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# K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT

1

K-12 SENIOR HIGH
REPLICATION PROJECT
for Grade 11 and 12 (STEM)

A Compilation of Activities and Experiments
for Grade 11 and 12 Students (STEM)
of

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT
2

Teacher III

A project of ICCP Group Foundation
“K-12 Senior High Industry Linkage Replication Project”

Noted:

MARIBETH G. HERRERO TEODORA M. GALANG
Head Teacher III Master Teacher I
Senior High School Coordinator Senior High School Coordinator

DR. JUANITO Y. DE RAMOS
Principal III

Material contained in this publication is compiled from electronic sources.
Credits ar due to the authors.

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT
3

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

DENSITY Key Concepts • Density is a measure of how tightly packed and how heavy the molecules are in an ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. INC.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 4 Grade: 11 Semester: 1st and 2nd Subject Title: General Chemistry 1&2 LEARNING COMPETENCY Determine the density of liquids & solids. REGALADO-TEACHER III . MARJORIE B. (STEM_GC11MT-Ib-14) CONTEXTUALIZED LEARNING COMPETENCY Determine the density of liquid used in the semiconductor industry.

70% or higher • Water • Graduated cylinder • 2 identical tall clear plastic cups • 2 tea light candles Notes about the Materials Isopropyl alcohol The demonstrations and activity work best with 91% isopropyl alcohol solution. Objective Students will be able to determine whether a liquid will sink or float in water by comparing its density to the density of water. 70% ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. INC. Materials for Each Group • Balance • Isopropyl alcohol. which is available in many grocery stores and pharmacies. • It is usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeters. Wash hands after the activity. • A liquid will float if it is less dense than the liquid it is placed in. REGALADO-TEACHER III . They will predict the relative densities of the liquids and then measure their volume and mass to see if their calculations match their observations and predictions. Equation: Density = mass m or D= volume • A measure of the amount of mass in a V certain volume. or g/cm3. Things to be done! Students will observe three industrial liquids stacked on each other and conclude that their densities must be different. When using isopropyl alcohol. • Defined as mass per unit volume. • The density of a liquid determines whether it will float on or sink in another liquid. • This physical property is often used to identify and classify substances. read and follow all warnings on the label. Isopropyl alcohol is flammable. Safety Wear properly fitting goggles. Keep it away from any flames or spark sources. MARJORIE B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 5 object. If you can’t find 91% solution. • A liquid will sink if it is more dense than the liquid it is placed in.

Remove the candles from each liquid and tell students that each cup contains the same volume of liquid. but make sure your candle will not sink in it. MARJORIE B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 6 will work. Observe what will happen to the candle. Activity Sheet Density: Sinking and Floating Liquids Materials • Balance • Isopropyl alcohol. Measure 50 mL of isopropyl alcohol and pour it into another identical clear plastic cup. 3. www.middleschoolchemistry. 70% or higher • Water • Graduated cylinder • 2 identical tall clear plastic cups • 2 tea light candles Procedure Part 1 Demonstrate the density of two liquids with sinking and floating www. Q1. Place a tea light candle in a cup with water and another tea light candle in a cup with alcohol. INC. Do water and alcohol have the same or different densities? Q2. ENGAGE 1.com Q4.middleschoolchemistry. Which liquid is more dense? Q3. 4. REGALADO-TEACHER III . 2. Explain how this demonstration proves that water is more dense than alcohol.com 1. Carefully place the cups of water and alcohol on opposite ends of a balance. 6. How do you know? Part 2 Demonstrate the density of two liquids by comparing the mass of equal volumes 5. Be ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Use a graduated cylinder to measure 50 mL of water and pour it into a clear plastic cup. Show that different liquids have different densities.

Water Alcohol Oil Mass of graduated cylinder + liquid (g) Mass of empty graduated cylinder (g) Mass of liquid (g) Density of liquid (g/cm3 ) 1. alcohol. INC. How do the densities you calculated explain why water sinks in oil and alcohol floats on oil? 2. MARJORIE B. and oil on the molecular level. Find the mass of only the water by subtracting the mass of the empty graduated cylinder. REGALADO-TEACHER III . 4. Record the mass of 20 mL of water in the chart. EXPLAIN 3. Compare the density of water. Alcohol Oil Water Atoms mostly carbon and carbon and hydrogen oxygen and hydrogen hydrogen and oxygen Mass of Atoms Oxygen is heavier and smaller than carbon Density less dense than oil more dense than oil Arrangement of alcohol molecules do water molecules are very atoms not pack very tightly attracted to each other and pack together very close together ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 8 mass in grams. Be sure to measure the oil last because it does not rinse easily from the graduated cylinder. 5. 6. Follow steps 2–5 for alcohol and then oil. Write most. or in-between in the chart below to describe the density of each liquid. Look at the layered liquids in the illustration. Use the mass and volume of the water to calculate density. Record the density in g/cm3 in the chart. least.

Review 1.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 9 EXPLAIN IT WITH ATOMS & MOLECULES Water molecules are smaller and have less mass than alcohol and oil molecules. MARJORIE B. Extend Try this! Liquid Layers Imagine that the liquids on the right have the following densities: 15g/cm3 10g/cm3 3 3g/cm 9g/cm3 7g/cm3 12g/cm3 Match the colors to the correct densities by writing the corresponding densities beside the colored liquid. Wet chemistry is one of the most important technological stages in the realization of electronic devices. The production requirements of this High Tech industry impose the massive setting up of clean rooms for the various processes of manufacture and treatments including chemical ones. Will the liquid on the top have the highest or lowest density? 4. Will the liquid on the bottom have the highest or lowest density? EXTRA EXTEND Chemical Used in Semiconductor Industry Introduction Liquid chemicals are use in the semiconductors industry in many applications such as the manufacture of microchips and the growth of crystals. REGALADO-TEACHER III . What happens if you pour together liquids that have different densities? 3. Chemistry of solvents : the main chemicals used during this stage are trichloroethylene. INC. What is the formula for density? 2. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Explain why water is more dense than alcohol and oil. acetone. Semiconductors chemistry is mainly organized around the chemical treatment by solvents and acido-basic attacks of semiconductors. isopropanol and also other alcohols such as denatured ethanol.

the degreasing of the semiconductors and the shrinkage of residual resins (acetone). sodium hydroxide or potasium hydroxide (mainly used for the attack of silicon). ammonium hydroxide. Solution: ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. To determine the density of trychloroethylene a flask is foist weighed empty (108.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 10 1 The typical applications are the cleaning. nitric acid. 1.20 gram? The empty flask weighs 49.6g). Activity Solve the following problems. 2 Chemistry of acids and bases : the acid chemical agents used can be sulphuric acid.hydrobromic acid or even citric acid. What is the mass of a flask filled with acetone (d = 0. It is nonflammable and has a sweet odor. orthophosphoric acid. Acetone 1. REGALADO-TEACHER III .792 g/cm3) if the same flask filled with water (d = 1. hydrochloric acid. The two major uses of trichloroethylene are as a solvent to remove grease from metal parts and as a chemical that is used to make other chemicals. It is then filled with 125ml of the trichloroethylene to give a total mass of 291.74 g. especially the refrigerant. Trichloroethylene Liquid trichloroethylene evaporates quickly into the air.4g. What is the density of trichloroethylene in grams per milliliter? Solution: 2. 3 Solutions prepared associate sometimes a base (to oxidize the semiconductor) to an acid (to attack this oxide): hydrogen peroxide.000 g/cm3) weighs 75. INC. MARJORIE B.

What is the mass of 3.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 11 3.14 g. 4. Solution: ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Silicon wafers are dried after surface cleaning in the manufacturing process and IPA is frequently used during the drying step. The purity of IPA used is critical since these materials come in direct contact with the silicon wafers and any contaminants present at this stage could be detrimental to the overall performance of the final product. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Isopropanol/Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol ( rubbing alcohol) has a density of 0.75 L of isopropyl alcohol? What volume would 125 g of isopropyl alcohol occupy? Solution: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is one of the most commonly used organic solvents in the semiconductor industry. MARJORIE B. INC.4 mL of the acid weighs 65. sulfuric acid Calculate the density of sulfuric acid if Sulfuric acid is a strong drain cleaner and can be found in 35.785 g/ mL.

] ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.10 g.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 12 5. INC. What is the density of concentrated nitric acid? [Note. HNO3. which is about 70% (w/w) HNO3. REGALADO-TEACHER III . It weighs 7. nitric acid You measure out 5.00 mL of concentrated nitric acid. MARJORIE B. This refers to common lab “concentrated nitric acid”.

Para sa bayan! RUBRICS FOR ASSESSMENT Problem Solving Criteria Points 5 4 3 2 1 Answer With 5 With 4 With 3 With 2 With 1 correct correct correct correct with correct answer with answer with answer with answer answer with correct units. result 6-10 result 11-15 the result ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III . INC. Part With 5 Whith 4 With 3 With 2 With 1 solution solution solution solution solution Neatness No erasure With 1-2 With 3-5 With 6-10 With more than erasures.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 13 Metal Etching Solution: Take it Further More By Group Make an interview or research on how your knowledge in density of liquids can be used in semiconductor industry. Activity Criteria Points 5 4 3 2 1 Procedure All the Only 1 2-3 4-5 procedures 6 and proceduresh procedure is procedures are missing above as been missing are missing produre done are missing Timeliness Submitted Submitted Submitted the Submitted the Submitted the result on the result 1. units. erasures. Make a powerpoint presentation/demonstration of your report. units. erasures 10 erasures. units. correct correct correct correct units.

Color style have been style have not carefully and style have been carefully been carefully planned to carefully planned to planned to planned to enhance the enhance the enhance the enhance the redability and readability and readability and readability and content on all content on at least 4 content on at content on the slides. INC. time. don’t support the information. of the slides. Color and Formatting style have been formats (e. Font formats Font formats Choice and (e. cooperation the time smooth. sometimes smooth.Meets Standard 2. Establish eye Volume is loud soft to be Establish eye contact most of the enough. heard.Exceeds 3. MARJORIE B. the content slides. erasures. prepared.g. There many confusing on accurate. Team seem cooperation cooperation. contact always. least 3 of the slides.g. Volume is too enough.g. Volume is loud loud enough. information. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Use of All slides have At least 5 of the Some of the Many of the Graphics graphics to slides have graphics slides have slides have no support all the to support all graphics but graphics. Color and June 6.Approach 1-Below Points Standards Standards Standards Oral Students are Students are faily Students are Students do not Presentation well prepared.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 14 the time 5 minutes minutes late minutes late more than late 15 minutes late Neatness No erasure With 1-2 With 3-5 With 6-10 With more erasures. prepared. 2018t (e. Content All content on Most of the content There are Content is Accuracy slides is is accurate. Team Establish eye Establish no Team cooperation most of contact eye contact. slides. Text-Font Font formats FonWednesday. Partners do not always smooth. are 1 to 2 factual inaccuracies in many of the errors. sometimes. information. erasures than 10 erasures.g. Volume is somewhat seem prepared. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Student Powerpoint Presentation Rubric Criteria 4. Color and (e.

slideshare. INC. MARJORIE B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 15 Spelling and Project has no Project has between Project has Project has Capitalization misspellings 1-2 misspellings between 3-4 more than 4 and/or and/or capitalization misspellings misspellings capitalization errors on all slides. http://www. slides. REGALADO-TEACHER III . and/or and/or errors on all capitalization capitalization slides. errors on all errors on all slides.net/msedaghatian1/power-point-presentation-rubric-4088342 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.

Let’s remember that a chemical is a substance with a constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. The place where chemical products are produced is usually called chemical plant. molecules. you learned • Chemical reactions turn reactants into products by rearranging atoms • Mass is conserved during chemical reactions • Chemical reactions involve energy changes NOW. and without breaking chemical bonds. reactions. substances. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. crystals and other kind of aggregates. chemistry focuses on its composition. Topic: Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations in Industry Sub-Topic: Industry Depends on Chemical Reaction BEFORE.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 16 Grade: 11 Semester: 1st and 2nd Subject Title: General Chemistry 1&2 LEARNING COMPETENCY Describe evidences that a chemical reaction has occurred. The study of the chemical reactions that affect matter gave humans the possibility to turn useless materials into more valuable and useful materials. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III . you will learn • How chemistry has helped the development of new technology Introduction Chemical Industry Processes and Chemical Reactions Chemical processes are used in the chemical industry to transform raw materials into more specialized products. behavior. that cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods. through chemical transformations. structure and properties. The chemical industry relies on the knowledge and investigation of the chemical properties of different materials. While physics study matter from a more fundamental point of view. Chemistry is the study of the matter and the transformations of it. INC. Chemistry focuses on atoms. A chemical process is a method in which one or more chemicals or chemical compounds are changed in some way. (STEM_GC11CR-If-g-36) CONTEXTUALIZED LEARNING COMPETENCY Describe evidences that a chemical reaction usually occured in industry.

Halogenation. Combustion of hydrogen / Electrolysis of water Reaction: H2(g) + O2(g)  → H2O(l) Hydrogen gas and oxygen combine to produce liquid water. Reaction: H2(g) + N2(g)  → NH3(g) Hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas are combined in the presence of a catalyst at high temperature and pressure to produce ammonia gas Significance: Synthesis of ammonia leads to the production of fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) and to the production of ammunitions. MARJORIE B. Reduction. Esterification. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Hydrolysis. 1. Alkaline fusion. Dehydrogenation. Hydrogenation. Dealkylation. 2. Activity Directions: Write the proper coefficient to balance the following chemical reactions. INC. Polycondensation and Catalysis. Alkylation.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 17 The basic reactions used in the chemical industry are: Oxidation. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Ammoniation. Dehydration. Nitrification. Hydration reaction. Polymerization. Sulfonation. Synthesis of ammonia.

If the oxidation is complete the products are carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and water. Fossil fuels are burned (oxidized) to produce heat and provide energy for many machines and for cooking and heating. REGALADO-TEACHER III . This is the basis of the fuel cells in the hydrogen powered vehicle. all of which combine with oxygen and undergo oxidation. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Electricity can be used to "split" water into hydrogen and oxygen. Incomplete combustion will produce carbon monoxide and carbon (soot). Methane is obtained from underground and is from the decomposition of prehistoric plants and other organic matter. MARJORIE B. In the reverse direction this reaction is non- spontaneous. 3. There are serious concerns currently about the rapid increase of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 18 Significance: In the forward direction this is a spontaneous reaction that explosively oxidized hydrogen to water. Significance: Methane is the simplest of the hydrocarbons. Hydrogen is a fuel. INC. It has a high activation energy but once started it is very exothermic. Combustion of methane (hydrocarbons) Reaction: CH4(g) + O2(g) → Methane gas and oxygen gas combine exothermically to produce carbon dioxide gas and water vapor.

Synthesis of sulfuric acid Reaction: S(s) + O2(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(aq) Sulfur is first oxidized to sulfur dioxide and then to sulfur trioxide. Pyrophoric oxidation involves the introduction and combustion of a hydrogen/oxygen gas mixture. high-pressure. REGALADO-TEACHER III . ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. bubbler and flash. 5. Wet Oxidation Reaction: Pyrophoric and high pressure: Si + O2 + H2 → SiO2 + H2O Flash and bubbler: Si + H2O → SiO2 + H2 Four methods of introducing water vapour are commonly used when water is the oxidizing agent—pyrophoric. MARJORIE B. Such systems are generally called burnt hydrogen or torch systems. There are other methods to synthesize this substance. INC. Water vapour is produced when proper amounts of hydrogen and oxygen are introduced at the inlet end of the tube and allowed to react. This gas is bubbled through water to produce sulfuric acid.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 19 4. The mixture must be controlled precisely to guarantee proper combustion and prevent the accumulation of explosive hydrogen gas.

Reaction: H2CO3(aq) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) Carbonic acid breaks down to produce carbon dioxide gas and liquid water. MARJORIE B. As more carbon dioxide builds up in our atmosphere the pH of the ocean is decreasing and the ocean "sinks" this carbon dioxide (dissolves it). Equilibrium of carbonic acid and carbon dioxide gas. INC. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Biological formation of calcium carbonate.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 20 Significance: Sulfuric acid is a very important chemical and an indicator of a nation's industrial strength. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.the acid counterbalances the added sugars and gives the drink its fizzy quality. 7. Soda pop is a carbonated drink . 6. World production in 2004 was about 180 million tonnes. ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfates. particularly superphosphates. Most of this amount (~60%) is consumed for fertilizers. Significance: Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to an extent determined by temperature and pressure. When this occurs carbonic acid is formed which lowers the pH of the water. Sulfuric acid is needed to dissolve very insoluble phosphate ores.

MARJORIE B. Finding ways to stop iron from rusting has led to longer lasting structures.(aq)  → CaCO3(s) Calcium ions combine with carbonate ions to produce insoluble calcium carbonate. Significance: Many sea creatures produce shells. Birds and reptiles produce eggs with shells. 9. Reaction: Fe(s) + O2(g)  → Fe2O3(s) Iron metal combines with oxygen gas to produce iron (III) oxide. It flakes off continuously exposing more iron to oxygen. Significance: Iron is the main ingredient of steel. If limestone is subjected to heat and pressure it may undergo metamorphoses into marble. Production of hydrogen from the action of acid on metal. iron (III) oxide as shown here or iron(II) oxide or some combination of the two. Rusting of iron. All of these shells are composed of calcium carbonate. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. INC.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 21 Reaction: Ca2+(aq) + CO3 2. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Reaction: Zn + H2SO4(aq)  → H2(g) + ZnSO4(aq) Zinc combined with sulfuric acid produces hydrogen gas and soluble zinc sulfate. Rust varies in color from red to yellow but it should be noted that it does not stick to iron. 8. Over time these shells collect. As oxygen attacks iron it converts it to one of its oxides. and produce limestone. are buried. an alloy used in many structures.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 22 Significance: One way of synthesizing some hydrogen gas for use in the laboratory is to liberate it from an acid using an active metal. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Oxidation of alcohol. Significance: Wine becomes sour with age and exposure to the air. This is due to the conversion of alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar). INC. Zinc works well for this purpose. Reaction: CH3CH2OH(l) + O2(g)  → CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) Ethyl alcohol and oxygen produce acetic acid and water. REGALADO-TEACHER III . MARJORIE B. 10.

STEM_GC11MT-Ib-14 Contextualized Learning Competency 1. Work effectively in a work team. a volumetric flask. 6. ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT Grade: 11 Subject Title: General Chemistry 1 and 2 Learning Competency: 1.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 23 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE. INC. 5. Determine the density of liquids & solids. 3. 2. Explain and describe the purpose and imporatnce of calibration. 4. TECHNOLOGY. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Graphing using EXCEL. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. Calibration of Volumetric Glassware In this laboratory exercise. we will calibrate the three types of glassware typically used by an analytical chemist. Explain and describe the methods of calibration. Explain and describe the standards of calibration. Explain and describe the purpose and importance of calibration.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 24 a volumetric pipet and a buret. This mass is then converted to the desired volume using the tabulated density of Water: Volume = mass / density (Eq. INC.jpg) Pipettes (http://www. In order to avoid introducing Systematic Errors into our measurements. Over the course of this semester. The quality of the measurements obtained from these tools depends heavily on the care taken in calibrating and in using each instrument.chem.yorku. Instead.wikipedia. their proper use must be thoroughly understood. each of these instruments must be properly calibrated.html) Buret In precise work it is never safe to assume that the volume delivered by or contained in any volumetric instrument is exactly the amount indicated by the calibration mark. MARJORIE B. Systematic Errors Affecting Volumetric Measurements ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. we will use these tools extensively when performing Gravimetric and Titrimetric Analyses.ca/courses/chem1000/equipment/pipette. to reduce the Random Errors inherent when using these instruments. Volumetric Flask (http://en. 1) All volumetric apparati should be either purchased with a Calibration Certificate or calibrated by the analyst in this manner.org/wiki/File:Brand_volumetric_flask_100ml. REGALADO-TEACHER III . recalibration is usually performed by weighing the amount of water delivered by or contained in the volumetric apparatus. And.

MARJORIE B. Sawyer. John Wiley & Sons. Edward L. INC. A liter of water at 15oC will occupy 1. However. this correction is small enough it may be ignored.00000L at 15 oC holds 1. Parallax is another source of error when using volumetric ware.t)] (Eq.000025 (20 .002L at 25oC.025%/oC. 1948. 20oC has been chosen as the normal temperature for calibration of much volumetric glassware.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 25 The volume occupied by a given mass of liquid varies with temperature. a glass vessel which holds 1. If desired.00025L at 25oC. graduation marks encircle the apparatus to aid in this. Dilute aqueous solutions have a coefficient of thermal expansion of about 0. the volume values (V) obtained at a temperature (t) can be corrected to 20oC by use of: V20 = V [1 + 0. by Conway Pierce. Glass is a fortunate choice for volumetric ware as it has a relatively small coefficient of thermal expansion. A correction for this expansion must frequently be applied during calibration procedures. Frequently. A correction for this expansion must frequently be applied during calibration procedures. Haenisch and Donald T.) Readings which are either too high or too low will result otherwise. 4th Ed. (Quantitative Analysis. REGALADO-TEACHER III . 2) In most work. Tips for Correct Use of Volumetric Glassware ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. as does the volume of the device that holds the liquid. the thermal expansion of the contained liquid is frequently of importance.

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Pipets
The Pipet is used to transfer a volume of solution from one container to another. Most Volumetric
Pipets are calibrated To-Deliver (TD); with a certain amount of the liquid remaining in the tip and as a
film along the inner barrel after delivery of the liquid. The liquid in the tip should not be blown-out.
Pipets of the "blow-out" variety will usually have a ground glass ring at the top. And, drainage rates
from the pipet must be carefully controlled so as to leave a uniform and reproducible film along the
inner glass surface. Measuring Pipets will be gradated in appropriate units.
Once the pipet is cleaned and ready to use, make sure the outside of the tip is dry. Then rinse the
pipet with the solution to be transferred. Insert the tip into the liquid to be used and draw enough of
the liquid into the pipet to fill a small portion of the bulb. Hold the liquid in the bulb by placing your
fore finger over the end of the stem.

(Quantitative Analysis, 4th Ed. by
Conway Pierce, Edward L. Haenisch
and Donald T. Sawyer; John Wiley &
Sons; 1948.)

Withdraw the pipet from the
liquid and gently rotate it at an angle
so as to wet all portions of the bulb.
Drain out and discard the rinsing
liquid. Repeat this once more.
To fill the pipet, insert it vertically in the liquid, with the tip near the bottom of the container. Apply
suction to draw the liquid above the graduation mark. Quickly place a fore finger over the end of the
stem. Withdraw the pipet from the liquid and use a dry paper to wipe off the stem. Now place the tip
of the pipet against the container from which the liquid has been withdrawn and drain the excess
liquid such that the meniscus is at the graduation mark.
Move the pipet to the receiving container and allow the liquid to flow out (avoiding splashing) of
the pipet freely. When most of the liquid has drained from the pipet, touch the tip to the wall of the
container until the flow stops and for an additional count of 10.

The Volumetric Flask is used to prepare Standard Solutions or in diluting a sample. Most of these
flasks are calibrated To-Contain (TC) a given volume of liquid. When using a flask, the solution or

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

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to rinse down any solid or liquid which has adhered to the neck. Swirl the solution until it is
thoroughly mixed. Now add solvent until the meniscus is at the calibration mark. If any droplets of
solvent adhere to the neck, use a piece of tissue to blot these out. Stopper the flask securely and invert
the flask at least 10 times.

Burets
The Buret is used to accurately deliver a variable amount of liquid. Fill the buret to above the zero
mark and open the stopcock to fill the tip. Work air bubbles out of the tip by rapidly squirting the
liquid through the tip or tapping the tip while solution is draining.
The initial buret reading is taken a few seconds, ten to twenty, after the drainage of liquid has ceased.
The meniscus can be highlighted by holding a white piece of paper with a heavy black mark on it
behind the buret.

(Quantitative Analysis, 4th Ed. by Conway Pierce,
Edward L. Haenisch and Donald T. Sawyer; John Wiley
& Sons; 1948.)

Place the flask into which the liquid is to be drained on a white
piece of paper. (This is done during a titration to help visualize
color changes which occur during the titration.) The flask is swirled with the right-hand while the
stopcock is manipulated with the left-hand.
(Quantitative Analysis, 4th Ed. by Conway Pierce,
Edward L. Haenisch and Donald T. Sawyer; John Wiley
& Sons; 1948.)

The buret should be opened and allowed to drain freely until

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

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point of the addition is neared. Allow a few seconds after closing the stopcock before making any
readings. At the end-point, read the buret in a manner similar to that above.

As with pipets, drainage rates must be controlled so as to provide a reproducible liquid film along the
inner barrel of the buret.

Cleaning Volumetric Glassware

Cleaning of volumetric glassware is necessary to not only remove any contaminants, but to ensure its
accurate use. The film of water which adheres to the inner glass wall of a container as it is emptied
must be uniform.

Two or three rinsings with tap water, a moderate amount of agitation with a dilute detergent solution,
several rinsings with tap water, and two or three rinsings with distilled water are generally sufficient if
the glassware is emptied and cleaned immediately after use.
If needed, use a warm detergent solution (60-70 oC). A buret or test tube brush can be used in the
cleaning of burets and the neck of volumetric flasks. Volumetric flasks can be filled with cleaning
solution directly. Pipets and burets should be filled by inverting them and drawing the cleaning
solution into the device with suction. Avoid getting cleaning solution in the stopcock. Allow the warm
cleaning solution to stand in the device for about 15 minutes; never longer than 20 minutes. Drain the
cleaning solution and rinse thoroughly with tap water and finally 2-3 times with distilled water.

Pipets and burets should be rinsed at least once with the solution with which they are to filled before
use.

A General Calibration Procedure

As was noted above, volumetric glassware is calibrated by measuring the mass of Water that is
Contained In or Delivered By the device.
To obtain an accurate mass measurement, buoyancy effects must be corrected for. The amount of air
displaced by the standard weights of the balance is somewhat different than the amount of air
displaced by the weighed water. This difference leads to different buoyancies for these objects;
meaning the balance levels at a point other than when the two objects are of the same mass. This can

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION, INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.) Finally.0012 g/cm3). in turn. in this exercise we will calibrate a volumetric flask and a pipet and determine a buret Correction Factor by calibrating each of these devices with Water.00025/oC: V20 = V [1 + 0. will give an inaccurate volume calibration. this volume data is corrected to the standard temperature of 20 oC. 4) Further details concerning calibration of laboratory glassware can be found in the NIST publication “The Calibration of Small Volumetric Laboratory Glassware” by Josephine Lembeck. NBSIR 74-461. This publication can be found at: http://ts. 3) where ds is the density of the standard weights (8. This mass data is then converted to volume data using the tabulated density of Water (See Appendix) at the temperature of calibration. In each case. the measured mass of the calibrating Water will be corrected for buoyancy effects and the resulting volume will be standardized to 20oC. the thermometer must also be calibrated as an incorrect temperature reading will lead to the use of an incorrect density for Water. REGALADO-TEACHER III . da is the density of air ( 0.00025 (20 . This.gov/MeasurementServices/Calibrations/upload/74-461.t)] (Eq.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 29 be corrected for using: mtrue = mmeas + da ( (mmeas/d) – (mmeas/ds) ) (Eq.PDF Thus. MARJORIE B. 0. INC. and d is the density of the object being measured.nist. (In very accurate work. This can be accomplished using the thermal expansion coefficient of Water.47 g/cm3).

ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. a Cleaning Solution (Dichromate in Conc. MARJORIE B. Sulfuric Acid) may be used. and a 25 mL Volumetric Flask according to the procedure outlined above. a 50 mL Buret. If detergent solutions are not sufficient to clean your glassware.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 30 Materials 1 5-mL or 25 mL Volumetric Pipet 1 50-mL Buret 1 25-mL Volumetric Flask 2 100-mL plastic beaker Analytical Balance Watch (any available timer) 8 inches x 13 inchesAluminum Foil 5 liters of Distilled water Detergent liquid 10 mL Sulfuric Acid Laptop or desktop for graphing (EXCEL) Procedures Begin by cleaning a 5 mL or 25 mL Volumetric Pipet. It is imperative for the purposes of calibration that these glassware items be cleaned such that Water drains uniformly and does not leave breaks or droplets on the walls of the glass. REGALADO-TEACHER III . INC. Consult you instructor before taking this step.

and the density of water at the given temperature (See Appendix). (Q2) calculate the volume of the water delivered. Standard Deviation and 90% Confidence Interval for your calibration result. Calibration of a Pipet Use your cleaned pipet. Weigh a receiving container on the Analytical Balance. The Volumetric Flask should be clamped in an inverted position so that it may dry. Dry the plastic beaker and re-weigh it for each replication. Is your result within the listed tolerance for this pipet? (See Appendix) Q4. Pipet distilled water into the plastic beaker and reweigh it. Q1. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Note if this is a Class A or other device. Correct the volume to 20 oC. the Buret should be filled with Distilled Water and clamped in an upright position and stored in this manner until needed. Calculate the Average. a 100 mL plastic beaker with Aluminum Foil cover. What is the better question to ask? Calibration of a Buret ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 31 Once cleaned. Repeat the procedure at least 2 more times. INC. Are you pipeting consistently and correctly? Calculate the apparent mass and the buoyancy corrected mass of the water delivered for each time you pipet. Q3. MARJORIE B. Show your solution. From this mass. Record the temperature of the water used.

Weigh a receiving container on the Analytical Balance. 35 mL. Repeat the procedure at least once more. Calculate the actual volume of water delivered by the buret in the same manner as outlined above in the procedure on calibrating pipets. Once the tightness of the stopcock is assured. and 45 mL delivered. Repeat this process for 15 mL. 25 mL. as given by the buret readings. Touch the tip of the buret to the wall of the waste beaker to remove the pendent drop of water. The two Correction Factors should agree within 0. Record the result. or just below. Record the result. the zero mark. Drain into a waste beaker until it is at. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Fill the buret with water. refill the buret and again drain into a waste until it is at.04 mL. Make an initial reading to a precision of at least 0.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 32 Use your cleaned 50mL buret. Read the buret and weigh the water. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. the zero mark. Make a volume reading. or just below. INC. Report the average Correction Factor for 5 mL. Note if this is a Class A or other device. repeat the procedure again. Make sure the tip is free of bubbles. If they do not. from the actual volume delivered. a 100 mL plastic beaker with Aluminum Foil cover. Allow for drainage. Calculate the Correction Factor by subtracting the apparent volume delivered. Drain about 5 mL of water from the buret into the beaker. There should be no noticeable change in the reading. Allow 10-20 seconds for drainage. Touch the tip of the buret to the wall of the beaker to again remove the pendent drop. Allow 10-20 seconds for drainage. Test for tightness of the stopcock by allowing the buret to stand for 5 minutes and then re-reading the volume.01 mL.

9992474 15 0.9984082 20 0. INC.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 34 Appendix .9977735 23 0. REGALADO-TEACHER III .Density of Water Temperature (oC) Density (g/mL) 10 0.9970479 26 0.9995004 13 0.9962365 29 0.9959478 30 0.9985986 19 0.9991026 16 0.9997026 11 0.9972995 25 0.9967867 27 0.9996084 12 0. MARJORIE B.9989460 17 0.9993801 14 0.9987779 18 0.9975415 24 0.9982071 21 0.9956502 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.9979955 22 0.9965162 28 0.

02 25 0.5 0.Tolerances for Class A Volumetric Glassware at 20oC Pipets Capacity (mL) Tolerances (mL) 0. REGALADO-TEACHER III .03 25 0.30 2000 0.50 Burets Capacity (mL) Tolerances (mL) 5 0.03 50 0.08 Volumetric Flasks Capacity (mL) Tolerances (mL) 5 0.02 20 0.006 5 0.05 100 0.03 50 0.01 10 0.20 1000 0.03 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.01 10 0.08 250 0.05 100 0. INC.006 2 0.006 1 0.02 25 0.02 10 0. MARJORIE B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 35 Appendix .12 500 0.

Explain and describe the standards of calibration. Standard Operating Procedures OVERVIEW In the following laboratory exercises you will be introduced to some of the glassware ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. (ASTM E694) SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE. Graphing using EXCEL. 4. Determine the pH of solutions of a weak acid at different concentrations and in the presence of its salt. the Tolerances for Class B devices is typically twice that of a Class A device. ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT Grade: 11 Subject Title: General Chemistry 1 and 2 Learning Competencies: 1. 3. 6.20 With the exception of Graduated Cylinders. Explain and describe the purpose and imporatnce of calibration. Determine the behavior of the pH of buffered solutions upon the addition of a small amount of acid and base. STEM_GC11AB-IVf-g-167 2. Explain and describe the purpose and importance of calibration. MARJORIE B. STEM_GC11AB-IVf-g-168 Contextualized Learning Competency 1. 2. 5. TECHNOLOGY.05 100 0. REGALADO-TEACHER III . INC.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 36 50 0. Work effectively in a work team. Explain and describe the methods of calibration.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 37 and techniques used by chemists to isolate components from natural or synthetic mixtures and to purify the individual compounds and characterize them by determining some of their physical properties. The presence of streaks or droplets is an indication of the presence of a grease film. and Manual Titrations PART 1. you should be able to: • Prepare solutions of exact concentrations • Separate liquid-liquid mixtures • Purify compounds by recrystallization EXPERIMENT 1 Glassware Calibration. INC. Primary and Secondary Standards. Volumetric glassware must be scrupulously clean before use. While working collaboratively with your group members you will become acquainted with: a) Volumetric glassware b) Liquid-liquid extraction apparatus OBJECTIVES After finishing these sessions and reporting your results to your mentor. To eliminate grease from glassware. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. rinse with tap water. scrub with detergent solution. which is usually 20°C1. REGALADO-TEACHER III . MARJORIE B. Volumetric Glassware Calibration Volumetric glassware is used to either contain or deliver liquids at a specified temperature. and finally rinse with a small portion of distilled water. Glassware manufacturers indicate this by inscribing on the volumetric ware the initials TC (to contain) or TD (to deliver) along with the calibration temperature.

Repeat the procedure at least three times to assure reproducibility. then with a small portion of the liquid to be measured as follows: add approximately 2 mL of liquid to the burette. or collecting the amount of water delivered by the TD-ware in a tared beaker. burettes must be rinsed first with distilled water. which precisely controls the rate of flow of liquid down the constricted tip of the burette. INC. If you see air bubbles trapped inside the tip of the burette. REGALADO-TEACHER III . MARJORIE B. hold the burette horizontally and rotate it to allow the liquid to coat the entire inside. make sure the funnel is perfectly clean. Burettes (TD) A burette is a long glass tube with a stopcock near the tip. Drain the liquid down the tip. the stopcock is closed. the gravimetric calibration procedure at room temperature consists of: a) Determining the mass of distilled water that fills the TC-ware until the bottom of the meniscus coincides with the graduation mark.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 39 suction and allow a precise volume reading. eliminate them by draining a few mL of the liquid out the tip while holding the burette diagonally. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Your mentor will demonstrate the correct way to rinse and fill the burette. Before use. When filling the burette using a funnel. and the burette is over a waste beaker. Depending on the type of glassware.

Compare the values of the computed statistic with the uncertainty provided by the manufacturers. and standard deviation for each piece of glassware. Solution Preparation: Primary and Secondary Standards 1. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Record the name of the manufacturer. Fill up the information as in the example below. VOLUMETRIC FLASK Measured Measured mass Temperature of Density (g/mL) Calculated Volume (g) water (°C) volume (mL) (mL) 2. Tare two watch glasses and weigh on each a small amount of sodium hydroxide. Record the masses to the ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Each group member should calibrate one piece of glassware. Report your conclusions PART 2. variance. MARJORIE B. Using Excel compute the average. 1. KHP. Statistical Analysis of Data Your group will be assigned 4 or 5 pieces of glassware to calibrate.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 40 b) Measure the exact temperature of the water with a 0. 5. a monoprotic acid. c) Calculate the calibrated volume using the density of water at the calibration temperature Warning: The Mettler balance has a capacity of 510g. Discuss the precision of the calibrated volume for each piece of glassware and for the Mettler balance 6. Find the uncertainty given by the glassware manufacturer and by the Mettler Company 4.1°C precision thermometer before each measurement. Compute the same statistics for the mass determined with the Mettler balance 3. INC. Comment on the statistics given by the manufacturer. NaOH and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Your mentor will give you instructions about the volumes to measure. Input the data from your notebook into the spreadsheet that corresponds to each piece of glassware.

2. decide which one of the two substances can be weighed directly and dissolved in a well-measured volume of water to prepare a solution of exact concentration. Is it OK to use a graduated pipette to take the aliquot? Set this solution aside to determine its exact concentration later. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Q8. Calculate the volume needed from this concentrated solution to prepare 250 mL of a 10-2M solution. Is this the value you expect? Boil the distilled water uncovered with a stir bar for 10 minutes and let it cool to room temperature covered with a watch glass. Measure the pH again. Q7. After time has elapsed. 4. Prepare a 10-1M solution of the substance you decided on in step 3. 5. take a 400 mL beaker of distilled water and measure the pH of the water. Based on the observations you made. Is there a difference in the reading obtained? If so. MARJORIE B. While you are waiting for the watch glass systems. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Leave the systems exposed to air for 25 minutes.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 41 nearest 1 mg. Use a volumetric pipette to withdraw the aliquot calculated from the concentrated solution. 3. discuss why. weigh the watch glasses and record your observations. INC.

Rinse a clean burette with distilled water and then with small portions of the dilute solution prepared in step 1. At the equivalence point the number of moles of titrant used is equal to the number of moles of the titrated compound. Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide Solution After preparing a solution with the substance that changed while exposed to air. The TITRATION procedure entails reacting a volume of a solution whose concentration is exactly known or a mass of solid with known molecular weight with a volume of a solution which concentration is unknown. it is necessary to perform a standardization (find the exact concentration of the solution) using a procedure called TITRATION. The volume of sodium hydroxide solution used in a manual titration is the volume needed to reach the endpoint of the titration (where the indicator changes color). Dissolve the samples in about 100 mL distilled water (you may need to slightly heat for complete dissolution. INC. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Keep the dilute solution covered as much as possible. record exactly the amount of KHP weighed) and quantitatively transfer them into two separate. while the one obtained from the potentiometric titration is referred to as the equivalence point of the titration. 2. The solution should be kept minimally exposed to air after standardization. 3. 1. Weigh two samples of about 0. Neither of these volumes needs to be exact since the solution will be standardized. Cover the bottle and homogenize.2-0. Add about 450 mL of distilled water to about 150 mL of NaOH (aq) solution provided (note the approximate concentration of the NaOH(aq) from the bottle).K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 42 PART 3. Discard the rinse solutions in the liquid waste container and ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. but make sure the solutions cool to room temperature before titrating) and add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.3 g of KHP (Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate. clean 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 43 clamp the burette to the burette clamp. INC. Can you estimate the approximate volume of dilute sodium hydroxide solution needed to reach the endpoint of the titration? 5. MARJORIE B. repeat the titration one more time. 4. swirling continuously. If the values of the volume used for each titration fall within the experimental error. Fill the burette with the dilute solution prepared in step 1. Calculate the concentration of the solution from the volume used in each titration. use the average value as the concentration of the solution. Each group member should perform at least one manual titration. RESULTS Primary versus non-primary standard Time(min) Mass NaOH (g) Mass KHP (g) 0 25 Observations: ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. 6. REGALADO-TEACHER III . until the faint pink color lasts about 20 seconds. Knowing the exact amount of KHP and its molar mass (204. Titrate the KHP solution with the diluted NaOH solution from the burette.22 g/mol). Q9. If the values are scattered showing low precision.

MARJORIE B. Q11. Comment on the pH range at which phenolphthalein changes color. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. REGALADO-TEACHER III . INC. What is the exact concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution? Q12.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 44 Standardization of NaOH Manual Titration Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Weight of KHP used (g) Initial burette reading (mL) Final burette reading (mL) Volume NaOH used (mL) DISCUSSION Q10. Discuss with your group whether the endpoint volume of the equivalence point should be used to calculate the concentration of the titrated sodium hydroxide solution.

Is phenolphthalein a good indicator for standardizing NaOH solutions against KHP? Explain. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Q14. MARJORIE B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 45 Q13. INC. What is the purpose and importance of calibration? ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.

How would a mixture of saccharin and NaCl be separated? Both are soluble in water. two layers will form because ether and water are immiscible. The preparation of a cup of tea or coffee represents a process of extraction of flavor and odor components from dried material into water. saccharin is somewhat soluble in diethyl ether while salt is not. MARJORIE B. ether) to its concentration in water is constant.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 46 EXPERIMENT 2 Liquid-liquid Extraction and Recrystallization BACKGROUND Extractions Extraction is one of the oldest chemical operations known. If you dissolve the mixture in water and then add ether. and temperature. This constant depends on the solvent used. Notice that the separation is not absolute. In this ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. The ratio of the concentration of a solute in a second solvent (e. it involves transferring a solute from one phase to another. called the partition coefficient K: Ksolute = Cether / Cwater Cether and Cwater represent the molar concentration of the solute in ether and water respectively. the process is referred to as a solid-liquid extraction. and a dynamic equilibrium is established. the solute itself. REGALADO-TEACHER III . When a compound is extracted from a solid material into a liquid. Most of the saccharin will be extracted into the ether layer. However. if the transfer occurs from one liquid into another is called liquid-liquid extraction. Most organic synthetic procedures are followed by workups employing extraction to isolate the product of interest.g. INC. The salt and saccharin (the solutes) are distributed between the two solvents.

Other organic solvents that are used in extractions include ethyl acetate (CH3CO2C2H5). hexane (CH3(CH2)4CH3). Another way to dry an ether layer is to wash it with saturated NaCl solution (brine) before adding drying agent. chloroform (CHCl3). Any water dissolved in the ether can be removed by utilizing a drying agent such as anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and filtering off the hydrate (MgSO4•xH2O) that forms. The separatory funnel is the tool of trade for liquid-liquid extraction. MARJORIE B. and benzene (C6H6). Using this constant. If the ether is not properly dried. and speed the attainment of equilibrium. Methanol and ethanol are not useful extraction ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. REGALADO-TEACHER III . one can show that extracting a component from a mixture several times with small portions of solvent is more efficient than extracting it with one large portion.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 47 particular case Ksaccharin is a large number because saccharin is more soluble in ether than water while Ksalt is a small number because salt is slightly soluble in ether. In order to increase the surface area between the two layers. and dried. methylene chloride (CH2Cl2). The organic layer (ether) is then separated from the aqueous layer. INC. the remaining solute in the flask will be moist. The dry ether solution is evaporated by a rotary evaporator (see the Instrumentation Guide) and the solute remains in the flask. Benzene and chloroform are usually avoided as solvents due to their carcinogenic nature. The brine transfers the water from the ether layer to the aqueous layer. the separatory funnel is shaken and vented.

filtration through Celite) or chemically (addition of salt or a saturated NaCl solution called brine). the addition of a saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution will help destroy the emulsion. Normally. while most other organic solvents are not as dense as water. the organic layer could be above or below the aqueous layer depending on the organic solvent used. strong acids or bases. The aqueous layer will readily mix with water. cyclones. You should avoid shaking a solution that tends to form emulsions. as some solvents have a small. An emulsion is a stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid. INC. If you are not sure which layer is the organic or the aqueous layer. but significant. making it necessary to “break” the emulsion. and low molecular weight polar substances. Emulsions delay the separation of two liquids. thereby forcing separation.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 48 solvents because they are miscible with water and will not form a separate layer. If one of the solvents being used is water. The formation of an emulsion is a common problem when performing extractions. water extractions are used immediately following extractions of a mixture with either an acid or base to ensure that all traces of the acid or base have been removed. Therefore. Chloroform and methylene chloride are denser than water. centrifuges. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III . You may need to add several drops. perform the water drop test: add a drop of either layer on top of a watch glass filled with water. The addition of salt increases the surface tension of the droplets and increases the density of the aqueous layer. solubility in water. Depending on the impurities being removed extractions can be classified as : • Aqueous extraction • Acidic extraction • Basic extraction Aqueous Extraction An organic mixture is extracted with water to remove highly polar materials such as inorganic salts. This can be done mechanically (settlers.

If a weak acid is present. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III .K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 49 Acidic Extraction Extracting an organic mixture with a dilute acid (5% HCl) removes any basic impurities such as amines. extracting an organic mixture with a stronger dilute base (5% NaOH) will convert weak acids to their anionic salts: ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. This cationic salt can be converted to its neutral form by adding base to the acid extract. Bases are converted to their cationic salts by the acid. This anionic salt then can be regenerated by acidifying the basic extract. Basic Extraction Extracting an organic mixture with a dilute base (5% sodium bicarbonate or NaOH) converts any strongly acidic impurities to their anionic salts. INC.

the compound will have decreased solubility at lower temperatures. or a solvent mixture. INC. If the solution is shocked and cooled rapidly. Purification by Recrystallization The technique of recrystallization is used to purify inorganic and organic compounds in the solid state. washed a few times with the appropriate ice-cold solvent (to discourage the now-recrystallized solid from dissolving) and dried either in air or in a desiccator. but virtually insoluble at 0°C. recrystallization is carried out by first dissolving the solid in a boiling hot solvent. The solution is then allowed to slowly cool to room temperature undisturbed. Once recrystallization is complete. Allowing crystals to grow slowly is important because crystals consisting entirely of the same repeating unit will have the most uniform and strongest intermolecular interactions. If the solvent or solvent mixture is properly chosen. To do this the substance to be recrystallized is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask and a minimal amount of hot solvent is added to dissolve the solid. and the crystals that crash out are collected by vacuum filtration. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Usually. thus prohibiting these impurities from precipitating along with the product crystals.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 50 This anionic salt then can be regenerated to its neutral form by acidifying the basic extract. the solute is very soluble in the solvent at its boiling point. impurities are separated from the desired product by selecting a solvent. there must exist a thermodynamic equilibrium between solid. and the solution will precipitate crystals as it cools. For pure crystals to grow. the solution is cooled below room temperature. Essentially. Next. REGALADO-TEACHER III . the crystals must be separated from the mother liquor via suction filtration. The goal is to prepare a saturated solution of solute in the solvent at its boiling point and allow it to cool. however.and dissolved-phase solute. MARJORIE B. that will keep the impurities in solution at all temperatures. crystals will grow haphazardly and are more likely to incorporate impurities. as the solvent is heated to maintain it at its boiling point. Recrystallization Using a Single Solvent Ideally.

we are attempting to create a solvent system that closely resembles an ideal solvent as shown in the Figure below. INC. and as a result. is then added dropwise to the hot solution to achieve saturation. this single solvent does not exhibit ideal behavior. In this situation. Upon addition of the second solvent. a single solvent does not fit the above requirement satisfactorily. However. A second solvent miscible with the first. the solvent in which the compound is less soluble is added drop wise until it just turns the ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. but in which the solute has little solubility. a solvent is chosen that will readily dissolve the solid. REGALADO-TEACHER III .K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 51 Recrystallization Using Solvent Mixtures In many cases. This new dual solvent system best approaches ideal solvent behavior. the system is filtered to remove any solid impurities (if necessary). the solution is not saturated. General Procedure The material to be recrystallized is dissolved in the minimum amount of the solvent in which the compound is most soluble at its boiling point. The first solvent in the dual solvent system readily dissolves the solidat high temperatures. the solution approaches saturation at the boiling point of this solvent system. After dissolution. While the solution boils. a mixture of solvents is used. By using a solvent mixture. at the boiling point of this first solvent. and thus.

Water Ether . Melting points are generally measured and reported as a range rather than asa single discrete temperature. The melting point of a solid compound is the temperature at which a phase transition from solid to liquid occurs.Acetone Ethanol . The second solvent. This is a demonstration of colligative properties. When using mixed solvents keep in mind that that they must be miscible so that separate layers do not form. which can be rationalized by the lowering of the vapor pressure of pure liquids due to the presence of impurities.e. the first solvent listed is the principal solvent used to dissolve the “impure” crystals.Ether In this list. a little of the more-soluble solvent is added to clear the mixture. Melting Points Once an organic solid has been isolated.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 52 solution cloudy.Petroleum Ether Ether . MARJORIE B.Methanol Ethyl Acetate – Hexanes Ethyl Acetate .Methanol Methylene Chloride . The impurity does not need to be a solid. REGALADO-TEACHER III .. If necessary. It should be apparent that the impurity must be soluble in the compound in order to cause a melting point depression. Some Miscible Solvent Pairs For Recrystallization Methanol . enables saturation of the solution and thus initiates the gradual precipitation. as the mixture cools. the melting point range is measured to establish the compound’s identity and purity. i. It can be a liquid such as water or an organic solvent.Water Ether . the desired compound will crystallize out. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Table 1. present in significantly lower quantity. an insoluble impurity such as sand or charcoal will not depress the melting point. INC.

meter scales possess the following innate disadvantages: 1. To overcome these drawbacks. ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT Grade: 12 Quarter: 1st and 2nd Subject Title: General Physics 1 LEARNING COMPETENCY 1. Poor accuracy (the smallest scale marking or division is 1/10 cm. INC. Length Measurement: A Vernier Caliper. In general. Micrometer screw 3. Work effectively in a work team. Use the least count concept to estimate errors associated with single measurements STEM_GP12EU-Ia-4 Contextualized Learning Competency 1. Can measure with vernier caliper. we typically use more precise measurement instruments: 1. Differentiate random errors from systematic errors STEM_GP12EU-Ia-3 4. Spherometer ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Differentiate accuracy from precision STEM_GP12EU-Ia-2 3. expression of measurements in scientific notation STEM_GP12EU-Ia-1 2. and any length below this scale can only be estimated). 2. 2. and Spherometer Purpose of the Experiment The purpose of this experiment is for students to understand the operating principles and usages of various length measurement instruments and to learn to address errors in the measurement. TECHNOLOGY. the most frequently used length measurement instrument is the meter scale or rule. micrometer and spherometer.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 55 K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE. MARJORIE B. Micrometer Screw. Inability to measure the radius of curvature for spherical surfaces. Solve measurement problems involving conversion of units. However. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Vernier caliper 2.

we hope that students can use this experiment as an opportunity to develop a comprehensive understanding of length measurement. MARJORIE B. which moves over the main scale. Experimental Principle A. and enables readings with a precision of 1/200 cm. Although the vernier caliper and the micrometer screw have already been introduced briefly in high school curricula. When the jaws of the main and the vernier scales contact each other. Vernier caliper Figure 1 The vernier caliper consists of a main scale and a vernier scale. These instruments are used for various purposes and will be used frequently in other experiments. we hope that students can use this experiment as an opportunity to develop a comprehensive understanding of length measurement. If the zeros do not coincide. the zeros of both scales should coincide.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 56 These instruments are used for various purposes and will be used frequently in other experiments. Simultaneously. INC. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Jaws E and F are fitted on the vernier scale. Although the vernier caliper and the micrometer screw have already been introduced briefly in high school curricula. with the straight edges connecting C and D vertically to the main scale forming a right angle. Figure 1 shows that the main scale is fitted with Jaws C and D on either side. a zero point ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.

then S can be obtained as follows: 20S = 39 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 57 calibration must be performed instantly.e. MARJORIE B. INC. REGALADO-TEACHER III . The distance between C and E or between D and F is the length of the object that is being measured. We first use an example to demonstrate how to read the vernier caliper.. Assuming the length of one division on the vernier scale is S. which coincide with the 39 smallest divisions on the main scale (i. followed by simple equation readings. Figure 2 Figure 3 The vernier scale in Figure 2 is graduated into 20 divisions or scale markings. 39 mm).

repeating them in each reading is time consuming.05 is marked on the vernier caliper. AB = 18 + 11 × ( 2 − 1. REGALADO-TEACHER III .55.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 58 S = 1. and AB = AC − BC (2) where the length of AC is 40 mm and BC is the length of the 11 divisions on the vernier scale. In fact. Thus. the zero on the vernier scale is located between 18 and 19 mm on the main scale. 18 mm) on the main scale that precede the location where the zero on the vernier scale points in Figure 3. (1) In Figure 3. Determine how many units M one division on the vernier scale is equivalent to. Therefore. This unit is typically displayed on the vernier scale. AB = 40 − 11 × S = 40 − 11 × 1. We hereby convert (3) into (4).95 mm.05 (4) Where 18 represents the division (i. Determine that the zero on the vernier scale is located between divisions n and n+1 on the main scale. 2.e. MARJORIE B. For example. whereas the 11th division on the vernier coincides with the 40 mm on the main scale. although these calculations are easy.. A closer look indicates that 0. INC. Furthermore. Figure 3 shows that one ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. 11 represents the division on the vernier scale that coincides with a division on the main scale.95) = 18 + 11 × 0. AB is the length of the object. a reading of the vernier caliper can be obtained rapidly following these steps: 1. Identify division m on the vernier scale as coinciding to a certain division on the main scale. 3. some contemplation enables vernier caliper reading to be as direct and rapid as straight ruler reading. (3) However.95 = 18. Thus.

We provide the following examples to demonstrate how to calculate how many divisions one marking on the vernier scale equals. When the smallest division on the main m scale is M and n divisions on the vernier n scale are equal to m divisions on the main scale. 4. the one shown in Figure 3 contains a vernier scale. vernier calipers possess various specifications. In labs. one division on the vernier scale is equal to 2 . one division on the vernier scale is equal to 1 .05 mm. Therefore. 1.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 59 division on the vernier scale is equal to 0. whose 20 divisions coincide with the 39 smallest divisions on the main scale.1.05 mm. The reading should be n + m × M (A closer inspection shows that the value of m × M is displayed on the vernier caliper. For example. and we can obtain the measurements instantly). Example 1: The 20 divisions on the vernier scale coincide with the 39 smallest markings on the main scale (mm). (Note: when we say that one division on the vernier scale is equal to 0. MARJORIE B.95 39 20 Therefore.05 mm. Thus. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. the length of one division on the vernier scale is S = = 1. Thus.1 mm.9 9 10 Therefore. Regarding the vernier calipers in this lab.05 mm.0. a vernier caliper reading is as simple as a straight ruler reading. this does not mean that one division on the vernier actually measures 0.9 = 0. The method is specified in a subsequent passage. we have summarized the following rules by which we can obtain what one division of the vernier scale equals. The actual length of one division on the vernier scale shown in Figure 3 is in (1)). the length of one division on the vernier scale is S= = 0. the actual length of the smallest division on the vernier scale is S= M. we can obtain this information through calculations. REGALADO-TEACHER III .95 = 0. INC. If the vernier caliper does not show how many divisions a scale marking or divisions on the vernier scale is equivalent to. Example 2: Ten divisions on the vernier scale coincide with 9 smallest divisions on the main scale (mm).

For one revolution of T. where A is an anvil fixed to the frame (F).05 cm (metric micrometer screw).05/50 = 0. we should turn ratchet (H) for adjustments. n B. Micrometer screw Figure 4 shows a micrometer screw. Therefore. it moves forward or backward half a division on the sleeve. INC. is not an integer. And the value of is m between integers R-I and R. We will use an example to demonstrate the usage of micrometer screws. Figure 5 shows the positions of S and T when the length of an object is Y. that is. and the spindle (B) channels through F and the sleeve (S) to connect to a revolvable thimble (T) and a ratchet (H). 0. REGALADO-TEACHER III . S is marked with precise divisions.001 cm. Figure 4 The ratchet is designed to ensure that the object that is placed between the anvil and the spindle undergoes a certain amount of pressure. MARJORIE B. and the periphery of T is graduated into 50 equal parts.) x M. which would affect the precision of the measurement. that is R . n m 3. rather than directly turning the thimble to compress the object during measurement.1 << R.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 60 2. one division on the periphery of T equals 0. One division on the vernier scale is n m equal to D = (R . but that the pressure does not cause significant object deformation. Therefore. The edge of T ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.

5 + 33. REGALADO-TEACHER III . and the reading on T is 33. 1 100 Thus.5 mm on S is 33.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 61 is located between 9. Figure 6 shows that a straight ruler (S) is placed on a tripod (T) and a circular disc is located on top of the screw (I). MARJORIE B.0 mm on S.335 mm. the distance between the edge of T and the 9. Its structure and operating principles are similar to those of a micrometer screw.5 × mm = 0. Spherometer Spherometers are used to measure 1 the thickness of thin objects or the radius 100 of curvature of objects.5. The circular scale (G) is graduated ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.835 mm. the length of the object is Y = 9. Therefore.5 × = 9.5 and 10. 1 100 Figure 5 C. INC.

If the spherical glass being measured is positioned as shown in Figure 7. B. we obtain ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. To measure a spherical surface. We assume that h is the distance between D and D'. each division of G is equal to x 0. the spherometer is located at points A. MARJORIE B. first place the three legs (ABC) of the spherometer on the surface. REGALADO-TEACHER III . and C. C. INC. and D. For one rotation of the circular scale. assuming its radius of curvature is R. B.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 62 into 100 equal parts or divisions. and adjust the screw so that F is in contact with and fixes the surface.1 cm on S. the sides of Triangle ABC are s. B. which is the center of the equilateral triangle formed by A. and the distances between D' and A. and C are all r. and the tip of the central angle is at D.1 = 0. Therefore.001 cm. Figure 6 Based on the relationship of similar triangles. it advances or recedes by 0.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 63 ΔADD' ~ΔD"AD' AD'：DD' = D"D' : AD' r : h = (2R . Spherometer 4. MARJORIE B. INC. Vernier caliper 2. REGALADO-TEACHER III . the side length of which is s. Hollow cylinders (several) 5. Watch glass (several) 6. therefore = r sin 60o = r r2 = ss3 2 32 ∴R=+ sh 2 6h2 Laboratory Instruments 1. Plate glass ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Micrometer screw 3.h) : r ∴R=+ rh 2 2h2 Furthermore. ABC is an equilateral triangle.

Zeroing a. Micrometer Screw 1. Same as Step A. Use the results from Steps 1 and 4 to calculate the volume of the hollow cylinder (including the means and mean standard deviations).-1. 2. 3. respectively. Use the results from Steps 1 and 2 to calculate the volume of the coins (including the means and mean standard deviations). Spherometer 1.-3. 4. 5.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 64 7. Perform zeroing. Zeroing: Place the spherometer on plate glass and ensure that A. and calculate the means of the measurements and the mean standard deviations. B. place the spherometer on the spherical surface of the ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Close the jaws of the vernier caliper and read the zeros. C. C. Read the zeros. REGALADO-TEACHER III . Repeat the measurement five times and calculate the means of the errors and standard deviations. and calculate the means and mean standard deviations. and identify the means of the errors and standard deviations. same as Step A. Coins (self-prepared) Experimental Procedure A. Select a random hollow cylinder and measure its outer and inner diameters and depths five times. Select a random watch glass.-2. Vernier Caliper 1. INC. Repeat the action five times and calculate the means of the errors and the standard deviations. b. and F are all contacting the glass. MARJORIE B. (Measure the same coin as the one used in Step A) 3. Same as Step A. Measure the thicknesses and diameters of the coins five times. B. 2. respectively. 2.

Place the four legs of the spherometer on flat paper simultaneous. and ensure that the tips of the four legs are in contact with the surface. Read the scale measurement. REGALADO-TEACHER III . INC. The difference between zero and this value is h. Based on these results. Repeat this action five times and calculate the means of h and mean standard deviations.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 65 glass. 4. ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B. 3. Use these marks to obtain the side length s of Equilateral Triangle ABC. Apply a little pressure to press the tips to leave marks on the paper. Repeat the measurement five times and calculate the means of s and standard deviations. calculate the radius of curvature of the watch glass (means and mean standard deviations).

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 66 Questions for Reflection 1. Using the vernier calipers and the micrometer screw to measure the same object. MARJORIE B. Can we use the spherometer to measure the radius of curvature of a concave mirror? If yes. REGALADO-TEACHER III . ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. which method will yield a more precise result? Why? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. please demonstrate how to modify the equations. INC.

Based on the statistics of the experiments. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL – SCIENCE. TECHNOLOGY.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 67 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. please explain how to determine the significant figures of the results. INC. MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III . ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) SPECIALIZED SUBJECT Grade: 12 Quarter: 3rd and 4th Subject Title: General Physics 2 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 68 LEARNING COMPETENCY 1. resistors (fixed and variable) fuses. Electrical Symbols ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. and voltage in a given network of resistors connected in series and/or parallel STEM_GP12EM-IIIg-48 Contextualized Learning Competency 1. 3. lamps. current. ammeters and voltmeters STEM_GP12EM-IIIf-47 2. Work effectively in a work team. MARJORIE B. INC. REGALADO-TEACHER III . switches. Draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell or battery). Evaluate the equivalent resistance. 2.

MARJORIE B. REGALADO-TEACHER III .K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 69 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. INC.

<http://www.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 70 Safety and Health Guide for the Microelectronics Industry References: Http://preparatorychemistry. 2016) https://www.com/Bishop_Book_4_eBook. 2016 Ten Important Chemical Reactions <http://justonly. Inquima.pdf Chemical Industry Processes and Chemical Reactions. INC.ph/books ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. MARJORIE B.com.html> (June 7.google.ph/search? q=methane&biw=1368&bih=623&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUquOcpZXNAh VFppQKHQp8CFYQ_AUIBigB#tbm=isch&q=methane+gas+uses&imgrc=WBh4qQmpCQUhHM %3A https://books.com.com/chemical-industry-processes-chemical-reactions.google.com/chemistry/pdfs/ten_reactions. REGALADO-TEACHER III .pdf> (June 7.inquimica.

Cruz. Laguna Course: Master of Arts in Teaching Science and Technology Complete Academic Requirement (33 units) Organization: SEAL (Science Educators Association of Laguna) Achievements: Coach of Different Contests Rank 10 KAPNAYAN 2016 Quiz Contest (National Level) 3rd Place KAPNAYAN 2016 Essay Writing 1st Place Division Science Quiz Contest 2014 3rd Place Division Science Quiz Contest-Teacher Category 2015 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. Laguna Tertiary: Laguna State Polytechnic University. Cruz. Cruz. Brondo and Estrella D. Cruz. MARJORIE B. Regalado Daughter: Eliyah Julienne B. Cruz Elementary School. Sta. Regalado Educational Background: Primary : Stma. REGALADO-TEACHER III . 1986 Place of Birth: Sta. Sta. INC. Laguna Secondary: Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 71 Profile Personal Data Name: Marjorie Brondo-Regalado Date of Birth: April 20. Laguna Course: Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Chemistry Masters: Laguna State Polytechnic University. Laguna Civil Status: Married Religion: Jehovah’s Witness Sex: Female Parents: Herman B. Burac Husband: Rowell G. Sta. Cruz. Sta.

K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 72 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. REGALADO-TEACHER III . MARJORIE B. INC.

MARJORIE B. INC.K-12 SENIOR HIGH INDUSTRY LINKAGE REPLICATION PROJECT 73 ICCP GROUP FOUNDATION. REGALADO-TEACHER III .