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CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEXT

GENERATION OF LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Frank Haselbach, Alan Newby, Ric Parker
Rolls-Royce plc
Frank.Haselbach@rolls-royce.com

Keywords: Large Civil engines, Technologies, High Performance, Low Emissions

Abstract output for higher thermal efficiency increases
with [1]:
The Paper describes key technologies within
aircraft engine systems contributing to low
emissions products, fuel efficient in the large  Higher overall pressure ratio
civil aircraft engine market. Emphasis will be
on the architectural, aerothermal, material &  Higher combustor exit temperature, restricted
sub-system technologies, the corresponding by the high temperature capability combustor
demonstrator programmes and the technology and turbine components (with ultimate limits
incorporation into new engine architectures. imposed by stoichiometry in combustion)

 More efficient secondary systems (cooling,
1 Introduction sealing)

Reducing aero engine emissions is of vital As gas turbines operate in a continuous
strategic importance to the industry, driven by thermodynamic cycle, they have a higher power
tightening legislation, customer demands and density than internal combustion engines. In
competitive pressures. Large investments are aero engines, the gas turbine can accelerate air
being made in the combustion and controls to create thrust and power to drive the LP
technology needed to reduce NOx levels by at turbine system which drives the Fan system to
least 50%, relative to conventional technology. generate the majority of the forward thrust.
Low emissions, improved fuel efficiency and Figure 2 depicts the relative importance of
advanced temperature capability are a major propulsive and the thermal efficiency in this
goal of the Rolls-Royce three ongoing engine context. Whilst the last paper of the authors [4]
demonstrator programmes for 2 shaft & 3 shaft concentrated on the thermal efficiency
architectures: “Advance3” and UltraFan™ for contributions, this current paper will put the
the 3 shaft engine family for wide-body aircraft, emphasis on propulsive efficiency technology.
“Advance2” for the 2 shaft engine family for
middle of market, corporate and regional
engine, see figure 1. Key drivers for high propulsive efficiency and
finally (integrated with thermal efficiency
drivers and power plant weight) fuel burn are:
Beside the propulsive efficiency, which is in
direct correlation to specific thrust or bypass
ratio of an engine, the second main contributor  Low specific thrust at minimum weight
to reduced fuel consumption and emission is the
cycle, or thermodynamic efficiency. Gas  Low loss Fan, LPT (low pressure turbine)
turbines convert the energy from burning fuel and bypass duct
into useable work via three main elements – a
compressor, combustor and turbine. Work
1

from the 2000 until today. As can be seen from the range of the most recent products. reduce weight and cost in order fuel consumption shortfalls. R. PARKER Rolls-Royce aims continually to improve the There are a number of other factors that can efficiency of its products and the key affect the optimum fan diameter.[3]. see figure 2b. Rolls- Royce engines have reduced about -15% in fuel burn and improved CO2 emission respectively (see figure 3 a and b). There is a clear installation losses. F. reduce noise emissions. HASELBACH. These also contribute to specific the same time. especially in the hot section of the engine [2]. nacelle/wing and structures desire to increase component efficiencies and at interactions. ACARE the Low Pressure Fan system to accelerate a lot target and b) % reduction of NOx emission of air slowly. thereby minimizing shear layer relative to CAEP6 losses and as a further consequence. Figure 2b: Aircraft fuel burn and aircraft/engine noise as a function of fan-diameter Figure 1: Future Engine Programmes of Rolls- Royce plc Figure 2a: SFC as a function of propulsive and thermal efficiency The propulsive efficiency of the engine or power-plant is dominated by the capability of Figure 3: a) SFC/CO2 performance vs. 2 . such as nacelle components that they embody. The further emission reduction is supported by technology improvement. to achieve the optimum technical solution.

and also allows different ways to achieve the necessary power for a categorization of the different systems. 2. the lowest turbine components (with ultimate limits possible fan pressure ratio can only be achieved imposed by stoichiometry in combustion) and if the fan is no longer concealed by a casing and more efficient secondary systems (cooling. The thermal efficiency of the engine is double fan concept to reduce residual swirl and therefore dominated by the capability of the optimize thrust at very low FPRs around 1. Both improvements strands noise emissions. in combination with the maximum achievable turbine entry temperature. Either by a moderate sized core with lower Today’s High Bypass ratio civil large engines compressor delivery temperature (T3) and tend to operate at FPRs around 1. of air slowly. Figure 5: Propulsive Transfer efficiency as a Figure 4: Overall pressure ratio relation to core function of Fan pressure ratio size and core temperatures 3 . input from a core to and low pressure system. Those architectures tend to have higher overall pressure ratio. thereby minimizing shear layer the propulsive efficiency of cycle and Low losses and as a further consequence. sonic conditions (delivering noise and efficiency lighter core and most likely an overall better improvements). cost desire to increase fan diameters (‘more air’) and and emission footprint. These benefits are somewhat mission fuel burn. the advancement of power-plant is dominated by the capability of the state of the art in engine fuel burn and the Low Pressure Fan system to accelerate a lot emission is governed by the thermal efficiency. Figure 5 chart. performance and durability (life cycle). alternatively.04. reduce pressure system. in summary.1. restricted by lubrication and heat management challenges the high temperature capability combustor and into the engine design. Ultimately. compressor to efficiently and reliably compress air to very high levels and the durability of the hot section sub-systems (Combustors and core turbines) in terms of cooling flow consumption. nacelle.2-45. CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT ENGINES 2 Key technology drivers Propulsive efficiency: As already laid out in [1. which shows quite clearly that for the shows the direct impact of fan pressure ratio overall thrust level of the mission there are (FPR) on propulsive efficiency. and consequently needs a sealing). So. gearbox which drives additional complexity. higher combustor exit temperature. reduce fan pressure ratios (‘slower’) to achieve higher propulsive efficiencies and consequently. As a consequence. allowing for a smaller. Thermal efficiency: when paired with lighter weight materials and Figure 4 is indicative of a typical core sizing design concepts also mission fuel burn. by increased the need for geared solutions in order to allow compressor delivery temperatures and turbine the Fan tips to operate near sub-sonic or in sub- entry temperatures.45 . Or.75.3 and 4] and in the The propulsive efficiency of the engine or introduction of this paper. there is a need to be achieved at minimum weight. aim for a around 1. but open. work output balanced by the need for a fairly heavy power increases with higher overall pressure ratio. consequently lower overall pressure ratio of the whilst higher bypass ratio geared concepts with engine paired with a moderate Turbine entry either variable or fixed pitch fan are more temperature (T4).

For engines. The respective needs of our customers and maintain a world.6 million per aircraft per year (calculated at $3 per US gallon). With the ADVANCE and UltraFanTM respectively. The fuel burn leading position on fuel efficiency (Current saving relative to a Trent700 engine will be XWB engine is most efficient engine to enter 20% for ADNVACE and 25% for UltraFanTM. For UltraFanTM For the new Advance core architecture to the new core architecture coupled with a geared deliver maximum fuel efficiency and low IP and variable pitch fan system. For ADVANCE. • A geared multi stage IP turbine system Figure 6: ADVANCE and UltraFanTM concept relative to Trent engine In the following. along with a emissions. fit for service and applied the ADVANCE concept. This allow for fewer part and lower weight. Here you can see that ADVANCE targets an overall pressure ratio (OPR) of 60+ Rolls-Royce targets the next generation of whilst the UltraFanTM concept is positioned engines to push all parameters to meet the future around an OPR of more than 70. (Advanced Low Emission Combustion System) such as Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon and Advance (demonstrator of new core Titanium Fan blades and compressor blisks will architecture) that cover the whole engine. R. Consequently. HASELBACH. Pushing more compression work on to comprehensive and unequalled set of existing the high pressure spool results in higher technology demonstrator programs such as efficiency. a new core architecture 3. The enhanced performance of the next generation of engines is based on a number of new developments. PARKER 3 The key technology and demonstrator depicts the main characteristics of the engine strands concepts and also sums up the main cycle parameters. 4 . bypass ratios are 11 and 15+. some changes to the core architecture suite of further enhanced technologies will be are undertaken. service). EFE more than 60:1 – which will be the highest ever (Environmentally Friendly Engine). Rolls-Royce decided extra degree of freedom in our 3 shaft to invest in a comprehensive demonstration of architecture by redistributing the workload the technology. the engine concepts as well as the key technologies will be explained in detail. This is equating to a relative fuel saving respectively of over $5. ALECSYS in a commercial turbofan. Figure 6 in the following in more detail. Figure 7 is backing up the commitment to ensure that shows the key technologies incorporated into technology is robust. which we will explain at the right time for the customer. As all Rolls-Royce large civil incorporated into the new centerline engine. • A lightweight carbon titanium (CTi) fan system. the engine between the intermediate and high pressure development programs are supported by a shafts. including: • A highly efficient core architecture and enabling technologies.3 and $6. F. this core still takes advantage of the both engine architectures. Key technologies.1 ADVANCE engine architecture coupled with a lightweight LP system and a suite of advanced technologies will be incorporated into the Advance. engines delivering an efficiency improvement of at least 20% and 25% respectively relative to the Trent 700. delivered by a core with an OPR of ALPS (Advanced Low Pressure Systems).

lighter materials but with no loss of overall engine efficiency. Clearly. CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT ENGINES Figureexplanations Short 7: Key technology strands for the ADVANCE engine concept (and benefit category) and examples… Carbon Composite-Titanium Fan Systems All Rolls-Royce Trent engines feature a wide saving of around 500-800 lb per engine can be chord SPFDB (Super Plastically Formed achieved. the advance engine concept will feature our new CTi Fan System – CTi standing for the Carbon and Titanium that forms both the fan blades and the fan casing - delivering improved propulsive efficiency at the Figure 8: Composite CTi (Carbon/Titanium) lowest possible weight. The Development of the CTi fan Diffusion Bonded) titanium blade which has system’s unique automated manufacturing proved itself in millions of service hours to be a system is well advanced. if the withstand the rigours of the real world. replacement would be more efficient and lower weight. The technology lighter and more efficient solution than the first already successfully completed some of the generation of composite blades. Thus. the weight of the fan system will increase and so it becomes imperative that we identify ways to introduce new. A significant weight Fan demonstrator ALPS (view from front). engines of the future will see increased bypass ratios and fan diameters – in simple terms engines will get physically bigger. one crucial bird strike and blade-off tests that are would only decide to move away from this required to prove that the CTi fan system can proven and efficient existing Fan-System. So. 5 . As engines get bigger.

g. introduced. continuously monitor the engine in operation and act accordingly to minimise fuel burn at any Light & efficient turbo-machinery components stage of the flight cycle. laid up in tooling to form the engine fuel burn significantly by improving the required shape. new successfully used them in engine applications turbine materials and coatings. including an advanced conditions. advanced cooling technologies and materials. as well as the (e.g. Running lean brings Smart adaptive systems are used throughout the challenges at low power running due to the lean new engine concepts. both combustion technology for many years and is enhancing fuel efficiency significantly (>1 to therefore very mature. solely by fluidic technology a change in allow for optimum blade counts. but at the time were already mentioned Ceramic Matrix Composites hindered by very slow and costly manufacturing (CMCs) for e. we have deliberately increased disc material is a key contributor to future 6 . an adaptive In the main compressor and turbine modules. F. Bladed disc (Blisk) operate. air delivery is achieved. Currently technology programmes (VAATE and F-136) as there are 2 competing low NOx combustion well as the Environmentally Friendly Engine technologies. and then surrounded by a air and oil system efficiency. RQL has been at the heart of conventional parasitic air consumption and weight. This new type of valve allows for technology on several Intermediate and high changes in cooling air delivered to the hot pressure compressor stages as well as 3rd section without having to rely on any moving generation high lift technology for the turbines parts. which allow for maintaining relative This system relies on switched vortex valves to cool disc environment. Rich quench Lean (RQL) or Lean (EFE) demonstrator will allow for minimum burn. HASELBACH. vanes. CMCs are ideally suited towards oil-less engines. capability than nickel superalloys. Provided that they consumption and durability is a further step are sufficiently strong. Based on recent advances in For the high pressure spool. the to turbine seal segments. CMC components are formed from advanced design algorithms for thermal woven layers of continuous silicon carbide matching this sealing technology will improve (SiC) fibre. techniques. and through labyrinth seals. Adaptive technologies high NOx producing zone. Lean burn by its name 2%) of the overall engine. this means that piloting has to be turbine tip clearance control system that will used to improve operability. air riding carbon seals as well as reduced component weight from its lower advanced leaf seals. do include dual microstructure alloys. with explained quite detailed in [3] and consequently experience gained on US research and only the basics will be explained here. such as coating protects the component from reaction hybrid ceramic bearings for lower oil with steam in the gas flow. R. An environmental barrier advanced materials in the bearing area. such as ceramic Advanced materials and seals matrix composites (CMC) will be used. PARKER Low NOx Combustor our efforts and made significant progress in the The low NOx system ALECSYS has been technology over the last few years. The use of ceramic matrix. cooling system that modifies the levels of significant technology introduction such as new cooling flows to the levels required throughout and more effective secondary air systems are the engine flight cycle to improve fuel burn. blades and advanced materials in the hot section which combustors. turbine segments and vanes. Also. Rolls-Royce has researched enable the high OPR cycle and reduced fuel ceramics materials since the 1980’s and burn. In addition to this. In addition. a next generation manufacturing. which comprising of an optimum mix of traditional reduces the use of air for cooling. burns fuel on the lean side of stoichiometric thus does not traverse the high stoichiometric. In combination with density. CMC A suite of sealing solutions to achieve the technology is a key contributor to future engine optimum solution throughout the engine is competitiveness due to its higher temperature incorporated into the new architecture. Trent 800 segments). within the hit section.

The next generation disc material will commercial transport aircraft seek higher bypass be a powder nickel alloy capable of operating at ratios (BPR) and lower fan pressure ratios for up to 780-800°C. This is required for future high bypass ratio architectures and cycles  Optimised thermal management across in which the overall pressure ratio and systems (oil. significant cabin noise damage and corrosion without a coating. tune achieve service readiness. Also. CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT ENGINES engine competitiveness as the alloy’s higher system demonstration programme. In the temperature capability enables improved medium term strategic activities are: thermodynamic efficiency. electrical • A multi-stage IP system systems technology and improved airframe / • Cooled cooling air engine systems. This is due to the ability extreme difficulties in producing seemingly  Closer integration of control and EHM – use conflicting requirements of strength and damage of lower integrity systems where appropriate tolerance in safety-critical HP disc rotors at very and a new architecture to support this high temperatures. deterioration management. up to 750°C. monitoring and electrical systems integration • A variable pitch fan systems There are a number of activities currently • A slim line nacelles underway looking at advanced controls. and under high loads. which has enabled compressor and 3. The variable pitch CTi fan system is a The key areas included are in the nearer term an lightweight composite fan system that includes integrated Engine Health Monitoring (EHM) the next generation of our CTi fan blade and a technology package to significantly enhance composite casing and an embedded externals service predictability and reduced maintenance system to deliver further weight savings. future • A power gearbox Equipment Health Monitoring (EHM). increasing fan bypass stream propulsive to show greater resistance to environmental efficiencies. new high torque density for advanced speeds [5]. The benefits can be achieved by potentially avoiding key initial step is to determine the composition buzz-saw noise. air. fuel and power systems) compressor exit temperature (T30) are raised  Closer integration with airframers regarding above existing Trent designs.2 UltraFan™ turbine disc temperatures to rise in Trent engines by over 70°C from an initial capability Next-generation turbofan engine designs for of 680°C. this alloy will also need noise. systems and controls The current generation of powder nickel disc  Advanced control methods: condition based alloys has taken over 20 years to develop and to control. In additional to damage improved fuel burn and reduced emissions and tolerance and strength. including: Advanced controls. A short description of the • Further use of advanced materials vision for future systems and integration and outlines the potential benefits are given here. The UltraFanTM builds on the core shafts allows for an optimization of the discs architecture and technologies of the Advance (especially in the turbine domain) by keeping with the incorporation of a geared IP and relatively speaking the bore hole diameters variable pitch fan system. In addition a further necessary for the accompanying of lower enhanced suite of new technologies will be pressure spools at optimum levels. The burden and cost as well as advanced electrical addition of the variable pitch system allows the 7 . and enabling extensive materials and component validation steeper take-off profiles due to additional thrust programme. Powder technology is a critical materials capability. incorporated into the UltraFanTM engine. capability for the air craft by reduced Fan- Finally. reducing fan broadband and of the alloy that will be taken through the rotor stator interaction noise.

HASELBACH. F. The LP system (ALPS) flight test with a high speed IP system (compressor and demonstrator programme focuses on turbine). With four of our most reduced weight and drag. Comprehensive demonstration understanding generated in their EDPs which have utilised the latest analysis and testing capability. By using our latest engines to prove out these technologies. with primary emphasis on the temperatures well above 1000 Kelvin the lean burn combustor at an overall engine incorporation of cooled cooling air as a system level. cooling and broader on delivering lean burn combustor application of CMCs to enable an even higher technology. Enabling both systems to run at their lightweight and high efficiency CTi fan optimum speeds. The Advance Core architecture (ADVANCE) engine demonstrator programme focuses on validating the core architecture at the heart of our next generation engines. Between them. The new. PARKER fan blades to be rotated to maintain optimum essential as intelligent innovation will only performance throughout the flight cycle whilst apply fit for purpose technology that gives the enabling the removal of the thrust reverser from right balance of reward versus risk for the nacelle. EFE and ALECSYS demonstrators. and turbine system will comprise of a high will ultimately flight test these systems. The combustion system (ALECSYS) flight test demonstrator programme To allow for the high overall pressure ratio and focuses on advanced combustion consequently compressor delivery air systems. 4. efficiency multi stage IP turbine capable of driving both the IP compressor and fan systems. high temperature and high OPR cycle and further fuel burn reduction is efficiency turbine technology. With the Trent XWB the donor engine for the Figure 9: The UltraFanTM engine concept Advance demonstrator. multi stage IP and low pressure turbine systems. further efficiency benefits and improved component lives in the hot section is essential. these demonstrators Demonstration of technologies and new engine and others will cover the breadth of our next architectures ahead of programme launch is 8 . and will ultimately flight test this that pre cools the engines cooling air to enable full system. The fully integrated slim line customers. As a key aspect in ensuring this our nacelle will be a truly slim line nacelle enabled next generation engines are backed up by by the removal of the nacelle thrust reverser numerous technology programmes. system rigs thereby providing improved efficiency from and demonstrators. we benefit from the wealth of knowledge and 4. 2. The Advance Core technologies (EFE) is evident from this. The power gearbox to significant engine demonstrator programmes allow for the decoupling of Fan and driving IP being: Spool will be a lightweight and high efficiency power gearbox and heat management system to enable a low speed fan system to be coupled 1. that also the use of more core demonstrator programme focuses advanced materials. necessary. R. It 3. The Trent 1000 forms the donor engine for the ALPS.

This Product performance is the ultimate vision will be realised through a Virtual Engine differentiator in the market place. In recent the potential of the largest computers in the years Rolls-Royce has started the aerothermal world which have over 1 million HPC cores excellence programme to enhance this key running in parallel.g. This ensures that new time to market via scalability technology is only introduced when the balance between risk and reward for both Rolls-Royce and the operators is achieved. adaptive engine concepts (e.g. the vision to design and validate product specifications in the Aerothermal Excellence computer is closer to becoming reality. capability for efficient parallel running on leakage flows and part tolerances. Over the last decade. CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT ENGINES generation Advance engine. Benefits are: will ultimately flight test the enabling systems. one continuously updated and improved in terms of fan blade-off event. of the working gas. which will simulation software to match the computer chip increase the importance of physical scale. with the additional compressor surge margin control) and the need enabling technologies of the UltraFanTM being for environmental performance will continue to proven through an extensive rig testing grow. It’s about the Virtual Engine Design capability technology buying its way on at systems and ultimately an engine level at the right time for Current practice in product development is to the customer. 2 years ago Rolls-Royce enabling strand. This also involves the development of making core engines smaller. operational entering into the next phase to deliver improved capability and fidelity ahead of the next large 9 . and takes a few weeks of non-stop this design capability. design and realise analysis software on computers with between 8 engine-modules which make most efficient use and 64 CPU’s (called ‘cores’ in the IT world). this is called excellence in More complex simulation to date run on 10. tools. At the same thousands of cores. Next to high design system that will produce highly accurate temperature materials our aero-engine product simulations of the whole system behaviour. Aerothermal excellence enables more programmes to validate key systems before innovative designs exploiting better whole engine demonstration: understanding of complex physics modelled to the highest possible level. and it needs to be running to complete the simulation of e. engineers typically run design and capability to innovate. Next steps will be to utilise methods. As already laid out. people and technology. fuel burn launched a programme to increase its access to improvement of aero engines averaged about HPC capacity and develop the complex virtual 1% per annum. With high performance computing (HPC) capacity 5 Enabling technologies and capabilities growing rapidly around the world.  Increased aerodynamic efficiency and environmental performance via better understanding and exploitation of physics. Attention to detail is key for HPC cores.000 aerothermal design. It improves the flight test programme focuses on scalability of our designs from one thrust level validating the UltraFanTM engine and to another. performance is almost solely driven by our Today. and allow tighter tolerances to be achieved to minimise parasitic  The UltraFanTM demonstrator (UFD) losses such as leakages. Together all of these demonstrator programmes innovation in adaptive designs prove new technology at a full systems and  Improved engineering productivity via engine level to de-risk the technology before it better tools (right first time) and reduced is introduced into service. The programme is now time. the engine engine models and design systems required to overall pressure ratio will continue to grow. run on it. design. build and then adapt the product to achieve product specifications.

N. 2nd. Reducing aero engine Copyright Statement emissions and fuel burn is of vital strategic importance to Rolls-Royce. ‘Aircraft engine emissions’. RR much higher. Large investments are being made in included in this paper.. material & sub-system the Aeronautical Sciences.. Building on an earlier contribution Australia. aerothermal considerations for large civil aircraft engines”. ICAS Paper compressors. Low emissions and give permission. for the publication and goal of the EFE (Environmentally Friendly distribution of this paper as part of the ICAS2014 proceedings or as individual off-prints from the Engine) demonstrator programme as well as the proceedings. shorten time to market and save cost by doing more pre-work and not re-work. low emission technologies. to publish to reduce NOx levels by at least 50%. aircraft engine market. and/or their company or legislation. Parker R. The Paper describes key technologies and Environmental protection’. relative to it as part of their paper. 2010. Environmental Report 2007. Examples are key new 20 March 1997.. [1] Rolls-Royce plc. Turb. 24 technology demonstrators. R. also increase so that we can take risk out of development programmes. Emphasis is on the November 2005 engine architecture. As engines become more the current engine architectural demonstration complex the fidelity of our modelling needs to consideration of Rolls-Royce. The authors confirm that they conventional technology. 28th International Congress of combustion.com/community/environment). driven by tightening The authors confirm that they. Brisbane. technologies enable innovative whole engine architectures is given.” J. F.. low fuel consumption products in the large civil (1993) plus amendments: Amendment 3. September 2012 by the authors on hot-end technologies [4] a [5] Cumpsty. The authors also confirm that they have obtained permission. Design and validation in the computer will enable many design iterations to References be tested in the virtual world. turbines and air system. Amendment 5. Amendment 4. “Hot end core engine and low pressure system technology for advanced. customer demands and competitive organization. or have obtained permission from the advanced temperature capability are a major copyright holder of this paper. 2007 Conclusion [3I ICAO Annex 16 ‘International standards and recommended practices. “Preparing for the comprehensive review of the important Future: Reducing Gas Turbine technologies in the new engine concepts Environmental Impact – IGTI Scholar ADVANCE and UltraFanTM and how these Lecture. 306. 4 product lines of Rolls-Royce as well as November 1999. European Clean Sky initiative. Volume II engine architectures leading to low emissions. 132. 10 . from the copyright holder of the combustion and controls technology needed any third party material included in this paper. hold copyright on all of the original material pressures. 2005 programme when the design is committed to [2] Rolls-Royce: ‘Powering a better world: hardware and the cost and time of change are Rolls-Royce and the environment’.ed. HASELBACH. PARKER engine development programme to be used on The demonstrator section of this paper reviews these designs. Nr. (rolls- royce. ‘The Jet Engine’. technologies. the utilisation of advanced [4] Haselbach F. ISBN therefore reducing iterations later in the 0 902121 235. This allows any problems to be discovered earlier in the process.