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AIR COMPRESSOR

1). An air compressor takes air at 100 Kpa and discharges to 600 Kpa. If the volume flow of
discharge is 1.2 m3/sec, determine the capacity of air compressor.

A. 4.32 m3/sec C. 6.85 m3/sec

B. 3.33 m3/sec D. 7.42 m3/sec

SOLUTION:

P 1 V 1n = P 2 V 2n

n = 1 .4 (for standard ai r)

100(V1)1.4 = (600)(1.2)1.4

V1 = 4.315 m3/sec

2). The discharge pressure of an air compressor is 5 times the suction pressure. If volume flow at
suction is 0.1 m3/sec, what is the compressor power assuming n = 1.35 and suction pressure is
98 Kpa?

A. 21.67 KW C. 25.87 KW

B. 19.57 KW D. 10.45 KW

SOLUTION:

W=(n /n -1 )P1V1[( P2P1)n/n-1-1]

W=(1.35/(1.35–1)) (98)(0.1)[ (5P1 / P1) (1.35–1)/1.35 -1 ]

W=19.57 kw

3). A 10 Hp motor is use to drive an air compressor. The compressor efficiency is 75%. Determine
the compressor work.

A.7.6 KW B.5.6 KW

C.5.0 KW D. 6.5 KW

SOLUTION:

Pm= ( Brake or motor Power)

ec=Wc/Pm

Wc= 10HpxO.746x0.75

W = 5.59 KW

4). The initial condition of air in an air compressor is 98 Kpa and 27°C and discharg air at 400 Kpa.
The bore and stroke are 355 mm and 381 mm, respectively with percent clearance of 5% running
at 300 rpm. Find the volume of air at suction.

A. 600 m3/hr C. 620 m3/hr

B. 610 m3/hr D. 630 m3/hr

SOLUTION:

Nv = 1 + c – c[ (P2/P1) 1/n]

Nv = 1 + 0.05 - 0.05(400/98)1/1.4

Nv = 0.913

VD = π/4 D2 L N

VD = π/4 (0.355)2(0.381 )(300/60)

VD = 0.1885 m3/sec

V1 = 0.1885(0.913)

V1 = 0.17215 m3/sec

V1 = 619.75 m3 /hr

5). An air compressor has a suction volume of 0.25 m3/sec at 97 Kpa and discharges to 650 Kpa.
How much power is saved by the compressor if there are two stages?

A. 8.27 KW C. 3.86 KW

B. 6.54 KW D. 10.0 KW

SOLUTION:

For single stage:

W = (n/ n -1)P1V1 [P2 /P1) n/n-1-1]

W= (1.4/1.4-1) (97)(0.25) [(650/97)1.4/1.4-1 -1]

W = 61.28 KW

For double stage...x2

Px=(P1xP2)0.5

Px=(97x650)0.5

4-1) (97)(0.28 .2)/(27 + 273) Vo = 0. 600 rpm SOLUTION: VD = (π/4) D2 L N 0.1914 m3/sec .2 m 3/sec.4/1. 0.4-1 -1] W = 53 KW Power Saved = 61. 0. 300 rpm D. If surrounding air is 100 Kpa and 20°C.1885 m3/sec. The suction condition of an air compressor is 98 Kpa. 27°C and 0.1 Kpa For two stages: W = 2(n/ n -1)P1V1 [P2 /P1) n/n-1-1] W= 2(1.381)N N = 5 rev/see x 60sec/min N = 300 rpm 7).1885=(π/4)0.15 C.27 KW 6). 0. Determine the operating speed of the compressor. 250 rpm C.25 B.1/97)1. determine the free air capacity in m3/sec. Px=251.4/1.3552 (0.53 Power Saved = 8. A.19 D.25) [(251. A. 350 rpm B. A 355 mm x 381 mm air compressor has a piston displacement of 0.23 SOLUTION: PoVo/To= PsVs /Ts 100(Vo)/(20 + 273) = 98(0. 0.

600 Kpa SOLUTION: W = Pm X VD 100 = Pm(15/60) Pm = 400 Kpa 10). 488 ft3/min B. If the piston speed is 15 m 3/min. 5% C.4 c = 10. 755 ft3/min D.91% 9). determine the mean effective pressure. 688 ft3/min C.38 ft3/min . x 7 in. Determine the percent clearance of an air compressor having 87% volumetric efficiency and compressor air pressure to be thrice the suction pressure. 600 rpm has what volume displacement? A. The compressor work of an air compressor is 100 KW. 7% D.c(3P1/P1) 1/1.8). 11% SOLUTION: Nv= 1 + c . A double acting air compressor has 16 in.87 == 1 + c .. 300 Kpa D. 400 Kpa B. 15% B.200 Kpa C. A.c(P2/P1) 1/n 0. 977 ft3/min SOLUTION: Vo == 2[(π/4 )D2 L N] VO == 2[(π/4) (16/12)2 (7/12) (600)] Vo == 977. A.

What is the intercooler pressure in Kpag. The piston speed of an air compressor is 140 m/min and has a volume displacement of 0. 3 kg/cm2 C.5 Px = 45 psi x 101. What is the discharge pressure if suction pressure is 1 kg/cm2 A.325/14. 600 Kpag D. 15 kg/cm2 SOLUTION: Px = (P1x P2)0. 358 mm D.11).7 Px = 310.24 Kpaa . A.101. Determine the diameter of compressor cylinder. 246 mm SOLUTION: VD = (π/4) D2 (LN) Piston Speed = 2 (LN) 140 = 2 (LN) .5 Px = (14x144.5 3 = (1xP2) 0. 477 Kpag B. 12 kg/cm2 B.2 m3/sec. 467 mm B. 9 kg/cm2 D.7) 0. A two stage air compressor has an intercooler Pressure of 3 kg/cm2. 300 Kpag SOLUTION: P2 == 130 + 14.5 psi a Px = (P1x P2)0. 209 Kpag C.7 P2 == 147. A two-stage air compressor has a suction pressure of 14 psi and discharge pressure of 130 psig.91 Kpag 12). 500 mm C.5 P2 = 9 kg/cm2 13). A.325 Px = 208.

(LN) = 70 m/min 0. A two-stage compressor air at 100 Kpa and 22°C discharges to 690 Kpa.05 kg/min m = 243 kg/hr 15).365.75 = VA/5000 VA =5000x0.2 = (π/4) D2 x70 D=[0.345 B.4 kg/hr B.75 VA =3 750 cm3 VA =3 750 cm3(900 rpm) VA = 3 375 000 cm3/min ρ = 1.5 .2 kg/hr SOLUTION: Nv = VA/VD 0.19 mm 14). determine the value of n. 1. 243.2 kg/m3 (at standard) m = 1.1. 465. A. If intercooler intake is 105°C.5 D=0. A.5 kg/hr D.288 SOLUTION: Px = (P1xP2 )0.2x(4/π) /70]0.358 D.400 C. 1. Determine the mass flow of air at standard density.46719 m D= 467. 1. 386.2(3 375 000/1003) m = 4.3 kg/hr C. An air compressor piston displacement is 5000 cm3 when operates at 900 rpm and volumetric efficiency of 75%.

371 mm B.5 m3/sec and discharge at 500 Kpa. A. 26.85 KW C. determine the heat loss in the compressor.68/100) n-1/n ln(1. 350 mm C. If power input to the compressor is 120 KW.345 16). If bore and stroke are unity.1= 0.36 KW SOLUTION: W = (n/ n -1)P1V1 [P2 /P1) n/n-1-1] . 22.55 KW D. 18. 400 mm SOLUTION: VD = 2[( π/4) D2 L N)] L = D (for unity) 0.45 KW B.68 Kpa (Tx/ T1)=(Px / P1) n-1/n (105 + 273)/ (22 + 273) = (262. A. 30.2564n n = 1.67 mm 17). Px = (100x690) 0. The piston displacement of a double acting compressor running at 300 rpm is 0.281) = (n-1/n) ln (2. An air compressor takes air at 97 Kpa at the rate of 0.6268) n . 380 mm D.4 m3/sec.4 = 2[(π/4) (D)2(D)(300/60)] D = 0.37067 m L=D L = 370.5 Px = 262. determine the length of stroke.

204 SOLUTION: (P1 V1)k = (P2 V2)k 100(V 1)1.4-1 W = 101.5) [(500/97)1.4(100)(21. 973 D.55 KW 18).4 .4 V1 = 21. If compression is isentropic.8 Pm = 203. W = 1. A single acting air compressor has a volumetric efficiency of 87%.45 Heat Loss = 18.45 KW Heat Loss = 120 . It takes in air at 100 Kpa and 30°C and discharges it at 600 Kpa.4/0.58 m3/min VD = 21. 198 B.4 . 182 C.049= Pm X 24.8 m3/min W = (n/ n -1)P1V1 [P2 /P1) n/n-1-1] W = 1.4(97)(0.101. find mean effective pressure in Kpa A. The air handled is 6 m 3/min measured at discharge condition.58/0.58) [(600/100)1.1]/1.6 Kpa .4 = 600(6)1. operates at 50 rpm.87 VD = 24.4-1 W = 5049 KJ/min W =Pm xVD 5.1]/1.4/0.

5 P1 = 85 kpa P2=600+10 P2 = 610 kpa Nv = 1 + c .3°C and is discharged at 600 Kpa. 98. 28. The compression and expansion are polytropic with n = 1.45 m3/min P1 = 90 .28 Nv = 0.76 kg/hr .10(610/85)1/1.19).285)/(0.45 D.0.76 C.285 m3/min m = PV/RT m = 85(0.23 SOLUTION: VD = (π/4) D2 L) N VD = (500)(900) VD = 450.28. A single acting reciprocating air compressor has a clearance volume of 10%. 16.c(P2/P1) 1/n Nv = 1 + 0.000 cm3/min VD = 0.10 .633684) V1 = 0.2792 kg/min m = 16.633684 V1 = 0.287)(29. 20. The pressure drop is 5 Kpa at suction port and 10 Kpa at the discharge port.45(0. Determine the mass of compressed air in kg/hr A. The compressor piston displacement is 500 cm3 when operating at 900 rpm. Air is received at 90 Kpa and 29.3 + 273) m = 0.33 B.

2.c(P2/P1) 1/n Nv = 1 + 0.0. 0.3 = C.0818 C. 4.081851 m3/sec .13 D.23 B.23 SOLUTION: VD = (π/4) D2 L N VD = (π/4) (0. If the surrounding air is at 100 Kpa and 20°C while the compression and expansion process are PV 1.085604)/(27 + 273) VF = 0. A single acting air compressor operates at 150 rpm with an initial condition of air at 97.9 Kpa and 27°C and discharges the air at 379 Kpa to a cylindrical tank.908 V1 = 0.094278) V1 = 0. determine free air capacity.9) 1/1.381) (150/60) VD = 0.05 .085604 m3/sec Solving for free air capacity: PFVF / TF = P1V1/T1 100(VF)/ (20 + 273) = 97.908(0.20).05(379/97. m3/sec A.3 Nv = 0. The bore and stroke are 355 mm and 381 mm.355)2 (0. 1.094278 m3/sec Nv = 1 + c . with 5% clearance. respectively.9(0.

PUMPS .

3 m 3).5 + 2 + 0. determine the total suction head.10)0. 185 mm C.5/H 3/ 4 Ns = 374 Q = 70/ ft3 /sec x 7.10 gal/min h = 12x3.30 m C. A. A. 8. 2345 rpm B.37)3/4 Ns = 9968. What is the specific speed of the pump? A. 5014 rpm C.8 hs = 5.5/(39. 6453 rpm D.281 h = 39.1).8 m. 9968 rpm SOLUTION: Ns = N(Q)0. The pump centerline of a centrifugal pump is located 2.4 rpm 2). determine the impeller diameter of the centrifugal pump. 160 mm D. 154 mm B. 5. 6.23 m SOLUTION: hs = total suction head hs = 2. A double suction centrifugal pumps delivers 70 ft3/sec of water at a head of 12 m and running at 1250 rpm. If pump speed is 1600 rpm. 2.37 ft Ns =1250(15710.5 m above from the high tide level. If friction loss at the suction is 0.30 m D.30 m B. The sea. A centrifugal pump requires 40 ft head to deliver water from low level to higher level. water varies two meters from high tide to low tide level. 176 mm .481 gal/ft3 x 60sec/1 min Q = 15710.

325/14.325/29.(-6.P1)/ dw h = (896. of mercury vacuum and discharge pressure reads 130 psi is use to deliver 100 gpm of water with specific volume of 0.92 P1 = 6.6 KW C.4 dw = 9.0163 ft3/lb. A.645 h = 93.28)0.5 v = 15.466 m/sec v=πDN 15.0163 dw = 61.18461 m D = 184.773 Kpa P2 = 130 psi x 101.7 KW D.4 KW SOLUTION: P1 = 2 in Hg x 101.075 m .645 KN/m3 h=(P2 .35 Ib/ft3 x 9.4 KW B. 8.071 . 7. 4. The suction pressure of a pump reads 2 in. Determine the pump work.5 v = (2(9.071 Kpa dw = 1/υ dw = 1/.81(40x3.466 = πD(1600/60) D = 0.7 P2 = 896.81/62.SOLUTION: v = (2gh )0.61 mmØ 4).773))/ 9. 5.

785 Ii/ gal x 1 m3/1 OOOli x 1/60 Q = 0.81 (150gal/min x 0.075) P = 5.50% SOLUTION: ecombined=ep(em) ecombined = 0.7) ecombined = 59.913 KW BP = 21. 61. 62.7 BP = 15. A motor is used to drive a pump having an efficiency of 85% and 70% respectively What is the combined efficiency of pump and motor? A.33 hp 6).139/0.44 Hp C. 25.006308 m3/sec P = wQ h P = 9. 21.44 Hp B. 38. 40.50% D. Q = 100 gal/min x 3.69 KW 5). what is the horsepower rating of motor required to drive the pump? A. If pump efficiency is 70%.645(0. 59.66 Hp D. A pump is to deliver 150 gpm of water at ahead of 120 m.006308)(93.50% .50% B.50% C.33 Hp SOLUTION: Wp = w Q h Wp = 9.85(0. 65.003785m3/1gal x 1/60)(120) W p = 11 .139 KW BP = 11.

8 B. The pump were installed 120 ft below the ground level and a draw down of 8 ft during the operation. 864 KW SOLUTION: h = 5 + 120 . A.h1) = m x h x 0.(25 . A.02246 m3/sec Wp = dw Q h Wp = 9.86 KW D.003785m3/gal x 1 min/60sec Q = 0. what is the exit enthalpy of the pump. 897 KJ/kg C.4 D. A submersible pump delivers 350 gpm of water to a height of 5 ft from the ground. 465 KJ/kg D.00981 h2 = 773.00981 h2 .02246)(32. 7. 864 KJ/kg SOLUTION: m(h2 . determine the pump power. Each impeller develops a head of 38 ft.916 m Q = 350 gal/min x 0. In a boiler feed pump. If pump has a head of 900 m.24 KW B. 7. If water level is 25 ft above the pump.25 KW 9).765 = 900 x 0.13 KW C. the enthalpy at the entrance is 765 KJ/kg. 4.83 KJ/kg 8). Determine the number of stages needed for a centrifugal pump if it is used to deliver 400 gal/min of water and pump power of 15 Hp. 774 KJ/kg B.8) h = 108/3. 6 C. A.916) Wp = 7.281 h = 32.7 SOLUTION: Wp = dw Q h .81(0.7).

00112 x 0.46/0. 15 x 0.317/38 Number of stages = 3.00981)(0. What is the power output of driving motor if pump efficiency is 65%? A.32 KW 11). 785.56 KW B.00981 P = 171. 643.54 KW D.45 KW SOLUTION: Wp = dw Q h Wp = (1/0.46 KW BP = 328. 356.317 ft Number of stages = 148. 171.00112 m3/kg at ahead of 750 m. 356.67 KW SOLUTION: P = m x h x 0.65 BP = 505.56 KW C.81 (400 gal/min x 0.54 KW D.746 = 9.281ft/m h = 148. 505. 456. What power can a boiler feed pump can deliver a mass of 35 kg/s water at a head of 500 m? A.00785m3/gal x 1/60)h h = 45.050)(750) Wp = 328.64 KW B.675 KW . 354.20 m x 3.00981 P = 35 X 500 x 0.32 KW C. A boiler feed pump receives 50 Ii/see of water with specific volume of 0.903 stages Number of stages = 4 stages 10).

2 m D. 87. A.67 KW SOLUTION: P2 /P1=N2 3 / N13 .2 m 13). A pump running at 100 rpm delivers water against a head of 30 m. If speed will changed to 370 rpm.56 Ii/see D.54 Ii/see B. 5.72 KW C.25 Ii/see C. If pump speed will increased to 120 rpm. what is the increase in head? A. 6. determine the increase in pump capacity. A 15 KW motor running at 350 rpm is used to drive a pump.2 m C. 34.260 Ii/see SOLUTION: Q2/Q1 = N2/N1 Q2 = 135(50)/120 Q2 = 56.12). If speed will increased to 135 rpm.50 Increased = 6.6 m B. 34.30 Increased = 13. what is the increase in power? A.72 KW D.3 m SOLUTION: h2 / h1=N2 2 / N12 h2 / 30=120 2 / 1002 h2 = 43.25 L/sec Increased = 56.25 L/sec 14). 56. 13.43.56.25 .2 . 17.2 m Increased = 43. 2.45 KW B. A pump is used to deliver 50 Ii/see of sea water at a speed of 120 rpm. 56.

24 Hp 16). 6. respectively. The discharge pipe of a pump is 400 mm in diameter delivers 0.45 ft BP = Qdwh/ep BP =(61. 211 KW C. 3.5 m3/s of water to a building which maintains a pressure of 100 Kpa at a height of 30 m.5 = (π/4 x( 0.89 Hp SOLUTION: BP = Qdw h/ ep h= Pd.481)(65. The suction and discharge gage reads 4 in Hg vacuum and 25 psi. 480 KW D. 5. The discharge gage is 2 ft above the suction gage.000(0.72 KW Increased = 17.75) BP = 3.2 + 2 h = 65. 240 KW SOLUTION: Q = AxV 0.965)](144)/ 61.72 KW 15).45 Hp B.15 Increased = 2. B. If equivalent friction head is 2 m. 2.7/29.Ps + z Ps = .2 Ib/ft3.67 Hp D.4 in Hg x 14.24 Hp C. above the reservoir.2)(150/7.(-1. What is the brake power of the motor if pump efficiancy is 75%? A. what power must be furnished by the pump? A. P2 = (370)3( 15)/(350)3 P2 = 17.92 Ps = -1.965 psi Pd = 25 psi h = [25 .400)2) V .45)/33. A certain pump is used to deliver 150 gpm of water having a density of 61. 340 KW.72 .

1500 rpm B.54 KW C. 12.3/61 = (N2)2/1800 N2 = 1499 rpm 18). 23. Determine the speed if impeller diameter is reduced from 305 mm to 254 mm.15 m. A.65 KW B. 1600 rpm SOLUTION: h2/ h1= D2 2/D12 h2 = (254)2 (61)/(305)2 h2 = 42. Suction and discharge head loss are 0. 14. respectively.30 m h2 /h1=N22/N12 42. Water from a reservoir A 10 m elevation is drawn by a motor driven pump to an upper reservoir B at 72 m elevation.35 KW . 1250 rpm D.17KW D.81 + (30 + 2) h = 43m Wp = w Q h Wp = 9. A centrifugal pump is designed for 1800 rpm and head of 61 m.9788 m/s h=(v2/2g) +P/ w + h +z h = (3. V = 3.81) + 100/9. find the power input to the motor if overall efficiency is 65%.81 (0. 45. 1000 rpm C.9788)2/2(9.50){43) Wp = 210. For discharge rate of 15 L/sec.92 KW 17). A.

3456 KW SOLUTION: h = (85 . determine the power needed by the pump.34 KW 20). 4675 KW B.5) + 3 + 150/9. The pump have a positive suction head of 5 m.15) Wp = 9.145 KW Power input = 9.81(0.81 h = 98.07 KW 19).145/0. 1372kw C. 1523kw D.15 m Wp = 9. 2567 KW D. Water from a reservoir is pumped over a hill through a pipe 900 mm in diameter and a pressure of one kg/cm2 is maintained at the pipe discharge where the pipe is 85 m from the pump centerline.15 h = 62. If 1.SOLUTION: Z=72m-10 m Z=62 m Wp = wQ h h = (72-10)+0. Friction losses is equivalent to 3 m of head loss.81 (1. 1234kw B.5 m3/sec of water is used to deliver a total head of 3m. 1446 KW C.29 m P = wQ h P = 9.5 m3/sec. The elevation of suction reservoir is 5 m above the pump centerline and delivers to 85 m elevation tank which maintain 150 Kpa.5){98. What amount of energy must be furnished by the pump in KW? A.29) P = 1446.015){62. A. 1723kw . Pumping rate of the pump at 1000 rpm is 1.65 Power input = 14.

5/(π /4)(0.9)2 Vd = 2.088 Kpa Ps = 0 (open to atmosphere) h = (Zd .81(1.5)(93.0)/9.28 m Water Power = w Q h Water Power= 9.SOLUTION: Pd = 1 kg/cm2 Z1= 85m Z2=5m Vd = Q/A Vd = 1.033 Pd = 98.358 m/sec Pd = 1 kg/cm2 x 101.325/1.Zs ) + (Pd -Ps)/w +Vd2/2g+ (hfs+ hfd) h = (85 – 5)+(98.088 .358)2/2(9.81) + 3 h = 93.6 KW .81 + (2.28) Water Power = 1372.

GAS TURBINE .

31. A.4-1/1. The temperature at the end of heat supply is 680⁰C.81(1.736) m = 5. 389 kJ/kg D. Cp = 1.4 QA = mCp(T3 – T2) T4 = 736°K QA = 5.287)(300) Wt= 5.0)(579 . 472 kJ/kg C. 42.15 Solution: Wc' = 1621/0.718 kJ/kg.20 D.06 C. On the basis of air standard analysis.4-1/1.1907 Solving for T4: Wn' = 1488 kW T3/T4= (P3/P4)k-1/k 1400/T4 = (950/100)1. The compressor pressure ratio is 10 and its isentropic efficiency is 85%. calculate the heat energy supplied per kg at constant pressure.4 T2= 579°K Wn' = Wt' – Wc' Wn' = 3395 .81 (1.4 QA = mCp(T3 – T2) T2 = 483.7/1)1.88) T2/T1= (P2/P1 )k-1/k Wt' = 3395 KW T2/300 = (10/1)1. 60. At the inlet to the turbine.300) Efficiency = 1488/4770 Wc = 1621 KW et= 31. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 88% and the exit pressure is 100 Kpa. the pressure is 950 Kpa and the temperature is 1400oK. what is the thermal efficiency of the cycle in percent? A. Taking expansion and compression to be adiabatic where Cv = 0.81 kg/s Wt = 3858 kW Solving for T2: Wt' = 3858(0.81 (1.7 bar. Air is drawn into a gas turbine working on the constant pressure cycle at 1 bar 21⁰C and compressed to 5.85 Solving for the mass flow rate: Wc' = 1907 KW PV = mRT Wt = mCp(T3 – T4) 100(5) = m(0. Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 100 Kpa and 3000K with a volume flow rate of 5 m3/sec.4-1/1.0)(1400 . 489kJ/kg Solution: Heat Energy Supplied: T2 /(21+273) = (5. 25. 501 kJ/kg B.1).0)(1400-579) QA= 4770 kW Wc = mCp(T2 – T1) Wc = 5.19% 2).89 B.41 K Solving for T2 : T2 / T1 = (P2 / P1)k-1/k T3 = 680 +273 =953 K .055kJ/kg-k.

54 = 271.94 ft3 /lb = (14)(144)(35 000) / (53. QA = 1. 7.6) Pnet =m Wnet = 562.4-1/1. Determine the mean effective pressure.4 T2 = 540.49 lb/min P2 = P1(rk)k = 14(5)1.11kg/s 4).16% D. The exit pressure of the turbine is 14 psia.94 {(1500+460) / 966. Assume the closed Brayton cycle and determine the required air flow. 38. The compression ratio is 4 and the temperature at the turbine inlet is 1500⁰F.87 kJ/Kg Solving for Wnet : QA = mCp(T4 – T1) =(1)(1.74 K 2200 = m (271.291.91% C. The intake of the compressor of an air–standard Brayton cycle is 35 000 ft3/min at 14 psia and 95⁰F.06 psi B.005 (953 – 483.96 ft3 /lb .94 kJ/kg 3).31} V1 = 35 000 ft3/min /2383. 25.4 Thus.91% Solution: = (1)(1.11% B.0062)(1100 – 540.60 K Wnet = 562.87 . A.49 lb/min = 5. the pressure ratio rp = 10.68 ft3 /lb P m = Wn / V d V2 = V1 /rk Solving for Wn and Vd : = 14.0062)(569.05 psi Solution: V1 = 14.05 psi D. 7.4 -1 T2 = 966. 8.26 psi = (95 + 460)(4) 1.74 – 280) T2 /T1 = (P2/P1) k-1/k =291.33) QA = mCp(T3 – T2) m = 8.06 psi C. T4 = 569. QA = 471. There are required 2200 kW net from a gas turbine unit for pumping of crude oil. 8. 28.4-1/1. The turbine section receives the hot gases at 1 100 k.68 / 5 m = (P1V1) / (RT1) = 2. 25. A.34)(95 + 460) m = 2383. 280 K.31 K V3 = V2 (T3 / T2) = 2. Air enters the compressor section at 100kpa.4 T2 = T1rk k-1 = 133.41) Thus.54kJ/kg T2 /280 = (10)1.33 kJ/kg T4 /T3 = (P4/P3) k-1/k T4 /1100 = (1/10)1.

Wta= 0. 352.06 kJ/kg From eq.55kJ/kg 6).96 (133.M=29. Wta = actual turbine work expansion: Wti = ideal turbine work Wta = eWti T3/ T4 = (P3 / P4) k-1/k (750+273) / T4 = (6.71 Btu/lb T4 = T3 (V3/V4)k-1 Wn = 223.80 – 2.59 Btu/lb = 1029. Initial temperature. pressure ratio.64kJ/kg Solution: The available Energy.80 ft3 /lb = 98. 249 kJ/kg B. mf = 0.34.288 Eq.13.30 – 98.64kJ/kg D.34 Solving for. 452.33 /1. A.2 = 425. 349 kJ/kg C.59(778) / (29. A. exhaust to atmosphere.80) 1. Assume k=1.94)144 = (1)(0.34Cv Then.71 = (1500+460) (5.64kJ/kg C.82(425. Wc = m Cp (T2 – T1) Pm = 124. 750 ⁰C.96/29.24)(966. Kerosene is the fuel of a gas turbine plant : fuel – air ratio. 425 kJ/kg D.60 ⁰R Then. Calculate the work done per kg of gas expanding from 6. 552.135)(1023 – 648.60) Pm = 25.33 kg abs to 1. rp=4.30 Btu/lb 5). Cp – Cv = R Wti = m Cp (T3 – T4) Cp – Cv = 8.5. 525 kJ/kg Solution: Solving for the temperature after Let. T3 = 972K. 1 and 2 Thus.314 / 29 = 1(1. in a gas turbine of 82% internal efficiency.26) 1/1.4 = (1)(0.64kJ/kg B.135 Wta = 348. Q: .50) Cp – Cv = 0.24)(1960 – 1029.06 psi = 223.34 and Cp=1. k = 1.05) 1. Wti : T4 = 648.012.50 K Cp = kCv = 1.V4 = V3 (P3 / P4)1/k Wt = m Cp (T3 – T4) = 5.34 -1/1. Find the available energy in kJ per kg air flow.05 kg/cm2 abs. 252.06) Cp = 1.31 – 555) = 29.4-1 = 124.

31. 26.325)1.25 kg/s B.63) 972/T4 = (4. 36. 28. 46.77 kg/s B. In an air – standard Brayton cycle the inlet temperature and pressure are 20⁰C and 101. 0.34-1/1. 0. A gas turbine power plant operating on the Brayton cycle delivers 15 MW to a standby electric generator. Solving for T4: 12000 =m(1)(1173 – 578.88 m3/s B.20 kg/s T3/T4= (P3/P4)k-1/k 9). What is the mass flow rate of air if it leaves the turbine at 350⁰C ? A. Determine the air flow rate if the turbine produces 12 MW. 18.012) (1.98 kg/s.75°K V = 26.63K Solving for T4 : Then.97 (0. What is the mass flow rate and the volume flow rate of air if the minimum and maximum pressure are 100 kPa and 500kPa respectively and temperatures of 20⁰C and 1000⁰C.97 kg/s T3/T4= (P3/P4)k-1/k Then. 19.88 m3/s 8). 41.20 kg/s D.97 kg/s .10 kg/s Solution: (900+273)/T4 = (1200/101.5)1.41 kg/s C. 20. The net power output of an air-standard Brayton cycle is 200 KW. (100+273)/T4 = (500/100)1.4 100V = 31. Air enters the compressor at 32⁰C and leaves the high-temperatures heat exchanger at 800⁰C.89) m = 20. T3 /T4 = (P3 /P4) k-1/k Q = (1+0.325 kPa. 21.89°K Wt = m Cp (T3 – T4) Then.287)(20+273) T4 = 803.97 kg/s.64 kJ/kg 7). 0. 28.4-1/1. A. 26.4-1/1.75) Solving for m: m = 31.34 Q = 352.87 kg/s Solution : .Q= (1+mf) Cp (T3 – T4) T4 = 663.98 kg/s.88 m3/s C.67 kg/s D.99 m3/s Solution: PV = mRT Wt = m Cp (T3 – T4) 15000 = m (1)(1273 – 803. The turbine inlet conditions are 1200kPa and 900⁰C.13)(972 – 663. A.4 T4 = 578.57 kg/s C. 0.99 m3/s D.

74kJ/kg Solution: (1000+273)/T4 = (9)1.30K 10). Determine the network if the maximum temperature is 1000⁰C and the pressure ratio is 9.03kJ/kg T2 / T1 = (P2 / P1)k-1/k Wt = mCp(T3 – T4) Wt= 1 (1273 – 679.47 kJ/kg T3/T4= (P3/P4)k-1/k .4-1/1.05kJ/kg T2 = 562. A.03+593. In an air-standard Brayton cycle air enters the compressor at 101.3 m T1 = 32 + 273 = 305K Wt = m Cp (T3 – T4) = m (1)(1073 – 623) T3 = 800 +273 =107 =450 m T4 = 350+1073 = 623K Then.300) Wc = 262. 421.56kJ/kg D.4 Wt = 593. 456.50) T2 /(27+273) = (9)1.03 K Wn = 262.4-1/1.88 kJ/kg C.03 .30 – 305) =220.05 Wn =331. T2/T1 = T3/T4 200 = 450m – 220.Wc Wc = mCp(T2 – T1) Solving for Wt and Wc : Wc = 1 (562.3m T2/305 = 1073/623 m = 0.Wc Wc = m Cp (T2 – T1) Solving for Wt and Wc : = m (1) (525. 301.47kJ/kg B.4 T4 = 679.50K Wn = Wt .325 kPa and 27⁰C. 331.Wn = Wt .87kg/s T2 = 525.

13 kg/cm2 . 556 K.5(V22 = V12) = 1 (1004 . 1004C and 140 m/s. Liquid fuel enters with heating value of 43. For fuel-air ration of 0. molecular weight M = 29. Products of combustion with k of 1.0229. 102% Solution: Comb Eff. what is the combustor efficiency of the unit in percent? A.K) / (29 kg/ kg-mol) . are moving within an exhaust pipe at 174 m/s. 1. static pressure.570 K B.314 kJ/ kg mol .35. M: R = (8.580 K C. 64% C. 78% B.000 kJ/kg.227) + 0. air enters the combustion chamber at 550 kpa.7981 = 79. In a gas turbine unit.0229 (43.580 K Let.7 ec = 0.11).61 kg/cm2 .000) =984.88 / 984. 1. Ptotal = total pressure Ttotal = total temperature Ptotal = P(1+((k-1)/2)M2)(k-1) /k Solving for the Mach number. 1.432)/1000 = 785.570 K D. A.12 kg/cm2 abs. the products of combustion leave the combustor at 511kPa.81 % 12).13 kg/cm2 . = Heat Absorbed / Heat supplied by Fuel Heat supplied by fuel = mr Qh = 0.7 kJ/kg air Heat Absorbed = Cp (t2-t1) + 0. 92% D. 1. Find the total pressure and temperature. 227C and 43 m/s.61 kg/cm2 . 1.5(1402 .88 kJ/kg air Then ec = 785.

375)2 ] Thus. Ptotal = (1.12 kg/cm2)(1+ 0.K M = V/√(kgRT) = (174 m/s)/√(1. 0. A.51 kg/s QA = mCp ( T3 – T2 ) Solving for T2 : T2/T1 = (P2/P1) k-1/k T2/ 30 + 273 = (10/ ) 1.287 kJ/kg.34 kg/s .26 kg.81 m/s2)(29. 0.35 – 1)(0.m/kg.35 – 1/ 2) (0.35(9.35 -1)/1.5(1.K)(556K)) = 0. 300 = m (1) (1473 .35 = 1.26 kg. K = 29.41 kg/s B.13kg/cm2 Solving for the total temperature: T total = T [ 1 + (k – 1 / 2) ] M2 = 556 [ 1 + (1.4-1/1.375)2)(1.375 Then. m = 0. Calculate the air flow rate for a temperature limts of 30OC and 12000C .585) Thus. 0.4 T2 = 585 K Then.m/kg.68 K 13). T total = 569. 0. = 0.34 kg/s D. An ideal gas turbine operates with a pressure ratio of 10 and the energy input in the high temperature heat exchanger is 300 kW.25 kg/s C.

What is the efficiency of the compressor in a gas turbine plant if the compressor power is 300 Kw. 46. The pressure ratio is 9 and the maximum temperature in the cycle is 1077oC.62% .85% C.75 or 75% 16). 41. 75% C. 599C Solution: WC = m Cp (T2 – T1) 400 = 1(1) [ T2 – (99 = 273)] Thus. 44.4) ec = 0. A.92% D. Compute for the cycle efficiency per kg of air in percent.4662 or 46. 85% B. 550C B.62% Solution: ec = 1 – 1/rp(k-1/k) ec = 1 – 1/(9)(1. ec = 0. Power input is 400 kW. 4990C C. Calculate the compressor air exit temperature if it requires 400 kJ/kg of work.65% B. 70% Solution: ec = 300/400 thus. 4000C D. A.14).4-1/1. The compressor inlet air air temperature an a gas turbine plant is 990C. A. 43. A gas turbine working on air standard Brayton cycle has air enter into the compressor at atmospheric condition and 22oC. 80% D. T2 = 4990C 15).

4-1/1.4-1/1.3 Btu/lbm rp = P2/P1 = 120/15 =8 .44% Solution: e = 1 . 3500 kW Solution: Wt = mCp(T3-T4) Solving for T4: T4/T3 = (P4/P3)k-1/k (T4/1000+273) = (101. Determine the turbine work if the temperature of the air entering the turbine is 1000oC. h3 = 504. the compressor receives air at 101. Solution: T3 = 2000 R. 2028 kW B. Heat is rejected to the surroundings at a rate of 6400 Btu/s.325/600)1.21% 18). The air enters the turbine at 120 psia and 2000 R and leaves at 15 psia and 1200 R. 42. Wt = (4)(1)(1000-492.1/rp(k-1/k) e = 1 .36% B. 21oC and it leaves at 600 kPa at the rate of 4 kg/s. determine the net power output of the plant.83 oC Thus.4) e = 48. and air flows through the cycle at a rate of 40 lbm/s. 48.83) Wt = 2028 kW 19).16% D.21% C.325 kPa. 2701 kW D. A.71 Btu/lbm T4 = 1200 R. 50.83 K t4 = 492. h4 = 291. A gas-turbine power plant operates on a simple Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid. A. In an air-standard Brayton cycle.17). 3000 kW C. Assuming the turbine to be isentropic and the compressor to have an isentropic efficiency of 80 percent.4 T4 = 765.1/(10)(1. Account for the variation of specific heats with temperature. 45. What is the thermal efficiency of an air-standard Brayton cycle if the pressure ratio is 10.

5 or 50% .79 h2s = 238.h1)/ec = (40)(238. For what compressor efficiency will the gas-turbine power plant in Problem 19 produce zero net work? Solution: ec = (h2s .3) ec = 0.07 – 131.WCin = 8536 – 5339 = 3197 Btu/s = 3373 kW 20).h4) = (40)(504.71 – 291.h1)/ (h3 .07 Btu/lbm Wcin = m(h2s .3 Btu/lbm  Pr1 = 1.3)/(504.Qout = m(h4 – h1).474) = 11.07 – 131.h4) ec = (238.3 – 6400/40 = 131.3)/(0.3) = 8536 Btu/s Wnet out = WTout .8) = 5339 Btu/s WTout = m(h3 .71 – 291. h1 = 291.474 Pr2 = (P2/P1)(Pr1) = (8)(1.

HEAT TRANSFER .

87 KW/m2 B.67 KW/m2 C. 80.67 W/m2 Q/A = 5.82°C B. 50.138 KW/m2 C. The condenser temperature is 45°C. what is the log mean temperature difference? A. 8.15 Q/A = 5666.37°C . 6. Sea water for cooling enters a condenser at 27OC and leaves at 37OC. 0.27°C θmax = 18°C θmin = 45°C . A.065 KW/m2 SOLUTION: Q = k1A( t2-t1) /X1 Q= k2A (t2-t3) /X2 Q/A= (t1-t3)/[(X1/k1)+(X2/k2)] Q/A = 250 – 30)/[(0. 0. Determine the heat transmitted.138 KW/m2 3). 15 cm thick at inner layer.25)] Q/A = 0. 0. A.68 KW/m2 D.θmin)/ln (θmax/ θmin) θmax = 45°C .87 KW/m2 SOLUTION: Q = kA (t2-t1)/X Q = 5A(200 . find the heat transmitted per square meter.54°C SOLUTION: θmean= (θmax. 12. 4.md outside surface temperature of the wall are 200°C and 30°C.5 KJ/hr-m-°C). Two walls of cold storage plant are composed of an insulating material (k = 0.15/ 13. 0.30)/0.56°C C. lespectively. A 15 cm thick wall has a thermal conductivity of 5 W/m-oK.450 KW/m2 D. If inside .1). 5.5) + (0.33°C D.25 KJ/hr-m-°C). If the surface temperature at the cold side is 30°C and hot side is 250°C.025 KW/m2 B.6667 KW/m2 2). 37. 100 mm thick at the outer layer and material (k = 3.100 /0.

the heat transmitted is 200 KJ. During the 5 hours test period. 0.8) ∆OC = 6°C Q = kA(t2-t1) /x 200/5x3600 = k(2)(6)/0. 3546. A.35 W D. 0.045 W/m-oK C.023148 W/m.8 oFbetween the surfaces.8. A.T24) J/hr T1 = 200 + 273 T1 = 473°K T2 = 27 + 273 • T2 = 3000K .560 W/m-oK D.4 x 10-8σAoFe(T14 .025 k = 2. Calculate the radiated heat loss for 3 m pipe length.370 W/m-oK SOLUTION: ∆OC= 5/9 (∆OF) ∆OC = 5/9 (10.45 W SOLUTION: Ao=πDL Ao = π(0.023 W/m-oK B.408. The outside diameter of pipe is 80 mm and emissivity factor is 0.8)/ln (18/ 8) θmean= 12. Determine the thermal conductivity of a material that is use in a 2 m2 test pannel.47 W C. θmin = 8°C θmean= (θmax. 0. 2756.57 W B. 1434.θmin)/ln (θmax/ θmin) θmean= (18.o k 5).7539 m2 Solving for heat due to radiation: QR = 20. A steam pipe having a surface temperature of 200 °C passes through a room where the temperature is 27 OC. 0. 3746. 25 mm thick with a temperature difference of 10.33OC 4).3148 X 105 KW/m-o k k = 0.08)(3) Ao = 0.

467 m2 x (3.80 ft2 B.(300)4] QR = 5164079.80 ft2 C. QR = 20. Specific heat of brine is 1. 37. A counter flow heat exchanger is designed to heat fuel oil from 30°C to 90°C while the heating fluid enters at 140°C and leaves at 105°C. 51. Heat loss is 11 KW and the mean temperature difference is 15°C.47 W 6). 62. Determine the tons of refrigeration.8)(0.4 x 10-8(0.80 ft2 SOLUTION: Q = UA θm 11 = 0.5OC B.5 OC D. .79 ft2 8). 45.866 J/hr x 1hr/3600sec QR = 1434.50 KW/m 2-oK.408.5 OC C .50 (A )15 A = 1 .72.7539) [(473)4 .1.072 KJ/kg-OK and specifiC gravity of 1. A.67.5 °C 7). Determine the arithmetic mean temperature difference. A heat exchanger has an overall coefficient of heat transfer of 0.90 θmin = 50°C AMTD = (75 +50 )/2 AMTD = 62. 15. Brine enters a circulating brine cooler at the rate of 60 m3/hr at -lO°Cand leaves at -16°C. What is the heat transfer area in ft2? A.5 OC SOLUTION: AMTD = (θmax +θmin )/2 θmax = 105 – 30 θmax =75 °C θmin =140 .281)2ft2/ m2 A = 15.30 ft2 D. 56.

A. 45°C Unit surface conductance on the hot side.33 kg/sec Q = m Cp ∆t Q = 18. If heat transmitted is 1000 W/m2. A.92 KW TR = 117. A heat exchanger has a hot gas temperature of 300°C and surface conductance on hot side is 200 W /m2-oK. 44.516 TR = 33.5 TR C. so that the maximum temperature of the wall does not exceed 545°C. 465°C D. what is the surface temperature on the wall at hot side? A.33(1. 1145°C Cold gas temperature. 20 mm . 295°C C.5 TR SOLUTION: Density of brine = 1.92/3.5 TR B. 53.072) [-10 -(-16)] Q = 117. 33. 354°C SOLUTION: Q = A (ho) (∆t) Q/A = (ho) (t2-t1) 1000 = 200 (300 -t1) t1 = 295°C 10). 234°C B. A heat exchanger is to be designed for the following specifications: Hot gas temperature.54 TR 9). 10 mm C.1 (1 000 kg/m3) Density of brine = 1100 kg/m Mass flow ratr= 1100(60)/3600 m = 18.3 TR D. 65.290 W/m2-oK Thermal conductivity of the metal wall. 230 W/m2 -OK Unit surface conductance on the cold side. 115 W/m-oK Find the maximum thickness of metal wall-between the hot gas and the cold gas.

what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe? A.268 W/m QR = heat transmitted by radiation QR = 20. 872 w/m2 D.t2) Q/A = 230(1145 .408.4 X 10-8 A Fe(T14 .45) Q/A =138000 138000 = (1145 .25) Qc /L = 577.t2) Qc = 15[π (0. 30 mm D.07)L T1 = 200 + 273 . If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is 15 W/m2-oK. 422 w/m2 SOLUTION: Qc = heat transmitted by convection Qc = ho Ao (t 1 . 998 w/m2 C. 40 mm SOLUTION: Hot side Q = h1 A (∆t) Q/A = h1 (t1 . The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm.545) Q/A =138000 Cold side Q = h2 A (∆t) Q/A = h2 (t2 – t3) Q/A = 290(545 .45)/[(1/ 230) + (x/ 115) + (1/ 290)] x = 0.115mm 11).T24) . B.J/hr where: Ao = π(0. respectively. and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200°C and 0.07) L](200 . 762 w/m2 B.020115 m x=20. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at 250C.80.

15)/ln (107/ 15) θmean = 46.(298)4] QR /L = 1. Cooling water enters air cooler at 30°C and leaves at 38°C. 87°C D.564 W/m Q/L= Qc + QR Q/L = 577. Vee-type diesel engine has an air consumption of 3.4 X 10-8 [π(0.8)[(473)4 .82 = 47oC 13).832 W/m 12). 65°C θmean = (θmax. Calculate the log mean temperature difference. A turbo-charged.07)L (0. 16 cylinder. 16 cylinder.408. T1 = 473°k T2 = 25 + 273 T2 = 298°k QR = 20.032 J/hr x 1/3600 QR/L = 420. This air is drawn in through a filter by a centrifugal compressor directly connected to the exhaust gas turbine. 34°C B. This air is drawn in through a filter by a centrifugal compressor directly connected to the exhaust gas turbine. Vee-type diesel engine has an air consumption 0f 3. 47°C C.514.564 Q/L = 997.θmin)/ln (θmax/ θmin) (θmax =145-38 Θmax =107 °C θmin =45-30 θmin =15 °C θmean = (107. The temperature of the air from the . The temperature of the air from the compressor is 145°C and a counter flow air cooler reduces the air temperature to 45°C before it goes to the engine suction header.268 + 420. A. A turbo-charged.000 kg/hr per cylinder at rated load and speed.000 kg/hr per cylinder at rated load and speed.

144 C.compressor is 145°C and a counter flow air cooler reduces the air temperature to 45°C before it goes to the engine suction header.11 C.301x0.000(1.0)(145 .301 kg/hr Ave. The average specific heat of the oil is 2.11 SOLUTION: Heat gained by oil = Heat lost by gas (m cp ∆t)Oil = (m cp ∆t)gas 100(2. 36. 123 B.45) mw = 143.13. Cooling water enters air cooler at 30°C and leaves at 38°C.5)(100 . 63.187)(38 .0010 056 m3/kg Volume flow = 143. Exhaust gases used for heating enter the heater with an average specific heat of 1 KJ/kg-OC. 132 D. 16. temp of water = (30 + 38)/2 Average temperature = 34°C From steam table.11 ~ B. An oil heater heats 100 kg per minute of oil from 35°C to 100°C in a counter flow heat exchanger.001 0056) Volume flow = 144.5 KJ/kg-oC. Vf at 34°C = 0. 124 SOLUTION: Heat gained by water = heat lost by air (m cp ∆t)water = (m cp ∆t)air mw(4.5)(100 .30) = 48.35) = 250(1 )(200 . Calculate the quantity of cooling water in m3/hr required to cool the total air requirements of the engine at rated load and speed. Determine heating surface in square meters A. a mass flow rate of 250 kg/min and an initial temperature of 200°C.11 D. A.to) to = 135°C Heat transferred = (100/60)(2.1 m3/hr 14).35) . The overall heat transfer coefficient is 75 W 1m2 -oC.

36°C ∆tB = 40. at 0. 14 D. 16 SOLUTION: Condenser pressure = 101.100 ∆ts = 100°C Since ∆tA = ∆tB.075) (A) (100) A = 36.36) θmean = 6. 12 B.(702 x 101. Vacuum in condenser is 702 mm Hg.83 = (0.5 ∆tA = 11. Calculate logarithmic mean temperature difference in oF.733 Kpa From steam table.11 m2 15). A surface condenser serving a 50. For steam turbine condenser.36°C θmean=11.86 .325 .5 ∆tB = 3.325/760) Condenser pressure = 7.3.56°C .36 In(11 .37. Heat transferred = 270.35 ∆tA = 100°C ∆tB = 200 .5°C.29.36 . manufacturers consider 950 Btu/lb of steam turbine condensed as heat given up to cooling water.007733 Mpa.5°C and leaves at 37.86°C ∆tA = 40.36/ 3.000 kg/hr.86 . tsat = 40.83 KW ∆tA = 135 . Sea water for cooling enters at 29.000 KW steam turbo-generator unit receives exhaust steam at the rate of 196. A.10 C. use the average value ∆tm = (100 + 100)/2 ∆tm = 100°C Q = U A ∆tm 270.

000 kg/hr. 12.03 and Cp of gas is 0. Calculate the required quantity of cooling water in cubic meters per hour. .509 m3/hr 17).5°C.82 °F 16).5)(1.11/(62.56 °C x 1. 112W/m2 B. 285 W/m2 C. Calculate the energy transfer rate across 6" wall of firebrick with a temperature differences across the wall of 50°C.509 SOLUTION: Heat absorbed by cooling water = 950(196.65 Btu/hr-ft-oF.930.000 m(0.31 V = 13.657. θmean =6.29. The thermal conductivity of the firebrick is 0.93 Btu/lb-oF m cp ∆t = 410. 13. Vacuum in condenser is 702 mm Hg.657. A surface condenser serving a 50.003/35. A.93)(37.205) Heat absorbed by cooling water = 410. 429W/m2 SOLUTION: Q = kA(ta. Sea water for cooling enters at 29. 10.tb) /x .571.930. A.11 Ibs/hr V = 30.003 ft3/hr V = 477.571. 369W/m2 D.000 Btu/hr Average SG of sea water is 1. 11. For steam turbine condenser design.000 KW steam turbo-generator unit receives exhaust steam at the rate of 196.445 D.5 .8°F/°C θmean = 11.5)= 410.03) V = 477.571.000 m = 30.345 B. manufacturers consider 950 Btu/lb of steam turbine condensed as heat given up to cooling water.000)(2.5°C and leaves at 37.374 C.

65(90)/(6/12) Q/A = 117 Btu/hr-ft2 Q/A = 117 Btu/hr-ft2 x 1055J/Btu x 1 hr/3600sec x 10.tb = 90°F Q/A = k (ta. ta .76 ft2/m2 Q/A = 369 W/m2 .tb = 50(9/5) ta .tb) /x Q/A = 0.

.

The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its surrounding. 256.2 D.4) D= 50. 96. The density and viscosity of the water are as follows: density = 997.0011334 m2/sec Re=0.508(5)/ 0.0011334 Re = 2241 19). What is the brick inner surface temperature in OC? A. 461.9 υ = 0. The brick has a thermal conductivity of 1.15 m thick. 1140 SOLUTION: R = DV/ υ where: D= 2(25. 2241 C. Free convection heat transfer to the air adjoining this surface is characterized by a convection coefficient of 20 W/m2-oK. by a brick wall 0.3°C SOLUTION: Qc =convection heat transfer Qc = Aho (t1 .4°C B.4 cm at a velocity of 5 m/sec at the temperature in the pipe. What is the Reynolds Number for this situation? A.9 kg/sec .8.131 Pa-s. 3100 B. which are at 25°C. viscosity = 1.2 W/m-oK and surface emissivity of 0.7°C C. Under steady state conditions and outer surface temperature of 100°C is measured.t2) Qc /A = 20(100-25) .18).131/997.508 m Vo = velocity Vo = 5 m/sec υ = kinematic viscosity υ = μ/ρ υ = 1. 623. Water is flowing in a pipe with radius of 25.5 °C D.8 cm D = 0. 352.

15 ta =352.08 cm thickness of 85% magnesia.52 hfg = 1885.(25+273)4] Qr/A = 1. Temperature =213.8)[(100+273)4 . ho for still air= 9. passes through a 10.05 Mpa. Steam initially saturated at 2.5 hg =2800. what is the quality of the steam which arises at its destination if the mass flow rate is 0.4 x 10-8 Fe (T14 -T24).4 x 10-8 (0.408.h2) h = hf + xhfg r1 = 10.0 k for 85% magnesia=0. 93% C.872.10/2 .67 °C Enthalpy : hf= 914.05 Mpa.100)/0. The steam line is insulated with a 5. 84% B.793 J/hr-m2 x (1/3600) Qr/A = 520 W/m2 Q /A = Qc/A + Qr/A Q /A =1500 + 520 Q /A =2020 W/m2 Q /A = k(ta .125 kg steam per second? Properties of steam: Pressure 2.10 cm standard steel pipe for a total distance of 152 m. For an ambient temperature of 22°C.J/hr-m2 Qr/A = 20.36 W/m-oK A.5°C 20).2(ta .tb)/X 2020 = 1.069 W/m-oK . 98% D.408. Qc /A= 1500 W/m2 . 76% SOLUTION: Heat transferred= change in enthalpy of steam Q(ΣR)=ti-to Q[(ln (r2/r1)/2πkL) +1/ hoAo]= ti-to Q=ms(h1 . Q= radiated heat loss Qr/A= 20.

h2) h2 = 2668.52 + x(1885.0505)/2π(0. r1 = 5.67-22)=Q[(In(0.13 cm Ao=2πrL Ao = 2π(0.05 r2 = 10.6 h = hf + xhfg 2668.069)(152)+1/96.4 W Q =16.427 KW Q=ms(h1 .6=914.08 + 5.746(9.4274=0.1013/0.1013)(152) Ao= 96.125(2800 .5) x = 93% .05 cm r2 = 5.h2) 16.36)] Q =16.427.746 m2 Conduction : Q =2πkL (ti – t1)/In(r2/r1) Convection: Q =hoAo(t1-to) Combined conduction and convection: ti-to= Q(ΣR) ti-to =Q[(ln (r2/r1)/2πkL) +1/ hoAo] (213.

COOLING TOWER

1. Determine the approximate amount of air to be handled and the quantity of make-up water
required by a cooling tower that is to cool 12.62 lps from 36℃ to 31℃. Atmospheric
conditions are 35℃ DB and 25℃ WB. Assume that air leaves the tower at 32℃ DB and 90%
RH. Properties of air entering the tower: h=80.38 kJ/kg d.a. and W=0.0177 kg/kg d.a.
Properties of air leaving the tower: h=102.0 kJ/kg d.a. and W=0.0274 kg/kg d.a.

a.12.22 kg/s, 0.119 kg/s c. 12.22 kg/s, 1.19 kg/s

b.12.22 kg/s, 0.911 kg/s d. 12.22 kg/s, 1.91 kg/s

Solution:

mu=(W2-W1)ma

QA=mw Cpw(Δt)

QR=ma(h2-h1)

QR=QA

ma(h2-h1) =mw Cpw(Δt)

ma(102-80.38)=12.62(4.187)(36-32)

ma= 12.87 kg/sec

mu=(0.0274-0.0177)12.87

mu= 0.125 kg/s

2. The change of enthalpy of air in a cooling tower is 81.42 kJ/kg d.a. and the mass flow rate of
air is 206 kg/min. water enters the tower at the rate of 190 lpm and 46ºC. Determine the
exit temperature of water.

a. 25ºC c. 24ºC

b. 24.92ºC d. 42ºC

c.

QA=mw Cpw(Δt)

QR=ma(h2-h1)

QR=QA

ma(h2-h1) =mw Cpw(Δt)

206(81.42)=190(46-Tb)

Tb= 42.27ºC

3. The change of temperature of water entering the cooling tower and the WB temperature of
surrounding air is 23ºC, and the efficiency of the tower is 65%. If the mass flow rate of the
water is 15 kg/s. determine the heat carried away by the air, in kW.

a. 983.93 kW c. 938. 93 kW

b. 993.83 kW d. 939. 83 kW

Solution:

QR= mwCpw (Ta - Tb)

QA=ma(h2-h1)

QR= QA

mwCpw (Ta - Tb) =ma(h2-h1)

e= (Ta-Tb)/(Ta-WB1)

0.65= (Ta-Tb)/(23)

(Ta-Tb)= 14.95 ºC

QR= mwCpw (Ta - Tb)

QR= 15(4.187)(14.95)

QR = 938.93 Kw

4. The amount of water carried by air in a cooling tower is 6.8 kg/min. The change in humidity
ratio in the tower outlet and inlet is 0.025 kg/kg d.a. Determine the volume flow rate of air
needed if the specific volume is 0.8123 m3 /kg d.a.

a. 221 m3/min c. 221 m3/min

b. 122 m3/min d. 212 m3/min

Solution:

Va=ma x υa

mu=(W2-W1)ma

6.8=(0.025) ma

ma = 272 kg/min

a. entering the tower at 38OC (h=159.828 kg/s d.65(17) = (T3-27) T3=[27 -0. respectively. 2.65 = (T3-27)/(T3-17) 0. Va=ma x υa Va = 272 x0.811 kg/s Solution: mu=(W2-W1)ma .57 ºC 6.8123 Va = 221 m3/min 5. 8.. W=0. W=0. a.0.35 T3= 45.65T3. 45. Approach=10oC e= (T3-T4)/(T3-Wb1) Approach= t4-wb1=10 ºC Wb1=27 ºC -10 ºC =17 ºC e= (T3-T4)/(T3-Wb1) 0.65(17)]/0.0kJ/kg d. what is the temperature of water entering the tower? a. 55. The approach and efficiency of a cooling tower are 10ºC and 65%.112 kg/s b.a.0056 kg/kg d.65 (T3-17) = (T3-27) 0.) while exit condition is 32 OC DB and 90%RH (h=102.75ºC Solution: t4=27.21 kJ/kg) and leaves at 27OC (h=113. 1.118 kg/s c. 47.25). How much is the make-up water required.47 ºC d.a.0275 kg/kg d. 54.55ºC b.). If the temperature of water leaving the tower is 27ºC.a.57 ºC c.0 kJ/kg d.. In an induced draft cooling tower the circulating flow of water is 126 kg/s.The inlet air conditions are27OC DB and 15OC WB (h=42. 2.

0-42. 40. a. The heat rejected from the condenser is 2.0056) mu = 2.187(17.000 kJ/hr)hr/3600 s= mw 4.800 L/hr c. Water at 55OC is cooled in a cooling tower having an efficiency of 65%.25) ma = 96.57 kg/s( 1 li/kg)= 8.4 ∆T= 17.87 L/s d.58 L/s b. 39. The tower efficiency is 60% at a temperature approach of 10OC.57 kg/s 8.516(0.300.800 L/hr b.57 L/s c. determine the cooling water supplied to the diesel engine in liters per hour.300. useful work=30%.800 L/hr d.0)=126(159.57 L/s SOLUTION: QR=QA=mwCP ∆T e= ∆T/TWi-WBA 0.4 OC). 38.65= ∆T/55-27.57 li/s 8. Find the pump capacity in liters per second to circulate the cold water. 7.000 kJ/hr. QA=mw Cpw(Δt) QR=ma(h2-h1) QR=QA ma(h2-h1) =mw (ha-hb) ma(102. Atmospheric air is 32OC and 70% RH (WB=27. a. 5. An atmospheric cooling tower is to cool the jacket water of a four stroke 800 kW Diesel generator set.21-113. 8. and cooling loss=25%.516 kg/sec mu = 96.94) mw = 8.94 OC (2.1137 kg/s 7.800 L/hr SOLUTION: QR=QA=mwCP ∆T . If the ambient air has a relative humidity of 70% and DB of 32OC (WB=27. 6. 45.0275-0.45OC). Generator efficiency is 97%.

) enters at 2. e= ∆T/TWi-WBA Approach=TWO-WBA 10 OC = TWO-27.94 li/s = 39384 li/hr 9.10 L/s SOLUTION: m3-m4 = mA (W2-W1) m3= (50 gal/min)3.45 OC 0.).45 ∆T = 15 OC QR= (800kW)0.a. 5.25/0. 3.94 kg/s kg/s( 1 li/kg)= 10.10 L/s d. 6.60= TWi -37.8556 kW QR = QA = mwCP ∆T 687.45 OC ∆T= TWi -TWO ∆T = 52.0056 kg/kg d. W=0.60= TWi -TWO /TWi .828 m3/kg.45 – 37.44 kg/s . 4.45 OC TWO =37.828 m3/kg) mA= 3.30) QR = 61.85 m3/s and leaves at 32OC saturated (W=0. Atmospheric air at 16OC DB and 55% RH (υ=0. Determine the volume of water that leaves the tower (water that falls to the basin).45 /TWi – 27.85 m3/s)/(0.a. a. Fifty gallons of water per minute enters the tower at 46OC.WBA 0.285 kW = mw(4.785 li/gal(1 kg/li)/60 s m3 = 3.10 L/s c.45 TWi = 52.10 L/s b.187)(15) mw = 10.154 kg/s0 mA= (2.97(0.0308 kg/kg d.

A 250.22% . a.0233 kg/kg Heat loss by water = heat gained by air MwCpwt = ma (h2.0222 or 2.5) = ma(89. ms : m5 = ma (w2-w1) m5= 277 589. %make-up = 5 551.000 kg/hr of water at 35°C enters a cooling tower where it is to be cooled to 17. the percentage make-up water.067 (1 li/kg) V4 = 3. determine the percentage of total water flow that is made up water. 4. 1.33% c.5°C.01 kJ/kg w2 =0.2) ma = 277 589.0308 – 0.01-23.0233-0.79 / 250 000 = 0.11% Solution : Percentage make-up water = Mass of make-up water / 250 000 Solving for mass of make-up water: At 15⁰C and 30% RH: h1= 23.22% b.h1) 250000 (4.067 kg/s V4 = 3. 3.0033) m = 5 551.02 kJ/kg W1 = 0. 2.067 li/s 10.41(0.79 kg/hr thus.41 kg/hr Then .44% d.187)(35-17.44 (0.0056) m4 = 3.0033 kg/kg At 30⁰C and 85% RH : h2 = 89. The air enters at 30% RH and leaves at 85% RH. If all process are assumed to occur at atmospheric pressure.the mass of make-up water. the energy is to be exchanged with atmospheric air entering the units at 15°C and leaving the unit at 30°C. m3-m4 = 3.

.

FANS AND BLOWERS .

84 kW 2).69 KW Pmotor= Pair/efan Solving for Pair : Pair = γ Q h .71 kW Thus.87 KW C.3 (0. 88. Combustion data includes the following : Atmospheric air 101. 46.92 kg air / kg fuel Actual weight of air supplied into the boiler : Wa= ( 1 + e ) Wt Wa = ( 1 + 0.00981) ] (29.30 ) ( 9.5 ( 0.942/1.30 KW B.77 m3/hr Q = 29.2)] = 52.87.2 (0.84.000 m3 /hr of standard air. Calculate the required motor capacity needed to drive a forced –draft fan serving a stoker fired boiler using coal as fuel.85) [ (0.60 Pmotor= 87. A.942 kg air / hr Volume of air demanded by the boiler from the forced draft fan : Q = 128.5 (0.84 KW B.1).03/8) + 4. Wt = 11.45 KW D.87 KW D. Pmotor= 52.71/0.5 (H – O/8) + 4.3 kPa .85 m3/s Then. 20°C Weight of fuel burned per hour 10 tons Ultimate analysis of fuel : C = 78% S = 1% H = 3% A = 8% O = 3% M = 7% Excess air 30% Fuel bed and air heater resistance 18 cm WG Fan efficiency 60% A. Pair= [ 1. What is the motor power if it can deliver a total pressure of 145 mm of water gage.72 KW Pmotor= Pair/efan Solving for Pair Theoretical air required for the combustion of coal.78) + 34. 40. The mechanical efficiency of fan is 64%. 42.5 C + 34.01) = 9.18)(1000/1.451.2 Q = 107. 43.3 S = 11.30 KW C. A boiler requires 75.03 – 0.92 kg air/ kg fuel ) [ 10 (1000) kg fuel / hr ] Wa= 128. 82.

64 Pmotor = 46.145 ( 1000/1.18 rp .20 rpm c. A 40 in.392.30 kW 3).845.384.5/h 3/4 Ns = 1200(160.2) h = 120.380.845.845.2 )(0.00981) ] (75000/3600)(120.18 rpm d.5 /(4/3)3/4 Ns = 386.125.000 cfm standard air at 16 in. Solve for the specific speed.865.000)0. diameter fan rated at 160.386. Pmotor = 29.83 m then.83) Pair = 29.63 kW Thus . Pair = [ ( 1.63/0. a. Where : h = 0.18 rpm b.28 rpm Ns = specific speed Ns = N(Q) 0. and pressure is operating at 1200 rpm.

.

In a certain installation.11 rpm. 65% efan= Pair /Pmotor Solving for Pair: Pair = [ ( 1.62% c. A tabular air heater is installed in line with the boiler.12HP b.2)] Pair = 45.10 HP Solving for the new head : . What is the fan efficiency? a. 584. 3.20 (1000/1.95 cm WG. 5.5/5.11/600)3 P2=11. 11.11 rpm Motor Power required : P2/P1= (N2/N1)3 P2/7.95 cm WG. a fan when driven by a 7.2 kg/𝑚3 .5 HP motor at a speed of 600rpm delivers 510 𝑚3 of air per minute at a total pressure of 5cm WC. 684.00981)(23) ][ 0. 64% d.11 rpm. and the fan is now required to supply heated air for combustion at 90°C. 10.50 HP b.60168 efan = 𝟔𝟎. 3.126/75 efan = 0. 684.11 rpm. 3.2 )(0.12HP Fan drive speed : (N2/N1)2 = h2/h1 (N2/600)2 = 6.5HP d.10HP c. 60% b.12HP d. 𝟏𝟔𝟖% 5). If in the same installation. 3. The density of air is 1.0 N2=684.126 kW 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛. 4. 6.5= (684. 5. 564. What power and motor speed will the fan be driven? a.5/5. What drive power is required and the new total pressure that this fan will operate if it is going to deliver the same volume of heated air at 1200 rpm? a.11 rpm. The motor power needed to drive the fan is 75 kW and the volume flow rate delivered by fan is 23 𝑚3 /s and 20 cm water gage. 10.4).12HP c. 11. 4.28 cm WG.12hp 6). efan = 45.0 (N2/600)2 = 6.5cm WC pressure is required.28 cm WG.

61 m b.82 . Find the head of fan.212. 198. a.10 hp 𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑒 ∶ when air is heated. its density decreases and the pressure needed is move the air to the combustion chamber will be lesser resulting to the decrease in fan power requirement.33+3. h=208.20-(-0. h2/h1=ρ2/ρ1 ρ2/ρ1=T1/T2 ρ2/ρ1=(25+273)/(90+273) ρ2/ρ1=0.82 P2=4.82 m Thus.33 m hv=(Vd2-Vs2)/2g hv=(102-52)/2(9. h2/h1= 0.61 m c.82 h2=3. The discharge has 20 cm WG and discharge velocity of 10 m/s.81) hv=3. 7).28 cm WG Solving for the new drive power : P2/P1= ρ2/ρ1 P2/P1= 0.82 h=212. 189.15 m .05)1000/1.15 m d. 200 m h=hs+hv Where : hs=(hdw-hsw)ρw/ρa hs=(0.82 P2/5= 0.2 hs=208. A fan has a suction pressure of 5cm water vacuum with air velocity of 5 m/s.

075 lb/ft3 ρw=62.5 Solving for the hv: ρahva=ρwhvw (0.77 ft/s V = 3. WC velocity pressure.2)(62. An Air Handling Unit (AHU) for an airconditioning system has a centrifugal fan with backward curved blades mounted on a scroll housing driven by a motor at 750 rpm. 3586 fpm d. and outlet grills) and 0.075)hva=(0. V = (2(32.8/1.2)55. WC static pressure (including resistance of ducts. 3500 fpm Solution: The speed of the wheel : V = (2ghv)0.586 ft/s . cooling coils.80 in.46)0. 3000 fpm c.4) hva=55. Calculate the tip speed of the wheel. 3100 fpm b.50 V = 59. elbows.4 lb/ft3 then.46 ft of H2O Note : ρa=0. a. The fan delivers 2000 cfm of air against 3 in.8).

CHIMNEY .

85. A. 63.74 =( π/4) D2x (8) .300 kg/hr D. 33.0.71 m 3).25 Kpa. The actual velocity of gas entering in a chimney is 8 m/sec.75 kg/m3 and air density of 1. 54.57 m C.15 kg/m3. A.25 = H(1.56 m B. determine the mass of gas entering the chimney.75)(0. 42. 3. Determine the chimney diameter if mass of gas is 50. The flue gas density of chimney is 0.15 .dg) 0.0. 1.1). If the driving pressure is 0.9 mf mg = 16.250 kg/hr C. A boiler uses 2500 kg of coal per hour and air required for combustion is 16 kg per kg of coal.9(2500) mg = 42.000/3600)(0. 1. determine the height of chimney.12 m3/sec Vg = A x v 11.452 kg/hr B.6 m B.250 kg/hr 2).6 m C.mash A/F = ma/mf 16 = ma/mf ma = 16 mf mg = 16 mf + mf .278)(25 + 273) Vg = 12.7 m D. 68. The gas temperature is 5°C and pressure of 98 Kpa with a gas constant of 0. If ash loss is 10%.5 m Solution: hw = H(da .800 kg/hr Solution: mg = ma + mf .287 KJikg_°K.10 mf mg = 16. 78. 74.81 m D.00981 kN/m3) H = 63. A.000 kg/hr. 1.39 m SOLUTION: P Vg = mg Rg T 98(Vg) = (50.

A coal fired steam boiler uses 3000 kg of coal per hour.2(Vg) = (49.53 Kpa and 23. 7% 02 and 75% N2. Flue gases at a rate of 5. Assuming an ash los of 11 % and allowable gas velocity of 7.500 kg/hr R = 8.314/M R = 8. D = 1.314/30 R = 0.0 kg/see enter the stack at 200°C and leaves at 160°C.91 m 5). Calculate the height of stack necessary for a driving pressure of 0.5 kg per kg of coal at barometric pressure of 98.277)(285 + 273) Vg = 21.88°C.18/44 = 0.170 kg/hr PVg = mRgTg 98.00409 0.5(3000)= 46.170/3600)(0.07/32 = 0.39 m φ 4).498 =(π/4) D2)(7. A power plant situated at an altitude having an ambient air of 96.5 m/sec. find the diameter of chimney. ma + mf = mash + mg 46.277 KJ/kg oK By mass balance: mc . The flue gases gravimetric analysis are 18% C02. of air required =15. SOLUTION: Amt.2 Kpa.00219 .20 Kpa.498 m3/sec Let D = diameter of chimney Q = Axv Q = (π/4) D2)v 21. Air required for combustion is 15. The flue gas ha temperature of 285°C and an average molecular weight of 30.5) D = 1.11 (3000) + mg mg = 49.500 + 3000 = 0. SOLUTION: Solving for the molecular weight and gas constant of the flue gas: C02 02 N2 18% 7% 75% 0.

dg) 0.287)(23.3143/30.20 Kpa.20 = H(1.53 Kpa and 23.00981) H = 56.0 kg/see enter the stack at 200°C and leaves at 1600C.25 .25 Rg = 0.25 Rg = 8.275 Tg = (200 + 160)/2 Tg = 180°C dg = P/RT dg= 96. Flue gases at a rate of 5. 0. Calculate the diameter of stack in meters for a driving pressure of 0.880C.275)(180 + 273) dg = 0.03306 Mg = 30.03306 Mg = 30. SOLUTION: Solving for the molecular weight and gas constant of the flue gas: C02 02 N2 18% 7% 75% Mg = 1/0.775 kg/m3 da = P/RT da = 96. 7% 02 and 75% N2. A power plant situated at an altitude having an ambient air of 96.53/ (0.775)(0.03306 Chimney Mg = 1/0. The flue gases gravimetric analysis are 18% C02.75/28 = 0.95 m 6).88 + 273) da = 1.53 /(0.0.133 .133 kg/m3 Draft = H(da .02678 0.

03306 hw = 26.40(22. If the stack gases are at 177 oC and if the atmosphere is at 101.00981) 0. A steam generator with economizer and air heater has an overall draft loss of 21.716m/sec Actual velocity = 40% vt Actual velocity = 0.775 kg/m3 vt = theoretical velocity vt = (2ghw)0. 550 . 565 C. what theoretical height of stack in meters is needed when no draft fan are used? Assume that the gas constant for the flue gases is the same as that for air.78 cm of water.275)(180 + 273) dg = 0.775(0.1) D = 0.5 v = 22.30 m of flue gas vt ={[2(9.775) = (π/4) D 2)(9.314/30.5 weight of flue gas=0.75/28 = 0.3)]0.1 m/sec Q = Axv (5/0.18/44 = 0. Rg = 8. 545 B.81)(26.00409 0.95 m φ 7).25 Rg = 0.275 Tg = 200 + 160 2 Tg = 180°C dg = P/RT dg=96. 535 D.02678 0.53 /(0.07/32 = 0. A.00219 0.716) Actual velocity = 9.3 Kp and 26°C.

15hw hw = 7.784 kg/m3 Draft = 0.239 cm of water and the frictional losses in the stack are 15% of the theoretical draft.8 = H(1.287)(26 + 273) da=.2178(1000) Draft = 217.3/ (0.8 Kg/m2 Draft = H(da .34 cm water Chimney hw = 0. Assume air temperature of 21°C.18-0.314/30)(149 + 273) .72 Kpa da = P/RT da =101.325/(0.SOLUTION: da = P/RT =101. Assume that the 'flue gas have an average temperature of 149°C and molecular weight of 30. A. If the actual draft required for a furnace is 6. calculate the required stack height in meters.784) H = 550 m 8). 215 C.0734(9.2 kg/m3 dg = P/RT d g=101.220 B. 210 SOLUTION: hw = total draft hw = 6.239 + 0.325/ (0. 230 D.287)(177 + 273) dg = 0.dw) 217.180 kg/m3 dg = P/RgTg dg=101.81) hw = 0.287)(21 + 273) da = 1.325/(8.

46 C.78 kg per m3 Ilnd the theoretical draft of 2.dg) hw = h x w hw = (0. The gage fluid density is 994.0.157 kg/m3 dg = P /R T dg=101. Outside air temperature is 32°C. dg = 0.287)(32 + 273) da = 1.02286)(994.74 = H(1.157 . 40 B.662 kg/m3 hw = H(da .00981) H = 220 m 9).2 .286 cm of H20 at the chimney base is needed when the ilarometric pressure is 760 mm Hg.dg) 22. 50 D.867)(0. 56 SOLUTION: hw = H(da .325/(0. Determine the height of the chimney.72 = H(1.867 kg/m3 hw = H(da .78) hw = 22. A.000 kg of coal per hour and produces 20 -kg of dry f1ue gases per kg of coal fired.325/ (0.325 kpa da =101.287)(260 + 273) dg = 0. average lomperature of the flue gas entering the chimney is 343°C and average temperature of dry flue gas in the chimney is 260°C. A steam boiler plant consumes 9.0.662) H = 46 m .dg) 0.74 kg/m2 P=da R T da=P/RT P = 760 mm Hg P = 101 .