electrostatics from application point of view. not only on their charges and positions. . but also on their velocities and accelerations.Electrostatics I Interaction (forces) between two point particles depend. I However when particles are at rest. a relatively simple form for interaction emerges.

Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Let q1 and q2 be two point charges located at r1 and r2 resp. Then the force exerted by q1 on q2 is (r − r ) F21 = k q1 q2 2 1 3 . |r2 − r1 | .

Then the force exerted by q1 on q2 is (r − r ) F21 = k q1 q2 2 1 3 . k = 1/4π0 . Its value is exactly known 2 1 C 0 = ≈ 8. |r2 − r1 | I In SI units. µ0 c2 N m .Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Let q1 and q2 be two point charges located at r1 and r2 resp.85 × 10−12 . where 0 is called permittivity of free space.

|r2 − r1 | I In SI units. µ0 c2 N m I Based on experiments. Then the force exerted by q1 on q2 is (r − r ) F21 = k q1 q2 2 1 3 .Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Let q1 and q2 be two point charges located at r1 and r2 resp. Its value is exactly known 2 1 C 0 = ≈ 8.85 × 10−12 . k = 1/4π0 . CL is believed to hold from 10−18 m (indirect 7 evidence) to 10 m (geomagnetic measurements) . where 0 is called permittivity of free space.

Its value is exactly known 2 1 C 0 = ≈ 8.7 ± 3. experimental evidence puts limit || < (2. µ0 c2 N m I Based on experiments. |r2 − r1 | I In SI units. . k = 1/4π0 . Then the force exerted by q1 on q2 is (r − r ) F21 = k q1 q2 2 1 3 . CL is believed to hold from 10−18 m (indirect 7 evidence) to 10 m (geomagnetic measurements) I If F ∝ 1/r 2+ .Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Let q1 and q2 be two point charges located at r1 and r2 resp.85 × 10−12 .1) × 10−16 (laboratory). where 0 is called permittivity of free space.

Its value is exactly known 2 1 C 0 = ≈ 8.7 ± 3. I Also linked to mass of photon. . believed that mγ < 4 × 10−51 kg (geomagnetic). µ0 c2 N m I Based on experiments. where 0 is called permittivity of free space. Then the force exerted by q1 on q2 is (r − r ) F21 = k q1 q2 2 1 3 .1) × 10−16 (laboratory). |r2 − r1 | I In SI units.Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Let q1 and q2 be two point charges located at r1 and r2 resp. k = 1/4π0 . CL is believed to hold from 10−18 m (indirect 7 evidence) to 10 m (geomagnetic measurements) I If F ∝ 1/r 2+ .85 × 10−12 . experimental evidence puts limit || < (2.

say B . is independent of presence of a third charge. Total force on A is given by F = FAB + FAC . due to another charge. say A. . I Easily generalize to several charges.Linear Superposition Linear Superposition Force FAB on a charge. say C .

I Easily generalize to several charges. say B . is independent of presence of a third charge. due to another charge.Linear Superposition Linear Superposition Force FAB on a charge. say A. say C . Total force on A is given by F = FAB + FAC . I Experimental evidence veried this law to accuracy of 10−4 . .

Total force on A is given by F = FAB + FAC . say C .Linear Superposition Linear Superposition Force FAB on a charge. I Experimental evidence veried this law to accuracy of 10−4 . . I Very accurate even at atomic distances and high strengths of forces. say B . due to another charge. say A. I Easily generalize to several charges. is independent of presence of a third charge.

I Experimental evidence veried this law to accuracy of 10−4 . I Very accurate even at atomic distances and high strengths of forces. I Easily generalize to several charges. is independent of presence of a third charge. due to another charge. Total force on A is given by F = FAB + FAC . say B . say A. . I Non-linearities are evident at subatomic level and are legitimately incorporated in quantum theory.Linear Superposition Linear Superposition Force FAB on a charge. say C .

I Very accurate even at atomic distances and high strengths of forces. say C . say B . due to another charge.Linear Superposition Linear Superposition Force FAB on a charge. is independent of presence of a third charge. Total force on A is given by F = FAB + FAC . I Non-linearities are evident at subatomic level and are legitimately incorporated in quantum theory. I Experimental evidence veried this law to accuracy of 10−4 . I Easily generalize to several charges. Classical Electrodynamic Theory is built on this principle. say A. .

. then the net force on the charge F = Q E(r). i = 1. .Electric Field If there are several point charges. I If a point charge of magnitude Q . . is kept at r. at locations ri . I Linear superposition holds for electric eld. then electric eld at r is dened as n 1 qi (r − ri ) E(r) = X 3 4π0 i =1 |r − ri | I Electric eld is a vector quantity. n. qi . . .

. n. qi . i = 1. . then the net force on the charge F = Q E(r). then electric eld at r is dened as n 1 qi (r − ri ) E(r) = X 3 4π0 i =1 |r − ri | I Electric eld is a vector quantity. I Linear superposition holds for electric eld. I If a point charge of magnitude Q . at locations ri . I Is electric eld. a real physical quantity? . . is kept at r.Electric Field If there are several point charges. .

Electric Field If there is continuous charge distribution with volume charge density ρ then electric eld at r is ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv . 4π0 |r − r 0 | .

4π0 |r − r 0 | Clearly.Electric Field If there is continuous charge distribution with volume charge density ρ then electric eld at r is ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv . the denition would reduce to ˆ σ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E (r ) = 3 dS . if there is only surface charge with density σ. 4π0 S |r − r 0 | .

Electric Field ˆ λ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E (r ) = 3 dl 4π0 C |r − r 0 | .3] Straight line segment charge density λ0 . z ). L] with uniform linear 0 [G2. 0). t ∈ [0.Electric Field Example C : r (t ) = (t . 0. 0. Calculate electric eld at (0.

z ). 0) 0 I . 0.Electric Field Example r = (0. 0. r = (t .

z ). 0. 0) 0 I r − r (t ) = (−t . 0 I .Electric Field Example r = (0. 0. 0. r = (t . z ).

z ). r = (t . 0) 0 I r − r (t ) = (−t . 0. 0 I . 0. z ).Electric Field Example r = (0. 0.

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

.

0.Electric Field Example r = (0. z ). 0. z ). 0) λ(r (t )) = λ0 0 0 I I r − r (t ) = (−t . 0 I . r = (t . 0.

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

.

0. 0) λ(r (t )) = λ0 0 0 I I I r − r (t ) = (−t . 0. r = (t . 0 I dl 0 = dt . 0. z ).Electric Field Example r = (0. z ).

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

.

0 I dl 0 = dt .Electric Field Example r = (0. 0. 0) λ(r (t )) = λ0 0 0 I I I r − r (t ) = (−t . z ). r = (t . 0. z ). 0.

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

Then. ˆ L λ0 (−t x̂ + z ẑ) E(r) = dt 4π0 0 (t 2 + z 2 )3/2 .

0. 0. z ). 0. 0) λ(r (t )) = λ0 0 0 I I I r − r (t ) = (−t . z ).Electric Field Example r = (0. r = (t . 0 I dl 0 = dt .

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

Then. ˆ L λ0 (−t x̂ + z ẑ) E(r) = 3/2 dt 4π0 0 (t 2 + z 2 ) z L      λ0 = −1 + √ x̂ + √ ẑ 4π0 z z 2 + L2 z 2 + L2 .

0 I dl 0 = dt . z ). z ). 0) λ(r (t )) = λ0 0 0 I I I r − r (t ) = (−t . r = (t . 0.Electric Field Example r = (0. 0. 0.

.

√ .

r − r (t ).

= t 2 + z 2 0 I .

.

ˆ L λ0 (−t x̂ + z ẑ) E(r) = 3/2 dt 4π0 0 (t 2 + z 2 ) z L      λ0 = −1 + √ x̂ + √ ẑ 4π0 z z 2 + L2 z 2 + L2 L2 L   λ0 ≈ − 2 x̂ + ẑ z L 4π0 z 2z z . Then.

7] Spherical surface of Radius R with uniform charge density σ0 = q /4πR 2 . . z ). 0. Calculate Electric eld at r = (0.Electric Field Example [G2.

φ ). 0 0 I Target Point .Electric Field r = (0. 0. Source Point coordinates (R . z ) . θ .

z ) .Electric Field r = (0. φ ). 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I . θ . Source Point coordinates (R . 0.

0. φ ). Source Point coordinates (R . 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I .Electric Field r = (0. z ) . θ .

θ . 0. 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I . Source Point coordinates (R . z ) . φ ).Electric Field r = (0.

.

√ .

r − r .

= R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ 0.

0 I .

.

z ) . Source Point coordinates (R .Electric Field r = (0. φ ). 0. 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I . θ .

.

√ .

r − r .

= R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ 0.

0 I .

r ) dS = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 0 0 I Elementary area (at .

0. Source Point coordinates (R . 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I . φ ).Electric Field r = (0. θ . z ) .

.

√ .

r − r .

= R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ 0.

0 I .

r ) dS = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 0 0 I Elementary area (at ˆ σ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dS 4π0 S |r − r | 0 .

θ .Electric Field r = (0. Source Point coordinates (R . 0. 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I . φ ). z ) .

.

√ .

r − r .

= R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ 0.

0 I .

r ) dS = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 0 0 I Elementary area (at ˆ σ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dS 4π0 S |r − r | 0 ˆ π ˆ 2π R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 σ0 = 3/2 4π0 0 0 (R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 x̂ − R sin θ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ]   ×[−R sin θ cos φ sin φ .

0. θ . 0 0 I Target Point Vector r = R r̂ = R sin θ cos φ x̂ + R sin θ sin φ ŷ + R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I r − r = −R sin θ cos φ x̂ − R sin θ sin φ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ 0 0 0 0 0  0  I . z ) . φ ). Source Point coordinates (R .Electric Field r = (0.

.

√ .

r − r .

= R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ 0.

0 I .

r ) dS = R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 0 0 I Elementary area (at ˆ σ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dS 4π0 S |r − r | 0 ˆ π ˆ 2π R 2 sin θ d θ d φ 0 0 0 σ0 = 3/2 4π0 0 0 (R 2 + z 2 − 2Rz cos θ0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 x̂ − R sin θ ŷ + z − R cos θ ẑ]   ×[−R sin θ cos φ sin φ (4π R 2 )σ0 = ẑ 4π0 z 2 .

4π0 r2 Now curl of electric eld will be x̂ ŷ ẑ .Curl of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = .

.

q .

.

.

.

∇ × E(r) ∂x  ∂y  ∂z  .

.

.

= 4π0 x /r 3 y /r 3 z /r 3 .

.

.

.

Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = .Curl of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. 4π0 r2 Now curl of electric eld will be x̂ ŷ ẑ .

.

q .

.

.

.

∇ × E(r) ∂x  ∂y  ∂z  .

.

.

= 4π0 .

x /r 3 y /r 3 z /r 3 .

.

q h z   y i [∇ × E(r)]x = ∂y 3 − ∂z 4π0 r 3 r .

4π0 r2 Now curl of electric eld will be x̂ ŷ ẑ .Curl of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = .

.

q .

.

.

.

∇ × E(r) ∂x  ∂y  ∂z  .

.

.

= 4π0 .

x /r 3 y /r 3 z /r 3 .

.

q h z  y i [∇ × E(r)]x = ∂y − ∂z 3 4π0 r 3 r q 3yz −3zy    = − 5 − ∂z =0 4π0 r r5 .

Curl of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. 4π0 r2 Now curl of electric eld will be x̂ ŷ ẑ . Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = .

.

q .

.

.

.

∇ × E(r) ∂x  ∂y  ∂z  .

.

.

= 4π0 .

x /r 3 y /r 3 z /r 3 .

.

q h z  y i [∇ × E(r)]x = ∂y − ∂z 3 4π0 r 3 r q 3yz −3zy    = − 5 − ∂z =0 4π0 r r5 Thus ∇ × E(r) = 0 .

Curl of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ. 4π0 |r − r | 0 Then curl with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ × E (r ) = ∇× 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 . Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv .

Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv .Curl of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ. 4π0 |r − r | 0 Then curl with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ × E (r ) = ∇× 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 ˆ r−r   0  1 0 0 = ρ(r ) ∇ × 3  dv 4π0 |r − r 0 | = 0 Curl of electric eld is always zero! .

Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv . 4π0 |r − r |0 Then curl with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ × E (r ) = ∇× 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 ˆ r−r   0  1 0 0 = ρ(r ) ∇ × 3  dv 4π0 |r − r 0 | = 0 Curl of electric eld is always zero! r−r   0  (y − y 0 ) (z − z 0 ) ! ∇ × 3  = −3(z − z ) 0 0 3 + −3(y − y 0 ) 3 =0 |r − r0 | |r − r | |r − r 0 | x .Curl of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ.

Divergence of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = . Volume charge density is ρ(r) = q δ 3 (r). 4π0 r2 Now divergence of electric eld will be q r̂   ∇ · E(r) = ∇· 4π0 r2 .

r2 ˆ  r̂   And ∇· dv = 4π V r2 This just looks like denition of Dirac's Delta delta function! Clearly. . ˆ ˆ ∞ ˆ ∞ ˆ ∞ (4πδ(x )δ(y )δ(z )) dv = 4π δ(x ) dx δ(y ) dy δ(z ) dz V −∞ −∞ −∞ = 4π.Divergence of Electric Field Remember from previous lecture: r̂   ∇· = 0 if r 6= 0. r̂   ∇· = 4πδ(x )δ(y )δ(z ) r2 Then. Remember: δ(x )δ(y )δ(z ) = δ (r) 3 (3D Dirac delta function).

Divergence of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = . 4π0 r2 Now divergence of electric eld will be q r̂   ∇ · E(r) = ∇· 4π0 r2 .

Divergence of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. 4π0 r2 Now divergence of electric eld will be q r̂   ∇ · E(r) = ∇· 4π0 r2 q 3 4πδ (r)  = 4π0 . Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = .

Divergence of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin. Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = . 4π0 r2 Now divergence of electric eld will be q r̂   ∇ · E(r) = ∇· 4π0 r2 q 3 4πδ (r)  = 4π0 q δ 3 (r ) = 0 .

Electric eld at a point r is q r̂ E(r) = . 4π0 r2 Now divergence of electric eld will be q r̂   ∇ · E(r) = ∇· 4π0 r2 q 3 4πδ (r)  = 4π0 q δ 3 (r ) = 0 ρ(r) = 0 .Divergence of Electric Field Suppose a point charge of magnitude q is placed at origin.

4π0 |r − r | 0 Then divergence with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ · E (r ) = ∇· 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 .Divergence of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ. Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv .

Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv .Divergence of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ. 4π0 |r − r | 0 Then divergence with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ · E (r ) = ∇· 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 ˆ r−r   0  1 0 0 = ρ(r ) ∇ · 3  dv 4π0 |r − r 0 | .

4π0 |r − r | 0 Then divergence with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ · E (r ) = ∇· 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 ˆ r−r   0  1 0 0 = ρ(r ) ∇ · 3  dv 4π0 |r − r 0 | ˆ 1 0 3 0  0 ρ(r ) (r − r ) dv  = 4πδ 4π0 . Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv .Divergence of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ.

Divergence of Electric Field Now we extend the result to arbitrary charge distribution ρ. Electric eld is given by ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 E(r) = 3 dv . 4π0 |r − r | 0 Then divergence with respect to variable r ˆ ρ(r0 ) r−r  0  1 0 ∇ · E (r ) = ∇· 3 dv 4π0 |r − r | 0 ˆ r−r   0  1 0 0 = ρ(r ) ∇ · 3  dv 4π0 |r − r 0 | ˆ 1 0 3 0  0 ρ(r ) (r − r ) dv  = 4πδ 4π0 ˆ 1 0 0 0 1 = ρ(r ) δ(r − r )dv = ρ(r) 0 0 .

Gauss's Law Gauss's Law In the neighbourhood of a point r. . the charge density is given by ρ(r) and the electric eld by E(r). then ρ(r) ∇ · E(r) = 0 This is also called dierential form of Gauss's Law.

Gauss's Law Electric eld in space is given by r̂ E(r) = Ae −λr (1 + λr ) r2 ρ(r) = 0 ∇ · E(r) The divergence formula 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∇·E r 2 Er + (sin θEθ ) + (E )  = r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ φ .

Gauss's Law Electric eld in space is given by r̂ E(r) = Ae −λr (1 + λr ) r2 ρ(r) = 0 ∇ · E(r) The divergence formula 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∇·E r 2 Er + (sin θEθ ) + (E )  = r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ φ λ2 Ae −λr (1 + λr ) = −A e −λr 1 ∂   = r ∂r 2 r .

Integrate over a spherical surface of radius R ˆ E · dS = 4π Ae −λR (1 + λR ) → 4π A as R→0 Then λ2 e −λr   3 ρ(r) = 0 A 4πδ (r ) − r .Gauss's Law Electric eld in space is given by r̂ E(r) = Ae −λr (1 + λr ) r2 ρ(r) = 0 ∇ · E(r) The divergence formula 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∇·E r 2 Er + (sin θEθ ) + (E )  = r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ φ λ2 Ae −λr (1 + λr ) = −A e −λr 1 ∂   = r ∂r 2 r But there may be some point charge at origin since |E| ∼ 1/r 2 near origin.

Consider elementary area dS at point r = R r̂. |r| = R and dS = R 2 sin θd θd φ and unit normal to dS is r̂. Find the ux through a hemisphere of radius R centered at origin. Flux is ˆ φS = E · dS S ˆ π/2 ˆ 2π q r̂   = · r̂ R 2 sin θd θd φ 4π0 0 0 R2 q = 20 . Electric eld in the region containing S is given by a vector eld E.Electric Flux Denition Let S be a simple surface. The ux of E through surface S is dened as ˆ φS = E · dS S Example Suppose a point charge is kept at origin.

. Then the ux of E through the closed surface S is equal to the total charge in volume V . Qenclosed is the total charge in volume V.Gauss's Law Gauss's Law Let E be the electric eld dened on a volume V bounded by a closed surface S . This is known as integral form of Gauss's Law. The Gauss Law: ρ(r) ∇ · E(r) =  ˆ ˆ 0 ρ(r) ∇ · E(r) dv = dv V V 0 ˛ Qenclosed ∴ E (r ) · d S = S 0 where.

then. number of lines crossing the surface. Field lines are from q1 > 0 to q2 = −q1 . Flux through a surface is. .Gauss's Law Integral form of Gauss Law can be interpreted in terms of eld lines. q2 q1 Electric eld lines are shown in red and equi-potential lines in gray.

. can we nd a unique solution for E? Theorem (Helmholtz Theorem) If ρ is nonzero on bounded volume.Dierential Equations for Electric Field Here are two dierential equations for electric eld: ρ(r) ∇ · E(r) = 0 ∇ × E(r) = 0 If ρ is given. then there is a unique solution to the di equations with E → 0 as r → ∞. I Many problems are posed with dierent boundaries and boundary conditions I However. this is rarely used to solve electrostatic problems.

I Magnitude of E on Gaussian surface is constant. I Direction of E on Gaussian surface is known and is r̂.Applications of Gauss's Law Example A uniformly charged sphere. Calculate Electric Field. . r R I A spherical surface of radius r (Guassian Surface). with charge Q.

Applications of Gauss's Law ˛ ˛ E · d S = |E | r̂ · r̂dS Gaussian Surface Gaussian Surface = |E | 4 π r 2 And this must be equal to Q /0 . Q |E | 4 π r 2 = 0 Q E = r̂ 4π0 2 r .