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Tribhuvan University

Institute of Engineering

Pulchwok Central Campus

Pulchwok, Lalitpur

Application of Managing For the Sustained Success of an Organization

(A Quality Management Approach)

By

Kiran Basukala

073MSCM303

Department of Civil Engineering

Lalitpur, Nepal

To

Prof. Dr. Sanjay Upreti

Research Methodology

April, 2018

within cost and scope as accordance to client’s requirements. So quality management system is the management approach including all the documentation. poor contingency planning. So organization or person is responsible to maintain the quality to which the product is delivered. Introduction Construction Industry is different from other industry but however much similar in nature of delivery. time. So each construction company needs to improve and correct its approach for planning best quality. analysis and controlling by project management were the system for successfully achieving the goals through the analysis of 776 projects across seven industries in different countries. guidance. So. project management is stated as successful if the objectives of projects have been achieved on the time. specification. Quality can be the approach or behavior with person or the system of achieving the best product or sustainable use of the product.1. purposes. Product or services are exchangeable things between the person or organization. Similarly.1. Furthermore. most of construction companies are failed due to problems and challenges like poor workmanships. it clarifies about the importance of quality management approach in construction project for success. Most of the projects in construction industries or companies are based on the completion within time and cost instead of quality. Need and Importance of Research . and quality/scope) and its application for the organization to be sustainable and success. (Zwikael & Smyrk. Thus this research was carried out with motto of evaluating quality management approach of construction project (cost. budget overrun. extensions of time. The satisfaction can refer to the feedback after consuming it. monitory. Background of Study 1. performance data analysis and audit which will be the great part of each project from starting to till end. Here feedback can be quick effect or effect after long term. etc in projects. Here. etc. 1. 2011) states that planning. So scope is one of the factors determining the success of projects which is termed as quality.2. Many industries use different raw materials for unique output which is made for the purpose of satisfaction to customers. system and management as well which is exactly required for making organization sustainable and success. Construction industry is same but they are more service providers in terms of quality rather than quantity. delay. Generally many people relate the quality with products and services but it can be related to process.

Here factors related to construction project except time.e. So this research is really important for application of quality management principles. Also most of organization had lack of principles of quality management within the team which subsequently affect the quality of services to the beneficiaries. This research is also important for determining the critical factors or elements within the construction project for achieving quality in organization. The reason behind is every construction project is unique and quality is ever changing factor i. etc. place to place. globalizations. According to (Barrie & Paulson). Many construction organization or companies are focused for the completion of project and delivery to the users. “Management must also cope with new economic and cultural realities resulting from inflation. is management of such resources in organized way. equipment. tradition type of construction and . materials. and new societal standards. cost and quality. Construction companies are the group of different personnel involved i. Construction companies provide the output using construction materials as per clients’ requirement but they never make effort the choosing construction material for better quality output. technological invention many complexities and variations are arose and increase the demand of resources like skilled manpower. who deals in transaction of companies. 1. sustainable factor of organization.3. Thus this research is totally based on the management of sustained success of organization through quality management approach with parameters considering timing. Statement of Problem Many construction industries facing different challenges in terms of resources available this is because of uniqueness of project and other factors.” So management approach is really needed to address the problems related to management of organizations and resources which catalyzed the project. With increase in development. So they jumped to beyond the clients’ requirement for making company profitable. Total quality management is generally applied in manufacturing industries but in case of construction industry we cannot establish the Quality management system. In order to face such challenges that going to face in the future. It also determines the factors or management techniques and factors for the sustained success of organization. factors affecting quality. from site preparation or cleaning staff to auditor. technical and working staffs. energy shortages. quality change time to time.e. reasons behind the successful project. changing world development patterns. cost and output quality. Thus this research will help about the application of quality management approach for the sustained success of construction organization and aware of quality in projects.

construction projects are aiming to achieve success and the project success depends on its expectations and how they are fulfilled. However. Problems accompanying these projects include the need for improved organization and management structures. The first area will focus on quality standard requirement for the operation of construction project at site. Determine the major factors that are mostly affecting the quality of construction during the construction particularly in execution phase. Also most of construction projects are failed to achieve the success due to poor teamwork.5. In other way there will be challenging project in the future that require more technical capabilities. in order to meet the project requirements successfully. These researches also deal with the quality principle approach and other factors relating to quality on every aspect for running organization. Focus of the Research The research scope of this study is limited to construction projects in Nepal which was accomplished by Nepalese construction contractor. success of organization is evaluated in accordance to the turnover and number of projects accomplished. iii. Nowadays. this research will divide project performance into two key areas. management of personnel. management should be updated. Some of the specific purposes of research are as follows: i. Monitor and control the quality principles of services in terms of small and large scale organization 1. Most of construction projects are business oriented in today’s context instead of focusing on the services provided for the beneficiaries’. relevant research studies in this area will be reviewed and analyzed to explore the possibility of creating an improved method to measure quality performance.4. In addition. And for evaluation of success of . poor monitoring of quality of specific task. The second area concentrates on the current practice of quality management in the construction field of Nepalese construction industry. etc. Investigate the adoption and implementation of quality management approach within construction industry ii. having huge scope. As in other business. 1. However there is inclusive of quality of projects in the construction projects there is always lack of development in quality management system within organization for sustained success. Research Purpose Purpose of research is determining the relationship of quality approach and sustainable success of organization.

For all of those research paradigms.e. The conclusion won’t be based on the discussion among two persons. research should be based on discussion with many groups. 1. For most likely decision and real truth or valid knowledge. Research Methodology For this particular research success of organization is based on the performance of construction project which has different variables. For the purpose of correlation. So paradigm used in the research is Post-Paradigm. The strategies to find out relation of the variables are correlation strategies in order to proportionate the different variables that derived from the literature review. What are the processes of performance measurements for the construction projects in construction industry of Nepal? iv. research strategies the main source of knowledge or ideas to extract in order to fulfill the research objectives are the people or stakeholders involved in the construction projects or construction industry. What methods and techniques are being used to measure construction projects performance? ii. Existence of multiple variable on this research control the conclusion and conclusion will be based on the most likely relation of such variables which is determined on accordance most strong relation from the research. So the nature of problem is Ontology. . After discussion with many respondents different variables are identified and analyzed in order to get the conclusion which is epistemology.6. How quality management systems are applied to achieve the organizational objectives as well as the business objectives? 2. questionnaire and interviews with respondent’s on the basis of research questions and objectives can be considered as methodology. What are the quality management systems adopted for the particular organizations of construction industry? iii. use of quality management tools and organizational structure within organization and finally output of projects in terms of their application of quality management systems and other parameters that evaluate the performance of projects. projects. However it is very difficult to find real truth behind the success of organization. project performance is studied in accordance to input to projects i. Research Questions The research questions to be investigated to achieve the objectives of projects are as follows: i.

Conforming to requirements However. Quality has different meanings for different people. The American Society for Quality (ASQ) glossary defines quality as 1.Quality in Construction Projects It was revealed that project or organization success is the most efficient key to assess projects in construction industry. quality) are the most significant elements in success of construction projects (Neyestani. Building process is considered as a set of activities going from User’s needs and ends at User’s Satisfaction. The International Organization for Standardization ISO) defines quality as “the totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. it is possible to evolve a common definition of quality.” Based on these definitions. 2. processes. From those statements for the success of organization in construction industry user’s satisfaction are important to be considered in quality management system. So customer satisfaction has been part of quality management approach. and service industries as follows: 1 Meeting the customer’s need 2 Fitness for use 3. (Rumane. quality and costs (Karna).3. which is the primary responsibility of the contractor. which is mainly related to the manufacturing. time. the definition of quality for construction projects is different from that of manufacturing or services industries as the product is not repetitive but a unique piece of work with specific requirements. The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Similarly (Barrie & Paulson) present the three . The phenomenon of these three components can be called the “construction project trilogy”. 2011). A product or service free of deficiencies. success in construction is measured through the iron triangle: budget. and iron triangle (cost. Traditionally. and the customer’s satisfaction as business objectives. Literature Review 3. Also quality has been the critical factor to consider in construction industry. Quality in construction projects is not only the quality of product and equipment used in the construction of a facility but the total management approach to complete the facility. 2016). defined Construction project quality as the fulfillment of the owner’s needs per defined scope of works within a budget and specified schedule to satisfy the owner’s/user’s requirements.1. The quality of construction depends mainly upon the control of construction.

an external quality system covers activities aimed at inspiring confidence in the client that the supplier’s quality system will provide a product or service that will satisfy the client’s quality requirements. But quality can be related to the process. budget and quality so that it can assure or confirm for the best quality. and within time. . system and management as well (Neyestani. 2016). improvement in workmanship and efficiency. Quality Management approach can be implied in external aspects not only internal aspects. This is called a “quality management system”. quality approach is the systems that involve internal and external aspects. This is called a “quality assurance system”. quality assurance system as the external aspects that results the customer satisfaction.Quality Management Approach Quality is the most significant factor for the success of organization in construction field which are more concerned with productivity.dimension of quality in construction projects to determine the degree of conformance to design specifications.2. a decrease in wastage. 2004). According to (Rahim. Meanwhile. So here it revealed the main components of quality management approach that is quality management system as internal aspects that direct affect the organizational structure whereas. and increase profit. An internal quality system covers activities aimed at providing confidence to the management of an organization that the intended quality is being achieved. quality and quality system. Successful implementation of quality management system can contribute to an increase in product quality. 3.

Quality management approach can be concluded as the systematic approach which can be applied on either at organizational level or the project level. while minimum effectiveness of quality approach was on scope. followed by cost and time respectively. Solan. Types of organizations are as follows: a. and audit that can be a part of project management process from the beginning to the end of the project. (Barrie & Paulson) defined organization team of construction project or other specified project as task force.3. Further it also state that this approach include systematic approach. 2016) on Metro Manila the implementation of quality management can be affected mostly on customer’s satisfaction. It relate the team as integrated organization which is comprised of different personnel or manpower working together to achieve common goal. It also relates quality management approach as quality management and marketing tools for developing organizational performance. reducing cost and time and promoting customer satisfaction. b. cost and time and assure the proper management of system of organization. It also assures the confirmation of quality as per specification. It can also interpret as documentation system in order to analyze the progress of management. The goal can be quality. As per study done by (Neyestani.Applications and requirements for management organizations Construction projects are unique in nature. However organization is also one of the important things to be considered for proper execution of projects. cost and time but ultimate goal is to achieve construction project’s organization objective as well as business objectives. The main weakness of such organization is the difficulty in control and creates the greater possibility of conflict between operating organization and functional staff and it costs more for operating. Matrix organization . Such balance of involvement of parties in construction management plays vital role for construction management. It is business or management tools for improving quality/scope. Line and staff organization It is developed by Alfred P. guidance. documentation. Every project is different from the nature but similar to the approach considering the dimension of quality. The parties involved in the projects have own responsibilities and relations to each other. It is also a functional organization where different personnel or staff divided in accordance to their specialization but controlled from the CEO or top most managerial member. 3.

the contractor is the designer’s customer. Some of the factors that determine the success of construction projects are as follows: i. “Customers may be either internal or external. So. The owner supplies the requirements . it is required to determine the needs of customers and provide the framework or environment and culture in order to meet those needs. Customer focus: Customer focus is very important in construction project. “TQM focuses on participative management and strong operational accountability at the individual contributor level.” For the project external customers is the client or owner whereas internal customers are the department within the organization. internal customers should have fulfilled with needs and expectation so that external customer will get final product with best quality. contractor and others. For organization to be success. Total quality involves not just managers but everyone in the organization in a complete transformation of the prevailing culture. scope. design standard. Juran defined this as the triple role concept. It has project manager for each project which help to open up the communication at all levels. It is because power or responsibilities are divided into functional and project responsibilities. (Ahmed) states.4. This type of organization is considered as best organization for operation. (Rummance. cost. time and functional objectives such as quality assurance. 3. who uses the designer’s plan and specifications to carry out the construction process and supplies the completed facility to the owner. For designer client are the customer. The designer produces the design and supplies plans and specifications to the contractor. it is appropriate when both project accountability and functional expertise are required. quality control.e. Thus in order to have best quality. The project manager has responsibility of project i. Thus. These three roles are carried out at every level of the construction process. The main function of construction industry is to provide customers with facilities that meet their needs. 2011) states. whereas designer is customer for contractor. etc are performed. In each stage of process there should be control so that it minimize the cost of rework as well as other associated cost and the quality of products.Critical success factors in Construction project Quality management approach is not new concept in the construction project but it is a systematic method to arrange all the existing system with focus on both business objectives and owner’s objectives. The designer is a customer of owner.” Here participative management deals about the management of designer.

Such parameters should be properly measured and analyzed during the process of manufacture and construction. In case of construction it involves many testing like concrete ratio test. Collect new data on the process after the proposed changes have been implemented to verify their . Such measurement and analysis can be done with quality improvement tools in which variations are studied through data collected from past project and such variations are used for improvement of process. Process Improvements Process is getting thing done.Continuous Improvement The goal of continuous improvement is common to many managerial theories. Generally construction project involve men. receives the facility from the contractor. penetration test. Collect data on the process. Define areas where data is needed. Organize a multi-disciplinary team to study the process and recommend improvements. etc. money. Also some of the process should be updated with time and technology development in order to address the customer needs which is totally depending upon the customer feedback. and is responsible for the facilities operation. workability test. iii. This process consists of nine steps as below: Identify the process. It involves the different procedures for the final product or service. however. machine. measurement. materials. Also such type of process determines the end quality of work. Analyze the collected data and brainstorm for improvement. compressive strength test. Correct and quality process can determine the end-product. Implement the recommendations outlined in step six. Determine recommendations and methods of implementation. it specifies a specific step-by-step process to achieve this. ii. curing test. to the designer.

the construction procedures) can be constantly improved to better satisfy the customer at the next stage. Checklist It is simple data check off sheet designed to identify type of qyality problems at each work station like per shift. different tools are available which is to be used to problem solving. through innovation. Flow chart It depicts process or flow of steps from beginning to end. Within each stage. Management in the construction industry has two functions: a. So this is also called as 80-20 rule. iii.Quality Improvement Techniques For the improvement in quality. and the methods and procedures directing the change of state (i. Through the use of flow diagrams. input changes to output. The incremental improvement of the process is achieved through process improvement and control. and Circle back to step five and again analyze the data and brainstorm for further improvement. 3. throughout the process of construction. major technological advances in construction processes. During each stage the employees should communicate closely with their supplier and customer to optimize the work process for that stage. Pareto Analysis Pareto analysis is based on the assumption that improving 20% causes can remove 80% of errors. Different tools and techniques should be used in combination to get maximum benefit. For this it identify the responsibilities and subsidiary steps and represented in diagram through flow chart.e. problems. etc. To maintain and improve current methods and procedures through process control b. It serves as a kind of road map for improving quality. These types of tools help the construction organization to organize the process. there are innumerable parts in the construction process. every process can be broken down into stages. per operator. This requires each employee to recognize their place in the process and their respective supplier and customer. ii. effectiveness.5. risk. To direct efforts to achieve. per machine. In every construction organization there are major processes by which all the work is accomplished. Some of tools used for improving quality are: i. For example: In organization . However.

. etc. Cause and effect diagram is very useful to find out root causes of problems why an error has occurred. which are use of statistical tools. problem is solved. Solution and finding root causes of problem will have chance of lasting success in eradicating problems. identify possible causes and its solution and develop action plans. v. Brainstorming Brainstorming is used to generate ideas in quantity to identify possible causes of problems and solutions. Statistical Quality Control Variation is inevitable and developed data in the form of frequency which is further analyzed in accordance to central distribution. 20% item involves 80% expenditure in construction. For brainstorming. 20% person takes 80% responsibility. correlation. If causes of problems can be addressed. Brainstorming is used to generate a list of problems. regression. Cause and effect diagram It is commonly known as “Fish Bone Diagram”. iv. scatter diagram. vi. leader’s role is very important to have effective brainstorming and to have quality decision on any causes.