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Universitext
Editorial Board
(North America):

S. Axler
F.W. Gehring
K.A. Ribet

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

U niversitext
Editors (North America): S. Axler, F.W. Gehring, and K.A. Ribet

Aksoy!Khamsi: Nonstandard Methods in Fixed Point Theory
Andersson: Topics in Complex Analysis
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Balakrishnan!Ranganathan: A Textbook of Graph Theory
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Berberian: Fundamentals of Real Analysis
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Chae: Lebesgue Integration (2nd ed.)
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Cohn: A Classical Invitation to Algebraic Numbers and Class Fields
Curtis: Abstract Linear Algebra
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Dimca: Singularities and Topology ofHypersurfaces
Edwards: A Formal Background to Mathematics I alb
Edwards: A Formal Background to Mathematics II alb
Farenick: Algebras of Linear Transformations
Foulds: Graph Theory Applications
Friedman: Algebraic Surfaces and Holomorphic Vector Bundles
Fuhrmann: A Polynomial Approach to Linear Algebra
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Hahn: Quadratic Algebras, Clifford Algebras, and Arithmetic Witt Groups
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(continued after index)

Paulo Ribenboim

Classical Theory of
Algebraic Numbers

'Springer

Paulo Ribenboim
Department of Mathematics
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6
Canada
Editorial Board
(North America):
S. Axler F. W. Gehring
Mathematics Department Mathematics Department
San Francisco State University East Hall
San Francisco, CA 94132 University of Michigan
USA Ann Arbor, Ml 48109-1109
USA
K.A. Ribet
Mathematics Department
University of California at Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-3840
USA
Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 11-0 I, II Sxx
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ribenboim, Paulo.
Classical theory of algebraic numbers I Paulo Ribenboim. - I st ed.
p. em. - (Universitext)
Rev. ed. of: Algebraic numbers. 1972.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 978-1-4419-2870-2 ISBN 978-0-387-21690-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-21690-4
I. Algebraic number theory. I. Ribenboim, Paulo. Algebraic Numbers. II. Title.
QA247.R465 2001
512 ·. 7 4-dc21 00-040044

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Preface

The theory of algebraic numbers is one of the monuments of nineteenth cen-
tury mathematics. The work of Gauss on quadratic forms led to the study
of quadratic fields. The deep investigations of Fermat's last theorem by
Kummer led to cyclotomic fields. Then came Dedekind, Dirichlet, Hermite,
Kronecker, Hurwitz, Weber, Hilbert, and other eminent mathematicians
who developed a beautiful theory.
The aim of this book is to present a detailed self-contained exposition of
the classical theory of algebraic numbers. I use today's language including
groups, modules, rings, but I shy away from more sophisticated methods
unnecessary at this level, preferring to keep closer to the classical origins.
Many suggestions for further reading and study directions are proposed at
the end of the book. My point of view is that these modern developments
are rooted in the classical ideas, so it is advisable to acquire a solid back-
ground. Of course, time has not stopped and the student is encouraged
to progress forward and to study the modern techniques. In music, this is
comparable to a solid study of Bach before Bartok.
Thinking about graduate students, I began the book with two introduc-
tory algebraic chapters, followed by two chapters on elementary number
theory. These two chapters contain material usable at undergraduate level.
The subject proper begins in Part Two and all the basic aspects of the
theory are carefully derived-algebraic integers, ideals, units, class groups,
class numbers and the Hilbert's theory of decomposition, inertia and rami-
fication in Galois extensions. This study culminates in the deep theorem of
Kronecker and Weber, which is also the cornerstone of class field theory.
This book contains only a summary of the results in class field theory but
I make suggestions for the study of this more advanced theory. Chapter
16, which ends Part Two, is very special-it is entirely devoted to specific
numerical examples and is highly recommended to the reader, not only for
its content, but also as a means of testing the reader's understanding before
continuing to the final part of the book.
In Part Three, I examine the theory of cyclotomic fields, and how it
was developed by Kummer to lead to the proof of Fermat's last theorem

v

vi Preface

for regular prime exponents. This study includes the .\-adic local methods,
Lagrange resolvents, and the Jacobi cyclotomic function.
Bernoulli numbers are the subject of a whole chapter which is followed
by the derivation of Kummer's regularity criterion. These matters are of
great importance in modern developments and are treated in detail in this
book.
Part Three also contains the beautiful theory of characters by Dirich-
let in a sleek presentation; introductory results about the Riemann and
Dedekind zeta-functions, as well as Dirichlet and Heeke L-series associated
to characters. Nevertheless, I restricted my attention only to real argu-
ments s > 0. For my purpose, I do not require complex arguments (as
Riemann did), nor do I consider the question of analytical continuation
or functional equations. These are, of course, of the utmost importance
and may be found in books dealing with analytical number theory and the
prime number theorems. In no way should the reader be unaware of such
developments-but this book is already too voluminous as it is!
I include the magnificent achievement which is the theorem of Dirichlet
on primes in arithmetic progressions. In his proof, Dirichlet introduced
many major new ideas which have influenced dramatically the development
of both algebraic and analytic number theory. The reader is encouraged to
carefully study this proof.
, The Frobenius automorphism is studied and a proof of the density theo-
rem of Chebotarev is given, without appealing to class field theory. As in all
the preceding theorems, all the details of proofs--even when intricate--are
given to the reader who should be able to fully understand the proofs.
The last four chapters concern the class numbers. First, I deduce--all
steps included-the famous formulas for the class number of quadratic
fields (result of Dirichlet) and of cyclotomic fields (as developed by Kum-
mer). The approach is different in the last two chapters, where I present,
sometimes without proof, results about divisibility and other arithmeti-
cal properties of the class number of quadratic and cyclotomic fields.
These chapters are not meant to be updated surveys of the questions, but
rather introductions to problems and research. Two especially rich lists of
references are found in the Bibliography at the end of the book.
For the readers who have come to this point, there is a description of
various avenues of study with the indication of excellent books.
The exercises have been included so that the reader may develop a certain
familiarity with the concepts; they are therefore recommended as a useful
complement to the text.
This book has evolved over a long period, and many of its parts have
been taught in various courses, mostly for master and doctoral students.
The first sixteen chapters, now with slight improvements, constituted the
book Algebraic Numbers, published in 1972, which enjoyed considerable
esteem, until it went out of print. The present book has double the size of

Preface vii

the former one. More important, it contains results obtained with analytical
means.
As the development of the theory has uncovered, many of the deeper
results are now obtainable only with analytical methods-therefore the
reader may learn these theorems in this book.
A reader may take this book to a desert island. Free of distractions and
with enough time available, he will be able, all by himself, to understand
each proof and to master the classical theory of algebraic numbers. And if-
as I hope--he succeeds in quitting his island he will have a solid background
on which to learn any one of the modern developments.

Paulo Ribenboim
October, 1999

Acknowledgments

I am greatly indebted to Jerzy Browkin for his invaluable help, suggesting
numerous improvements in the text and supervising with great care and
patience the material preparation of this book. This task was expertly done
by Slawomir Browkin.
It is also my delight to acknowledge the help of several colleagues who
suggested improvements on preliminary drafts of this book. In alphabeti-
cal order: Karl Dilcher, Wulf-Dieter Geyer, the late Kustaa Inkeri, Claude
Levesque, Tauno MetsiinkyHi, and Dimitrij Ugrin-Sparac.

IX

Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgments ix
Index of Notations xix

INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 1. Unique Factorization Domains,
Ideals, and Principal Ideal
Domains 5
1.1. Unique Factorization Domains 5
1.2. Ideals 6
1.3. Principal Ideal Domains 8
Exercises 8
CHAPTER 2. Commutative Fields 13
2.1. Algebraic Elements 13
2.2. Algebraic Extensions, Algebraically
Closed Fields 14
2.3. Algebraic Number Fields 15
2.4. Characteristic and Prime Fields 15
2.5. Normal Extensions, Splitting Fields 15
2.6. Separable Extensions 16
2.7. Galois Extensions 17
2.8. Roots of Unity 18
2.9. Finite Fields 19
2.10. Trace and Norm of Elements 19
2.11. The Discriminant 20
2.12. Discriminant and Resultant of
Polynomials 21
2.13. Inseparable Extensions 23
2.14. Perfect Fields 23
2.15. The Theorem of Steinitz 24
2.16. Orderable Fields 24

xi

xii Contents

2.17. The Theorem of Artin 25
Exercises 25

PART ONE 33
CHAPTER 3. Residue Classes 37
3.1. Congruences 37
3.2. The Group of Invertible Residue Classes 41
3.3. Finite Abelian Groups 45
Exercises 49
CHAPTER 4. Quadratic Residues 61
4.1. The Legendre Symbol and Gauss'
Reciprocity Law 61
4.2. Gaussian Sums 70
4.3. The Jacobi Symbol 73
Exercises 76

PART TWO 83
CHAPTER 5. Algebraic Integers 85
5.1. Integral Elements, Integrally Closed
Domains 85
5.2. Rings of Algebraic Integers 91
5.3. Arithmetic in the Field of Gaussian
Numbers 92
5.4. Integers of Quadratic Number Fields 97
5.5. Integers of Cyclotomic Fields 100
Exercises 101
CHAPTER 6. Integral Basis, Discriminant 107
6.1. Finitely Generated Modules 107
6.2. Integral Basis 114
6.3. The Discriminant 116
6.4. Discriminant of Quadratic Fields 117
6.5. Discriminant of Cyclotomic Fields 118
Exercises 119
CHAPTER 7. The Decomposition of Ideals 123
7.1. Dedekind's Theorem 123
7.2. Dedekind Domains 128
Exercises 133
CHAPTER 8. The Norm and Classes of Ideals 141
8.1. The Norm of an Ideal 141
8.2. Classes of Ideals 145
Exercises 148

Contents xiii

CHAPTER 9. Estimates for the Discriminant 153
9.1. The Theorem of Minkowski 153
9.2. Estimates of the Discriminant 158
Exercises 165
CHAPTER 10. Units 167
10.1. Roots of Unity 167
10.2. Units of Quadratic Fields 169
10.3. Units of Cyclotomic Fields 175
10.4. Dirichlet's Theorem 177
Exercises 184
CHAPTER 11. Extension of Ideals 189
11.1. Extension of Ideals 189
11.2. Decomposition of Prime Numbers in
Quadratic Fields 198
11.3. Decomposition of Prime Numbers in
Cyclotomic Fields 202
Exercises 204
CHAPTER 12. Algebraic Interlude 207
12.1. Rings of Fractions 207
12.2. Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 213
12.3. Discriminant of Ring Extensions 226
Exercises 231
CHAPTER 13. The Relative Trace, Norm,
Discriminant, and Different 233
13.1. The Relative Trace and Norm of an Ideal 233
13.2. Relative Discriminant and Different of
Algebraic Number Fields 237
Exercises 256
CHAPTER 14. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals
in Galois Extensions 259
14.1. Decomposition and Inertia 259
14.2. The Ramification 264
Exercises 271
CHAPTER 15. The Fundamental Theorem of
Abelian Extensions 273
15.1. The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber 273
15.2. Class Field Theory 282
15.2.1. The Theory of Hilbert 283
15.2.2. The Theory of Takagi 283
Exercises 287

XIV Contents

CHAPTER 16. Complements and Miscellaneous
Numerical Examples 291
16.1. Some Algorithms 291
16.1.1. Calculation of the Minimal Polynomial,
Trace and Norm of an Element 292
16.1.2. Calculation of the Discriminant of a Set
{x1, ... ,xn} 293
16.1.3. Determination of an Integral Basis, Ring
of Integers and Discriminant 293
16.1.4. Decomposition into Prime Ideals 294
16.2. Complements on Cyclotomic Fields 294
16.3. Some Cubic Fields 300
16.4. Biquadratic Fields 311
16.5. Binomial Extensions 314
16.6. Relative Binomial Extensions 320
16.7. The Class Number of Quadratic
Extensions 325
16.8. Prime Producing Polynomials 330
Exercises 333

PART THREE 337
CHAPTER 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields 339
17.1. p-Adic and -\-Adic Numbers 339
17.1.1. The p-Adic Numbers 339
17.1.2. The -\-Adic Numbers 343
17.2. The -\-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 344
17.2.1. Formal Power Series 344
17.2.2. The -\-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 349
17.3. The -\-Adic Integers 355
Exercises 363
CHAPTER 18. Bernoulli Numbers 367
18.1. Algebraic Properties 367
18.1.1. Recurrence for the Bernoulli Numbers 367
18.1.2. Relations of Bernoulli Numbers with
Trigonometric Functions 370
18.1.3. Bernoulli Numbers and the Zeta Function 372
18.1.4. Sums of Equal Powers of Successive
Natural Numbers 377
18.1.5. Quadratic Identities 380
18.2. Arithmetical Properties 384
18.2.1. The Denominator of the Bernoulli
Numbers 384
18.2.2. The Numerator of the Bernoulli Numbers 390
18.2.3. The Congruence of Kummer 392

2.3. The Dedekind Zeta-Function 505 23. Characters and Gaussian Sums 463 21. Characters of Finite Abelian Groups 463 21. Zeta-Functions and L-Series 487 22.3.3. Heeke L-Series 518 Exercises 519 CHAPTER 24. Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units 399 19.1. Asymptotic Expression for the Class Number 505 23. L-Series 493 Exercises 498 CHAPTER 23.5.1.1.2. Kummer's Theorem 409 19. The Gaussian Periods 434 20. Proof of Dirichlet's Theorem 523 24. Irregular Primes 418 Exercises 425 CHAPTER 20. The Dedekind Zeta-Series 513 23. Special Cases 529 Exercises 541 CHAPTER 25. The Frobenius Automorphism and the Splitting of Prime Ideals 543 .3. The Riemann Zeta-Function 487 22. Lagrange Resolvents and the Jacobi Cyclotomic Function 438 20.2. Generation of the Class Group of the Cyclotomic Field 454 Exercises 458 PART FOUR 461 CHAPTER 21.2. Modular Characters 472 21.1. On the Decomposition into Prime Ideals of the Cyclotomic Field 447 20. Gaussian Sums 478 Exercises 482 CHAPTER 22.4. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents 399 19. Primes in Arithmetic Progressions 523 24.2.1. More on Cyclotomic Extensions 429 20. Resolution by Radicals of the Cyclotomic Equation 429 20.1.2. Contents XV Exercises 394 CHAPTER 19.

4.3. The Class Number Formula and the Distribution of Quadratic Residues 583 Exercises 592 CHAPTER 27. Miscellanea About the Real Class Number of Cyclotomic Fields 659 29.3.1.1. Density Results on the Decomposition of Prime Ideals 548 25. Upper and Lower Bounds for the Relative Class Number 648 29.2. Divisibility Properties 662 29.xvi Contents 25.1.1. Bauerian Extensions of Fields 563 Exercises 564 CHAPTER 26.5.1. Miscellaneous Results About the Class Number of Quadratic Fields 617 28. The Two Factors of the Class Number 599 Exercises 616 CHAPTER 28. Class Number of Quadratic Fields 567 26.2.3. Class Number of Cyclotomic Fields 595 27. The Class Number of Q((m).3.3. Miscellanea About the Relative Class Number of Q((p) 639 29. The Frobenius Automorphism 543 25. Fields with Class Number 1 663 A Guide for Further Study 665 .1. Growth of the Relative Class Number 653 29. Quadratic Fields with Class Number 1 636 CHAPTER 29. The Class Number Formula 661 29. Cyclotomic Fields with Class Number 1 652 29.4.3. Determinantal Formulas for the Relative Class Number 640 29.2.2. The Theorem of Chebotarev 552 25.1.2.3.3.2. Divisibility Properties 617 28. m > 2 and Miscellaneous Results 661 29.1.1. Some Divisibility Properties of the Relative Class Number 656 29. Miscellaneous Results About the Class Number of Cyclotomic Fields 639 29. The L-Series and the Gaussian Sum of the Quadratic Character 573 26.1.2. The Quadratic Character Attached to the Quadratic Field 568 26.1.1. The Class Number Formula 595 27.

Contents xvii Bibliography 667 Index of Names 673 Subject Index 677 .

.J'. b) greatest common divisor of a and b 6 lcm(a. .. ...JJ' product of ideals J and J' 7 (a) principal ideal generated by a 7 (a1. b) least common multiple of a and b 7 J + J' sum of ideals J and J' 7 J. . an 7 a= b (mod J) congruence relation modulo an ideal 14 K(S) smallest field containing K and S 14 [L:K] degree of L over K xix . an) ideal generated by a1. .Index of Notations The following notations are used in the text without explanation: Notation Explanation ring of integers field of rational numbers field of real numbers field of complex numbers field of all algebraic numbers The following notations are listed in the order that they appear in the book: Page Notation Explanation 5 a[b a divides b 5 arvb a. b are associated 5 K[X] ring of polynomials with coefficients in K 5 K multiplicative group of the field K 6 gcd(a.

o 0 0 . g 22 R(f. g 23 KP subfield of pth powers of elements of K 35 xJy x divides y 35 x{y x does not divide y 35 Pmllx Pmlx and pm+lfX 35 vp(x) p-adic value of x 37 #G order of the group G 37 a==:: b (mod m) mla. Xn 21 discr(f) discriminant of the polynomial f 22 EC(f. Z/(m) set of equivalence classes modulo m 38 'P Euler's function 39 (Z/m)'. L' 18 Wn. Xn to the field K 14 K algebraic closure of K 16 LIK L is an extension of K 16 G(LJK).K set of all nth roots of unity in K 18 Wx set of all roots of unity in K 18 'f'(n) Euler's function 18 <Pn. Gal(LJK) group of K-automorphisms of L 17 fi(G) subfield of elements invariant under G 17 LL' compositum of fields L. 0 0 0.Ko nth cyclotomic polynomial over K 0 19 <Pn nth cyclotomic polynomial over <Ql 19 P(n) group of prime residue classes modulo n 20 TrLIK trace 20 NLlK norm 20 discrLIK(xi. Xn) field obtained by adjoining of elements x1. discriminant of elements x1. g) eliminant of the polynomials J.b 37 Zjm. P(m) irreducible classes modulo m 39 lFp prime field of characteristic p 41 Aut(Z/m) group of automorphisms of Zjm 41 End(Z/m) group of endomorphisms of Z/m 52 indr(m) index of m with respect tor (modulo p) 54 a(n) sum of positive divisors of n 54 T(n) number of positive divisors of n . g) resultant of the polynomials f. 0 0 0. Xn) 0 ° 0.XX Index of Notations 14 K(x1.

C(K) ideal class group of the field K 145 hK class number of the field K 147 :FJ fractional ideals associated to J 147 PrJ principal fractional ideals associated to J 147 CJ group of classes of fractional ideals associated to J 147 hJ number of classes of fractional ideals associated to J . [ajb] Jacobi symbol 79 Mp Mersenne number 80 {~} Kronecker symbol 103 KR algebra of quaternions over R 116 <5KIIQ... bK discriminant of the field K 120 Ann(x) annihilator of x 123 :F set of nonzero fractional ideals 123 Pr set of nonzero principal fractional ideals 124 MIN divisibility of fractional ideals 124 J-1 inverse of the fractional ideal J 134 l:J conductor of J into I 135 VI root of the ideal I 142 N(J) norm of an ideal J 145 MrvM' equivalence of fractional ideals 145 ClK. (ajp) Legendre symbol 70 r(a) Gaussian sum 74 [~] (~). ]]] ring of unrestricted formal power series 63 (~).X(n) Liouville function 56 [x] integral part of x 57 Fn nth Fermat number 58 R[[[X1. Index of Notations xxi 54 J. . X2.L(n) Mobius function 55 A(n) von Mangoldt function 56 .

+ group of principal ideals associated to J with a totally positive generator 147 CJ. u group of units of K 167 WK.+ number of restricted classes of ideals associated to J 153 ll(II) volume of parallelotope II 167 UK.p different above the prime ideal P 259 ZP. (LJK) inertial degree 207 s.(LJK) inertial group 261 Tp.1 R. (L\K) ramification index 191 f(Qi\P). gp(L\K) decomposition number of Pin LJK 190 e(Qi\P).(TJR) different of T over R 244 t_.L absolute different 245 t.xxii Index of Notations 147 PrJ. fq.LIK different of LJK 245 t_.(L\K) inertial field 266 vi ith ramification group . eq.+ group of restricted classes associated to J 148 c+ group of restricted classes of ideals 148 h+ number of restricted classes of ideals 148 hJ. W group of roots of unity in K 168 WK. Rs ring of fractions of R by S 208 Rp ring of fractions for the prime ideal P 214 FBIA(B) characteristic polynomial of B 214 TrBIA(B) trace of B 214 detBIA(B) determinant of B 214 NBIA(x) norm of x 227 discrBIA discriminant in the ring extension B IA 228 discr(B\A) relative discriminant 233 TrLIK(J) relative trace of an ideal J 234 NTIR(J) relative norm of an ideal J 237 OLIK relative discriminant 241 t.W number of roots of unity in K 183 R regulator 190 gp.(L\K) decomposition group 259 Zpi(L\K) decomposition field 261 Tp.

j Gaussian periods 433 Fn Fermat's numbers 439 indh(t) index oft 443 1/Jn.exp(S) exponent series 347 log(1 + S) logarithmic series 354 Ep(X). relative class number 400 v group generated by circular units 431 (a.A-adic numbers ~+ 361 A real .. w(S) 2 1 347 M multiplicative group of power series 1 + S.A-adic valuation 343 K field of . 1/Je((n) Jacobi cyclotomic functions 445 Je. Lp(1 +X) truncated exponent and logarithmic series ~+ 361 K real .A-adic integers 367 Bn the nth Bernoulli number 372 T2k-1 tangent coefficient 385 N2k numerator of B2k 385 D2k denominator of B2k 396 E2n Euler numbers 399 h+ class number of the real cyclotomic field 399 h.m Jacobi integers . . Index of Notations XXIJI 267 Vi ith ramification field 284 RYl ray defined by J 288 lim si inverse limit +- 288 Ab Abelian closure of Q 289 'lLp = l~ 'lL/'lLpm 341 Qp field of p-adic numbers 341 'lLp ring of p-adic integers 343 V..A-adic numbers 343 A ring of .A-adic integers 345 A[[X1.\ . !3)T Lagrange resolvent 432 P. XrlJ ring of formal power series 345 w(S) order of a power series S 346 S =T (ord d) congruence of power series 347 A additive group of power series S. w(S) 2 1 347 e 5 . .m(().

Y) homogenized cyclotomic polynomial 543 U(LIK) set of all prime ideals unramified in LIK 544 (L~) Frobenius automorphism 544 (L1K) Frobenius symbol 549 Dd Dirichlet density 640 Circ circulant 641 Mp Maillet's matrix 641 Dp = det(Mp) .g(s)l is bounded for s---> 1 + 0 494 L(slx) L-series of x 514 (K(s) Dedekind's zeta-function 519 L(slx) L-series of Heeke character x 533 'l/Jm(X.xxiv Index of Notations 463 X character 463 X complex conjugate character 463 G the set of characters of G 469 (!.g) inner product 469 IIIII length of a function f 471 Sa shifting operator 472 Xo trivial character 473 fx conductor of x 487 7r(x) number of primes p ::. x 488 ((s) Riemann's zeta-function 490 f(s) ~ g(s) lf(s).

Introduction .

for the convenience of the reader. 3 .Introduction The purpose of the Introduction is to gather. results about commutative integral domains and fields. which will be required at various places in this book. There is no attempt to pro- vide proofs. The reader may wish to go to Part One after a superficial acquaintance with Chapters 1 and 2 and return to these chapters when required.

alp. if A = . We say that a. We write alb to express this fact. a divides -a and -a divides a. we may well have a -:/. Thus. where p is any prime number. x -:/. for every a E K and if a. For example. b are associated whenever it is true that alb and bla. However. -p. and they are called the units of the ring A.0. but alb and bla.. The elements of U are therefore invertible in A. The set U = {a E K I a "' 1} is a subgroup of K" (multiplicative group of nonzero elements of K).!Z then the units are precisely 1. from alb. . every element of K divides 0 and 1la for every a E A. If A = K [X] (ring of polynomials with coefficients in a field K) then the units are the nonzero elements of K. c E K. Then every element x E K. For example. we write a "' b to express this fact. then either a "' 1 or a "' p. where Lis a field.. b E K we say that a divides b (with respect to the domain A) when there exists an element c E A such that a · c = b. blc we deduce that ale. Let K be its field of quotients. having no zero-divisors (except 0). a commutative ring with unit element (different from 0). b. may be written uniquely in the form X= U 11 Pv"(x). Ideals. A nonzero element p of a domain A is said to be an irreducible element of A if pis not a unit of A and it satisfies the following condition: if a E A. .1 Unique Factorization Domains. and Principal Ideal Domains 1. -1. For example. If a. pES 5 . that is.b. We have ala. If A= L[X] or more generally A = L[X1.1 Unique Factorization Domains Let A be a domain. and U ~ A. the irreducible elements are the irreducible polynomials. Xn].!Z then the irreducible elements are p. The domain A is said to be a unique factorization domain when the following statement is true in A: Let S be a set of irreducible elements of A such that every irreducible element of A is associated with one and only one element of S. if A = .

a · b E P. If A is a unique factorization domain. Similarly. b). In particular. if d' E A and d'la. A subset J of A is called an ideal of A when it satisfies the following properties: (a) If a. L[X]. is the canonical ring-homomorphism from A onto A/ J. Ideals. (a + J) · (a' + J) = aa' + J. We write d = gcd(a.a' E J. and more generally L[X1 .p : A ---> A/ J.2 Ideals In our study we shall encounter more general types of commutative rings than the unique factorization domains.:::: 0 for every pES. by defi- nition d satisfies the following properties: dla. (b) If b E J. The mapping r. J is also an additive subgroup of A. The domains Z. r. Xn] (where Lis a field) are well-known examples of unique factorization domains. The ring A is a field if and only if its only ideals are 0 and A. b). b E A are said to be relatively prime or coprime when 1 is a greatest common divisor of a. We write m = lcm(a. b. a E A. then ab E J.. if m' E A and aim'. dlb. Let A be a commutative ring with unit element 1. if an irreducible element p divides a product ab. b E A. An ideal P of A is said to be a prime ideal when it satisfies the following conditions: (a) p-!=. b E A have a greatest common divisor d (which is unique up to unit elements). 1. Every ideal J of A gives rise to the ring A/ J. The elements a. . whose elements are the cosets a + J = {a + b I b E J} for every a E A. blm. We have a + J = a' + J if and only if a . b E A have a least common multiple m (unique up to a unit element): aim. . Unique Factorization Domains. and Principal Ideal Domains where u is a unit of A. Among the ideals of A we have the zero ideal 0 (consisting only of the element 0) and the unit ideal A. then either a E P or b E P. It follows that x E A if and only if vp(x) . a. b E A. blm' then mlm'. d'lb then d'ld.6 1. with a. (b) If a. any two elements a. vp(x) E Z for each p and vp(x) f=. then either pia or plb. A.p( a) = a+ J for every a E A. .. bE J. then a+ bE J. The operations of A/ J are defined by (a+ J) + (a'+ J) = (a+ a') + J. If A is a unique factorization domain.0 for at most a finite subset of irreducible elements in S (this finite subset depending on the element x).

-a = -b (mod J). otherwise there would exist elements a E J. a fl. also that from a b (mod J). It is straightforward to verify that the congruence relation modulo J is an equivalence relation and. A· J = J for every ideal J. . for J = A. given any subset S of A the intersection of all ideals of A containing S is the smallest ideal of A containing S. (b) There exists no ideal J of A such that P c J c A. a' fl. an} the ideal generated by S is Aa 1 + · · · + I Aan = n=~=l Xiai Xi E A fori = 1.. . 1. and aa' bb' = .ai E J.a/ E t=l J'}. For a. . if J" is another ideal of A then (J + J') + J" = J + (J' + J") and (J · J') · J" = J · (J' · J"). Hence every maximal ideal is a prime ideal. J · J' = {taia/ n > O. such that aa' E J · J' ~ P. it is also denoted by (a~. Thus. Principal Ideal Domains 7 Thus P is a prime ideal of A if and only if A/ P is a domain. the ideal generated by {a} is Aa = {xa I x E A}. if J. We note also that if P is a prime ideal. Then J + J' and J · J' are ideals of A and we have the following properties: J + J' contains J and J' and if any ideal of A contains J and J' then it contains J + J'.. a' E J'. An ideal P of A is said to be a maximal ideal when: (a) P -:J A. b E A... it is called the principal ideal generated by a and also denoted by (a).. We note that Aa · Ab = Aab for any a.3. If S = {a}. In fact. For J = 0 this is the equality relation. J · J' ~ J n J'. let a= b (mod J) when a-bE J. it is called the ideal generated by S. it is the trivial relation. It is easily seen that P is a maximal ideal of A if and only if A/ P is a field. n }. which is impossible since P is a prime ideal. P. . it follows that a+ a' = b + b' (mod J). We define the operations of addition and multiplication between ideals in the following way: J + J' = {a + a' I a E J. If S = {a1. (we also write JJ'). . J' are ideals of A such that J · J' ~ P. Any intersection of ideals of the ring A is still an ideal of A. then J ~ P or J' ~ P. b E A. a' E J'}. . an)· If J is any ideal of the ring A.. P. 2. a' = = b' (mod J). then we define the congruence relation modulo J as follows.

3 Principal Ideal Domains Let A be a domain.1 has only finitely many divisors. 0 ::. which is not a principal ideal domain. Y] (where K is a field) is a unique factorization domain. K[X. EXERCISES 1. r' < b. A is called a principal ideal domain. But the converse is not true: K[X. It follows that every nonzero prime ideal is a maximal ideal. if a. bare positive integers. Y] is not a principal ideal domain. Moreover. Unique Factorization Domains. . r' are also such that 0 ::. 4. bare relatively prime. Moreover. and a is relatively prime to m. Show that every integer n 2. We have Aa <. Prove: If a. then ale. if q'. K[X] (where K is a field) are principal ideal domains.. y E A such that d = xa + yb. and a = q'b + r'. m. 0 ::. if gcd(a. y E A such that 1 = xa + yb. 5. b. q'. 3. The domains Z. b). Ideals. In particular. c E A. thus Aa = Ab if and only if a "' b. r' = r. q. b) = 1 and albc. 2. if J f= A the congruence classes modulo J are identified with the elements of the quotient ring A/ J. then Aa + Ab = Ad. r < b such that a = qb + r. b E A and d = gcd(a.. Show that every natural number m > 0 may be written in a unique way (except for the order of the factors) as a product of powers of prime numbers. r. Here q is called the quotient of a by b and r is the remainder of the division of a by b. Aa = A if and only if a is a unit element. 1. If every ideal of A is a principal ideal. then a divides n. there exist x. n E Z. Bb if and only if bla. Show that there exist infinitely many prime numbers. Moreover. Every principal ideal domain is a unique factorization domain.8 1. In particular. if a. If A is a principal ideal domain. then q' = q. However. Prove (Euclidean algorithm): If a. In particular. with 0 ::. Let A be a principal ideal domain. Ap is a prime ideal if and only if pis an irreducible element of A or p = 0. If a. if a divides mn. if pis a prime number dividing mn and not dividing m. hence there exist elements x. then p divides n. there exist integers q. and Principal Ideal Domains (mod J).

show that there exists a least common multiple l of m. 8.. l be positive integers. Show that mn = ±ld. If m. b0 such that d = a0 m + b0 n. then d = d' or d = -d'. Show that if d. 11. If m. if l' is any other one. Conversely.. b such that gcd(a. 5. show that there exists a greatest common divisor d of m and n. In this case. b E Z) is a multiple of d (this is known as the Bezout property of the integers). a 2 = 1). 1. 21. Let d be a greatest common divisor and l a least common multiple of m. b) = d and lcm(a. n. If pis a prime number. b with the above properties is 2r. d a greatest common divisor of m. More generally. Let d be a greatest common divisor of the integers m. . are multiples of p. 15. show that the number of possible pairs of positive integers a. Determine the highest power of the prime number p which divides n!. are defined inductively by the relation for n >2 (with a 1 = 1. then there exist integers a 0 . 14. n > 1. Exercises 9 6. 16. 2. every number of the form am + bn (with a. 9. n are nonzero integers. n. Show that mjd.. 13. Determine a computational procedure to find the greatest common divisor d of integers m. n. . n are nonzero integers. Show that there exist integers a. Show that the product of n successive integers is a multiple of n!. Show that if m. Hint: Divide m by n (when m 2 n) and n by the remainder (if not zero) and so on. where r is the number of distinct prime factors of ljd. d' are greatest common divisors of m. 17. if pr divides k but pr+l does not divide k. Let d. Generalize Exercises 6 to 10 for the case of nonzero integers ml. 7. 3. n. by means of the Euclidean algorithm. The Fibonacci numbers 1. n/d are relatively prime. then pm-r is the exact power of p dividing (p~n) . if 1 ~ k < pm. 'mr. n 2 1. 12. b) = l if and only if d divides l.. . 8. m 2 1. 34. n are nonzero integers. then l = l' or l = -l'. prove that the binomial coefficients (~).with 1 ~ k < p. 10. 13.

4. bn) = 1. (g) If gcd(m. an) = ad.10 1. (b) K[x] is a principal ideal domain...bn-1bn+l = 5(-l)n for every n 2 1. 21. (f) If gcd(m.. 19. a 1. Prove (Euclidean algorithm): (a) If J. 3.5an+1an = 2(-1)n. Show that every principal ideal domain is a unique factorization domain. there exist q. The Lucas numbers 1.5a.1 for n > 1. If q'. Unique Factorization Domains. are defined inductively by the relation for n > 2 (with b1 = 1. . 29. r E K[x]. n) = d then gcd(am. . Ideals. 11.an-lan+1 = ( -1)n. 7. where r = 0 or deg(r) < deg(g). = 4(-l)n and bn+1bn. let rU) = gcd(ao. (c) an and bn have the same parity.. (b) a. Prove Gauss' lemma: Iff. (d) If they are both odd then gcd(an.. . 22. If f = anxn + an-1xn.1 + . otherwise. .. (b) b. Let K be a field. 47. then q = q' and r = r'. 18. Prove: (a) Two consecutive Lucas numbers are relatively prime. g E Z::[X] then their contents satisfy rU9) = rU) . . an) be the content of f. We say that f is primitive when rU) = 1. bn) = 2. . 23. (e) If m divides n then am divides an. b2 = 3). Prove: (a) 2am+n = ambn + anbm. g are nonzero elements of K[x]. r' E K[x] are such that f = q'g + r' with r' = 0 or deg(r') < deg(g). g E Z::[X] are primitive polynomials then f g is also primitive. 18. gcd(an. Let an denote the nth Fibonacci number and bn the nth Lucas number. and Principal Ideal Domains Prove: (a) Two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime. n) = 1 then aman divides amn· 20. (b) b. + ao E Z::[X].. !(g). Show that iff. such that f = qg + r.

Generalize Exercises 22 through 26. 25. Show that iff E Z[X] is a primitive polynomial then it is the product of primitive polynomials which are irreducible. 27. . Prove that if R is a unique factorization domain and if (Xi)iEJ is any family of indeterminates. Exercises 11 24. Conclude that if R is a unique factorization domain then R[X] is also a unique factorization domain. 26. Show that iff E Z[X] is irreducible in Z[X] then it is also irreducible in IQ[X]. Show that iff E Z[X] then it may be written in a unique way (up to the order of the factors and up to signs of h1 ) in the form f = ±P1P2 · · · Prh1h2 · · · hs. replacing 1£ by any unique fac- torization domain R. this decomposition is unique (up to the order of the factors and their signs). then R[Xi]iEJ is a unique factorization domain. 28. where each Pi E Z is a prime number and each h 1 E Z[X] is a primitive irreducible polynomial.

xn. The polynomial fo defined above is called the minimal polynomial of x over K. we say that it is transcenden- tal over K. ci E K fori = 0. +an of smallest degree.0 then an -=1. x. and K[X]/ J ~ 13 .1 } is a basis of the K-vector space K[x]. A polynomial f belongs to J if and only if f is a multiple of f 0 .... ..1. . dividing by the leading coefficient. The set of elements {1.2 Commutative Fields For the convenience of the reader we recall some definitions and facts about commutative fields.. J contains a unique monic polynomial fo = xn + a1xn. is a ring-homomorphism with kernel J. Its degree is called the degree of x over K.. . x.. fo is irreducible over K and if x -=1.. If x E L. If x E Lis algebraic over K let J = {! E K[X]I f(x) = 0}. there exist elements a 1 . an E K (with n > 0) such that xn + a 1 xn. K a subfield of L. The mapping zp: K[X] ----+ K[x]. . . 2. xn. If x E L but x is not algebraic over K. . . We shall be mainly concerned with algebraic elements. Thus J is the principal ideal of K[X] generated by fo and since fo is irreducible. Indeed. . m. no relation with coefficients in K may exist between 1. On the other hand. xn is expressible in terms of the lower powers of x because xn + a 1xn. because fo is a polynomial of minimal degree in the ideal J.. we may assume that f is monic. J is a maximal ideal.1 + .1 + ···+an= 0. defined by zp(f) = f(x) for every poly- nomial f E K[X]. 1.0.1 + · ··+an = 0.1 Algebraic Elements Let L be a field.. In other words. with coefficients inK such that f(x) = 0. The element x E L is said to be algebraic over K when there exists a nonzero polynomial f. K[x] shall denote the subring of L of all elements of the form 2:::7:0 cixi where m 2: 0.

(b) above.2 Algebraic Extensions. then there exists a K-isomorphism from L onto a subfield of K. Xn)· L is said to be finitely generated over K if there exist elements XJ.Xn E L such that L = K(x 1 . 2. . then K(S) is an algebraic extension of K. Thus. If K is a subfield of L. If K is a subfield of L. namely x · [-a. then all its roots belong to K. Steinitz' theorem states: given any field K there exists a field K with the following properties: (a) K is an algebraic extension of K.. ..3 Algebraic Number Fields . More generally. . ...sion of K. for the purpose of studying algebraic extensions of K we may restrict our attention to the subfields of an algebraic closure K.1(xn-l + a1xn. Otherwise. we write K(:r1. (c) If K is any field satisfying properties (a). K is called the algebraic closure of K. Any field satisfying property (b) only of K is called an algebraically clo- sed field.. Every extension of finite degree must be algebraic and finitely generated. an isomorphism leaving invariant all the elements of the subfield K). then x is invertible in K[x]. . If the K-vector space L is of finite dimension n = [L : K]. and S a set of elements of L which are algebraic over K. 2.2 + · · · + an-1)] = 1. 0. we denote by K(S) the smallest subfield of L which contains K and S. then L is said to be an algebraic exten. In particular. Algebraically Closed Fields Let L be a field. (b) If L is any algebraic extension of K then L = K. K (that is. This implies that iff is a polynomial with coefficients inK ~ K. Since J is a maximal ideal then K[:r] is a field.14 2. then there exists a K-isomorphism between K.. if :r -=J... L is called a transcendental extension of K. . . Xn. if S is any subset of L. if K is the subfield of all elements of L which are algebraic over K. . Xn}. K a subfield of L.\Ve say that Lis obtained from K by adjoining x 1 . if L is any algebraic extension of K. the converse is also true.xn).. If S = { x 1 . Explicitly. We note also that if L is an algebraically closed field containing K.. called the algebraic closure of K in L.. then K is an algebraic closure of K. .. we say that n is the degree of L over K. Commutative Fields K[x]. If every element of L is algebraic over K. also. the set of all elements of L which are algebraic over K is itself a field. .

Hermite showed in 1873 that e is transcen- dental. This happens if and only if there exists a K-isomorphism a from K(x) onto K(x') such that a(x) = x'.4 Characteristic and Prime Fields Let K be a field. The elements x.5 Normal Extensions. it is easily seen that n must be a prime number n = p. where pis any prime number).. It is an easy matter to show that the field A must be countable. or simply a number field. If K is any field. Appendix]). Since C is not countable. 0 for every n > 0. It is isomorphic to Q when K has characteristic 0. Hilbert. the intersection of all its subfields is again a sub- field.. L' be extensions of K contained inK. there exist uncountably many transcendental complex numbers (for example. 2. p . 2. . 2. If [L : K] is finite the number of K-isomorphisms from L into an algebraic closure K of K is at most equal to the degree [L : K]. we say that K has characteristic 0. called the prime field of K. We say that a complex number x is an algebraic number if it is algebraic over the field Q of rational numbers. Let us note that [A : Q] = oo. let 1 denote its unit element. e). 1r. Gelfond. for every integer n > 0. We say that L. xn. If n · 1 =f. If n > 0 is the smallest integer such that n · 1 = 0. L' are conjugate over Kif there exists a K-isomorphism a from L onto L'. 2. since by Eisenstein's irreducibility cri- terion there exist irreducible polynomials of arbitrary degree over IQ (for example. namely lF P = {I. Normal Extensions. The field Q of rational numbers has characteristic 0. The set A of all algebraic numbers is a field. which is an algebraic closure of Q. Splitting Fields Let K be a field and K an algebraic closure of K. For every prime p. then we say that K has characteristic n. Every algebraic extension of finite degree over 1Q is called an algebraic number field. Splitting Fields 15 A very important theorem (sometimes called the Fundamental Theo- rem of Algebra) states that the field C of complex numbers is algebraically closed. and Schneider gave more recent proofs (see Lang [16. the field lF P of residue classes modulo p.1} has characteristic p (see Chapter 3). . or to lF P when K has characteristic p. x' E K are conjugate over K whenever they have the same minimal polynomial over K. let n · 1 = 1 + · · · + 1 (n times). while Lindemann proved the transcendence of 1r in 1882.p. Let L.5. .

K c. hence it is a normal extension of K. t2. .16 2. . If Lis a separable extension of finite degree of a field K. For example... the intersection L' of all normal ex- tensions of K between L and K is the smallest normal extension of K containing L and contained inK. The resulting field L is equal to all its conjugates over K. .. K. If L has finite degree over K then L' has also finite degree over K. then L = K(x 1 . we say that L is separable over K if every subfield F of L.. tn be the roots of f. over K and f = h · h · · · fn then all the roots of f are still in L. In particular. In particular. if L is any field. the set of K-automorphisms of L forms a group (under composition). then its complex conjugate Ii is also a root off. In this case.:. then there exists an element tin L such that L = K(t). such that F contains K and [F : K] < oo. if LIK is a normal extension of finite degree. thus the nonreal roots of f occur in pairs. Given any field L. .:. xn). the algebraic extension L = K(x) is separable over K whenever x has n = [L : K] distinct conjugates over K. If L is a normal extension of K. L ~ K where [L : K] < oo. then L is said to be a normal extension of K. K c. Conversely. Let t 1 = t. 2. where t has a minimal polynomial f with coefficients in Ql and degree n. where x 1 . K is a normal extension of K.:. K. Iff. A typical normal extension of K is obtained by considering an arbitrary polynomial f E K[X] and adjoining to K the roots of f. we say that x is a separable element over K. is the mi- nimal polynomial of x. If L is an algebraic number field of degree n over Ql. is not a real number. all the roots of any irreducible polyno- mial f over K are necessarily distinct. L c... If K is a field of characteristic 0. this theorem holds when K = Ql. Every extension of degree 2 is also normal. It follows that an algebraic extension L of K is separable if and only if every element x of L is separable over K. we have L = Ql(t). which we denote by G(LIK). we say that L is separable over K if the number of distinct K-isomorphisms from L into K is exactly equal to the degree [L : K]. Hence every algebraic extension of a field of characteristic 0 is separable. If t. . Xn are algebraic elements. Commutative Fields If L is equal to all its conjugates over K. which belong to C. is separable over K (in the sense just defined).:. tis called a primitive element of L over K.:. L c.6 Separable Extensions Let K c. . so L is the splitting field of f. More generally. It is called the splitting field off over K. .

The fundamental theorem of Galois theory states: (a) G' is equal to the Galois group G(L'IK') where K' = fi(G'). G' is a normal subgroup of G if and only if the corresponding field K' is a Galois extension of K.. . We denote it by LL' or L' L. au are the restrictions of a to Land L'. If [L : K] = n then G(LIK) has precisely n ele- ments. . if K' is any field.. 2. T 1 ) E . K ~ K' ~ L. then L is a Galois extension of K' and we may consider the Galois group gr(K') = G(LIK') of all K'-automorphisms of L. The compositum of L. Moreover. If K has characteristic 0. 2. The mapping a E G(LL'IK) -+ (aL. then n = r1 + 2r2. then the compositum LL' is a Galois extension of L' and G(LL'IL') ~ G(LIL n L'). cyclic). L' in K is the smallest subfield of K containing L and L'. let us consider the subfield fi( G') of all elements x E L which are invariant under G' (that is a(x) = x for every a E G'). let L.. then K(x 1 . let G = G(LIK). The group G(LIK) of all K-automorphisms of a Galois extension L of K is called the Galois group of L over K.. Thus. . if an element has no real conjugates. this means that Lis a normal extension over K. (b) K' is the field of invariants of the group G' = G(LIK'). Similarly. If G' is any subgroup of G. If LIK is a Galois extension. It is denoted also by Gal(LIK). L' be subfields of R containing K. If LIK and L'IK are Galois extensions. every (L n L')-automorphism of L may be uniquely extended to an L'-automorphism of LL'. Then G(K'IK) ~ G/G'. Iff E K[X] is a polynomial having distinct roots x1. Let L be a Galois extension of finite degree of K. Lis called an Abelian extension (respectively. then it is totally positive. respectively) is a group-isomorphism onto the subset of all pairs (T. 7 Galois Extensions An algebraic extension L over K is said to be a Galois extension whenever L is normal and separable over K. An element x E K is called totally positive if all its real conjugates are positive.xn)IK is a Galois extension and its Galois group is called the Galois group off over K. Let R be an extension of K. au) E G(LIK) x G(L'IK) (where aL. . let 2r2 denote the number of nonreal roots of f. then the compositum LL' is also a Galois extension of K. Explicitly. Galois Extensions 17 Let r 1 denote the number of real roots off.7. a cyclic extension) of K when its Galois group is Abelian (respectively. Xn.

Thus the number of primitive nth roots of unity is equal to t. Definition 2).K is a subgroup of Wn. It has degree t. Wn..p( n). An element x E K such that xn = 1 is called an nth root of unity. . It follows that if L is a subfield of K then Wn. that is.1.Ko = p..L is also a cyclic group and its order divides n.1 + xp.Ko belong to Ko..n:::.. Let K be an algebraically closed field and let n be a natural number relatively prime to the characteristic exponent of K. which are the elements of the group Wn. with TLnL' = T£nu· In particular.K· We denote by W K the set of all roots of unity in K: that is.p(n) over 1Q (see Chapter 16.K· n?1 Let x E W K and let n be its order in the multiplicative group W K.2 + .(n. if>p.. we have G(LL'IK) ~ G(LIK) X G(L'IK).n )=1 1::-::. (a is a primitive nth root of unity if and only if a. If K has characteristic 0 it is known that <I>n. 2. <I>p = xp. For example.1 has exactly n distinct roots inK. WK = UWn. if L n L' = K. If ( is a primitive nth root of unity in K. where t.K <:. = xp'-'(p-1) + xp'-'(p-2) + . The set Wn. If (is such a generator then Wn.K of all nth roots of unity in K is a multiplicative group. .n is called the nth cyclotomic polynomial (over Ko).p(n). each generator being a primitive nth root of unity. Then we say that x is a primitive nth root of unity. Commutative Fields G(LIK) X G(L'IK). G(LL'IL n L') '::" G(LIL n L') x G(L'IL n L').K· This group is cyclic.cd(n. (B)). + xp'-' + 1..p denotes Euler's function (see Chapter 3..Qi = <I>n is irreducible over IQ. n are relatively prime.18 2. If K is a subfield of L then Wn.1}.1 . it is customary to say that K has characteristic exponent 1 when its characteristic is 0. if>1 = X . The coefficients of <I>n. The polynomial if>n. + x + 1. n > 0. then its conjugates over the prime subfield K 0 of K are also primitive nth roots of unity. To deal simultaneously with fields of any characteristic. the smallest integer such that xn = 1.8 Roots of Unity Let K be a field and n an integer. So.L· If m divides n then Wm. IQ(() has degree t. that is.( 2 . and characteristic exponent p when its characteristic is p. since they are invariant by conjugation. . Thus xn . It is easily seen that if K has characteristic p and x E W K then its order n is not a multiple of p.K = {(. ( 3 .

1 = (XP'-J .IF. where ( is a primitive (pn . then IFp" is a Galois extension of IFp"' with a cyclic Galois group generated by CJm. having a Galois group isomorphic to the multiplicative group P(n) of prime residue classes modulo n (see Chapter 3). For every n there exists exactly one field with pn elements. Its nonzero elements are the roots of XP" . it has characteristic p (for some prime p). . 2. n. Q(() is therefore an Abelian extension of Q. . 1= IT <I>d. 2. n is the degree of K over the prime field IFp. In particular. CJn of L into an algebraic closure K of K (which may be assumed to contain L).(x). and let L be a separable extension of degree n. n > 0. i=l . If x E L the trace of x (relative to K) is defined as n TrLIK(x) = L CJ. From this relation it is possible to compute <I>n by recurrence.(x) i=l and the norm of x (relative to K) is n NLIK(x) =IT CJ. A canoni- cal generator of G(IFp"IIFp) is the Frobenius automorphism CJ. Precisely.. defined by u(x) = xP for every x E IFp".l)<I>p' where k 2: 1. 2. . if m divides n. and the number of its elements is a power pn. IFp" is a Galois extension of IFp with a cyclic Galois group.10 Trace and Norm of Elements Let K be a field.(a for a = 1. If K is a finite field.1)th root of unity. Thus there exist n distinct K-isomorphisms 0'1 = E (identity). 0'2.1 and IF P" = IFp( (). xn .9 Finite Fields We describe now the finite fields. Q(() is a Galois extension of Q. is reducible over IFP" 2. Thus XP' . . .I . din since both sides are equal to the product of all linear factors X .. where CJm(x) = xP"' for every X E IFp". which we denote by IFP". Trace and Norm of Elements 19 Moreover. . It is worth mentioning that if p does not divide nit may occur that <I>n.10.

since TrLIK(1) = [L : K] · 1. Thus.. if K has characteristic 0 then TrLIK(1) #.0. . n. . Indeed. NLIK(x) = ( -1)nan. and :r:j = L~=l a. where a.. If o. = 0 (null mapping from L toK) then necessarily :r1 = · · · = Xn = 0. . We define its di8criminant (in LIK) to be discrLIK(xl. NLIK(x) = xn... the discriminant belongs to K.. If (:r~.. then discrLIK(x~.20 2.11 The Discriminant We shall now consider the notion of the discriminant. there always exists an element :r E L such that TrLIK(x) #. we note TrLIK(x + y) = TrLIK(x) + TrLIK(y).. . then TrLIK(x) = -a1. 2. .1 .jXi for all j = 1. . . Similarly. The remaining case..j = L . then we have the transitivity of the trace and the norm and If LIK is a separable extension.0. . . It is also useful to know that if LIK is a separable extension of finite degree n and the characteristic of K does not divide n. . o-n are the K-isomorphisms from L into an algebraic closure K of K. that is. then there exists a primitive element t such that Tr LIK ( t) = 0... if K has characteristic p and p does not divide [L : K] then TrLIK(1) #. the determinant of the matrix whose (i. .. Xn) = det(TrLIK(:z:. . Let LIK be a separable extension of degree nand let (x1. :rn E K and '2:::::~ 1 x.jW · discrLIK(. Among the properties of the trace and norm.o-. ..:r: 1 ) for i. x~) is another n-tuple of elements in L. . xn)· . . j)-entry is equal to TrLIK(x. if f = xn + alxn-l + .xj))... NLIK(xy) = NLIK(x) · NLIK(y). where K has characteristic p and [L : K] is a multiple of p.. x~) = [det(a.. .0... ... L <. + an is the minimal polynomial of x over K. Xn) be an n-tuple of elements in L... n. if Xt . If x E K then TrLIK(x) = nx.. If K <..j E K. requires a nontrivial proof based on Dedekind's theorem on independence of the K-isomorphisms of L. L' are fields and L' is separable over K. Commutative Fields If X is a primitive element of LIK.rt.

. In order that x 1. 1. Xn) I 0. 2.. with roots x 1. we obtain discrLIK(1. . Discriminant and Resultant of Polynomials 21 Another expression for the discriminant may be obtained in terms of the K-isomorphisms 0"1.12 Discriminant and Resultant of Polynomials Iff E K [X] is a polynomial of degree n. i<j where t1 = t. Xn) = [det(CJi(xj))] 2. Xn are the roots of f) fork= 0.1} where t is a primitive element. it is possible to compute the discriminant off by the more direct formula discr(f) = ( -1)n(n.. it is customary to call the above expression the discriminant of t (over K).12. . 2. t. . tn are the conjugates oft... ... If Pk = x~ + · · · + x~ (where x 1..tj) 2. . . . .. . .. the computation of the above determinant is rather awk- ward. p3. P1 = -adao.. Xj)· i<j i#j Thus discr(f) E K and discr(f) I 0 if and only if f has distinct roots. Consider the special basis { 1. t. . t2. . Xn E L be linearly independent over K it is necessary and sufficient that discrLIK(.2 Pn-1 Pn P2n-2 In some cases. .1 )/ 2 a~. and P2. It is important to compute the discriminant of an irreducible polynomial f = aoXn + a1Xn-l +···+an without knowing a priori its roots. .. 2. tn. where x is any root of f and f' is the derivative of the polynomial f.1) = IJ(ti.. O"n of L: discrLIK(x1. ..2 IJ(xi. all the conjugates oft have the same discriminant. may be computed recursively (without computing the roots) by the well-known Newton formulas (see Exercise 17).2 IJ(xi.. . .. . Xn and leading coefficient a 0 . Thus.Xj) 2 = (-lt(n-l)/ 2 a~n.. we define the discriminant of f by discr(f) = a~n. tn. .r1. L = K(t). .. In this situation. However. Then Po P1 Pn-1 P1 P2 Pn discr(f) = a~n.... then discrLIK(t) = discr(f). If t is a separable element over K and if f is its minimal polynomial. .. then Po = n.2 NK(x)IK(f'(x))..

22 2. . The eliminant of j. bj E K. g. g) = a 0b0 II II (x. The discriminant of a polynomial f may be expressed in terms of the resultant of f and its derivative f': R(f.. and deg(g) = n.g). g and denoted by R(f. and m. k E K[X]. Clearly.. . j') = ( -l)m(m. bo) = b0n (where b0 E K. g)= bo b1 bn 0 0 bo bn-1 bn with n rows with the coefficients a. Then: (1) R(g. R(f. We quote the following properties of the resultant.. If x 1 . g). . then m n R(f. aobo fc 0. Let j. f and f' have a common root. that is. the re- sultant of two polynomials pinpoints when the polynomials are relatively prime. We extend this definition. with a. we introduce the resultant of two polynomials to indicate if j.. n = deg(g) > 0). g have a common factor. g) = a0 (where ao E K.1 + · · · + bn.. .f) = (-l)mnR(f. the vanishing of the discriminant of a polynomial f indicates iff has a multiple root.YJ) i=1 j=1 m n i=1 J=l As said. Xm are the roots off and Y1. it is an element of K. The determinant of this matrix is called the resultant of j. h. g = boXn + b1Xn. Let f = aoXm + a1Xm-l +···+am. and m rows with the coefficients b1 . deg(f) = rn. The polynomials f. rn = deg(f) > 0) and R(a0 . n > 0. More generally. Yn are the roots of g. letting R(f. g E K[X] are relatively prime if and only if R(f. Commutative Fields Just like the discriminant of f detects if f has a multiple root. g) fc 0.. g is the matrix with m +n rows and columns: ao a1 am 0 0 0 0 0 ao am-1 am 0 0 0 Ee(f. Let K be any field. f) = 0. .1 )/ 2 ao discr(f).

or if K has cha- racteristic p =f. 2. In this situation y is unique with the above property. Every field K of characteristic p is contained in a unique minimal perfect field. 0. Let K be a field and let x be algebraic over K. Moreover if LIK and FIK have finite degree then [LF : F] = [L : K] and [LF : L] = [F : K]. then the characteristic of K is not 0. Let LIK be any algebraic extension and let S be the set of all elements x E L which are separable over K -clearly Sis a field and SIK is a separable extension. g + fh).13 Inseparable Extensions Even though almost all extensions considered in this book are separable we shall have occasion to deal with extensions. 2. hk) = R(f. g)F. g) = R(J. g)· R(k. Then LIS is a purely inseparable extension. a basis of the K-vector space F is also a basis of the L-vector space LF. g). An algebraic extension LIK is said to be purely inseparable if every x E L. k). K is inseparable over K. then x is said to be inseparable over K. Hence every algebraic extension of a perfect field is again a perfect field. If LIK is purely inseparable of finite degree. More precisely. All finite fields and algebraically closed fields (of any characteristic) are perfect fields.14 Perfect Fields A field K is said to be perfect if K has characteristic 0. The Theorem of Steinitz 23 (2) If deg(J) + deg(h) <::: deg(g) then R(J. If an inseparable element exists. If the minimal poly- nomial f E K[X] of x over K has multiple roots. If FIKis a separable extension and LIK is a purely inseparable extension then LFIL is separable. g) = R(h.15 The Theorem of Steinitz . (4) discr(fg) = ( -l)mn discr(f) · discr(g) · [R(J. then [L : K] is a power of the characteristic p of K. (3) R(hk.15. x r:J. A field K is perfect if and only if every algebraic extension LIK is separable. which is a purely inseparable extension of K. while LFIF is purely inseparable. We write K = KP to express the above condition. for every element x E K there exists y E K such that yP = x. which are not separable. h)· R(f. 2. R(f. 2. At that point the reader may wish to return to this section.

0. be a total order on K.EI ~ Ko(X. x is said to be negative. . because if i1. .~' . called the transcendence degree of KIK0 . .. the field C of complex numbers is not orderable. ::. (ii) -1 is not a sum of squares inK. Artin and Schreier showed that if (i) or (ii) hold then K is orderable. .)iEI where (X. ::::). The field lR of real numbers is ordered by letting x :::: y when y .)iEJ of elements in K. Every square is positive. On the other hand. 0 is the only element which is both positive and negative. If 0 ::.17 The Theorem of Artin.EJ is an algebraic extension.. Tm] such that f(x. If K.x is a square in R Thus. .bJ2. if K 0 is any subfield of K.EJ and (x. if K is orderable then the following equivalent properties hold: (i) Ifxi+···+x. Similarly. K' are two algebraically closed fields. Clearly. Then K has chara- cteristic 0.). we say that (K'. Any two transcendence bases of KIKo have the same cardinality. which are algebraically independent over K 0 .. im E I. then there exists a fa- mily (x.. if (x. 2. of K'IKo.. If K' is a subfield of K and :::: is an order as above. such that KIK0 (x.24 2. The above order on lR is the only possible.).) = 0.16 Orderable Fields Let K be a field and let ::. ::::' where :::: is the restriction of the order of lR and ::::' is the order such that 0 ::.. then it may be extended to an isomorphism cp : K ---> K'. Thus. The family (x. IQ( J2) has the orders ::::. since -1 is a square. but the converse need not be true. on K.) is said to be an ordered field. the ordinary order on iQ is the unique compatible order. A field K is orderable if there exists a compatible order ::.EI is called a transcendence basis of KIK0 . Commutative Fields If K is any field. . respectively.'). 2. x we say that x is positive and if x ::. if f is a polynomial in Ko[T1. with the induced order. its restriction to K' is also a compatible order. Then (K. such that KIKo and K'IKo have the same transcendence degree. then f = 0 (the zero polynomial)..). Thus K 0 (x. every subfield of lR is also ordered.EI is a family of indeterminates. x.EI' is any isomorphism of fields.)iEI ---> K 0 (x. ::::) is an ordered subfield of (K.'). = 0 (eachx. if tpo : Ko(x.).). Every element of K is either positive or negative. E K)thenx1 = xz = ··· = Xn = 0.EI' are tran- scendence bases of KIKo.' a+ bJ2 whenever 0 :::: a. compatible with the operations.

Hint: Apply Eisenstein's irreducibility criterion to the polynomial <I>p(X + 1). v'TO). IQ(v'2.::: 1 be integers. Show that if p is a prime number then <I>p' = xp'-'(p-1) + xp'-'(p-2) + .2 + · · · +X + 1 (where p is a prime number) is irreducible over IQ. with coefficients in Z.1 + · · · + a1X + ao. .. Discuss whether the following polynomials are irreducible over IQ: X 3 + x + 1... Let m. 4. Find the degree over IQ of the following fields: IQ(i. 6. x 6 + X 4 + 1. Prove that L)K has finite degree if and only if Lis a finitely generated algebraic extension of K. K is a real closed field and L = K( J=T). 2. is irreducible over IQ provided there exists a prime p dividing a 0 . IQ(j2 + V2 + v'2. 8..i). Show that v'2 is not a rational number. Artin showed L has characteristic 0. Show that yrn is a rational number if and only if m is an nth power of a natural number. IQ((1+i)/2). an_ 1 but such that p 2 does not divide a 0.4. J3). X 4 . x3 + X2 + x + 1.1 + XP. X 4 + X 2 + 1. Exercises 25 Let L be an algebraically closed field and assume that it has a proper subfield K such that [L : K] < oo. Show that <I>p = XP. 10. EXERCISES 1. v'5.4X 2 + 8X . . + XPr-1 + 1 is irreducible over IQ. 7. Show that K")K is an algebraic extension if and only if K')K and K")K' are algebraic extensions. Show that [K" : K] = [K" : K'] · [K' : K]. Prove Eisenstein's irreducibility criterion: The polynomial f = xn + an-1xn. [L : K] = 2. Let K ~ K' ~ K" be fields. Let K ~ K' ~ K" be fields. 9. 3. 5. where i =A. . n .

.. X 2 . . Let LIK be an algebraic extension. Show that an algebraically closed field cannot be finite. ·+(-l)kskyn-k+·.. Commutative Fields 11.. 15. . express it as . .. Xn] is said to be symmetric if for every permutation CJ of {1. Xn-1. .. Xa(nJ) = j(X1. Prove: (a) if K is finite then L is countable. Xn] such that j(X1. (b) if K is infinite then #(L) = #(K). 14.. . . 0). A polynomial f E R[X1. n} we have f(Xa(l)' Xa(2)' . 13. . .. Sn = xlx2 . Xn.. 2. there exists a polynomial g E R[X1. .. s2... s3 = X1X2X3 + X1X2X4 + · · · + Xn-2Xn-1Xn... define the weight of a polynomial as being the maximum of the weights of its monomials. .. ·+(-l)nsn k=l 16. . . .26 2. Xn) = g(s1. determine the minimal polynomial and the conjugates over Q: 12. Show that there exist uncountably many transcendental complex numbers. the proof is done by double induction on nand on the degree doff. Let R be a domain. . consider j(X1. .. .. Xn)· Show that if f is a symmetric polynomial.. Hint: Use the previous exercise. Show that if Y is any indeterminate then =II (Y -Xk)· n yn_slyn-l+s2yn-2_ . X2. sn)· x. Xn be indeterminates and consider the symmetric polynomials s 1 = X 1 + X 2 + · · · + Xn... Hint: Define the weight of a monomial aXf' 2 • • • X~" as being e 1 + 2e 2 + · · · + nen. s2 = X1X2 + X1X3 + · · · + X2X3 + · · · + Xn-lXn. . Show that the following numbers are algebraic over Q. Let X 1 ..

Let f = X 3 + X 2 .. continue by induction.Pk-lsl + · · · + (-l)nPk-nSn = 0. if K is finite it is an automorphism.. s~_ 1 are the elementary symmetric polynomials on the indeterminates X 1 . Moreover. . .... Show that if K is a field of characteristic p then K(X) is an inseparable extension of K(XP). f E K[X] a polynomial such that there exists an integer e 2: 1. . . ...X+ 1 and let Xj. . 23. Xn.. Let K be a field of characteristic p. . X2.X. . .. 82. Xn) E Kn such that j(x1. Xn are indeterminates. 20.Xn-1.Pk-lsl + Pk-282. Prove the Newton formulas: (a) If k :=:. then fi (X 1. defined by B(x) = xP for every x E K. . 18. . Determine xy + x~ + x~.. 21. equate the coefficients of equal powers of T.. . X2. Hint: Let f(T) = IT~= I (T. X n. . Xn) . there exist infinitely many n-tuples x = (xi. Sn-d has degree at most d in X 1. Let Po = n and Pk = Xf + X~ + · · · + X~ where k 2: 1 and X 1 . . Hint: Proceed by recurrence on n. X 1 . Xn (where f' denotes the derivative off with respect to T). and a polynomial g E K[X] for which J(X) = g(XP'). 22... sg. .. X n) = f (X 1.g 1(.1 ..· · · + (-1)k-IP1Sk-I + (-1)kksk = 0. also !J(XI.). Then every root off has multiplicity at least pe. . Xn]. Show that if K is any infinite field and f E K[X 1 . X3 be the roots off in c. where Tis a new indeterminate. n then Pk.. is an isomorphism from K into K. . Xn) i 0. observe that 9J(SJ. s~_ 1 ) where s~. . 19.. Sn-I) has degree at most d and is symmetric. X2 · · · Xn-l.. . write the quotient f' (T) / f(T) as a rational fraction in T.. ..s 1. (b) If k > n then Pk. . Let K be a field of characteristic p. . . . 17... then develop in formal power series and after multiplying both sides by f(T)/Tn... . . . Show that if K is a field of characteristic 0 and f E K[X] is an irreducible polynomial then its roots are all distinct. .s8.. define fz by fi = snfz hence its degree is less than d.. . Exercises 27 g1(s~.0) = 0 so !1 is a multiple of Xn and by symmetry also a multiple of X1. Show that the mapping e : K ---+ K. .. .

25.. conclude using the previous exercise. K' <. Determine the Galois group of (X 2 . 33. Determine the smallest normal extension K of Q containing {/2. 34.J3). then. L. 29. Pn) over Q. Q(/2.. Prove the theorem of the primitive element: If L is a separable ex- tension of finite degree over a field K. i). Determine which roots of unity belong to the following fields: R Q(i). Give an example of an extension of degree 4 of Q which is not normal... Find a primitive element over Q for each of the following fields: Q( /2. Q((l+i)/2). Let V be a vector space of dimension n over K. lt1m be subspaces of V. 35. Determine the Galois groups over Q of the following polynomials: 31. 28. Commutative Fields 24. v'2. then there exists an element t E L such that L = K(t). . Q(v2+/2).P2) · · · (X 2 . Show that if K is an infinite field then W1 U · · · U Wm =J V. Show that K contains only finitely many roots of unity. Q( /2. 26. . J5). prove that there exist only finitely many fields K' such that K <. Q(/2).. consider the sets {x E L I a-i(x) = a-j(x)} where a-i. 27. O"j are distinct K-isomorphisms from L into an algebraic closure of K. . where Pl. Q(N).pl)(X 2 . Determine the (i)-isomorphisms of the following fields: Q({/2). . determine the subgroups of the Galois group and the corresponding fields of invariants. 32. For each of the above polynomials. . Hint: Use the previous exercise.. Hint: Consider first the case when K is finite. Let K be a finite extension of Q. Q( v'2 + J3. distinct from V. 30. P2. Q(N). let W 1 .. J3). If L is a finite separable extension of K. letting K be infinite. Q(v'2+J3).28 2.. what is the degree of Kover Q? Find a primitive element of Kover Q. Pn are distinct primes.

is irreducible if and only if [lFp(() : lFp] = cp(n). by Gauss' lemma Hint: f E Z[X] and <I>n = f · g. 45.JF. this means that cp( n) is the smallest integer such that n divides p'P(n) . 1 as a product of cyclotomic polynomials. p. 43. defined as follows: if u(() =(a then O(u) =a. Hint: <Pn. and conclude that <Pn. Determine the minimal polynomial over lF 2 for a primitive seventh root of unity. Prove that <I>n. lF13 and find in each case its decomposition into irreducible polynomials. Let f be the minimal polynomial of ( over Q. with g E Z[X] monic. Prove that <f>n.JF 7 is reducible over lF 7 and find its decomposition. conclude with Lemma 1 of Chapter 3.. not dividingn. 44.'. has order p~. Show that <Pn. 42. pay special attention to the case when K has characteristic p dividing n. Let ( be a primitive nth root of unity. Show that Q( () is a Galois extension of degree cp(n) over Q and that Gal(Q(()\Q) is isomorphic to the group P( n) of residue classes a modulo n. Show that <Ps. i= 1. Show that <P 12 is reducible over the fields lF 5 . Hint: Let n = p~ 1 2 • • • p~· be the decomposition of n into prime factors. lFn. is irreducible over lF P if and only if the class of p modulo n has order cp( n) in the multiplicative group P(n) of prime residue classes modulo n. . for i = 1. . 39. and using a property of finite fields. Hint: Use the expression for xn . Hint: Use the previous exercise. let ni = nfpi.. r. then consider the mapping () : Gal(Q(()\Q) -+ P(n).Q is irreducible over Q. Show that this is not the case. then the group of nth roots of unity in K is cyclic. show that there exists Xi E K such that x~ = 1 but x~. lF 7 . 40. it must be f((P) = 0. reduced modulo p. Let p be a prime not dividing n.IQ is a monic polynomial with coefficients in Z. Prove that if K is an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0 or p. . Exercises 29 36. 38. where a is an integer relatively prime ton (see Chapter 3).1. next note that if mi = njp~. if this is not true. 41. consider h = g(XP).JF. would have a double root. deduce that f divides h. then x'. Show that for every prime p. Determine the minimal polynomial over lF 3 for a primitive eighth root of unity.

Prove that iff E K[X] is a monic irreducible polynomial of degree n. Let LIK be a separable extension of degree n. Hint: Let t = t1. let f E K[X 1 . Let K be a finite field. 49. Hint: If L = K(t') and xn + a 1 xn. . Prove that the subfield generated by the union of all Abelian extensions of K is an Abelian extension K' of K.. and assume that the characteristic of K does not divide n. . Show that there exists t E L such that L = K(t) and TrLIK(t) = 0.30 2. .::~= 1 a. aX 3 + bX 2 + eX + d.. Commutative Fields 46. .. Determine the discriminant of <I>n. . 50.f(x)q. if t is any root of f and f' is the derivative of j.Q· Hint: Use the previous exercise. of degree d < n. and such that f(x 1 . Prove the following theorem of Warning and Chevalley: Let K be a finite field of characteristic p. Xn] be a polynomial without constant term. Hint: Use the Newton formulas. there exist :r 1 . .l)n). 47. xn) = 0. 52. 48. Xn E K. Show that every element of K is the sum of two squares of elements of K.. (b) Note that the number N of zeros off in K is given by N = L [1 . aX 4 + bX 3 + cX 2 + dX + e.) and compare its values with discr(f). Determine the discriminant of the following polynomials: aX 2 + bX + c. then discr(f) = (-l)n(n. tn be the conjugates of t over K. not all x. Let K be a field and K an algebraic closure of K. show that I::xEK" g(x) = 0 by computing I::yEK ya for different values of the integer a 2: 0. 51.1 (mod p) xEK" xEK' 1 and then apply (a) for the monomials of r. in particular. .. < (q.L f(x)q. . show that t = t' + ai/n satisfies the required property.. where q = pr = #(K). Hint: (a) Let g = Xf 1 ···X~" (with 0 < 2:.1 ] =. . . it is called the Abelian closure of K. 1. compute explicitly f' (t.1 + · · · + an is the minimal polynomial of t' over K. . being equal to zero. Then the number of zeros off inK is a multiple of p.1 )/ 2 · NK(t)IK(J'(t)).

Section 11. . Denote n = deg J..g) = a0 IJg(ai) = (-l)mnb 0 IJ f(f3J) i=l j=l n m = a0 b0 II II (ai. (b) If hE A[X] then R(f. .ai) and g(X) = bo TI7'= 1 (X.. (c) If f(X) = ao TI~= 1 (X.g). Section 11) is equal to ( -1 )n(n-l)/2 R(f.f) = (-1)mnR(f. Show that the discriminant of J(X) (as defined in Chapter 2. m = deg g. an are in an integral domain). Exercises 31 53. g)· R(f. g E A[X] as defined in Chapter 2. h).f3J)· i=l j=l 54. g) be the resultant of polynomials J. . Show: (a) R(g. gh) = R(f. Let A be an integral domain and let R(f.f3J) then n m R(f. Let f'(X) denote the derivative of f(X). Let f(X) = xn + a 1 xn-l + · · · +an with n 2: 1 (a 1 . J').

Part One .

We write xly to express that x divides y and XfY if x does not divide y. It is clear that vp(xy) = vp(x) + vp(y). and if vp(x) < vp(y) then vp(x + y) = vp(x) (we also used the convention that +oo + m = +oo for every mE Z). By convention. If pis a prime number. m E Z and if pmlx but pm+lfx (sox -/= 0). vp(O) = +oo. We call vp(x) the p-adic value of x. vp(x + y) ~ min{vp(x). We have devoted our book (see Ribenboim [26]) to the study of p-adic valuations and more general types of valuations. we say that x divides y if there exists an integer n E Z such that nx = y. vp(y)}. which will be used throughout this book. 35 . If x. xis a rational number. we write pmllx and also vp(x) = m. y are rational numbers. It is appropriate to establish the main results about finite Abelian groups. mainly residue classes and quadratic residues.In Part One we discuss facts from the Arithmetic of rational integers of an elementary nature.

then the order of each element of G divides the order of G. Lagrange's theorem asserts: If G is a finite group. Let m be a positive integer. where e denotes the unit element of G. denoted by #(G).::: 1 such that gm = e. The kernel of this homomorphism is (m) = Zm (the ideal of multiples of m). For a multiplicative group. We say that the integers a. a is called the residue class of a modulo m. and transitive. Its unit element is I = {a E Z I a = 1 (mod m)}.3 Residue Classes 3. b = b' (mod m). The relation of "congruence modulo m" is reflexive. This leads to the consideration of groups. = a·b a'·b' (mod m). that is. It is equivalent to saying that m divides a . the number of elements of G is called the order of G. b are congruent modulo m if they leave the same remainder when divided by m. a · b = a · b. we study residue classes modulo a natural number. Therefore it is convenient to recall that if G is a finite group. then the order of g is the smallest m . if m > 1 then Z/m is a ring. With these operations. symmetric. For a finite group G every element g has an order. Let Z/m denote the set of equivalence classes modulo m. If G is an additive group.::: 1 such that mg = 0.b. We write a = b (mod m) to express this fact. if g E G and there exists m . it is an equivalence relation. Hence we may define the addition and multiplication of equivalence classes: a + b = a + b.1 Congruences In this chapter. So Z/m is the quotient ring of Z by the ideal (m). If a = a' (mod m). The equivalence class of a modulo m is the set a= {a+ km I k E Z}. 37 . and we may also use the notation Z/(m). Definition 1. It follows that the mapping a ---> a is a ring-homomorphism from Z onto Zjm.::: 1 with the above property. then a+ b = a' + b' (mod m). the order of g is the smallest m .

if gcd(a. if(p) = p-1.. Conversely.. then m divides = m'a (because m'a 0 (mod m)) and therefore m divides m'. the kernel of e is (m) and so G ~ Z/(m). such that gcd(a. Then there exists a ring- isomorphism r 8: Z/m _. Vr) where v. On the other hand. then a is a generator of Z/m if and only if a. denotes the residue c:lass of n modulo p~'. then m divides m/d. Let g be a generator of G and consider the mapping e: Z _. • We are interested in counting the generators of the additive group Z/m. if is called the Euler function or totient function. Proof: Let G be a cyclic group (written additively) with m elements. . Proof: Let a be a generator of Z/m and let d = gcd(a.. Theorem 1. Then m -·a= m· d a d . because g has order m. Thus. m times) and if n · I =0 then n is a multiple of m. For every m ::::: 1.. 'f(2) = 1. r). and we may introduce the following definition: Definition 2. Since a has order m. In fact m ·I = 0 (m ·I denotes I+ I+ · · · +I. m) = 1 and m' is the order of a. 1 :::.38 3. Then B is a group-homomorphism onto G. 1p(m) is the number of generators of the additive group Z/m. 1p(l) = 1. that is. we shall determine all the generators of the cyclic group Z/m.. so the order m' of a divides m. Let m = [l~=l p~' be the decomposition of m > 1 into prime powers (with e. > 0 for i = 1. d = 1. For example. G defined as follows: B(n) = ng for every n E Z. generated by I. r). . Residue Classes The additive group of Z/m is cyclic with m elements. 1f(3) = 2 and. a :::. Every cyclic group with m elements is isomorphic to Z/m. let 'P( m) denote the number of integers a. for an arbitrary m > 1. . Let a be a positive integer. m.. we shall prove some interesting results about residue classes. [l~=l Z/p~' be the mapping defined as follows: B( n) = (v 1 . . more generally. m). Proof: Let e:Z _.=0 (mod m). . In order to determine 1p(m). Conversely. B. m) = 1. Thus m' = rn. II Z/p:' 2=1 (Cartesian product of the rings Z/p~' fori = 1. we have the following result: A. Thus. for every prime p. we have ng = 0 (in G) if and only if n is a multiple of m. rna = 0. m are relatively prime. this number depends on m. . • Now. m) (the greatest common divisor of a. .

because n is a multiple of m if and only if n is a multiple e of each p~' (i = 1. . It is easy to see that in any ring the set of all invertible elements constitutes a multiplicative group. . Let us note in particular that'll/pis a field (when pis prime). Congruences 39 e is a ring-homomorphism whose kernel is equal to the ideal (m) of multiples of m. . where gcd( a. that is. and P(m) has therefore 'P(m) elements. Hence s · a = I and a is invertible in the ring 'll/m. m) = 1.1. r. let v E 'll/m be the unique residue class modulo m such that B(v) = (vi.. n' E 7l satisfies the above congruences if and only if r n' =n (mod IJP~'). . Finally. • As a corollary we have the so-called "Chinese remainder theorem" below. P(m) is the multiplicative group of all invertible elements of the ring 'lljm.er > 1 and ai. Proof: Let a E 7l be such that gcd(a. m) = 1.. r).. a = I (for somes E 7l). Thus induces a one-to-one homomorphism 7J from 'll/m to rr~=I 'll/p~'. . we consider the set P(m) of all nonzero • residue classes a modulo m. These are called the prime or irreducible classes modulo m. given integers ei ~ 1. 3.. We also use the notation ('ll/m)' for P(m)... then s. Then there exist integers s. m) = 1. Pr. D. Moreover. so sa = 1 (mod m) and gcd(a. . . since every • nonzero residue class modulo pis invertible. P(m) is a multiplicative group .. The last assertion is obvious . if a E 7l/m is invertible in the ring 'll/m. and as such we denote it also by lF P' . Given r ~ 1 distinct prime numbers PI. ar E 7l. ... . . . Thus 7J maps 'll/m onto rr~=I 'lljp~'. t such that s · a + t · m = 1. the number of elements in f1~=I 'll/p~' is IT~= I p~' = m. C. We remark that if a E P( m) then every element a + km in the class a is relatively prime to m. vr)· Then n satisfies the congruences for i = 1. .. Thus. a E P(m). Actually 'll/p is the prime field of characteristic p... . i=I Proof: Let vi be the residue class of ai modulo p~'. there exists n E 7l satisfying all the congruences n =ai (mod p~') for i = 1. In order to determine 'P(m). Conversely. ... r if and only if v is the class of n modulo m.

Proof: Let S = {1. therefore n = Ldln cp(d).(1/p)].(1/pi)] = m rr~=l[1. Therefore n #S = = Ldln #C(d).)]. if n = dd' then 8 E C(d') if and only if 8/d' ::. . a'P(m) 1 (mod m) . m) = 1 then a<p(m) =1 (mod m). and conversely. let C( d) = {s E S I gcd( n. Hence cp(m) = Il~=l p~' . 1). A residue class a modulo m is invertible if and only if its image 7J(a) is invertible in the Cartesian product of rings Zjp~'. n) = 1 then cp(mn) = cp(m) · cp(n).. Thus P(pe) has pe -pe-l elements. By counting the number of elements in these groups it follows that cp(m) = Il~=l cp(p~'). pe) = 1 then a is not a multiple of p. The Euler function also possesses the following interesting property: G. Proof: We consider again the ring-isomorphism 7J : Z/m_::_. Residue Classes As a corollary. • . then II P(p~' ). Now. for each divisor d :::. T P(m) ~ i=l and cp(m) =II i=l cp(p~') =m II T i=l T ( 1 ) 1. Thus. p. for any prime number p we have (Fermat) • ap-l =1 (mod p).. we obtain the following congruence (from Euler): E. that is. This gives rise to a partition of S into pairwise disjoint subsets. Thus 7J(P(m)) = f1~= 1 P(p~').. F. If m = p~ 1 • • • p~' is the prime-power decomposition of m. 8) = d}. a ::. To evaluate cp(pe) (for a prime p and e :::.. We express this fact by saying that cp is a multiplicative function..(1/p. proving the isomorphism of multiplicative groups P(m) ~ TI~=l P(p~' ). cp(pe) = pe[1 . a multiplicative group of order cp(m). If n :::.40 3. as follows immediately from the above. njd' = d and gcd(8/d'. 1 then n = Ldln cp( d) (the sum being taken over all divisors d::. If gcd(a. in other words.lofn). .~ . 2. 1 of n. • Incidentally. each component of 7i(a) is invertible in the corresponding component Zjp~'. d) = 1. n} and. rr~=l[1.. if gcd(m. that is. then by La- grange's theorem on finite groups a'P(m) =I. the number of elements in C(d') is equal to cp(d). gcd( a. = In particular. Proof: Since a E P(m). TI~=l Zjp~' of Theorem 1. we just note that if 1 ::. pe.

which is cyclic. B(g) = b with a. equal to .1• The order of this last element divides both hand k. The kernel of () is 0. Thus x · y has finite order l dividing hk. Proof: From x · y = y · x we deduce (x · y)hk = (xh)k · (yk)h = e (identity element of G).2. k are relatively prime). so h divides l. Let(): End(Z/m) --> Zjm be defined by B(f) = J(f). let x. k divides l. Since Aut(Z/m) is just the group of invertible elements of End(Z/m). it suffices to study the groups P(pe). it is a positive integer. b > 0. First. Proof: We will show that the ring of endomorphisms End(Z/m) of the additive group Zjm is isomorphic to the ring Zjm. 3. Let G be a multiplicative group. Evidently B(O) = 0 and B(J +g) = (J + g)(I) = J(I) + g(I) = B(f) + B(g) so () is a homomorphism of additive groups.1 = e. Clearly the image of the identity automorphism of Z/m is the unit element I. Thus x 1 = y. its generators are the elements of the multiplicative group P(m). e ~ 1. The group Aut(Z/m) of automorphisms of the additive gro-up Zjm is isomorphic to P( m). Thus () is an isomorphism of additive groups. given a E Z/m if we define h : Zjm --> Zjm by h(b) = a· b then h E End(Z/m) and B(h) = h(I) = a. Accordingly. hence it must be 1 (because h. for if J(I) = 0 and n > 0 then f(n) = f(n · I) = n · J(I) = 0. where pis a prime number. Moreover.2 The Group of Invertible Residue Classes In the sequel. 3. Since (x · y )1 = x 1 • y 1 = e then x 1 = y. y E G be elements such that x · y = y · x. For this purpose. and the orders h of x and k of y are relatively prime. we require two lemmas from the theory of groups. Thus () is a one-to-one mapping. Then the order of x · y is kh. we have studied the additive group of residue classes modulo m. • In view of (F). suppose that B(J) =a. • The least upper bound of the orders of the elements of group G is called the exponent of G. If the exponent is finite. we point out another way of describing P(m): H. then the conclusion follows from (D). It only remains to show that () preserves multiplication. This shows that x · y has order l = hk. we shall study the structure of the group P(m). and therefore hk divides l. The Group of Invertible Residue Classes 41 Up to now. then B(f ·g) = f(g(I)) = f (b) = f (b · I) = b · f (I) = b · a = b · a as desired. so f = 0. Lemma 1.

Residue Classes the maximum of the orders of the elements of G. a well-defined group-homomorphism onto P(p). it is isomorphic to the additive group 7Lj(p ~ 1) (by (A)). so there will exist an element of order p ~ 1. every element of P(p) is a root of the polynomial Xh ~ 1 E Fp[X]. Since P(p) is cyclic with p ~ 1 elements. it follows that every element of P(p) may be viewed as • a (p ~ 1 )th root of unity. It is also customary to say that the integer x. y' = yk 1 . we treat the case where p ic 2. Next. That is. Chapter 2. not dividing g. Lemma 2. Its kernel is C = {a E P(pe) I a =1 (mod p)}. p ~ 1. is a primitive root modulo p. Proof: Let x be an element of order g and let y be an element of order k. It is enough to show that the exponent h of P(p) is equal to p ~ 1.42 3. which is contrary to the assumption. • I. hence it has cp(p ~ 1) generators (by (B)). . if G is finite the exponent of G divides the order of G. J. 1 ::. p ~ 1) = 1. Then the order of every element of G divides g. the order of every element of P(p) = F~ divides h. a ::. such that a E P(p) is a primitive root modulo p. P(p) is a cyclic group. so x' has order g' and y' has order pn. we consider the groups P(pe). h divides p~ 1. By Lagrange's theorem. As we said before. Let f : P(pe) ---> P(p) be defined by f(a) It is obviously =a. Let a denote the residue class of a modulo pe. Each generator of P(p) is called a primitive root modulo p. This polynomial has at most h roots. Proof: We may assume that e 2: 2. where e 2: 2. when its class modulo p generates P(p). xh = I for every x E P(p). then P(pe) is a cyclic group and P(pe) S=' 7Lj(p ~ 1) X 'lLjpe-1. and the residue class of a a modulo p. From the proof. Proof: We know that P(p) has cp(p) = p ~ 1 elements. such that g = pmg' (with p not dividing g') and k = pnk'. If p ic 2. Then there exists a prime p and integers n > m 2: 0. thus p ~ 1 ::. Section II A]. Let G be a multiplicative Abelian group with finite exponent g. thus establishing the lemma. See Ribenboim [25. If xis a primitive root modulo p then xh is a primitive root modulo p if and only if gcd( h. 1 ::. x ::. e 2: 1. By Lemma 1. This shows that h = p ~ 1. Let x' = xP"'. x'y' has order png' > pmg' = g. By Lemma 2. Therefore. First. h. p ~ 1. Let us remark that no quick procedure is known for the determination of the smallest integer a.

3. Then B has order at most lfJ(pe)/pe.1 = p. P( 4) = {I. that is. Since f(aP'~') = aP'~l =a then . B is obviously a subgroup of P(pe) and B n C = {I} since B has no element (except I) of order a power of p. so it is a cyclic group and is isomorphic to Zj(p. B is a cyclic group. Its kernel is C = {a E P(2e) I a =1 (mod 4)}. 2P .. then bP'~' has order d dividing p. Now. .1)pe. * Hence (1 + p)P'~ 2 '/= 1 (mod pe) and (1 + p)P'~ 2 = 1 (mod pe. Indeed.. Finally. This is true fore = 2 and let us assume it is true for e-1. t·-1 B contains the distinct elements 1P . that is. Let us assume e 2': 3. The Group of Invertible Residue Classes 43 Cis a subgroup of P(pe) having order lfJ(pe)/cp(p) =pe-l because C is a cyclic group with generator 1 + p. Proof: The first assertion is obvious. 3} is a cyclic group generated by 3.1)P (since they have distinct images by f). It is obviously a well~defined group-homomorphism onto P( 4). From bP'~' = b (mod p) it follows that bd = (bd)p'~' = 1 (mod p) sop.3 = 1 + 2e.2). (1+p)P'~" ¢ 1 (mod pe-l) and (1+p)P'~ 3 =1 (mod pe.1 = cp(pe).1.1 = I}. It is enough to show that 52 '~" #I.1 divides d.•:-1 -. (p . a Let a denote the residue class of a modulo 2e and the residue class of a modulo 4. By Lemma 1. Let f : P(2e) ---+ P( 4) be defined by f(a) = a.1) x Zjpe.1. P(pe) has an element of order (p. . It is enough to show that (1 + p)P' ~ 2 # I.r·-1 . If e > 3 then P(2e) ~ Z/2 x Z/2e. Thus P(pe) contains the subgroup BC ~ B x C. we have (1 + p)P'~ 2 = 1+ (~)rpe-2 + (~)r2p2(e-2) + .2. C is a subgroup of P(2e) having order lfJ(2e)/lfJ(4) = 2e.2 and is not a cyclic group. Thus B hasp. let b be a primitive root modulo p. + rPpP(e-2) = 1 + rpe-1 + spe.1 elements and P(pe) = BC ~ B X C. • We need a special treatment for the case p = 2. Therefore (1+p)P'~" = 1+rpe.1 .1 ). .3 · 22 '/= 1 (mod 2e)..3 = (1 + 22) 2e. let B = {a E P(pe) I aP.2 wherer '/= 0 (mod p). Raising to the pth power. (1 + p)P'~ 2 ¢ 1 (mod pe).2 because P(2e)/C ~ P(4). We haveaP'~l E B for every a E P(p).1. thus d = p.. K. Cis a cyclic group generated by 5. • This is false if and only if p = 2 and e = 3. Indeed 52e.

To see that P(2e) is not cyclic. L. Proof: By (I). Choosing a 2 such that 9P. 1). respectively.2ap (mod p 2 ). • The following related lemma will be useful: Lemma 3.gP.44 3. 4.2a2 ¢ b (mod p).1 = 1 (mod p 2 ).2ap = 1 +bp. g~-l ¢ 1 (mod p 2 ). • As a consequence.1 elements. Residue Classes We show now that P(2e) is isomorphic to the Cartesian product {1. 1 when a= -1 (mod 4). except when p = 2. we just observe that the order of every element of P(2e) divides 2e. 92 = g (mod p) andgf. we note that if pis any prime then P(pe) has even order. Therefore. a ::. y) 2 rs = (1. is called a primitive root modulo m. let a E Z and consider the congruence (g+ap)P. Since {1. no element of G x H has order (2r) · (2s). (J). 2pe. To prove the converse. where e ::. each generator of P(m). P( m) is a cyclic group if and only if m = 2. it follows that B is an isomorphism. there exist g 1 and g2 such that g 1 = g (mod p). and (K). e = 1.1.2 a 1 = b (mod p). 1 and p is an odd prime. Let B: P(2e)---> {1. Choosing a 1 such that 9P. y E H we have (x. g 1 = 92 = g (mod p). we indicate the values of m for which P(m) is a cyclic group. then P(2e) ~ Z/2 x Z/2e. It is obvious that B is a group-homomorphism and from a = ( -1 )"a* we conclude that B is one-to-one.2 . -a when a= -1 (mod 4).1 = gP. 1 ::. By (F) it suffices to show that if G has order 2r and H has order 2s then G x H is not cyclic. (we remark that if a E P(2e) then a is odd) and r = { 0 when a = 1 (mod 4). for every x E G.1 + (p-1)gP. -1} x C be the mapping so defined: B(a) = (( -1)". then 9 1 = g + a 1 p has the required property. -1} X C. P(m) is cyclic for each of the given values of m. or each integer a of this residue class. Indeed. then 92 = g + a 2 p is such that 9~. noting that P(2pe) ~ P(2) X P(pe) = P(pe). -1} x C have 2'. Moreover. m .2 . a*) where a* = { a when a = 1 (mod 4). • . Proof: If gP-l = 1 + bp with b E Z. If g is a primitive root modulo p.1 ¢ 1 (mod p 2 ). In such a case. pe. Since P(2e) and {1. -1} and C are isomorphic: to the additive groups Z/2 and Z/2e.2 .

not all equal to 0. Let us assume the theorem true for all groups having a system of generators with less than k elements. < b. Let G be a finite Abelian group (written multiplicatively). we may assume that b = ei... . In fact. not all equal to zero. if e..1) i=I Let b be the minimum of the absolute values of all nonzero exponents. Proof (Artin): Let k be an integer with the following properties: (1) there exist elements XI. xk} of G. k XIr 1.2) by the qth power of (3. with 0 < r. we consider the system of generators {xix{'.. i=2 which is contrary to the definition of b. for some relation (3.2) i=I be any other relation.b + r. Theorem 2. It is a theoretical result analogous to the theorems of structure of P(m).3) with 0 < r. xk} is also a system of generators of G and the element YI has order b = ei. . dividing (3. = q. let e. E Z.3. Since G is a finite group. 3. Finite Abelian Groups 45 3. If k = 1 then G consists of all the powers of XI. with J. We shall not require this fact until Chapter 8. ek. < b. if . which is a contradiction. . Xk. which appear in all possible relations of type (3. . . (3. there exist integers ei. (2) k is the smallest integer satisfying (1).1). . such that k II x~' = 1.3 Finite Abelian Groups We conclude this chapter by proving the structure theorem of finite Abelian groups. . Then G is isomorphic to a Cartesian product of cyclic groups. In fact. b = ei divides all exponents e...1). . it satisfies the relation (3.. so G is a cyclic group.. Let k IJ x{' = 1 (3. Now.. x2. if h = qei + r with 0 < r < ei = b. Then b = ei divides fi. Xk in G such that every element of G is a product of powers of XI. Similarly.. x 2 . . .In fact. thus b > 0 and by renumbering and taking inverses.1) we obtain II x{'-qe. so {YI. if necessary. = qib and YI = XIX~2 • • • x'fc"..

. . therefore. then Yi has order p. hence of n. . We shall prove by induction that the order of G. Since p divides m = m1m2 · · · mk then p divides mi (for some index i. if x E G. with order mi. b divides f. . . By induction.. x~ 1 qk = 1. We shall prove that this is indeed true. y' are uniquely determined by x. Proof: By Theorem 2. #( G I H) divides a power of n'.. As we only require this fact for Abelian groups. Residue Classes y{ = 1 then x{ x~q2 · · · x~qk = 1 and. Next. .. Thus #(G)= #(GIH) ·#(H) divides a power of n.. G ~ G1 x · · · x Gk where Gi is a cyclic group (fori = 1. the mapping x ~--+ (yp. . x =1. this is a relation of type x~ 1 -d 1 · x~2 · · · x~k = 1. i :<:. k). The elements y~ 1 .. any uniqueness statement can at most hold for decompositions into cyclic groups of prime- power order. and y~ 1 = Yt 1 so also y' = z'. y~ = x~ 1 x. We may assume that #(G) > 1. if Yi E G corresponds to (1. then xn = e. #(G) divides a power of n. . If H is the subgroup of G generated by x. where G 1 is the group generated by y 1 • Indeed. for if y~ 1 y 1 = yt 1z' then y~ 1 -d 1 · (y' z'. ..e (identity element of G).1 ) = 1.. Another proof independent of Theorem 2 is the following: • Let n be the exponent of the group G. Since the order of every element of the quotient group G I H divides n. generated by {x2. and for this purpose we shall first consider the Abelian groups of prime-power order.. Therefore. by what we proved above. 1) E G 1 x · · · x Gi x · · · x Gk. The first basic fact to note also holds for non-Abelian groups.. y') is an isomorphism between G and G 1 x G'. . So. y' E G'. we may write x = y~ 1 y 1 with c 1 E Z.46 3. k). then G has an element of order p. we show that G ~ G 1 x G'. being a consequence of the first Sylow theorem. then #(H) divides n. 1q2 . so G is a Cartesian product of cyclic groups. • The preceding theorem contains no uniqueness assertion. on the other hand. 1 :<:. so y~ 1 -d 1 = 1. x7':. thus by the above proof b divides c 1 . If G is a finite Abelian group of order m and p is a prime dividing m. the exponent n' of G I H divides n. xk} is isomorphic to a Cartesian product of cyclic groups (by induction on k). Theorem 1 states that every cyclic group of order m is isomorphic to the Cartesian product of cyclic groups of prime-power order. we shall indicate here a simpler direct proof: M. For example. The group G'. Let x E G.d 1 . If Xi is a generator of Gi and mi = pm~.

where each G. r. .::: 1.. . By (N). We shall show that G is the internal direct product of the subgroups G(Pd' . that is. we may assume that r . . there exists a permutation 1r of{1.. e. by (M) there exists an element in G having order q. • In order to derive the uniqueness theorem. that is. hr such that L~=l h. a finite group G is said to be a p-group when its order is a power of p. if pis a prime dividing rn = #(G) then p divides a power of the exponent n. Then G is isomorphic to the Cartesian product of the p. and p 1 . hence the integers m 1 . X Gs. r. . . In view of (M) we deduce: N.1 ({1}x· · ·XG. A finite Abelian group G is a p-group if and only if the order of every element of G is a power of p. by Lagrange's theorem the order of every element of G must be a power of p. .r} suchthatq1r(i) = p..::: 2. Let G be a finite Abelian group of order rn = TI~=l p~' (with r > 0. If x E G we may write * This result also holds for non-Abelian groups. = 1. p = p.) is a p.)' as follows from Lagrange's theorem. If x E G has order n then xn' has order p. then s = r. each G(p..-groups G(p. if q is a prime different from p and dividing the order of G....) fori = 1. Conversely.. . .. . • If pis a prime number.) = {x E G I order of x is a power of pi}: G ~ G(pJ) X · · • X G(Pr)· This decomposition is unique in the following strong sense: if B is an isomorphism e: G -> Gl X . we first prove the unique- ness of decomposition into the Cartesian product of p-groups (for different primes p): 0. is a q. i :::.-group ( q1 . 1 :::. Proof: If r = 1 then G = G(p. .. = rnjp~'. By (M) and Lagrange's theorem G(p) =f.. and ifF. . So.3.. for some i. .= e. . n = pn'. G(p... Pr distinct primes).m. .-group. . Finite Abelian Groups 47 Now. sop divides n..X···X{1}) then F1r(i) = G(p. For every prime p let G(p) = {x E G I order of xis a power of p}. q8 being distinct primes). {1} if and only if p divides rn. * Proof: If G is a p-group.. 3..)· For every i let rn. mr are relatively prime and there exist integers h1.

for every i we have G(p. Thus...m. by the uniqueness of the decomposition of m into prime factors. G~ are cyclic groups. if y E G(p. . . • • • . Moreover. there is a permutation 1r of {1. G(Pr) : G ~ G(pt) x · · · x G(Pr). X Gs is an isomorphism. we have shown that G is the internal direct product of the subgroups G(pt). s} such that q7r(i) =Pi. Let us assume now that e: G --+ Gl X .m.). xh. Thus. Thus. Therefore k = p{'.)) = pr' for every i = 1. has an order power of Pi. then the order of y is p{' for some fi 2': 0. .) n H.m. we have F7r(i) = G(p. G7r(i) is a Pi-group. Since m = TI~=l p~'' and also m = #(G) = n:=l qf1 then necessarily s = r. k = TI#i pJ1 is the order of y. G(p. In fact.r. hence F7r(i) c. r} such that G~(i) ~ Gi. since the order of G(p. Proof: By Theorem 2. is a qi-group. There is no loss of generality if we assume that . it follows that the subgroup of G generated by G(p 1 ). In view of (0). G is isomorphic to a Cartesian product of cyclic groups of prime-power order. #( G/) = pf'.... Moreover. Residue Classes and (xh.) n Hi = {1}. the p-groups appearing in any decomposition of G correspond to the primes dividing #(G) = m. then F7r(i) is a Pi-group contained in G.. . with generators Xi. it follows that #(G(p. let G be a p-group G ~ G1 X · · · X Gr ~ G~ X · · · X G~. respectively. G~ is a cyclic group of prime- power order. Let F7r(i) be the subgroup of G which corresponds by the isomorphism 8 to the subgroup {1} X · · · X G7r{t) X · · · X {1 }. q8 are distinct primes. then r = s and there exists a permutation 1r of {1. . From x = TI~=l xh. there is no loss of generality in assuming that the group itself is a p-group.) is equal toG itself. where Hi denotes the subgroup generated by all G(p.. by Theorem 1.)· • Now we are ready to prove the main uniqueness theorem: Theorem 3. if G ~ G 1 x · · · x Gr ~ Gi x · · · x G~ where each Gi.m. where G. therefore by Lemma 1.) is a power of Pi and m = TI~=l pr'. In fact. and #(G7r(i)) = p~'.. . . x~ having orders #( Gi) = pe'. .. and q1.) with j i= i. Let pJ1 be the order of yj. Every finite Abelian group is isomorphic to a Cartesian product of cyclic groups with prime-power orders. Since y E Hi then y = TI#i Y] where Y] E G(p1 ) for every j i= i. ..)) = p~'. in order to prove the uniqueness of the decomposition. ..m = 1 (by Lagrange's theorem). G is isomorphic to a Cartesian product of cyclic groups.48 3. and for every such prime p the product of p-groups in the decomposition must be isomorphic to the subgroup G(p). where Gi. We conclude that the order of y is necessarily 1. so y = 1. so xh. . In particular.)p'' = xh. G(p. E G(p...) and since #(F7r(i)) = #(G(p.

cp(n) = 3. . (h) cp(n) =2 (mod 4). Show that for every natural number m there exist only finitely many numbers n such that cp(n) = m. . since TI~= 1 pe' =#(G) = TI~= 1 ph.. from G ~ G~ x · · · x G~ it follows that G** -~ G'** 1 X 0 0 0 X G'** j-1 X G'** j X 0 0 0' where each G~** is the cyclic group generated by xitp"i ( z 0 . r. find all integers n such that cp(n) = 2. . (b) cp(n) = n.. . By what we have just proved. 0 0 ) and certainly Gj** is not trivial. In particular. therefore r = s. (g) 2cp( n) divides n.1 where each 0 0 0 Gi* is the cyclic group generated by xf' j ( i = 1. . (c) cp(n) = cp(2n). from G ~ G~ x · · · x G~ we deduce that #(G*) = p8 ..1. . it follows that G** ~ Gi* X 0 0 X Gj:. r showing the actual equality. J .. If j is the smallest index such that ej < /j.. From G ~ G1 X •.1). so G* is a subgroup of G.. and so we have arrived at a contradiction. From G ~ G1 X 0 X Gr. cp(n) = 6. On the other hand. let us prove that e 1 = JI. Exercises 49 Let G* = {x E G I xP = 1}. . where Gi is the subgroup of Gi generated ~ 0 0 0 by xf'. (d) cp(n) = cp(4n) = cp(6n). (e) cp(n) = 12. Now.. ..• Thus #(G*) = I1~= 1 #(Gi) = pr since each Gi has order p. 2.. . . J. let G** = { x E G I there exists y E G such that yP'i = x }.. . (f) cp(n) divides n. then G** is a subgroup of G.• X Gr it follows that G* Gi X X G. j . the number of cyclic p-groups in any decomposition of G** must be invariant. .. • EXERCISES 1. 1 Similarly.. er = fr· It is enough to show that ei 2: /i for every i = 1. Thus ei 2: fi for every i = 1. Determine the positive integers such that: (a) cp(n) = n/2. . cp(n) = 4.1.1.

11.. Show that if d = gcd(m. Determine explicitly the multiplication table of the integers modulo 12.1 + qP.50 3. 13. n and gcd(m. Show that { a:Eo + b. 5. n be relatively prime positive integers. Prove that pq.. 12. (b) 4x =16 (mod 57). Let {x 0 . ax1 + b. m ::. Solve the following system of congruences: x =1 (mod 2) { x =2 (mod 3) x =3 (mod 5). (d) 20x =60 (mod 80). Prove that if d divides n then cp( d) divides cp( n). . . Solve the following numerical congruences: (a) 3x=12 (mod 17). 6. Let p. 4. Let m. Prove that m'P(n) + n'P(m) =1 (mod mn). 7. n) = 1. n) then cp(mn) = (dcp(m)cp(n))/cp(d). Residue Classes 3. x 1 . .. Solve the following system of congruences: x =1 (mod 2) { x =2 (mod 3) x = 3 (mod 4) x =4 (mod 5).. (c) 5x =12 (mod 18). axn-1 + b} . Determine the sum of all integers m such that 1 ::. Xn-d be a complete set of residues modulo n > 1 and let a be an integer relatively prime to n and b any integer. 9. Solve the following system of congruences: 2x =5 (mod 7) { 4x =4 (mod 9) 2x =6 (mod 25). 10. .1 =1 (mod pq). verify which residue classes are invertible and find their order in the multiplicative group P(12). q be distinct prime numbers. 8.

{yo. + (p _ 1) n ={-10 (mod (mod p) p) when p . + an . 4. pe. n be relatively prime positive integers. Let f E . and let a be an integer relatively prime to q. x1. Establish this as a particular case of a more general fact. 19. Exercises 51 is a complete set of residues modulo n. and P(27). . 18. 20. Prove Wilson's theorem: (m. f(m + n).. Assume that there exists an integer m such that the prime number p divides f(m). 15. Show that {nxi + myj I i = 0. Let p be a prime number and let a be a positive integer such that p does not divide a. 16. p. Show that there exist infinitely many integers n such that f(n) is not a prime number. otherwise. f(m + 1).. Show that 1n + 2n + . . 10 + a2 . m . 1. Let m.1} is a complete set of residues modulo mn. Let p be a prime number and let n be a natural number dividing = 1 (mod p) has exactly n roots.. Show that if aP = a (mod p 2 ).Z[X] be a polynomial of degree greater than 0. where d = gcd(n. Show that the congruence xn 17. y1. 24.1 divides n. Let {xo. a+ p (mod p 2 ). . Show that p divides f(x) for every integer x. respectively. 1. Let f E . 1)!} 2 = (-1)(p+l)/2 (mod p). Show that if pis an odd prime number.. . then (a+ p)P ¢. Yn-d be complete sets of residues modulo m and n.1)! =-1 (mod m) if and only if m is a prime number... .. Show that there exist primitive roots r modulo p such that rp-l ¢. n .. P(31). . Show that the congruence xn a = (mod q) has a solution if and only if a'P(q)fd = 1 (mod q). Determine all the generators of the cyclic groups P(17). 22.. 25. .Z[X] have degree n. Let q be equal to 2.. Let p be a prime number. . 21..1. Prove that any integer a = ao + al .1. . 10n is congruent modulo 9 to the sum of its digits: a = a 0 + a 1 + · · · + an (mod 9). 102 + . 14. f(m + 2). j = 0. Xm-d. . then { ( p... 23. cp(q)). 1 (mod p 2 ). or 2pe (where p is an odd prime). ..

. 32. m ::. Show that ( prn) pr =n (mod pn) ( ( ~) denotes the number of combinations of a letters in groups of b letters). Let r be a given primitive root modulo p. Residue Classes 26. and we write a = indr(m). where 0 ::. 29.1 =j. we say that a is the index of m with respect tor (modulo p). 33. p ~ 1. k=1 30. compute the least positive residue modulo 17 of the following integers: (a) a = 432 x 8328. a < p ~ 1. Let p be a prime number and let e be a positive integer dividing p ~ 1. 27. 31. Hint: Show that pr n ~ ( pr ~ 1 1) = IJ pr. Show that indr(mn) = indr(m) + indr(n) (mod p ~ 1). 1 ::. If m is an integer.52 3. Let r be the smallest primitive root modulo 29.1 ( pr n k ~1 ) =(~ 1)P r -1 (mod p). b ::. Let p oJ 2 be a prime number and let r be a primitive root modulo p such that rP. r be any natural numbers. (c) c = (5 5 ) 5 . compute the least positive residue modulo 29 of the following integers: (a) a = 583 x 1875. Let p be a prime number and let n. Using the table of indices. Show that P(ab) is not a cyclic group. (c) c = ((33)3)3. Show that there are exactly 'P(e) residue classes modulo p having order e in the multiplicative group P(p). determine the indices of the prime residue classes modulo 29. Using the table of indices. and m = ra (mod p).:> 3 be relatively prime integers and let b be odd. Let a. 1 (mod p 2 ). Show that r mod prn generates P(prn) for every m > 1. (b) b = 1051 875 . with respect to r. (b) b = 38919 . 28.

bi :::. Let f' E Z[X] be the derivative of f. then f is said to be a multiplicative function. (b) X 4 + 3X 3 .1.3 E lFn[X]. ar be pairwise relatively prime positive integers.4 E lF7[X]. b :::. 37. pr-l. . if f(a) 'f= 0 (mod pr) there exists no integer b. (b) If f'(a) = 0 (mod p) then there are p integers b0 .2X 2 . .1.3 E lFs[X]. f E Z[X] and assume that f(a) =0 (mod pr-l ). . 4X 2 +X. . r :::=: 2 an integer. bp-l such that f(bi) = 0 (mod pr). a :::. Hint: For (b) use the previous exercise. pr. Compute the four last digits of: (a) (( 99)9)9. f(b) = 0 (mod pr).8 =0 (mod 5 2 ). 0:::. Any mapping f from the set of positive integers with values in a domain R is called an arithmetical function. . (b) 9(9(99)). 3X 3 . when f(a) 0 = (mod pr) and these integers satisfy bi = a (mod pr-l). and 0 :::. Moreover. . Using the table of indices.3x + 2 =0 (mod 245). if f(mn) = f(m) · f(n) when m. then g is also multiplicative. . n are relatively prime. b a = (mod pr-l) such that f(b) 0 (mod pr). a = TI~=l ai. Let p be a prime number.. pr -1.. Exercises 53 34. Find the decomposition into irreducible factors of the following polynomials: (a) X 4 + 2X. if g is defined by g(n) = I:dln f(d). 35. Solve the congruences: (a) x 3 + 5x. Show that if b E P(a) then bt =1 (mod a). . t = lcm{ip(ai).. Show that if f is multiplicative. 39. .= 38. (c) X 4 . on the other hand. where 0 :::. 40. Let a 1 .9X. solve the congruence 25x =15 (mod 29). Show that: (a) If f'(a) 'f= 0 (mod p) then there exists a unique integer b such = that b a (mod pr-l ). ip(ar)}.. 36. (b) x 3 .

.. . 0.L(1) = 1. we define a scalar multiplication as r(sn) = (rsn)- Show: (a) A is a commutative ring and also an R-module. . s2. Residue Classes 41. and let T(n) de- note the number of positive divisors of n. (sn) E A.. .. The arithmetical function f.L = e.. 1...) of elements of R. 1. sn. the set of sequences s = (s 1. Show that 7r(s * s') = ?T(s) · ?T(s')..L is called the Mobius function. where oo · n = oo · oo = oo for every integer n > 0. u * f.. ). .. 44. that is. If n = n~=l p~. show that IT PiP . the zero element is 0 = (0. and f. 42. f. . is the prime decomposition of n. let 7r(O) = oo. Let O'(n) denote the sum of positive divisors of n ~ 1.--1 1 ' r e. 0. On the set A we define the following operations: (sn) + (s~) = (sn + s~). and where tn = L sds~..54 3.L(n) = 0 when some square greater than 1 divides n. Show that 0'. . let 7r( s) be the smallest integer n such that Sn i= 0. Let R be a domain and let A be the set of all arithmetical functions with values in R.L E A be its inverse. s i= 0. if r E R. (b) For every s = ( Sn). (c) s E A is invertible in A if and only if 7r( s) = 1 and s 1 is invertible in the ring R. dd'=n Besides. Prove that f. 45. Let u = (1. ) and the unit element is e = (1. Show that Ldln[T(d)j3 = [Ldln T(d)j2. Hint: Use the preceding exercise. that is. hence A is a domain.L(n) = ( -1rwhen n = P1P2 .+l O'(n) = i=l ' r T(n) = IT (ei + 1).. ) E A and let f. ·Pr (product of r distinct primes): deduce that JL is a multiplicative function. 0. . T are multiplicative functions. i=l 43.

51. din . din (d) 1 = LT(d)JL(~). (c) T(2n + 1) is at least equal to the number of odd positive divisors of n. prove the following relations: (a) ""' (d) ={ 1 when n = 1. n) then a(m)a(n) = L ta(~2n). PI. n are powers of the same prime number. (b) T(2n. Show the Mobius inversion formula: If s. P2 are prime numbers). m mn mn 50. tid Hint: First consider the case where m. { A( n) = 0 otherwise. n > 1. din (b) cp(n) = L ~<~)·d. din (c) n = L a(d)JL(~). Prove: (a) T( n) is odd if and only if n is a square. Prove: (a) log n = LA( d). Prove that if m > 0. Show that if d = gcd(m. As an application. L 1-l 0 when n i= 1. PI i= P2 (where p. then a(m) a(mn) a(m)a(n) --<--:::. dJn 47. 48. 49. Exercises 55 46. Prove that n is equal to the product of its proper positive divisors if and only if n = p 3 or n = P1P2.1) 2': T(n) when n 2': 1. Let A be the von M angoldt arithmetical function defined as follows: A( n) = log p when n is a power of some prime number p. s' E A then u * s = s' if and only if s = 1-l * s'.

. Let >. Residue Classes (b) A(n) = LJ-L(d)log(~)=. [2x] + [2y].k 2 . Prove that if n ~ 1 then 2:::. i=l Prove: (a) . set r 1 when L ei is even.. i=l . (b) [x/n] = [[x]/n] for every positive integer n.(n) for any positive integers m. Let J.. [n/m]) . defined as follows: . x < [x] + 1.= 1 [n/m].1 [:] <p(m) = n(n + 1)/2. din 53.\(n) = r -1 when L ei is odd. be the Liouville arithmetical function.. L 0 otherwise. (d) [x] + [y] + [x + y] :::.LJ-L(d)logd. Let n ~ 1 and k = [Jri]. Show that n n L f(m) = L [n/m]g(m).(m)>.\(mn) = >. n. . [x + y]. Show that i. r(m) ~2 (. 54.\(1) = 1.t. For every real number x let [x] denote the unique integer such that [x] :::. din din 52. and if n = Il~=l p~'.(d) = { 1 when~ is a square.= 1 T(m) = I::. Prove: (a) [x] + [y] :::. 57. each Pi prime number. (b) '""">. g be arithmetical functions such that f(n) = L:dln g(d). 56. Prove that j.56 3. (c) The number of multiples of n which do not exceed xis [x/n]. m=l m=l 55. ei ~ 1.

where pis a prime number not dividing m and p = 1 (mod 4). 60. 859 433. A natural number n is said to be perfect when n is equal to the sum of its proper divisors. 59. 6 972 593. On the other hand. and assume that h is multiplicative. Prove: n is an even perfect number if and only if n = 2P. (b) Any two Fermat numbers are relatively prime. hence n is not a perfect number. n ::. g. Show that if n is odd and has at most two distinct prime factors. din 63. where p. (c) If a 2: 2 and ar + 1 is prime then a is even and r is a power of 2.1 (where p is a prime) is called a M ersenne prime. 2P . Any such number must have at least eight distinct prime factors and be greater than 10300 .1)J1(njd). Chapter 2. it is not known whether there are infinitely many even perfect numbers (see Ribenboim [25. there is at most one odd perfect number of the type prm 2 . h be arithmetical functions.. 61. given m. Let f.1 (2P. equivalently. It is an open question whether the number of Fermat primes is finite. 1 398 269. It is not yet known whether there are infinitely many Mersenne primes. F 1 . 756 839. On the other hand. Section VII]). 3 021 377. 62. Section VI]). Note: It is not known whether there exists any odd perfect number. The largest known composite Fermat number is Fn with n = 23471 (see Ribenboim [25. 5. F4. Give examples of even perfect numbers. . 1 257 787. 21 701. We note in this respect that the only Fermat numbers which are known to be prime are Fo. it has been shown that Fn is not prime when 5 ::. 86 243. As an application deduce anew that if g(n) = Ldln f(d) and g is multiplicative then so is f. with p prime not dividing m. Chapter 2. 23 and for many other values of n.1 are primes. then (J(n) < 2n. ' 19 937.2. F3 . F2 . Let n be an odd perfect number. Any prime q of the type q = 2P . (d) 641 divides F 5 (Euler). 216 091. Prove that n = prm 2 . 132 049. The numbers Fn 22 n +1 (n > 0 integer) are called Fermat numbers. Exercises 57 58. f * g = h. Prove: (a) If r > 0 then Fn divides Fn+r ..1). 3. 110 503. Prove that the nth cyclotomic polynomial is expressible directly by means of the Mobius function as follows: <I>n =II (Xd. 23 209. The known Mersenne primes correspond to p = 2. . 2 976 221. 44 497.

Residue Classes 64.. show that every arithmetical function with values in R is the product of a finite number of "prime" arithmetical functions. Determine the number of pairwise nonisomorphic Abelian groups of order 8. 71. while the multiplication follows the same pattern as for polynomials (note that for every monomial m E S there exist only finitely many monomials m'. .. 67. Explicitly. . Math. ek+l = 0). where p 1 . with coefficients in R. Xn.. We say that a finite Abelian group G is indecomposable if it is not possible to write G ~ G 1 x G 2 . :::0: r > ei+ 1 (with the convention that eo = L~=l ej.58 3. Show that Gr is a subgroup of G having order where i is the unique index such that e. Let Gr {x E G I prx = 0}. Show that the number of pairwise nonisomorphic Abelian groups of order m = Il~=l p~' is Il~=l 1r(ei). 975-985. If R is a unique factorization domain. 69. * The Ring of Number Theoretic Functions. 65. Show that a finite Abelian group G is cyclic if and only if G ~ Z/p~ 1 X··· X Z/p~r. 68.. 70.. 1959.. 16 200.: n 2 :::0: · · · :::0: n 1 > 0 such that "LI=l ni = e. Show that the ring of arithmetical functions with values in the domain R is isomorphic to the ring of unrestricted formal power series S = R[[[X1.]]]. 9. Show that G is a cyclic group. where we define 1r(e) as follows: it is the number of nonincreasing sequences of integers n 1 :. . where G 1 . Let G be an Abelian group of order m and assume that for every prime p dividing m. 66. S consists of all countable infinite formal sums of monomials in the variables X. Note: Cashwell and Everett * established that if R is a field then the ring of arithmetical functions with values in this field is a unique factorization domain. Pacific J. .. m" E S such that m'm" = m). G 2 are Abelian groups of strictly smaller order. G has exactly p . Pr are distinct prime numbers. . . Let G ~ Z/pe 1 x Z/pe 2 x · · · x Z/pe' where e1 :::0: e2 :::0: · · · :::0: ek > 0. The addition in S is componentwise. Show that G is indecomposable if and only if it is cyclic of prime-power order.1 elements of order p. .

1 or also of order p. (pr _ pr-1) · In particular. Moreover.. show that G ~ 'lljp x · · · x 'lljp (for a finite number of copies of 'lljp). Show that if G is an elementary Abelian p-group of order pn and 1 ::. 73. the number of subgroups of order pr is the same as the number of subgroups of order pn-r. ej 2 r . r ::. Exercises 59 72. . ..1 > eJ+1 (with the same convention as in the previous exercise).1 subgroups of order pn. 7 4.1 elements of order p.1 elements of order p. . As a corollary. Let G be as in the previous exercise. there are 1 + p + p 2 + · · · + pn. show that G has pk . n then the number of distinct subgroups of order pr of G is (pn _ 1)(pn _ p)(pn _ p2).. Show that G is a vector space over the field lF p· If G is finite. . j are such that ei 2 r > ei+ 1. (pn _ pr-1) (pr _ 1)(pr _ p)(pr _ p2). Show that the number of elements of order pr in G is equal to where i.. . Let G be an Abelian group such that every nonzero element has order p. thus G is cyclic if and only if it has p . Such Abelian groups are called elementary Abelian p-groups.

is the residue class of a modulo p~' for all i = 1. by the above isomorphism. If m = p~ 1 • • • p~r is the prime-power decomposition of m. Otherwise. Let p be an odd prime. r. (3) a = w5 (mod p) where t is even. Then a = x 2 (mod p). Proof: (1) ----+ (2) Let x be an integer such that a = x2 (mod pe). its component in the group P(p~' ).2: B. (F). . If m > 1 and a are integers. the following conditions are equivalent: ( 1) a is a quadratic residue modulo pe. When is the residue class a a square in the multiplicative group P(m)? In other words. An element of a Cartesian product of groups is a square if and only if its components are squares. we say that a is a quadratic nonresidue modulo m. . 61 . Let m > 1 and let a be an integer relatively prime to m. m) = 1. if a is an integer relatively prime to m. . when p-=/:.. (2) a is a quadratic residue modulo p. If a is an integer prime to p. Proof: By Chapter 3.1 The Legendre Symbol and Gauss' Reciprocity Law In this chapter we investigate the following question. then a is a quadratic residue modulo m if and only if it is a quadratic residue modulo p~' for all i = 1. and gcd(a. when does there exist an integer x such that x 2 = a (mod m) ? Definition 1. P(m) ~ II=l P(p~'). The first results will reduce the problem to that of finding the quadratic residues modulo an odd prime p or 4 or 8. r... and let wo be a primitive root modulo p. • The study of squares in P(pe) will now be reduced to that of squares in P(p). .4 Quadratic Residues 4. e > 1. If a E P(m). A. we say that a is a quadratic residue modulo m when a is a square in P(m)..

3}. Since wg = hypothesis a = w6 (mod p). then the only square in P( 4). If a is an integer. letting x = (-1)f'sf" (mod 2e).3 squares.3 nonsquares. 7}. Let a be an odd integer. Let e > 3. P(8) = {I. (3) a =1 (mod 8) if 8 divides m. we may write a = (-l)e'se" (mod 2e).1) because the group P(p) has order p . This is equivalent to a = 1 (mod 8). These congruences have a solution if and only if e'. 3.1) and from t we even deduce that s is even.2 ). by Chapter 3. 5. 1}. (J). we have: C. say. where f' E {0. Putting together these results. P(pe) is the cyclic group generated by w(1 + p) where w = wg . Let m > 1 and a be relatively prime integers. (2) a is a quadratic residue modulo 8 if and only if a =1 (mod 8). in P(2e) there are exactly 2e. Then: (1) a is a quadratic residue modulo 4 if and only if a =1 (mod 4). (B). 1}. (3) a is a quadratic residue modulo 2e (where e > 3) if and only if a is a quadratic residue modulo 8. Quadratic Residues (2) --> (3) From a = x 2 (mod p) and a = wS (mod p). We conclude that a = [wu(l + p)uj2 (mod pe). that is. Then a is a quadratic residue modulo m if and only if: (1) a is a quadratic residue modulo p.3 = 3 · 2e. ("-1 = w 8 (1 + p) 8 (mod pe) for some = w (mod p) and (1 +p) = 1 (mod p) then (. and (C). where e" is even.1. • . where e' E {0. hence s = t 8 0 a w0 (mod p). for every odd prime p dividing m. 0 ~ f" < 2e.2 • If xis an integer such that x 2 = a (mod 2e). (3) --> (1) By Chapter 3.2 . e" are even. • Let us note that. hence 2e-l . • For p = 2. s = 2u. a = se" (mod 2e). for e > 3. we have: D. By (mod p . x 0 =w (mod p) it follows that t = 2u (mod p. (2) a = 1 (mod 4) if 4 divides m but 8 does not divide m. P(8) is the residue class of 1. (K).62 4. 0 ~ e" < 2e.2e. Proof: Since P(4) = {I. it follows that 2f' e' = (mod 2) and 2/" = e" (mod 2e. Proof: This results immediately from (A). 1 ~ s < pe.-1 s. Hence a -. Thus t is even.

By (B). We define the Legendre symbol (~) of a. defined by f(a) = a. 2 this shows that P(p) has twice as many elements as P(p) 2 .1).1. 4. Let w be a primitive root modulo p. s have the same parity. b w 8 (mod p) where 0 :::::. Proof: The first assertion is immediate. there are as many quadratic residue classes as there are quadratic nonresidue classes modulo pe where e 2: 1. we also use the notation (~) = (ajp). where a is the residue class of a modulo pe and is a the residue class of a modulo p. we have (ajp) = 1 if and only if r is even. Consider the mapping IJ: P(p) ---> P(p) 2 . relative to p.1. not multiples of p. then t is even if and only if r. defined by iJ(x) = x 2 . a is a square if and only if is a a square. we introduce the following terminology: Definition 2. (2) (abjp) = (ajp)(bjp). s < p. This proves the second assertion. • Let us note that the above result does not hold for p = 2 (as we have already remarked) as well as for products of different primes (for example. Then iJ(x) = iJ('fJ) if and only if x = 'f} or x = -'j}. • F. Proof: First we assume e = 1. bare integers. when m = 15 there are only two quadratic residue classes and six quadratic nonresidue classes modulo 15). For typographical reasons. and similarly (bjp) = 1 when sis even. E. Let p be an odd prime and let a be a nonzero integer not a multiple of p. with t = r + s (mod p. we may write a = = wr (mod p). If e > 1 we consider the group homomorphism f : P(pe) ---> P(p). when a is a quadratic nonresidue modulo p. because P(p) = IFP •• Since p f. r. so there are as many square residues as nonresidues modulo p. Since ab = wt (mod p). For every odd prime p. The Legendre Symbol and Gauss' Reciprocity Law 63 In order to determine the quadratic residues modulo p. The Legendre symbol has the following properties: (1) if a =b (mod p) then (ajp) = (bjp). By (B). Therefore P(pe) has as many squares as nonsquares. If a. We may find whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo p by explicit determination of the multiplication in the group P(p) or by first . as follows: (~) {-~ when a is a quadratic residue modulo p.

-1 is a square modulo p if and only if p =1 (mod 4). not a multiple of p. Let p be an odd prime and let a be an integer not a multiple of p. p 2..1)/ 2 (mod p) implies the equality ( -1/p) ( -1)(P. let a be an integer.2 . because p does not divide k + k'. Then (ajp) =a(p. (Gauss' Criterion). I. and let v be the number of elements ka in the set .a = (-1 t · 1 · 2 · · · · · . where w is a primitive root modulo p and 0 ~ t < p . By (G). such that a = s (mod p) or a -s = (mod p).1)/2. . We deduce that a(p-l)/ 2 = (-1)v (mod p). So ( -1/p) = 1 exactly when p = 1 (mod 4).1)/2. For large primes this may be rather involved. If p does not divide a there exists a unique integers. Quadratic Residues determining a primitive root modulo p.k'.64 4.. Proof: 1 ( -1/p) 2 =( -l)(P.1)/2 then ka =/'. We shall be interested in simpler methods. Thus. Proof: If 1 ~ k < k' ~ (p.. • If pis large Euler's criterion is not convenient. we conclude that (ajp) = ( -1)v.1)/ 2 = -1 (mod p). Since ill is not a square in P(p) (as follows from (B)) and wCP.1)/2). (p -1)/2 are such that s or-sis congruent modulo p to some multiple ka (1 ~ k ~ (p. 2a. k'a (mod p).(mod p). . Proof: Let a = wt (mod p). Let p be an odd prime. Taking into account the definition of v we have p-1 p-1 a · 2a · · · · · .2 . all integers s = 1..ll (since these integers are either 1 or -1). • .a } such that ka -s (mod p) where 0 < s ~ (p . Then (ajp) = (-1)". 1 ~ s ~ (p.1. ka =/'. A better criterion is due to Gauss. since it gives rise to lengthy computations.-1 { a. • H. G.1)/ 2 (mod p). otherwise p would divide k. . we have (~) ( ~t) (~Y = (-1)t =(w(p-1)/2)t = (wt)(p-1)/2 =a(p. . -k'a (mod p). Also. 1 )/ 2 (mod p). (Euler's Criterion).

1) /2. such that qx = py + r where -p/2 < r < 0. y) E S I -p/2 < qx . if p =1 (mod 8) then (p. (p .q + 2 < 2 (q + 1). x <::: (p. (p. 1 <::: y <::: (q. (q . and if p 7 = (mod 8) then (p + 1)/4 is even. Therefore (qjp)(pjq) = (-1)v+J. y:::.1)/2.1)/4 such integers. 1 <::: x <::: (p.1)/2}. . we have 1 :::. this will be used later as the basis for a very satisfactory method of computation of the Legendre symbol. (2/p) = 1 if and only if p = ±1 (mod 8). We observe that v + JL is the number of pairs of integers (x. Their number v is equal to the number of integers k. 4. (q.1)/2- (p + 3)/4 + 1 = (p. py <::: -p/2}. q are distinct odd primes. The last expression is obvious. If p.L. we have (q / p) = ( -l)v where v is the number of integers x.1)/2. We must have 1 <::: y :::. soy <::: (q.(p + 1)/4 + 1 = (p + 1)/4 such integers. So = { (x. Gauss gave several proofs of this theorem which is a special case of the profound reciprocity law in class field theory. because y is neither 0 nor negative and p -1 p p py = xq. Now..1. andy is an integer. Proof: We apply Gauss' criterion. such that p/4 < k :::. if p = 3 (mod 8) then (p + 1)/4 is odd. y) 11 <::: x <::: (p. 4.py < q/2}.py < q/2. if we note that (p2 -1)/8 is even exactly when p = ±1 (mod 8).1)/2. those satisfying p/2 < 2k <::: p-1 are the ones such that 2k = -s (mod p). then q-1 = (-1)-2 ·-2 .r < -2. S1' = {(x. Theorem 1 (Gauss' Quadratic Reciprocity Law).y) E S I q/2 <::: qx. again.1)/4 is odd.1)/2.1)/2. where 11 is the number of integers y.. there are (p. sl = {(x. Among the integers 2. y) E s I qx .py}. with 0 < s :::. such that py = qx + s where -q/2 < s < 0 and xis an integer. • We shall indicate now a relationship between Legendre symbols relative to different primes. 2 is a quadratic residue modulo p if and only if p =±1 (mod 8). Let us consider the following sets of pairs of integers: S = {(x. if p = 5 (mod 8) then (p. y) such that 1 <::: x <::: (p. and -p/2 < qx.1)/2. The Legendre Symbol and Gauss' Reciprocity Law 65 We can use this criterion to determine when 2 is a quadratic residue: J. hence y < (q + 1)/2. explicitly (2/p) = ( -1)CP 2 -l)/ 8 .1)/2. If p = -1 (mod 4). .1)/4 is even. In conclusion. If p = 1 (mod 4) there are (p.1)/2. 1:::. p. .1)/2. p~l (pjq)(qjp) Proof: By (I).1. 1 <::: y <::: (q. Similarly (pjq) = (-1)1-L.1) /2.

Quadratic Residues The mapping e : S ___. and each Qi is an odd prime distinct from p. 1}. (q1p) = (. #(S) = #(SI) +#(So) + #(S{) = #(So) (mod 2) so p-1 2 q. y' = (q + 1)12. Therefore. (plq) = -(qlp). This form is obtained by noting that (qlp) 2 = 1. i=l Using (H). this may be done by application of (E) and successive reductions using Gauss' reciprocity law. y') where x' = (p + 1)12. Indeed. so that B(So) =So. Then c~~~) = c3311) ( 2:11) c 1331\). ei 2': 1. a = 1965 = 3 x 5 x 131. Thus. we have only to compute (q... if a is a nonzero integer not a multiple of p.-1 (plq) = (qlp)( -1) -2 . (J). B(S{) = S1.. e 2': 0. where we used Gauss' reciprocity law and the congruence 2311 1 (mod 3): c:11) c:~11}-1)2xll55 = c3511) (~) = 1 . Let p 2311.66 4.. y) = (x'.2. 2 · 2 • • We may also rewrite the above relation as follows: p-1 r.!. We have now a very effective method of computation of the Legendre symbol (alp). where p-:/:. S. B(SI) = S{.1 2 =v + J1 (mod 2). q are distinct odd primes and p or q is congruent to 1 modulo 4 then (plq) = (qlp).!. defined by B(x. a= ( -1)d2e f1~=l Qie. !L::.1) r. B2 is the identity mapping. then by (E) we have r (alp) = ( -llp)d(2lp)e II (qiiP)e'. (p 1q) . Otherwise. where dE {0. We illustrate the method by means of a numerical example.=. -2 . (23311) = c3311)(-1)1x1155 = -c3311) = -(~) = -1.x.y has the following properties (which are easy to verify): e is a one-to-one mapping from S onto S.jp).. The following corollary is immediate: if p.

.'!.c 3 1) = -c~1r · c~J · c~1) = -C~ 1 ). or (q/po) = (4/p 0 ) = 1. }.. (2/p) = 1 if and only if pis a prime in one of the arithmetic progressions {1. . it depends only on the residue class of p modulo 4q.. or q is a quadratic residue modulo p? We have: ( -1/ p) = 1 if and only if p is a prime in the arithmetic progression {1.!. Finally. . therefore there exists at least one prime p0 such that q is a quadratic .. Recapitulating our results. let p0 be an odd prime dividing q . p.. This is easily seen.4 (if q . 131 = 2 (mod 3). 2. = - . that is. Similarly. c~ 1 ) = -C~1)C~1>_ 1 )65xl(. . . 8n . 8n + 1. for if p' is a prime of the form p' = p + 4kq ( k integer) then (p'q) (p'q ) (-1) . how many odd primes p does there exist such that -1. Given -1. 9.. it depends on the residue class of p modulo 8.. 17.1. or 2.. Therefore (1965/2311) = 1.. for an odd prime q. } or {7.1.1 )65x3 = -c~1)C~1) = -(~)(~) = -( -1) (~) ( -1)2x3 = (~) (~) = -1 using several times the reciprocity law. 15. The fact that -1 is a quadratic residue modulo p depends only on the residue class of p modulo 4.1)65x1155 = -(2311) 131 131 84 = . the congruences 2311 = 84 (mod 131).=.1 or q . q =f.. The Legendre Symbol and Gauss' Reciprocity Law 67 by using the reciprocity law and the congruence 2311 =1 (mod 5): ( ~) 2311 = (2311)(. . 4n + 1. For 2. 4. 131 = 5 (mod 7). 2 p+4kq-1 2 (~)(-1) IS-'· "2 1 (-1) "2 1 ·2kq (p) - q (-1 )~. we arrive at the following interesting obser- vation.. . . 1965 is a square modulo 2311. or an odd prime q. . }. and the fact that 3 and 5 are not congruent to ±1 modulo 8.q-1 2 2 - - (q) - p • We may now consider the following inverse problem. 9. .. 7 = 2 (mod 5). 5.1 is a power of 2) then (q/po) = (1/p0 ) = 1..

L.. m are relatively prime. k + m. 2.. . Let q be an odd prime. . Since x 2 = (q. Quadratic Residues residue modulo p 0 . we obtain at once the answer to the problem considered above: K. If p 1 (mod 4) then = p = x 2 (mod q): from x 2 = 1 (mod 4) we deduce that p x 2 (mod 4q). and k. For each of the numbers -1. then for every prime p in the arithmetic progression {po.. } where 0 < k ::::. = . there exist infinitely many prime numbers. k + nm.!L:J. By Gauss' reciprocity law and Euler's criterion we deduce that ( -p) = ( -1) 1!. or any prime q f= 2.2) 2 . . m. We shall give a proof of this remarkable theorem in Chapter 20.' = 1. For the case of an odd prime q. Applying this theorem. we shall compute explicitly (qjp). hence x 2 = 1 (mod 4).l = (~1 )(-1)~·''2! = (-1)9·(1+~) = 1 (by Euler's criterion). for example. and again (~) = (~)(-1)p2l·q.. ±(q.68 4..'· ".. k +2m.. . . If p =-(2a + 1) 2 (mod 4q) then p =-1 (mod 4). Proof: If p = (2a + 1) 2 (mod 4q) then p = 1 (mod 4) and by Gauss' reciprocity law (~) = (~)(-1) ". . Conversely. that x is odd. ±5 2 . . Thus there exists x such that p(-1)(p-1)/2 =x2 (mod q)..'· ".=2.po + 8q.po + 4nq. we may assume.Po + 4q. q is a quadratic residue modulo the odd prime p f= q if and only if p is congruent modulo 4q to one of the following integers: ±1 2 . . } we have (qjp) = 1.x) 2 (mod q) and :cor q .. Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions states: In any arithmetical progression { k. let us assume that (qjp) = 1. ±3 2 . 2.x is odd.' = (-1) ". where p is any odd prime. or q is a quadratic residue modulo p. . there exist infinitely many primes p such that -1. 2 2 = ((-1)(p-1)/2) q q hence (p(-1)(P.1ll 2 fq) = 1.

Indeed. 4q . 37. The result which follows may be called the "global property of quadratic residues. ±5. for every prime p. Conversely. q does not divide u. ±9. By the Chinese remainder theorem there exists an integer x satisfying the following congruences: x == 1 (mod pi). If q = 3 then when p == ±1 (mod 12). Thus. a == 1 (mod 4) and (a/3) = 1. (11/p) = 1 when p is congruent modulo 44 to any of the integers ±1. First we prove that if q is an odd prime there exists an integer u such that u == 1 (mod 4). We apply this fact for q = Pr when Pr is odd. we exclude from the set of q integers {1.. when p == ±5 (mod 12).1)/2. holds for all primes p. Similarly. • We may illustrate this result with some numerical examples. from p == -x 2 (mod 4) we conclude that p == -x 2 (mod 4q). Indeed. 4. 5. By our result. 72 . 9. whose residue classes modulo 44 are 1. 32 .1 = (q. . Pr where PI. 5. If u belongs to this set we have (u/q) = -1. .3} those which are the least positive residues modulo q. 5 2 . There remains a set with q.. and if i < r then p.1. ±25. If Pr = 2 we take u = 5. 9 2 .. Proof: If a = b2 then a > 0 and a == b2 (mod p) for every prime p.. Pr are distinct primes. Theorem 2. ±37. (3/p) = 1 exactly when p == ±1 (mod 12). r 2 1. if q = 11. . We shall show that (a/p) = -1 for some prime p. x = u (mod 4pr)· By Dirichlet's theorem there exists a prime p such that p =::=X (mod 4pl · · · Pr-lPr)- . we consider the squares 12 ." Its interest lies in the fact that a property is deduced for an integer whenever a similar property relative to residue classes modulo p. 9. so it is of form a < 0 or a = m 2p1 .. A nonzero integer is a square if and only if it is positive and also a quadratic residue modulo p. We also exclude q when q == 1 (mod 4) or 3q when q == -1 (mod 4).. -:/.2. Case 1: a> 0. 25. The Legendre Symbol and Gauss' Reciprocity Law 69 If p =::= -1 (mod 4) then p == -x 2 (mod q). .(q. and (u/q) = -1.1)/2 2: 1 elements. let us assume that a is not a square. { X =1 (mod Pr-d. a = 1 is the only number such that 0 < a < 12.

.2 + · · · + ( + 1 = 0.. .1 + c.-21 - Pr-I 1 ~.. Then (alp) = ( -1/p)( -a/p) = -1. If a = -m 2 .v-I + (P.. Pr are distinct primes and r 2 1. (Pr) (P) - P - Pr (-1) EL. xEP(p) p . . .l)((P. P = since p =x =1 (mod p. ( Pr. then (a I p) = ( -1 I p) = -1. we consider a prime p such that p = 1 (mod 4) and (-alp) = -1. which exists by the first case... (. (ell. • 4. r .!. Let p be an odd prime and let K 0 = Q or K 0 = Fq (where q is prime distinct from p). If a = -m 2 pi · · · Pr where PI. 1) (~) = (]!__)(-1)~-~ PI . Let ( be a primitive pth root of unity (in an algebraic closure of K 0 ).!!_)(-1) P..1 = ( ( .::. . since p = 5 (mod 8) when Pr = 2. .. From 0 = (P. 2 =. (_. 2 (u) - Pr = -1 because p =u (mod Pr)· Case 2: a< 0. ( 2 . Quadratic Residues Then a = m 2P1P2 · · · Pr satisfies (~) ( ~) . For every a E P(p) we shall consider the sum T(a) = L (::_)(ax.70 4.v. Thus 1. where a denotes the residue class of a modulo p. and we shall later encounter more applications of this idea. . p =x =1 (mod 4). it follows that c. let p be a prime such that p = -1 (mod 4) (for example. (Pr) -1. c. (2lp) = -1.2 + · · · + ( + 1).!. p = 3).) for all i = 1. This proof will illustrate the possibility of deriving properties of integers by considerations in algebraic extensions of the field Q of ratio- nal numbers. We assume that the reader has a familiarity with the basic concepts of the theory of commutative fields as found in the Introduction and in several textbooks. We agree to write (a = (a. ..v-I are all the pth roots of 1 in the algebraic closure.. .2 Gaussian Sums We now want to present another more penetrating proof of Gauss' reci- procity law. and (P = 1. This is just one instance of a very fruitful method.1.

In particular. 0. T(I) 2 = (-1)(p-l)/ 2p · l. Proof: Let a·x = 'f} for every x E P(p). since P(p) is a multiplicative group). since Ko has characteristic different from p. The principal Gaussian sum is M. we compute the square of the principal Gaussian sum over the field Ko. • Now. Since P(p) is a finite multiplicative group then ( ~) T(a) = (~) L (::_)(ax p p xEP(p) p = L (ax)(ax = L ('#_)(Y = T(l). hence so T(T) 2 = _L (~) (x(l+t) x.yEP(p) p Let us write 'f} = x · t (which is possible.~P) (~)<•] L (xy)(x+y. by multiplication with (ajp). Proof: The statement is proved by a straightforward computation r(l)' ~ [. then T(I) =f:. . It is convenient to denote by i the unit element of Ko.~. xEP(p) p yEP(p) p We deduce.) (~H [.tEP(p) = L: tEP{p) (!) [ L: p xEP(p) (x(l+t)l . N. Gaussian Sums 71 which is an element of the field K = K 0 ((). For every a E P(p) we have T(a) = (ajp)T(I). It is called the Gaussian sum over Ko belonging to a. or explicitly T(I) 2 = { p ·! when p =1 (mod 4). that T(a) = (ajp) · T(I). x.2. -p · 1 when p =3 (mod 4). 4.

In particular. -1) =.! 2 2 (p) q' . • We are now ready to indicate a new proof of the quadratic reciprocity law.)c'"] ~ xEP(p) G)r(I) since 1Fp(() has characteristic q.-0 p (p-1)·1+ "" (t)- p (-1) -1#tEP(p) = ( ~1 )p. .. 1. + (p-1 = -I xEP(p) If 1 + t . q be distinct odd primes.~.1 = (~) ·I.:: (~) .((-1)(p-1)/2p \ ._2. • The above expression of T(l) 2 will soon be used in an important instance.1 li 2 p.1 = (qjp) · 1 because T(l) -=/= 0. 1. since Ko has characteristic different from p.1 = ( ~1 )p..(-1)(p-1)/2(p)- q q q -( ) . We conclude that T(l)q.1 = T(IF-1 = [T(I)2](q-l)/2 = (p*)(q-1)/2. Let q be an odd prime different from p. thus..... GH' L (x)(qx p m[. By (0): (~) .1) · 1. which is also due to Gauss.!L=. We compute in the algebraic closure of 1Fq the value of the Legendre symbol (qjp). x(l+t) _ - LxEP(p) ( . 1 tEP(p) because there are as many quadratic residues as nonresidues modulo p (by (F).. Let p* = (-1)(P. 1 = (-1)(P. By Euler's criterion we have the equality in the field lF q: (pq)-. Proof: [. For the principal Gaussian sum (for the prime p) over lF q we have T(l)q. 2. Therefore. (H)). (p.~vl (". T(1) -2 = (-1) . then T(I) -=/= 0. 0. Let p.72 4._ . Quadratic Residues If I+ I-=/= 0 then {x(I +I) I x E P(p)} = P(p).1 li 2p and let 1 be the unit element of lFq..!.0 then .:: c(l+t) = ( + (2 + .

and each Pi is an odd prime.!. (p. 4.. then there exists a root of unity ( such that K c_::: Q( ().. a Galois extension with Abelian Galois group) of finite degree. So K = Q( Jdl/d2) = Q( Jdr(i2). therefore. {JP 2 1). Here R is a primitive root of unity ( 4 and v'2 is expressible in terms of a primitive eighth root of unity ( 8 because ( (s + (81) 2 = d + (8 2 + 2 = (4 + (41 + 2 = 2' thus Q( v'2) <:::: Q((s). p =J 2. (p). y'Pr). if pis any prime. .. which is useful in the study of quadratic number fields. The Jacobi Symbol 73 p-1 . JPI.. by the theorem of the primitive element (see Chapter 2.. Let a be a nonzero integer.b. Finally. Thus d = ±2ep1 · · · · · Pr. If KIQ is an algebraic extension of degree 2. Proof: We may assume that K = Q( Vd) where d is an integer with no square factors. . hence K = Q( Vd). lbl = ITptbP/3.3.. which is the classical Kronecker and Weber theorem: If K IQ is an Abelian extension (that is. The minimal polynomial oft is of degree 2.. Indeed. X 2 +aX+ b.3 The Jacobi Symbol We conclude this chapter by indicating a generalization of Legendre's symbol. d2 E Z.1. yiP= T(l) E Q((p) or yiP= HT(l) E Q((4.=. where d is an integer with no square factors. . Combining these facts. where (pis a primitive pth root of unity. Replacing t by t' = t + (a/2). with d 1 . such that Kc_:. d2 =J 0.. then ±p = [T(I)f (by (N)). (p odd prime. We postpone the proof of this theorem until Chapter 15. Section 6) there exists an element t such that K = Q(t). Q((). . 4. K = Q( Vd) c_::: Q( (s.J=T. then there exists a root of unity(. since it requires deep considerations of an arithmetical nature. • The preceding result has a far-reaching generalization. It follows that K = Q( Vd) c_::: Q( . so that (pfq)(qjp) = ( -1) -2 · 2 . v'2. r 2 0.. • This method of proof implies the following interesting result: P. where dl/d 2 = a 2 /4. and let b be an odd integer relatively prime to a. where e = 0 or 1. where m = 8p1 · · · · · Pr and (m is a primitive mth root of unity. it follows that K = Q(t') and t' is a root of X 2 .) c_::: Q( (m).dl/d 2. (p. .

b) = 1. • Let us observe. Below we list some of the properties of the Jacobi symbol (under the above assumptions about the numerator and denominator): Q. however. If b = p is an odd prime number then [a/p] = (a/p).1)/2 (mod 2). so (a/p) = 1. We write(~) or (a/b). (2) (a:') (~) (~).1)/2 := (b. Thus (a/b) = 1. Hence. that it may happen that a modulo b is not a square in P(b) and yet (a/b) = 1. but 2 is not a square modulo 15. (2/9) = (2/3) 2 = 1. plb Similarly.74 4. Similarly (2/15) = 1. so that the Legendre symbol (a/p) has a meaning. L /3p · (p. b := ±1 (mod 8) if and only if there is an even number of primes p such that (3p is odd and p := ±3 (mod 8). (1) If a := a' (mod b) then (a/b) = (a' /b). Quadratic Residues We define the Jacobi symbol [~] (also denoted [a/b]) by In particular [a/1] = [a/~1] = 1. without ambiguity. To deduce other properties we first observe the following simple facts. Proof: These properties follow easily from the corresponding properties for the Legendre symbol. if (3p 2: 1. To show (4) we note that if a := x 2 (mod b) and if p is a prime dividing b then a := x 2 (mod p). Thus L /3p(p 2 . 1)/8 (mod 2). 1)/8 := (b 2 . The Jacobi symbol has value 1 or ~ 1. then p does not divide a. For example. If b = f1plb pf3. Let us note that since gcd(a. (4) If the class of a modulo b > 1 is a square in P(b) then (a/b) = 1. (3) ( b~') (~) (~). plb . is an odd integer then b := 1 (mod 4) if and only if there is an even number of primes p such that /3p is odd and p := 3 (mod 4). instead of[~] or [a/b]. but 2 is not a square modulo 9.

when a or b is positive. 4. 2 plb .''/8. Thus by the quadratic reciprocity law for the Legendre symbol Since a-1 2 (mod 2).. and let a = f1qla qo:q.. b. when a < 0. when lbl == 3 (mod 4)..(p-1)/2 =(-1)(lbl-1)/2... .1 ~(Jp.. For odd integers b we have ( ~1) = ( -1)(1bl-1)/2 = { -~ when lbl == 1 (mod 4). (~) = (-1)(b 2 -1)/8 = { -~ when b == ±3 (mod 8).. Proof: First we assume that a > 0 and b > 0. b are relatively prime odd integers and = { 1. and "" p-1 b. E -1.!. • S. Proof: By definition and (H) we have (-b1) = (~D =II (~1)!3" =(-1)2:"1"/3. The Jacobi Symbol 75 R../8 ·~ (-tl''".3. where a. b < 0.(b) 2 2 ~ . when b == ±1 (mod 8). (mod 2).!!=. Plb In the same way G) ~ !J G)"" ~ ( 1)2:. The reciprocity law for the Jacobi symbol is the following: (ba) = E( -1) =-!. The primes dividing b are different from those dividing a._... be the prime decompositions of a. b = f1plb p/3. -2.

then (~) = (-1) 1>21.1 a-1 b+1 a+1 -2-. C!~) = (. P(16).1 -a . Compute the following Legendre symbols: .c )=. Determine the squares in the following groups: P(7).1 .-2.!. 1)/2 =(a. + 2 -2. 2. From a.76 4. P(49).!(b) -1 2 2 - a ' since c = -1 in this case. (-1) -·~.2.. b < 0 we have ( ~) = (~b) = (-1) "21. if a < 0 and b > 0 then ( ~) = ( ~1) c~~) = (_ 1)(b-l)/2( _ 1) 1>2 1 . + (~b) = (-1) "2 1 ·+. + -2- = -a-1 2- b-1 · .. • EXERCISES 1. "21 (~). P(12).1 ) 1. it follows that (-a)-( b . !u~. Quadratic Residues we have (~) =II(~) o. qia Now.1 -b .1)/2 (mod 2) when a < 0 and odd. +1 (mod 2). for a. In the final case a < 0.!!=.1 (~). 2 1 {1+ [u[2-1} (~). P(ll). (-1) "21 ·"21 =(~>-1) "21 ·''21. b odd. Since 1 + (lal . -2.

Exercises 77 3.1). the proof below is by Landau. Determine the primes p modulo 68 such that 17 is a quadratic residue modulo p. 8. Let p be an odd prime. Compute the following Legendre symbols: ( 205) ( 753) 307 ' 811 ' 4. 3 2 -2 26 =::: -469p-1 (mod p 2 ). 5. 7.1 =::: 1 (mod n). Show that there exist integers x. such that 1 + x 2 + y 2 = mp. . Prove that 2 1092 =1 (mod 1093 2 ). Hint: For every odd prime p not dividing a(a 2 . 11. Prove that 7 is a primitive root modulo every prime p (k ::::: 1). If p is a prime number. and m. 6. Hint: First show that 2k 2 or 4 (mod 6).) In this respect. Determine the primes p modulo 12 such that -3 is a quadratic residue modulo p. then 22 ' =::: 2 or 4 (mod 7). Hint: In order to show that 2 182 =::: -1 (mod p 2 ) establish that =::: 4p+1 (mod p 2 ). y. (The congruence was discovered by actual calculation by Meissner. 3 14 -2 182 = -4p-1 3 14 (mod p 2 ). 10. Determine the odd primes p for which -2 is a quadratic residue modulo p. 1) consider n = (a 2P . let us mention that it seems to be only rarely that a prime number p satisfies 2P. 0 < m < p. namely. 9. Prove that for every integer a > 1 there exist infinitely many integers n which are not prime and such that an. 12. Determine the odd primes p for which 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p. p = 1 (mod 4).1 =1 (mod p 2 ).1)/(a2 . prove that there exists an integer x such that 1 + x 2 = mp. p = 1093. Determine the primes p modulo 20 for which 5 is a quadratic residue modulo p. 14. Determine the odd primes p for which 7 is a quadratic residue modulo p. next compute (7/p). with 0 < m < p. p = 5311 are the only primes less than 4 x 10 12 for which this is true. 13.

Show that the product of the quadratic residues a modulo p. a 2 .1. Show that there exists x E Z. 22.. Quadratic Residues 15. Hint: Use the previous exercise after evaluating 2:::~:. 2 Prove that (p-1)/2 L ai = p(p.(1 + (n/p)) · (1 + ((n + 1)/p)).. Hint: Determine the primes for which 5 is a quadratic residue. then (5/p)= 1. such that ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (mod p) if and only if b2 . Let p be a prime number. 18. 19. i=1 21. . y such that p = x 2 + ay 2 .1. Show with the same method that 757 is a prime number. is congruent to -( -1/p) modulo p. b. where 1 S a S p.78 4. n + 1. 7 · 18 2 . Show that -a is a quadratic residue modulo p. Let p be an odd prime. c E Z. Prove that there are ~ p(p . a(p. Show that Hint: Make use of the fact that n has an inverse modulo p. a an integer not multiple of p. From this deduce that 839 is a prime number. . with 1 S n S p. . and let a 1 . Hint: Group the quadratic residues by pairs.( -1/p)). p . and let p be an odd prime not dividing a. Let a. Let p be an odd prime. Show that if the prime number p divides 839 = 38 2 . Let p be a prime number. 16. Let p be an odd prime. Prove that the number of pairs of consecutive integers n. be all the quadratic residues modulo p such that 1 < ai -:::. p = 1 (mod 4).1) quadratic residues modulo p 2 and these are the solutions of the congruence 20. 5 · 11 2 . and assume that there exist integers x. which are quadratic residues modulo i pis equal to (p.2.1 ). Hint: Write 757 = 55 2 .1)/4.4ac is a quadratic residue modulo p.4. 23. 17.

29. Find the smallest prime p which may be written simultaneously in the forms p =xi + YI = x~ + 2y~ = x~ + 3y~. Prove that n is a prime number if and only if p(n-l)/ 2 =~1 (mod n). 47IM23. 26. Hint: Show that the order d of 2 modulo n is a multiple of p. Prove that if 2a ¢. . Prove (Euler): (a) 2p + 1 is a prime if and only if 2P = 1 (mod 2p + 1). 1 -::. Conversely.. there exist infinitely many prime numbers p such that n is not a quadratic residue modulo p. Hint: If n is prime. Let p be a prime number. hence p divides 1p(n). 25. this chapter. 1 (mod n) and 2n-l = 1 (mod n) then n is a prime number. show that 2m divides d. 359IM179. Prove the following particular case of Dirichlet's theorem: There exist infinitely many prime numbers in the arithmetic progression {12k + 71 k = 0. deduce that n = qm. Chapter 3) is prime if and only if Fn divides 28. use Gauss' reciprocity law and Euler's criterion. 31. conclude by proving that m > 1 leads to a contradiction in both cases n = 1 (mod p). 1 -::. where q = is a prime number. }. where a > 0. where Xi. 30. 263IM131. 479IM239. noting that p does not divide n. n = 1 (mod p 2 ). consider the order d of p modulo q (a prime factor of n). .. m 2': 2. q 1 (mod p). a < p and n = ap + 1 or n = ap2 + 1. p =3 (mod 4).1. Let p be an odd prime. Exercises 79 24. Assume that the congruence xn = a (mod m). is solvable for every integer m > 1. 383IM191. n = 2ma + 1.fp = 2P ~ 1 is not a prime number. a < 2m. hence q = 1 (mod 2m) and from this conclude that n = q. Prove that a is the nth power of a natural number. Let p be an odd prime. Yi E Z. 27. Show that if n is not a square. and assume that (njp) = ~1. 167IMs3. (b) If 2p + 1 is prime then the Mersenne number Jl. p > 7. Apply the previous exercise to show that the Fermat number Fn (see Exercise 58.2. and 503IM251· Hint: Use Exercise 25. (c) Show successively that 23IM11 .

. and it is undefined when e is odd and a = 3 (mod 4) ). . where e ~ 1. Hint: First establish that if p f= 2 is prime and p divides 2 2"-' +1 then p = 1 (mod 2n). if e is odd. 1. n ~ 1. For this purpose. Pn) 2 + 3. +x(q. 32.. ..80 4. . q a prime number. Pr odd primes.. (note that {a/b} = 0 if e is odd and a is even. Let a cl 0 and let p be any prime number. if a= 3 (mod 4).1)q-1 + G)(y. 2. show that 4a 2 + 3 is divisible by a prime in the given arithmetic progression.. write y = xq and note that 1+y + y2 + .1)q-3 + . there exist infinitely many prime numbers. The Kronecker symbol.. we define If b = 2eb'. dividing 1 + xq"-' + x 2 q"-' + . 1. if a= 5 (mod 8). if pis odd and pfa then {a/p} = (a/p) (the Legendre symbol). .1) + q..1)q"-' then p n-1 = 1 (mod qn). + C~ 2) (y. Prove the following particular case of Dirichlet's theorem: In the arithmetic progression {1 + 2nk I k = 0. next. We define the Kronecker symbol { ~} = {a/ p} as follows: if pia then {a/p} = 0. n ~ 1. }. not necessarily distinct). Quadratic Residues Hint: After computing the Legendre symbol ( -3/p). Prove the following particular case of Dirichlet's theorem: In the arithmetic progression {1 + qnk I k = 0. 33. we define if e is even. b' is odd. conclude considering integers of the form 4(p 1p2 . Hint: First establish that if pis a prime number. 2... }. +yq-1 = (y.. .. If b = P1 · · · Pr (p1.. if a= 1 (mod 8). there exist infinitely many primes. 34..1)q-2 + (D (y. p cl q..

b undefined if e is odd. a' odd. b > 0. 35. b < 0. then where c = -1 if a < 0. . (e) {~} = { ( -1)(b' 2 -I)/S if e is even. • b b a' (i) If b1 . b' odd.{~ }· (c) {a:'} = { ~} . b) = 1. (f) {~}={~}when a= 1 (mod 4). (b) If b =-b' (mod [al) then { ~} = { { ~} when a >0 -{~~} when a< 0.. then { -a}-{2}e . .=!{b} 2 2 . b) = 1. prove: (a) If a = a' (mod 4b) then { 1} = { ~ }· (b) { b~'} = { 1} . { ~ }· (d) Let b = 2eb' withe 2: 0. (h) If gcd(a. (g) If gcd(a. Exercises 81 Assuming that the Kronecker symbols below are defined. and a= 1 (mod 4). b is odd. Prove the following properties of the Kronecker symbol where a = 0 or 1 (mod 4) : { a } { 1 when a > 0. and b1 b2 > 0. b 0 if e is odd. b2 are odd. Then { -1} = { ( -1)Cib'l-l)/ 2 if e is even. (a) ~ = -1 when a< 0.'!.( -1) ~-. and E = 1 otherwise. a = 2ea' withe 2: 0. b1 = b2 (mod 4a). then (j) For every a not a square there exists b such that {ajb} = -1.

Part Two .

. an E A such that xn + a1xn. Let R be a ring. The first basic result about integral elements is the following: A.1 +···+an = 0.. an E A. More generally. . . the arithmetic of an algebraic number field K is concerned with divisibility properties of algebraic numbers relative to some subring of K.. A a subring of R. .1 +···+an = 0 with a 1 . For example.. are expressible as linear combinations of 1. and x E R.1 Integral Elements. we shall define the concept of an algebraic integer.. . 85 .* and A a subring of R. . then x E L is integral over K if and only if it is algebraic over K. (2) The ring A[x] is a finitely generated A-module.1 } is a system of gen- erators of the A-module A[x]. Proof: (1) -+ (2) Let us assume that xn + a 1xn.. Indeed.. Integrally Closed Domains The arithmetic of the field of rational numbers is mainly the study of divisibility properties with respect to the ring of integers. We shall show that {1. .. Then the following properties are equivalent: ( 1) x is integral over A. We say that the element x E R is an integer over A when there exist elements a 1 . from xn = -(a 1xn-l +···+an) it follows that xn+ 1. . xn.1 with coefficients in A.. xn.. and the image of the unit element by all ring-homomorphisms is again the unit element. x. xn+ 2. if A = K and R = L are fields. x. we introduce the following definition: Definition 1. (3) There exists a subring B of R such that A[x] C B and B zs a finitely generated A-module. Similarly. Let R be a ring. Accordingly. which plays the role of the integers.5 Algebraic Integers 5. . * We shall consider commutative rings with unit element. .

Let R be a ring and A a subring of R. n has the solution (y 1 . Algebraic Integers (2) ---+ (3) It is enough to take B = A[x]. Let R be a ring and A a subring.. .. . .. if x 2 is integral over A[xl]. hence d = d · 1 = 'L7=l CJdYJ = 0. x2] is a finitely generated A[x 1]-module. we say that A is an integrally closed domain... Definition 2.J (j = 1.j = 1 when i = j. Then R' is integral over the subring A'. thus there exist elements a. Since 1 E B. . Since x. . and let x1. We say that R is integral over A when every element of R is integral over A. let () : R ---+ R' be a homomorphism from R onto the ring R' and ()(A) = A'. R = K (the field of quotients of A) and A is integrally closed in K.. Hence.1 x. If every ele- ment of R which is integral over A belongs to A.. Xn] is a finitely generated A-module.j )}j = 0 for all i = 1.a.a. . n) such that xy... x 2 ] is a finitely generated A-module. . it may be written in the form 1 = 'L7=I CJYJ with Cj E A. we may write 'L7= 1 (1i. if Xn is integral over A[x 1 . then A is said to be integrally closed in R.. . 1 . letting li. E B. .. -ani we deduce that d is of the form 0 = d = xn + b1 xn-l + · · · + bn where each b... If A is a domain. . .JX.J)YJ = 0 for all i = 1. li. Xn-lJ. .a11 -a21 ( d = det . E A. (3) ---+ (1) Let B = Ay1 + · · · + Ayn. the system of linear equations 'L7=I (15. Yn)· Let d be the determinant of the matrix (l5. A a subring.. n. Xn E R. • . = 'L7=l a. This shows that x is integral over A. Definition 3.86 5. . . . If x1 is integral over A. E B then xy... A[x 1 .j = 0 when i of..n. y. The remainder of the proof is done similarly. The following properties are easy to establish: B.. The following fact is evident: Let R be a ring integral over the subring A.. .JYJ for all i = 1. . then A[x1. j. Let R be a ring.. 1 .r . n. Computing d explicitly: x. By Cramer's rule. Therefore. .j ). In other words.a. • \Vith this result we are able to deduce readily several properties of integral elements.. . Proof: By (A). . we must have dyj = 0 for all j = 1. A[xi] is a finitely generated A-module and A[x 1 .

1 in R. ... there exists a monic polynomial f = xn + a 1xn. x -=f. R is a field if and only if A is a field. Integrally Closed Domains 87 C. x "I. 0. x]. . so belong to A'. . If x. if J is a nonzero ideal of R..0. . B s. bn] is a finitely generated A-module. 1 +···+an =0. Let R be a domain which is integral over the subring A. then x + y. . x] is a finitely generated module over A[b1. bn. which is a finitely generated A-module. bn E B such that xn + b1xn. ... By (B). A' is integrally closed in R. x ..1 + a1xn. hence A[x] S: A[b1.1. so there exist elements b1. by (A) again. x + y.a. If R is a domain. Then. by hypothesis. . Then A' is a subring of R.. We may take one such polynomial of minimal degree. C be rings. Let R be a ring. we deduce that x is integral over A..2 + · · · + an_I)x E J n A.. . and integral over A.1 t. The ring A' of all elements of R which are integral over A is called the integral closure of A in R. A[b1. hence by (A). then C is also integral over A. It is integral over A. y E A'. Let R be a ring. xy belong to the ring A[x. Hence an = -(xn. . y] is a finitely generated A-module. A'.. Let A s. hence there exist elements ai E A such that (x. which ·is integrally closed in R. By (C). xy are integral over A. 0 and R is a domain).2 +···+an-1 = 0 (since x -=f. • This result justifies the following definition: Definition 4. . proving our statement.1 +···+an E A[X] such that f(x) = 0. bn]· By (B).y. if x E A.1 + · · · + bn = 0.. the ring A[b 1. Thus. Integral Elements.. .. y]. We examine these notions in the special case of domains and fields.1 +a1xn. 0. then J n A -=f. consider its inverse x. Proof: If R is a field. because every element a E A is a root of the polynomial X . But this means that xis integral over the subring A[b1. A[x. and A a subring. A a subring.. bn]· By (A)... which is integral over the subring A. Proof: Let x E C. otherwise xn. and let A' be the set of all elements x E R which are integral over A. Proof: Let x E J. 0. x. ... • F.y.1 )n+a 1 (x. • D. Proof: Clearly A s. 5. Then an -=f. If C is integral over B and B is integral over A. . E. bn.

The last assertion follows from the hypothesis that A is integrally closed . and L is an algebraic extension of K. such that g(x) = 0. Conversely. Proof: If Q is a maximal ideal of R then R/Q is a field. Then Q is a maximal ideal of R if and only if Q n A is a maximal ideal of A. there exists a monic polynomial g with coefficients in A. if Q n A is a maximal ideal of A then the domain R/Q is integral over the field A/(Q n A). a cJ 0. Then A' n K is integral over A. that is. Hence f divides g. By (E) there exists a E Rx n A. hence xis invertible in R and R is a field. • . the field generated over K by the roots of f. let A be a field. so a= bx. hence f has coefficients in A' n K = A. Let L' be the splitting field of f over K. thus A/(Q n A) is a field and Q n A is a maximal ideal of A. Proof: Let f E K[X] be the minimal polynomial of x over K. hence integers over A. The coefficients off are. • As a corollary: G. let x E R. • The important situation for algebraic numbers is the case where A is an integrally closed domain. all conjugates of x over K are also integral over A. and x cJ 0.88 5. H. So R/Q is a field and Q is a maximal ideal of R. Conversely. Algebraic Integers Multiplying by xn-l we obtain hence x. Let A be an integrally closed domain with field of quotients K and let L be an algebraic extension of K. Let A' be the integral closure of A in L'. then its minimal polynomial over K has all its coefficients in A. with bE R. If x E L is integral over A. If B is the integral closure of A in L then B nK =A. Let R be a ring integral over the subring A and let Q be a prime ideal of R. with field of quotients K. up to sign. hence must be equal to A (which is assumed integrally closed). The conjugates of x are also roots of g. equal to the elementary symmetric polynomials in the conjugates of x. Since x is integral over A. so they belong to A'.1 E A. which is integral over the subring A/(Q n A). so 1 =a' a= (a'b)x. Let a' E A be the inverse of a.

+dn-ld~Cn = 0 where d~ = d/di E A fori = 1..1).. • In particular. then there exists an integer n such that Aan = Aan+l = · · ·.. with di-ld~ci E A for i = 1. satisfying the following property: if Aa1 <. Integrally Closed Domains 89 Another useful property follows: I. .1. x = ajb E A. n. sob divides an = a· an. By imitating the procedure in the case of the rational integers.. so x = ajb with a. thus an + C1ban. · · · is an increasing chain of principal ideals of A. repeating the argument. Thus dx is integral over A. . x -=1. . Let x E K.. since every principal ideal domain is a unique factorization domain. there exist elements c 1 . d E A (d -=1. so dx bE B. then every element of Lis of the form bjd.. . . b -=f. · · · <. Proof: Let x E L. Cn E A such that (ajb)n + c1(ajb)n-l +···+en= 0..0. proving that A is integrally closed. 5. that is. Every unique factorization domain is an integrally closed domain. Proof: Let K be the field of quotients of the unique factorization domain A. . .0 for i = 1. so x is algebraic over K. x -=f.. It follows that (dx)n + (d~ci)(dxt-l + · · · +dn-ld~cn = 0. Integral Elements. Hence. a. Then every nonzero element of A which is not a unit may be written as a product of indecomposable elements.0). 0. b) = L If x is integral over A..1. n.. Let A be an integrally closed domain with field of quotients K and let L be an algebraic extension of K. If B denotes the integral closure of A in L.. Let d = d1 · · · dn E A. . n. and we may assume that gcd( a. Aaz <. Aan <.. • Let us now note some important types of integrally closed domains. such that xn + (cl/dl)xn-l + · · · + Cn/dn = 0. di E A. . di -=1. J. b E A. hence there exist elements cddi E K with ci. b -=1. It follows that an = -b( c1an. where b E B..0.. Let A be a domain. then dnxn + (dn-ld~ci)xn-l + .. 0.1 + · · · + Cnbn = 0... we may prove the following result: K. and x = bjd. then every principal ideal domain is also integrally closed..1 + · · · + Cnbn. b divides a.

:::: b(a). y E A) then either pix or PlY· Proof: The proof of this statement is very similar to the case where A is the ring of integers. a positive integer b(a) is associated. But again if b1 is not a unit there exists an indecomposable element p 2 such that b1 = pzbz. In virtue of the hypothesis. By imitating the usual proof in Z. repeating the argument. This argument may be repeated with a 1 : either a 1 is indecomposable. 0. a1 f. az not a unit and not associated with a1. 0}. • Let us note this reformulation of the unique factorization: L. that is a product of indecomposable elements. hence Aa c Aa 1 C Aa 2. 0). b(x) = lxl for X f.90 5. Let A be a domain such that every element is a product of indecomposable elements. az f. 0. so Aa C Ab 1 . when for every element a E A. a1 not a unit and not associated with a.. so a = P1P2b2. Definition 5. or there exists az E A. hence a = p 1p2 · · · (pmbm). b E A are nonzero elements. 0. b f. b f. Algebraic Integers Proof: Let a E A. r} such that Pi "' P~( i). . there exists an indecomposable element p 1 such that p 1la. Aa C Ab1 C Abz. there exists n. therefore we leave the details to the reader. If a is not a unit element of A. (2) If a. . a f. hence there exists b1 E A. 0. b E A. By the hypothesis. r E A such that a= bq +rand r = 0 or b(r) < b(b). then b(ab) . . there exists m such that bm is a unit. 0. such that an is indecomposable. we obtain: M. Let m be the minimum of the integers in this set and let b E J. such that b(b) = m. hence Aa C Aa 1. (2) If p is indecomposable and p divides xy (where x. This statement is a rephrasement of the possibility of performing Euclidean division in Z with respect to the absolute value (that is. such that a = p 1b1. Every Euclidean domain is a principal ideal domain. Then the following statements are equivalent: ( 1) If Pl · · · Pr = p~ · · · p~ (where Pi. Thus. 0. a f. Consider the set of positive integers { b (a) I a E J. by choosing b(a) = lal for every a E Z. such that a 2 la 1. Proof: Let J be a nonzero ideal of the Euclidean domain A. a f. a =f 0. such that a 1la. b1 f. a f. and the following properties are satisfied: (1) If a. It is said to be a Euclidean domain. 0. 0. there exist elements q. • The Euclidean division algorithm is an important and useful tool in the study of rings of algebraic integers.. Z is a Euclidean domain. we have shown that if a E A. pj are indecomposable elements of A) then s = r and there is a permutation CJ of { 1. then either a is indecomposable or there exists an element a1 E A. Let A be a domain.

so An 1Q = ..1 = -k(a1xn.Z.1 E . From our results. There exists an integer k > 0 such that kx.Z. x < [x] + 1.. with r = 0 or b(r) < b(b) = m. a E Ab.k'xn. we see that the conjugates of an algebraic integer are • algebraic integer~.Z. x = [x] is in .[x]kxn.bq E J. that is. if AK = A denotes the ring of all algebraic integers in K. .k[x] E .Z)..1 = k(x. We deduce that the trace (equal to the sum of conjugates) and the norm (equal to the product of conjugates) of an algebraic integer are rational integers (since they belong to An 1Q = . Rings of Algebraic Integers 91 Now if a E J.Z and similarly k'x 2 . showing that J = Ab. we choose the smallest k with this property. Proof: We may assume that x > 0 and that xn + a1xn. But r = a . .[x]kxn.Z. We have seen that . which is a root of a monic polynomial with coefficients in the ring . It is also customary to say that the elements of . Also k'xn. Definition 6.[x]) = kx .1 +···+an= 0. so by the minimality of m.2 Rings of Algebraic Integers We shall now consider explicitly the above definitions and results for the case of algebraic number fields. By the minimality of k.1 + · · · + an-1X +an) . then x E .Z is integrally closed since it is a principal ideal domain. kxn. with a 1 .Z. k' = 0.2.Z are rational integers. . that is. is called an algebraic integer.Z of integers. an E . We may also give an independent direct proof that: If x E IQ is an algebraic integer over Z.. An algebraic number.[x])x = kx 2 . k[x]x E . .2 E . Let k' = k(x . there exist q. r = 0. .Z. kx 2 . . r E A such that a = bq + r.Z. ..[x])xn.1 E Z.. Let [x] denote the unique integer such that [x] :::. k' < k. then A is an integrally closed domain. • 5.1 = kxn. Also k'x = k(x. If K is any field of algebraic numbers (of arbitrary degree over IQ). so 0 :::. 5.

Algebraic Integers We shall be concerned with the arithmetic in an algebraic number field. • We deduce: 0. Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K. that is. As we shall see this is actually not true. taking the norms. Then every a E A. how is it possible to describe their arithmetic. a =1. then N(a 2 ) divides N(ai). that is. The natural question to ask is whether such rings must necessarily be unique factorization domains. So by (N). cis a unit and Aan = Aan+l' which was required to be proved. An algebraic integer x is a unit if and only if its norm N (x) = ± 1. We add the following definition: Definition 7. Concerning the units of the ring of algebraic integers. but x' is an algebraic integer. Its elements are of the form a+ bi. so N(an) divides N(ai) for every n 2': 1. Since each rational integer has only finitely many divisors. · . Often. Proof: We apply (K). but this need not be so. and if this is not the case. which is not a unit. then letting x' be the product of all conjugates of x. distinct from x. Then [Q(i) : Q] = 2. This argument may be repeated. • However. we have not established the uniqueness of decomposition into indecomposable elements. is the product of indecomposable elements.92 5.0. Conversely.3 Arithmetic in the Field of Gaussian Numbers An important example of a number field is Q( H). i 2 = -1. we have x · x' = ±1. then N(a 1 ) = N(baz) = N(b) ·N(az). 5. The algebraic number field K is said to be Euclidean when the ring A of algebraic integers is a Euclidean domain. N(x) = ±1. Let Aa 1 ~ Aa 2 ~ · · · be the chain of principal ideals of A. Since the norms are rational integers. we take the function fJ to be equal to the norm. we obtain N(x) · N(x') = 1. so x divides 1 in the ring A of algebraic integers. so N(x) is a unit in the ring Z. relative to the subring of its algebraic integers. Since a 1 = baz. which is called the field of Gaussian numbers. b E Q and i = vi=T. where a. we have the following easy fact: N. Proof: If xis a unit. there exists an algebraic integer x' such that xx' = 1. taking norms in the extension KjQ. Thus an = can+l with c E A and N(c) = ±1. there exists n such that IN(an+I)I = IN(an)i. if N(x) = ±1.

y I 0. Conversely. Proof: If a+ bi E Z[i] is a unit. A Gaussian integer is indecomposable if and only if it is associated with one and only one of the following Gaussian integers: (1) Any rational prime p. units. there exist q. b E Z be the best approximations to a'. i. y E Z[i]. If x. so we may write xjy = a'+ b'i with a'.a)+ (b'. then necessarily 2a. By (L). The only possibilities are a = ±1. -i. then either pix or PlY· To complete our description of the arithmetic in Q(i) we still need to determine the indecomposable elements in Z[i]. aj <::: ~. Since (2a) 2 + (2b) 2 = 0 (mod 4). or a= 0. • Now we determine the units of the ring Z[i] of Gaussian integers. which are indeed roots of unity. R. b'.a) 2 + (b'. S. b E Z. b = 0. Thus Z[i] is contained in the ring A of Gaussian integers. hence to 1. so x = qy + [(a'. then it is a Gaussian integer. • hence also a unique factorization domain. b' E Q. so (2b) 2 E Z and therefore 2b E Z. it is true that if pis an indecomposable element in Z[i] and pixy. by (N) N(a + bi) = a 2 + b2 must be equal to ±1. Ia' . = . The units ofZ[i] are 1. b E Q and x = a + bi E A. (R) that the ring Z[i] is a principal ideal domain. 5. -1. Then Tr(x) = 2a and N(x) = a 2 + b2 are in Z. Q(i) is a Euclidean field with respect to the norm. These give 1.b) 2 ]N(y) <::: ~ N(y) < N(y) because y I 0 implies N(y) I 0. Now we shall prove that Z[i] is a Euclidean domain with respect to the • norm. Arithmetic in the Field of Gaussian Numbers 93 We shall describe the integers. lb' . Q. i. Let a. P.b)i]y and N([(a'. IN(r)l < IN(y)l. 2b are even. -1. b E Z}. This shows that a.a)+ (b'. In other words.bl <::: ~. and indecomposable elements in Q(i). -i. It follows from (M). Let q = a + bi E Z[i]. Proof: Consider the Gaussian number xjy E Q(i). such that p 3 (mod 4). Proof: Since i = A is a root of x 2 + 1. let a.b)i]y) =[(a'.3. b = ±1. They are roots of unity. that is. Thus (2a) 2 + (2b) 2 E Z. The ring of Gaussian integers is Z[i] = {a + bi I a. r E Z[i] such that x = qy + r.

Finally. since its norm is the rational prime 2. then all integers 1 + i. b = ±2.i). or a = 0. p'. It follows that N(x) of. and u = -i would imply . b E Z. In the other cases. it follows that 2 is a decomposable Gaussian integer. we get ±2. If b is even. which are associated. then =Fi(a + bi) = ±b =f ai. so a+ bi is associated with b. hence -n + 1. u = i would imply a = -d is odd. c 2 + d 2 = p. so N(x) = ±p1 · · · Pr. x is a unit. soy or z is a unit. a 2 + b2 = p where p is a rational prime. b = ±1.ai (or -b + ai) with b even. d =/= 0. or ±2i. if x = a+ bi. b of. Thus. and from 2 = (1 + i)(1 . By Chapter 4. if x = a+ bi then p = N(x) = a 2 + b2 . p = 1 (mod 4). because this would imply that p divides either n + i or n . -t p p p p would be a Gaussian integer.i. N(x) E Z. If p = 2. pjn 2 + 1 for some n E Z. (H). -1 is a square modulo p. we shall determine all indecomposable Gaussian integers x = a+ bi dividing a rational prime p.0. then N(y) or N(z) is ±1. since there exist rational integers m. c > 0. Moreover. with Gaussian integers y. x and pare not associated in Z[i]. Indeed x = uy with u = 1 or -1 or i or -i. a. where each Pi is a rational prime. -1 + i. (3) a+ bi where a. ±i are units in Z[i]. satisfy a > 0. if x divides the distinct rational primes p.0. and b > 0 (or-b > 0). if 1 + i = yz. it follows that x divides 1. a even. Now. so.i) = -i(1 + i) 2 .N(p) and since x divides p then N(x) = p. b of. m' such that mp + m'p' = 1. But u = -1 would imply a = -c < 0. since x divides N(x) (relatively to Z[i]) then x divides some Pi.0. and if x "' y then x = y.i.94 5. xln + i or xln. Since ±1. In fact. From p = 1 (mod 4) it follows that exactly one of a or b is even. y = c + di are such that a 2 + b2 = p. a is even. which is contrary to our hypothesis. Among such numbers we have x = a + bi with a 2 + b2 = p. Next. Let p = 1 (mod 4). b = 0. a > 0. But n 2 + 1 = (n + i)(n . 1 - i. a > 0. z. that is.i are associated. Proof: First we show that every indecomposable Gaussian integer x divides one and only one rational prime. which is not the case. -1 . Algebraic Integers (2) 1 + i. then by (L). -t or n 1. b of. The only possibilities are: a = ±1. or a = ±2. c are even. from xjp it follows that a 2 + b2 = N(x) divides N(p) = p 2 = 4. that is. If x is an indecomposable Gaussian integer dividing p. 1 + i is indecomposable.

with k . Finally. let n = a 2 + b2 . and gcd(a1. since they are relatively prime. Then n1 = ai + bf = af(1 + c2 ) = 0 (mod p). that is. b1) = 1. 2 and p = a2 + b2 . But. so a = da 1. we have shown that if n = p~ 1 • • • p~'. bj E Z. for every n E Z). If. Writing ai + bi = n 1 then d2 n 1 = n. it is not possible that a 2 +b2 = p (since n 2 = 0 or n 2 = 1 modulo 4. If x = a+ bi is an indecomposable Gaussian integer dividing p. since every odd square is congruent to 1 modulo 4. Then a 1 and b1 are not multiples of p. which is contrary to the hypothesis. bare both odd. a is odd and b is even. A prime number p is a sum of two squares if and only if p = 2 or p =1 (mod 4). The exact power of p dividing d 2 has even exponent. hence p divides n 1 . so either a 2 + b2 = p or a 2 +b 2 = p 2. -1 is a quadratic residue modulo p. If a. then n is the sum of two squares. then p = 1 + 0 = 1 (mod 4). b cannot be both even-otherwise 4 divides p. say. and constitutes an interesting theorem about rational integers. if p = 3 (mod 4) and n = p 2 k+ 1m. Arithmetic in the Field of Gaussian Numbers 95 that a = d is odd. First we prove: T'. • Due to its historical importance. N (x) = a 2 + b2 divides p 2.3. it is now worthwhile to give Fermat's own proof of this theorem. Then p = N(x) = a 2 + b2 . • Part (3) of (S) may be phrased more explicitly. let p= 3 (mod 4). 5. Therefore p would be either 2 or p = 1 (mod 4). then p = 1 + 1 = 2 (mod 4). then 1 =f. Thus p = 2. then n cannot be the sum of two squares. let x = a+ bi be an indecomposable Gaussian integer dividing p. A positive integer n = p~ 1 • • • p~' is the sum of squares of two integers if and only if kj is even when PJ = 3 (mod 4).::: 0 and m not divisible by p. from p =3 (mod 4). then also n1n2 = (ai + bi)(a~ + b~) = (a1a2. Thus N(x) = N(p) hence x/p is a unit. when p = 1 (mod 4). then a. Altogether. Let c E Z be such that a 1 c = b1 (mod p). Indeed. let d = gcd(a. b). sox is associated with p. If p is a prime number congruent to 1 modulo 4. . = and therefore c2 -1 (mod p). if kj is even when PJ = 3 (mod 4). Proof: If p =f. Proof: First we note that 2 = 12 + 12. This establishes which are the indecomposable Gaussian integers dividing p. b = db1.b1b2) 2 + (a1b2 + a2b1) 2. discovered by Fermat: T. Conversely. Now we observe that if with aj.

cmo) = -mo(xd . Let m 0 be the smallest integer in this set. Assume. . We have and 2 X1 + Y12 =mom. y be nonzero. hence m 0 divides p. m 1 < m 0 . p . with 1 ::. on the contrary. and n 1 is the product of distinct primes.yx1 = x(y. Conversely. with 1 ::. We show that m 0 = 1. This is a contradiction and concludes the proof. m ::. Let n = p~ 1 • • • p~' and assume that k 1 is even if Pj = 3 (mod 4). m 0(xc + yd) = mot. which is absurd. m 1 < m 0 . y).2 hence We also have xx1 + YY1 = x(x . that 1 < m 0 . m ::.dmo) = (x 2 + y2 ) . let d = gcd(x. mo/2 and integers c. let n = x 2 + y2 : the statement is trivial if x = 0 or y = 0. By (T 1). We write { x = cmo + x1. By Chapter 4.96 5.1. (H). p . I mom = xl 2 + Y1. or congruent to 1 modulo 4. We observe that x 1 or y 1 is not 0. n 1 . with -mo/2 < x1.yc) = mou for some integers t. such that x 2 + 1 = mp. so d2 divides n. u.1.dmo) . which are either equal to 2.y(x. p. hence p is a sum of two squares. such that mp = x 2 + y 2 for some integers x. by the two-squares identity. -1 is a square modulo p.1. cmo) + y(y . each factor of n 1 is a sum of two squares. Let x. Then n = n6n 1 where n 0 2: 1. 2 = 12 + 12 . y = dmo + Yl. Otherwise m6 divides x 2 + y 2 = m 0 p. is a sum of two squares. Algebraic Integers Conversely. thus m 0 = p. Hence the set {m I 1 ::. • Now we may complete Fermat's proof of (T). so 1 ::. n 1 2: 1. Hence m 1p = t 2 + u 2. p . so there exists x. so let p = 1 (mod 4). m 0 ::. 1 ::. d. x ::. I with 1 ::.1. and therefore also n. Yl ::. xy1 . But mop= x2 + y2. y} is not empty.

2b = v E Z.b2 d). -1 is a square modulo p. so the exponent kj must be even. and u 2 -dv 2 =:: 0 (mod 4). lfd = 1 (mod 4) then A = { u +2vv'd Iu.4. y') = 1 and n' = x' 2+ y' 2 . The conjugate of a + bVd is a . Proof: We examine all the possible cases in succession. but dis square-free. where a. If d =2 (mod 4) : u even even odd odd v even odd even odd 0 2 1 3 (mod 4) . where d is a square-free integer. If p divides n'. Let K = Q( Vd) where d is a square-free integer. and since xis a root of X 2 . Let A denote the ring of all algebraic integers of Q(Vd). then p does not divide x'-otherwise p would also divide y'. (P).2aX + (a 2 . hence Pj divides d. x · x' = a 2 . Integers of Quadratic Number Fields 97 Let n = d 2 n'.bVd is also an algebraic integer.b E Z}. u and v have the same parity }. v = 2b E Z. that is. x = dx'. hence gcd(x'. Proof: If x = a + bVd E A then its conjugate x' = a . • The previous result may be reformulated as follows: V.b2 d E AnQ = Z. • 5.(2b) 2 d E 4Z and since (2a) 2 E Z then (2b) 2 d E Z. Every element of K is of type a + bVd. v E Z. Thus p divides 1 + k 2 . [K : Q] = 2. Let k be such that kx' = y' (mod p).4 Integers of Quadratic Number Fields Let K be a quadratic extension of Q. that is. thus 2b has denominator equal to 1. U. let A be the ring of all algebraic integers of K.b2 d E Z. b E Q. So x + x' = 2a E An Q = Z. that is. It follows that (2a) 2 .bVd. Then x' 2 + y' 2 =:: x' 2 (1 + k 2 ) =:: 0 (mod p). Conversely. 5. by Chapter 4. these conditions imply a 2 . sop= 2 or p =1 (mod 4). a+bVd E A if and only if2a = u E Z. It follows that if Pj = 3 (mod 4) then Pj does not divide n'. y = dy'. (H). If d = 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4) then A= {a+ bVd I a. As we already indicated in Chapter 4. then X is an algebraic integer. we have K = Q( Vd).

(1 + Vd)/2 with coefficients in Z.1 v . If u. 2. -3. 41. 33.dv 2 = 0 3 1 0 (mod 4) Therefore. This rather negative result does not yet exclude the possibility that for all quadratic fields. 57. If d 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4) then = {1. 3. 7. with coefficients in Z. If d = 1 (mod 4) then {1. so u + 2vv'd = a + bVd = (a . 19. b E Z. 37. • It has been shown that if d is square-free and IQl( Vd) is a Euclidean field (with respect to the norm). 21. 17.b) 1 + 2b ( 1 +2Jd ) . If u. the ring of algebraic integers is a principal ideal domain. 5. then u . 13. In these cases. v = 2b with a. v are odd. which will be generalized later: W. Algebraic Integers If d =3 (mod 4) : u even even odd odd v even odd even odd u 2 . 11.1. v . A is a free Abelian group. Vd} is a basis of A. by means of (U). 11.1 are even. 73. Proof: The statement is obvious when d 2 (mod 4) or d= 3 = (mod 4). Let us assume now that d = 1 (mod 4) and let us show that every algebraic integer ( u + vv'd) /2 (with u. -1.1 ld] 2 2 + 2 + 2 va and this last summand is a linear combination of 1. The following classical example shows that this is not the case: . • Let us note incidentally the following fact. 29.98 5. it follows from (N) that the ring of algebraic integers is a principal ideal domain. then d =. we deduce statement (V). -2. (1 + Vd)/2} is a basis of A. v are even. -7. v integers of the same parity) is a linear combination of 1 and (1 + Vd)/2. 6. so u + vv'd = 1 + v'd [u . u = 2a.dv 2 = 0 1 1 2 (mod 4) If d =1 (mod 4) : u even even odd odd v even odd even odd u 2 .

1 . and 1+2h = -19+40 r{. (Later. -67. y not units. Also the numbers 3. In 1967 Stark gave another proof and Deuring corrected the errors in Heegner's proof. say ldl > 5 x 109 . Lehmer used analytical methods to show that any other possible d could not be small in absolute value. 5. Baker used his results on bounds of linear forms in logarithms. This is a recurring characteristic in the theory of algebraic numbers. For example.=5]. Z [A] is not a unique factorization domain. The story of this proof is very interesting. namely. to prove that no other d < 0 could exist. b E Z (by (V)). we may still ask which are the quadratic fields Ql( Vd) having a principal ideal domain as the ring of integers? Besides the domains with Euclidean algorithms.. We have mentioned these facts. 7. 9 = N(x) · N(y). using modular forms. where a. 1 + 2 0 .2h). N(1 + 2 h ) = N(1. If x = a+bh then N(x) = a2 + 5b 2 = 3.2 h ) = 21. therefore N(x) = N(y) = 3. We may write 21 = 3. 7 = (1 + 2h)(1. 1 + 2 0 . 1-20 21 This example shows what seems to be even stronger. so the ring of algebraic integers A consists of the numbers of the type a + bh.2 A are pairwise nonasso- ciated. .2 h is indecomposable in Z [ .) These hopes being dashed. N(7) = 49.5. if d < 0 then it must be equal to d = -19.Z[h]. Heegner proved in 1952 that no other d could exist. was flawed. but his proof. but this is impossible with a. b E Z. Each of the numbers 3. then taking norms. Section 7). with x. we shall prove that the ring A of all algebraic integers of a field of algebraic numbers is a principal ideal domain if and only if it is a unique factorization domain. Integers of Cyclotomic Fields 99 Example: Let us consider the field K = Ql( h). since they serve to illustrate the need of appealing to delicate analytical methods. 7. since N(3) = 9. 1 . -43. Heilbronn and Linfoot proved in 1934 that there could exist at most one more value of d < 0 for which the ring of integers of Ql( Vd) would be a principal ideal domain. or -163 (see Chapter 13. if 3 = xy. In 1966.

1. with d > 0. p = <I>p(1) = ITf. where ( is a primitive pth root of unity and p is an odd prime number (for p = 2 the results are trivial). a 1. Proof: Obviously. In fact. (P.( is not invertible in A.(i = ui(1. ( 2. otherwise p would have an inverse. Let us note that the elements 1 . (P-l are all equal (since these elements are conjugate).2 are linearly independent over Q. X. p.. Hence Tr(x(1.. thus 1 .(J) E A. hence ( belongs to the ring A of integers of IQ((). . ap_ 2 such that x = a0 + a 1( + · · · + ap_ 2(P..(). + x + 1. The minimal polynomial of ( over Q is <I>p = xp-l + xp. Algebraic Integers On the other hand. (1.(i)/(1. We conclude that p = u(1. If x E A there exist uniquely defined rational numbers a 0 ..5 Integers of Cyclotomic Fields Let K = Q(().. The element 1 . other- wise (would be a root of a polynomial of degree at most p.2.() n Z contains p and is not equal to the unit ideal. 5.2 .(j 1 .() = ao[(p. 1 . (. .100 5.() + a1((. 1 . i. .()) = a 0 · Tr(1 ..(..()P-l where u = u 1 ···up. = 1+ (i + (2i + . if 1 :::.2 }. since the ideal A(1 .. contradicting the fact that <I>p is its minimal polynomial.2 + .where ui is a unit of A.(t 1 . .1 ). Gauss conjectured that there exist infinitely many fields Q( v'd).. ( 2. ..()) = Tr(a 0 (1 .(i).. .I is a unit of A. which belongs to An Q = Z. + ((k-l)i E A- 1 . = .() = ao(1. (P. . whose ring of algebraic integers is a principal ideal domain. so A = Z[(]..1 are associated.( 2) + · · · +ap_ 2((P. .( 2.1) + 1] = aoP· ...(P. We have x( = a0 ( + a 1( 2 + · · · + ap-2(p-l and subtracting: x(1. . . We note that the traces (in IQ( () [IQ) of (.2.. The roots of <I>p are (. (P.. (P-l.1 then there exists integer k such that j = ik (mod p). so 1 . .() n Z = Zp.(t ' similarly. j :::. thus p-1 <I>p = II (X. We shall prove that each ai E Z.::-11(1 . i=l in particular. . Hence A(1 .(ik --. (. A is a free Abelian group with basis {1. No proof has yet been found for this statement.(i).

Exercises 101 To show that a0 E :Z. Let J be a nonzero ideal of the ring A of integers of an algebraic number field K.( 2) + · · · +xp_ 1(1.() n Z = Zp. so that by the same argument. 3. . Give an example of a Gaussian number x = a+bi such that N(x) = 1 but x is not an algebraic integer.ButTr(x(1-()) E AnQ = Z. we show by induction that also a 1. (b) 3.j in the form x(p-j = (aj.1 is an algebraic integer if and only if f (0) = ±1. By induction a1 _ 1 E Z. To prove that aj E Z. 2. Compute the norm and trace of 2x. Show that there exists a positive integer m belonging to J. (c) 4 + 5i by 2 . so Tr(x(1. . x f 0. x2.2 .2. • EXERCISES 1. and expressing (P. . we may write x(P.aj-l E Z. .(P. Now. aj . Let f E Q[X] be the minimal polynomial of x. 6. Xp-l E A be the conjugates of x.()) = x1(1. . Let x be a root of X 3 .()) E A(1 . that is. Let f E Z[X] be a monic polynomial and let x be an algebraic number. Show that x. Find the quotient and the remainder of the following divisions: (a) 2 + 3i by 1 + i... Let x be an algebraic integer. 4. a 0 E Z. we multiply by (P-i.2X + 5.. Let x 1 = x.() + x2(1..1 in terms of the lower powers of (.. since(1-(i+ 1 )/(1-() = 1+(+···+(i E A. . obtaining x(P-i = a 0 (P-J + a1(p-j+l + · · · + aj-l(p-l +aj +aj+ 1 ( + · · · + ap-2(P-i. ap_ 2 E :Z.2i by 1 + 2i. hence Tr(x(1 . we compute Tr( x( 1 . 5.1 in the extension Q(x)IQ.().i. ()x' E A(1 .aj-1) + a1'( + a2'( 2 + · · · +a~_ 2 (P. thus aj E Z.()).1) = (1 . Show that if f(x) is an algebraic integer then x is an algebraic integer.

Determine the ring of integers of the field Q( 12). 21. Q( /=IT) are the only Euclidean fields Q( Vd). Algebraic Integers 7. Determine the ring of integers of the field Q( J2. Determine the ring of integers of the field IQ( v'2. 9. 7.3i. 16. Find the greatest common divisor of the following pairs of Gaussian integers: (a) 15 + 12i. 18. Hint: Use the previous exercise. 19. 14. 5. 10. Prove that there exist only finitely many integers d such that d =2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4) and Q( Vd) is a Euclidean field. 20. 17. v'3) and prove that this is a Euclidean domain. 13. Q( H). Prove that if d = 2. 15.102 5. (c) 3 + 8i. 3. Prove that Q( J=I§) and Q( J23) are not Euclidean fields. Determine the indecomposable elements of the ring of algebraic integers of Q( VS). 6. (b) 6 + 7i. Find the decomposition into prime factors of the following Gaussian integers: 12 + i. Let K = Q( Vd) and let A be the ring of integers of K. 3. 11. Prove that Q( H). 12 . 8. with d < 0. b) = 1. 6 + 2i. i). 35 . 12. and 29 then Q( Vd) is a Euclidean field. Prove that Q( () is a Euclidean field. Consider the cases where d = 1 (mod 4) and d ¢. Prove that this is a Euclidean domain. 13. Show that if x = a + bi is an indecomposable Gaussian integer then either ab = 0 or gcd(a.(a+ bVd))l < 1. 17. 3 + 5i.12i. Hint: Use Exercise 12. Q( H). 1 (mod 4) and derive explicit relations. Q( 0). Determine the indecomposable elements of the ring of algebraic integers of Q( J2). Show that A is a Euclidean domain if and only if for every x + yyd E K there exists a+ byd E A such that IN((x + yyd).9i. Let ( be a primitive fifth root of unity. 12 + i. .

b E <Ql).. . Show that 1(1 + · · · + (n I :S: n and the equality holds if and only if ( 1 = · · · = (n. Find algebraic integers x. Determine the ring of algebraic integers and the units of <Ql( w). 23. 22. Exercises 103 21. .. let N : KR -> R be the norm mapping. y have no com- mon factor different from a unit. . 27. J.. Prove that I· I' = (3). jk = -kj = i. i. Determine the norm of an arbitrary element a+ bw( a. ki = -ik = j. Let w be a primitive cubic root of unity. k }. O"n are the automorphisms of Kanda denotes the complex conjugate of a).N). s E <Ql( N). Conclude that if x = ( 1 + · · · + (n and lxl < n then for every conjugate o-(x) of x we have io-(x)l < n.4.. defined by N( a ) = aa. We identify R with the subring R · 1 of multiples of 1.N). Let w be a primitive cubic root of unity. Finally. y E <Ql( N) such that x. Prove that <Ql(w) is a Euclidean field.4. Determine the indecomposable elements of the ring of algebraic integers of <Ql( w). and show that I. (n be roots of unity over <Ql. i=1 (where o. called the algebra of quaternions over R.a1 i . Let R be a domain. 25. J = (7.a2j.1 . On KR we define an operation of multiplication which is bilinear and has the following multiplication table: 1 is the unit element. j. 0 1 2 3 . Hint: Consider the norm of x and use the fact that the geometric mean of positive numbers does not exceed their arithmetic mean. With this operation KR is an R-algebra. 24. defined as follows: if a = ao + a1 i + a2j + a3k then a = ao.4 + N). 26. I· J = (4 + N). where w is a primitive cubic root of unity.N). Let ( 1. J' are prime ideals. 1 for all algebraic integers r. In the ring Z [ N] consider the following ideals: I = (3. I'· J' = (4. I'. but xr + ys =f. J' = (7. ij = -ji = k. 28.= a 2 + a 2 + a 2 + a2 E R . 4 + N). J · J' = (7). and let KR be the free R-module with basis {1. . 29. Show that for every nonzero algebraic integer x of K we have n L o-i(x) · o-i(x) 2: n. i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = -1. Let K be a Galois extension of degree n over <Ql. Show that the ring of algebraic integers of <Ql( v'IO) is not a unique factorization domain. In KR we have the conjugation. I'= (3.a3k.

Algebraic Integers Prove: (a) o: + (3 =a+ 73. (3 E KIQl. 31. 30. (b) Let J be a right ideal of A. then N(o:) = 0 if and only if o: = 0. (3 E A.J ± J s=. o: = o:. J. (b) N(o:(J) = N(o:) · N((J).X2Y2 .104 5. We say that o:.X4Y4) 2 + (XlY2 + X2Yl + X3Y4 .. (d) The only units in the ring A (that is. there exists/. (c) o: is invertible in KR if and only if N(o:) is invertible in R. quaternions o: such that o: and o:. j. A quaternion o: = ~(ao + a1i + a2j + a3k) E KQ is said to be integral when all coefficients ai are integers with the same parity. J · A s=. k }. .x3y2) 2 . ±k. a ring which is not commutative and such that every nonzero element is invertible. (c) If o:. ~ (±1 ± i ± j ± k). we define a left-hand factor. ±i.X4Y3) 2 + (x1y3 + X3Y1 + X4Y2.X2Y4) 2 + (x1y4 + X4Yl + X2Y3. ±j. Show that . We say that (3 is a right-hand factor of o: when there exists 1 E A such that o: = rf3· Similarly. Prove Euler's identity: In any commutative ring we have (xi + x~ + x§ + x~)(yi + Y~ + y§ + Yl) = (XIYl . Show: (a) A is a subring of KIQl containing Kz. that is. Let A be the set of all integral quaternions. i. there exists a greatest common right-hand factor 6. Let o:. (3 are associates when there exists a unit E of A such that o: = (JE or o: = E(J.X3Y3 . that is.J. (e) The product of two sums of four squares in R is a sum of four squares in R. Prove: (a) If o:. 32. o:(J = a73.J is principal. there exists o: E A such that .. . hence KR is a skew. (3 E A.J = o:A. (b) A is a free Z-module with basis g(l + i + j + k). of which some can be equal to 0. not both equal to 0. (3 # 0. 6 is unique up to a left-hand unit factor and may be expressed in the form 6 = fW + 1'J (3 with fl. 19 E A (Bezout property).1 belong to A) are the following 24 quaternions: ±1. (d) If R is a field in which 0 is not a sum of four squares. .field. (c) If o: E A then N(o:) E Z. that is. p E A such that o: = f3r + p and N(p) < N((J).

b is equal to 1 if and only if gcd(N(a). (b) An integral quaternion 1r E A is indecomposable if and only if N(1r) is a prime number. 34. b) = 1. then use Exercises 32 and 33 to express p as the norm of an indecomposable quaternion. Prove the following theorem of Lagrange: Every natural number is the sum of squares of four nonnegative integers. let b E Z. b > 0. An integral quaternion 1r is said to be indecomposable whenever the only factors of 1r are units or associates of 1r. 33. (e) If a E A show that there exists one associate a' of a which belongs to Kz. . Prove: (a) If p E Z is a prime number then p is not an indecomposable quaternion. Hint: Use Exercise 30 to reduce to the case of a prime number. Exercises 105 (d) Let a E A. show that the greatest common right-hand factor of a.

and also of the cyclotomic field Q(() (where ( is a primitive pth root of unity). Xi E M <:. Discriminant We have seen in the numerical examples of the preceding chapter that the ring of algebraic integers of a quadratic number field.6 Integral Basis. To conclude the chapter. . r). For this purpose. we think that their inclusion in the text will be convenient to certain readers.. . Others. We note that the elements x 1 . Let R be a domain. Hence. if it is known that the R-module M is contained in a vector space V over F. we shall prove this fact in general and establish other interesting properties of the ring of algebraic integers. Xn of J-. with ai E F. which is a rational integer associated with every algebraic number field. may just take note of our notation and terminology. already well versed in these facts.1 has rank n exactly when the F-vector space F !vi has dimension n.1.1 Finitely Generated Modules To begin. are free finitely generated Abelian groups. a -:f. If n is the maximum number of linearly independent elements of M.1 are linearly independent over R if and only if they are also linearly independent over F. such that ay E J-.. 6. and in each case they will serve to measure a certain phenomenon.. . J-. . M an R-module. we shall introduce the discriminant. let us recall the notion of rank of a module.. It will be a recurring procedure in the theory to attach numerical invariants to alge- braic number fields. 0. let F M denote the subspace of V generated by M (it consists of all elements of the form 'L~=l aixi. IfF is the field of quotients of R.. In this chapter. 107 . However. Thus for every element y E F M there exists a E R. it will be necessary to develop theories which belong properly to algebra. then n is called the rank of M. V fori = 1.

By Chapter 5. replacing M by its image.. By symmetry. thus. We shall prove that As. with a. . but we just want to mention the very simplest of these cases: A. Yr are elements of M S: V. then M' = REB Rt EB · · · EB Rtn~ 1 = R[t]. Then y = L~~~ dcj(tJ /d) and our task is now to show that each element dcj belongs to R.. . that is.. any two bases of l'vf have the same number of elements. Proof: We take V = F6 EB · · · EB F~n to be the set of all "formal" lin- ear combinations of symbols 6. Explicitly. tn are the conjugates oft over F.. . . is an isomorphism from the R-module M into V. so M = Rx1 EB · · · EB Rxn· The mapping B : M ____. F its field of quotients. evidently Af' is free of rank n. everything is as natural as possible. the elements of V may be written uniquely in the form L~=l a.. let K be a separable extension of degree n ofF.108 6. since the extension is separable. with t E A.. We have dc1 E F.) = L~=l a.. we may write t' = tjb. if d is the discriminant oft in KIF. M = (1/d)R[t]..~. F its field of quotients.. .. eq1tal to the rank of Af. sod E F. . Since tEA. which already hints of the main theorem: B. d = Tii<j(t...1 s. we proceed as follows: Let d be the discriminant oft in KIF. .tj) 2..tn. and M is a free module of rank n. with coefficients in F. we may consider Af as contained in V. then there exists an F-vector space V containing Af. (I). linearly independent over R then by our previous considerations r ~ n.~.. if K = F(t) with t E A. E F. R(1jd) EB R(tjd) EB · · · EB R(tn-l jd). Integral Basis. There are several instances in which this occurs..x. Xn} be any basis of the R-module M.. then A contains the free R-module M' generated by this basis: M' = R EB Rt EB · · · EB Rtn.. • Let us prove a weak result. bE R. where t1 = t. 1. Proof: Let t' be a primitive element of K over F. Let R be a domain. If Yl. and let A be the integral closure of RinK. t2. Let {x 1 . ~n. the dimension of the vector space V over F. defined by 8(2::~= 1 a. Discriminant Thus. Thus K = F(t) and therefore {1. Then there exist freeR-modules M and M' of rank n. any two bases of the R-module M have n elements and n is the rank of M. . Thus. such that M' S: A S: M. In particular. . . M s. If M is a free R-module having a basis with n elements. V. Let R be an integrally closed domain. To prove that A is contained in a freeR-module 1\!f. so we may write y = L~~~ cjtj. . when AJ is contained in a vector space V over F. n -1.t. A. Let y E A. . so K = F(t'). any other basis of the R-module M has at most n elements. where Cj E F for all j = 0.. d I 0.1} is an F-basis of K. .

. Definition 1.. n. . This set of relations indicates that c0 . (3) Every nonempty family of submodules of A1 has a maximal element (with respect to the inclusion relation). . C. • The preceding result leads to the following question: if R is a ring. Let R be a ring. . say by the elements x 1 . To apply Cramer's rule. . .. . .. proving the proposition. . n) with coefficients ti E K'. such that N 1 C N 2 C N 3 .. there exists an index Ji such that xi E NJ... N is finitely generated. . an R-module M is said to be Noetherian whenever every submodule of M is finitely generated. From y 'Ej~~ c1t1 we deduce y.n) hence N = Nm.. if M is an R-module.n.1. Yn be the conjugates of y over F. Let N 1 E M. . Let K' be the smallest normal extension of F containing K. then 0 and ej are integral over R. . 6.. (i = 1. let y y 1 . . Since each Yi. (2) -> (3) Let M be a nonempty family of submodules of M. ti is integral over R.. . and let N be the union of all these submodules. giving a name to the modules with the above property... . there exists N 2 E M such that N1 C N2. Proof: (1) -> (2) Let N 1 C N 2 C N 3 C · · · be an increasing sequence of submodules of M. Therefore.. .tj) i<j (as a Vandermonde determinant) so 62 = d and 0Cj = ej where ej is the determinant of the matrix obtained from (ti) replacing the column of jth powers by the elements Yl.. if N2 is not a maximal element of M.. Let R be a ring.. This procedure must lead to a maximal element . If m 2: Ji for all i = 1. = 'Ej~~ Cjti for all i = 1. when are all submodules of M finitely generated? We treat this question in a roundabout way. ti E K'.. M an R-module. if N 1 is not a maximal element of M. . dcj = Oej is integral over R. so Nm = Nm+l = · · ·. Xn· For every index i = 1. Then the following properties are equivalent: (1) M is a Noetherian R-module. In particular.. (2) Every strictly increasing chain N 1 C N2 C N 3 C · · · of submo- dules of M is finite. By hypothesis. n. . Yn. so Yi. M itself is finitely generated. and finding sufficient conditions for modules to belong to the class in question.~~ ti XJ = y. we note that o= det(ti) = IJ(ti. Cn-l is the solution of the system of linear equations 2::. . Finitely Generated Modules 109 and since R is integrally closed. it is enough to show that dcj is integral over R. . there exists N 3 E M. then each Xi E Nm (i = 1.

Every sv. be- tween the submodules of the quotient module MIN and the submodules of M containing N. (3) Every nonempty family of ideals of R has a maximal element (with respect to the inclusion relation). such that J ~ I of. If x E N. Proof:Let r. Thus. we now establish the following result: E. there is a one-to-one correspondence. A ring R is said to be Noetherian when every ideal of R is finitely generated. Let M be an R-rnodule having a submodule N such that N and MIN are Noetherian modules. hence N' + Rx E M.p : lvf -> . • An important particular case is obtained by considering the R-module M=R: Definition 2. Proof: Let lvf be a Noetherian R-module and N a submodule. Since AI IN is a Noetherian module. • In order to be able to use inductive arguments. with N' C N' + Rx. soN' of. Let M' be any submodule of M. Then the second assertion also follows from (C).MIN be the canonical homomorphism from AI onto MIN. otherwise there would exist an infinite strictly increasing chain of submodules of M. R and then to apply the above property (3). Indeed. (2) Every strictly increasing chain J 1 C h C J3 C · · · of ideals of R is finite. Integral Basis. the module N' + Rx is still finitely generated. which is contrary to the hypothesis. We shall now develop properties of Noetherian modules: D. Thus we may rephrase (C): C 1• Let R be a ring. (3) -> (1) Let us assume that there exists a submodule N of M which is not finitely generated. Since every submodule of N is also a submodule of lvf. The following properties are equivalent: ( 1) R is a Noetherian ring. part (2). and contained inN. preserving inclusion. R. N. x ~ N'. every principal ideal domain is a Noetherian ring.bmodule and every quotient module of a Noetherian module are Noetherian modules. in particular. . Then lvf itself is a Noetherian rnod·ule. then J is contained in a maximal ideal. Discriminant of M. 0 E M). let N' be a maximal element of M. the first assertion follows from (C). this contradicts the maximality of N'. Let M be the family of all finitely generated submodules of M which are contained in N (for example. Similarly. it suffices to consider the nonempty family of all ideals I of R.110 6. J of. It follows at once that if R is a Noetherian ring and J is an ideal.

K its field of quotients. Xn be generators of the R-module M.. Finitely Generated Modules 111 there exist finitely many elements x 1 . . An R-module M is said to be torsion-free when the following property holds: if a E R. Since N is a Noetherian module. M 1 x M 2 has the Noetherian submodule M 1 such that the quotient mo- dule (M1 x M 2 )/M1 ~ M 2 is also Noetherian. . If R is a Noetherian ring.. M 1 x M 2 is a Noetherian module. if M is a finitely generated R-module. . on the other hand. Mn are Noetherian R-module s. .1 (0) = N. = 0} (kernel of the mapping rp). . then M is torsion-free. Xn. then the Cartesian product M1 x Mz x · · · x Mn is also Noetherian. and by (D). .. an E R such that rp(y) = I::~=l airp(xi). . • G. .f' n N. 6. an) = L aiXi· i=l Then M ~ Rn/Ker(rp). . the submodule M' n N is finitely generated. x E M and ax = 0. . say by the elements y 1 . .. If y E M' then rp(y) E (M' + N)jN so there exist elements a 1 . but. . • As a corollary. . bm E R such that n m y = Laixi + LbjYj· i=l j=l This shows that {x 1.1 is a free R-module. If M 1 . Hence..1. . Proof: Let x 1. • Let R be a domain. we have: F. M is a Noetherian module.x. M 2 . . . Let Rn = R x · · · x R be the Cartesian product of n copies of the R-module R. By (F).2..2.::::~ 1 aixi E rp. y. . . . an) ~ a. 0 then a = 0.. hence there exist elements b1 . . . let 'P : Rn ---t M be the homomorphism from Rn onto M such that n rp(a1. .. Proof: It is enough to show the statement for two modules M 1.:::: aixi E Jvf'. .l... by (E). ... Ym} is a system of generators of M'. If R is a domain and J\. and soMis a Noetherian module.. Rn is a Noetherian R-module. We have: H. Ym E J. . then M is a Noetherian module. M 2 . Xn E Af' such that their classes modulo N generate the submodule (M' + N)/N of MjN. .. y1. soy . . x J:.. where Ke<(l') = {(a.

let a. a =f. because if a 1 x 1 = 0.: I. Let S = {y E M I there exists a E R. be such that ay = bxn.. Xn} be a set of nonzero generators of M. b E R. then a basis of S.. with a' ay E Rxn. am. . In the following lemma. 0. . we shall prove that M ~ S EB ( M / S)..ab')y = 0. 0 then y E S. Thus if x E M it may be written in a unique way in the form x = La. .x. thus ba' = ab'. x =f. b/a = b' /a' (in K). then n 2:: 1. a =f. • The converse holds.. If a E R. .. If bJ/a 1 . 0. Since :r =f. then ay E S. so (ba' .. a' =f. y =f. so S and B(S) are finitely generated R-modules. 1 =f. if a E R. But M is a finitely generated R-module and R is a principal ideal domain. if y E S. containing Xn. It is easy to e check that is an isomorphism of the R-module S into K. The module M / S is finitely generated by the images x1 . Moreover. if x =f.EJ be a basis of the R-module M. Let {x 1 . 0 are also such that a'y = b'xn. We shall soon prove in a lemma that every submodule of a cyclic R-module is again cyclic (when R is a principal ideal domain). and ay = 0 in M / S (where y denotes the image of y in M / S). Discriminant Proof: Let (x. Namely. M / S is a free R-module with a finite basis. hence a Noetherian ring. then ba'y = bb'xn = ab'y. We assume now that the theorem holds for modules with less than n generators. since a' a =f. by (G). . M is a Noetherian R-module. It will be enough now to show that S is itself a free R-module..x = 0.. . showing that M is a torsion-free module. where z = l/a 1 . We show that S is isomorphic to a submodule of the field of quotients K of R. bm/am are generators of B(S). 0. together with a basis of M / S. a =f. If n = 1 then lvf = Rx 1 is a free R-module. E R and a. = 0 for every i E I. 0. The quotient module M /Sis torsion-free. x E M. will constitute a basis of M. then by the uniqueness of the representation of 0 we have aa.112 6. 0. 0. b E R. where n > 1.. we conclude that a = 0. 0. in} <:... Xn-1· By induction. then S ~ B(S) <:. Every finitely generated torsion-free module A! over a principal ideal domain R is a free module. 0 then a. This implies .). a =f. ay = bxn with a. a' =f. and c. that is. so there exists a' E R.. b' E R. iEJ with a. From the hypothesis that R is a domain. indeed. when R is a principal ideal domain: Theorem 1.: Rz. that is. with n > 1. . then a1 = 0. 0. This allows us to define a mapping e : S ---> K by putting B(y) = b/a (where y =f. = 0 except for a finite set of indices {i 1 . . 0. if a'. with ay E Rxn}· Since R is a domain. 0) and 8(0) = 0. Integral Basis. Proof: If M = 0 then it is a free module. with an empty basis.. Sis a submodule of M. y = 0.

p(xi) = x~.p from !vi onto A1'.: J'.p) n 'lj. and let lvf be an R-module. such that M = Ker(r. 6. Lemma 1. and finitely generated (by (G)). If N' is a submodule of N. then x = (x. The proof of the theorem is completed. then its inverse image by () is an ideal J' of R.(x') = LiE I aixi. J <. hence by Theorem 1. we may prove that M = Ker(r. showing the lemma.p o 'lj.(M'). so J' = Rb and N' = B(J') = R · B(b). it must be free. we put 'lj. If N is a submodule of lvf. of rank at most n.p). • Now. having a kernel which is an ideal J of R.(x')) + '1/J(x'). • We apply this theorem. iEJ iEJ with x. from M' into M.] Rxn # 0.LiE/ a. so M is torsion-free (by (H)). is a homomorphism from M' into M.p) EB 'lj. and r.. S = Ry ". N is a freeR-module. If R is a principal ideal domain then every submodule of a free R-module of rank n is again free. Proof: Let M be free of rank n. Then there exists an isomorphism 'lj.. soN = Rx. Integral Basis 113 therefore that S is a cyclic module. If x E M. let x' = LiE/ aix~ be the unique expression of x' as a linear combination of the basis. because R is a cyclic R-module and by assumption every submodule of R. obtaining the following corollary: I. and assume that there exists a homomorphism r. The converse holds. L a. Then 'lj. and since S is torsion-free. is one-to-one. if() : R --.xi E Ker(r. is the identity mapping of M'.p(x) = LiE/ aix~. has to be principal.2. M' a free R-module.(M') = 0.(x') E 'lj. • Lemma 2. let x' = r. that is. Proof: Let {xi'}iEJ be a basis of M' and for every i E I let us choose arbitrarily an element Xi E M such that r. N is defined by B(a) = ax. . then() is a homomorphism of R-modules.'lj. Now. so it is a cyclic R-module.(M'). 'lj. Also Ker(r. except for two lemmas.) + L aixi = (x.p) EB 'lj.(M'). Since B(R) = N then N ~ R/ J. Let R be any domain. But R is a principal ideal domain. we fill the gaps in the above proof establishing the necessary lemmas. We define 'lj.x. if and only if evenJ submodule of a cyclic R-module is again cyclic. : M' --. Proof: Assume that R is a principal ideal domain and let N be a cyclic R-module. it is also torsion-free. The ring R is a principal ideal domain. hence 'lj. every ideal of R. M as follows: if x' E Af'.

every ideal of the ring of algebraic integers is finitely generated. \Ve shall show later that. so by (B).. a /2-module) of finite rank. and by (D) A is a Noetherian /2-module. M. Since 12 is a Noetherian ring. Using (C). .. A. A is a free Abelian group of rank necessarily equal ton. Xn} is an integral basis of A. Then every nonzero ideal J of A is a free Abelian group of rank n. J is a free Abelian group of rank at most equal to n. Proof: Let A be the ring of algebraic integers. there exist free Abelian groups M'. then the ring A of algebraic integers is a free Abelian group of rank n. G is a Noetherian /2-module. Since 12 <. From the preceding results we also obtained the following important theorem: Theorem 2. A is a Noetherian A-module. Thus J has rank equal to n. Proof: By (I). by (G). • 6..114 6. If K is an algebraic number field of degree n. A <. even when an ideal is not principal. . a subgroup). ideal) is also a /2-submodule of A (that is. An integral basis is therefore also a basis of the vector space K over Q.2 Integral Basis We apply the preceding results to the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K of degree n over Q. • . to obtain: K. Integral Basis. Any basis of the free Abelian group A (ring of algebraic integers) is called an integral basis of K. Proof: By (B). every A-submodule of A (that is.. then {ax 1 . where G is a free Abelian group (that is. However. we note: J. . M of rank n.. To begin. • Definition 3. A <. . axn} is a linearly independent set of elements of J. part (2). Discriminant The assertion concerning the rank of the submodule is trivial... if {x 1 . G. The ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field is a Noe- therian ring.. By (I).. it may still be generated by two elements. a ic 0.. We may apply (I). since it has n = [K : Q] elements. that is. if a E J. • Thus. a Noetherian ring. such that M' <. Let A be the ring of integers of an algebraic number field of degreE n...

Proof: The proof will be done by induction on m. .. fmxm} is a basis of . then M = Rx 1 EB N and M' = Rfix 1 EB (N n M'). let M be a free R-module of rank n.. xn} of M and nonzero elements fi.. (r 1u 1 + ru)(M'). . Since M' =f. fm E R such that {fix 1 . Integral Basis 115 Actually (K) may be considerably improved by a statement which relates two bases of the Abelian groups A and J.. .. Every element y E M may be written in a unique way in the form n y = L aiyi.. . say equal to Rf'. .1 contained in the free module N of rank n . . R such that u(M') =f..... On the other hand. f is principal. Moreover.. if y E M then we may write y = u1 (y )x1 + (y . i=l Let Pi : M --> R be a mapping defined by Pi(Y) = ai. Xn} of N and nonzero elements /2. . 0 there exists an index i such that pi(M') =f.1. So. n. Then there exists a basis {x 1 .. with ai E R. there exists a basis { x 2 . 0 so obtained. M' and y' . Rf' <. Indeed. . thus u1(x1) = 1. 0.. 0. and let A1' be a submodule of M of rank m. Rfi. Rx 1 n N = 0 since rx 1 E N implies r = u 1(rxl) = 0. Let N be the kernel of u 1 . For the linear transformation r1u1 + ru : M ---+ R we have Rh <. hence u 1(y')x 1 E Rfix 1 = Rz 1 <.. Indeed. . say u 1 (M') = Rh =f.1.u1 (y')x1 E M' n N. 6. . . Yn} be any basis of the free R-module M... . .. By induction.u 1(y)x1) = 0. Rfix 1 n (N n M') = 0. . . m. We shall show that if u is any other linear transformation from M to R we have f = u( z 1 ) E Rfi. By the maximality of Rh we conclude that (r 1 u 1 +ru)(M') = Rh hence f' E Rh and Rf <. we have Pi(zl) E Rh for every i = 1. hence a Noe- therian ring.. if y' E M' then u 1(y') E u 1(M') = RJI. considering the projections Pi associated with the basis {y1. Let z 1 E Jvf' be such that u 1 ( Z1) = h. Now M' n N is a module of rank m .. The statement is trivial form= 0.. namely.. we conclude that h = u1(z1) = h · u1(x1). Let {y1 .. therefore the ideal generated by fi. Also. there exists a maximal element in the family of principal ideals u(M') =f.. fm E R such that {hx2. fmxm} is a basis of M'. this shows that M = Rx1 EB N. . . L. thus there exist elements r 1 .. R is a principal ideal domain. . . Therefore z1 = I:~=l Pi(zi) · Yi = hx1 for some element x 1 E M..u1 (y )xi) with u1 (y )x1 E Rx1 and ul(Y. 0.2. . In particular.. the ith projection.. . fm so that ji divides fi+l fori= 1. r E R such that f' = rif1 + rf = (r 1 u 1 + ru)(zl).. . so Pi is a linear transformation.. we may consider the nonempty set of linear transformations u : M --. Let R be a principal ideal domain.. Since R is a principal ideal domain. we may choose the elements JI. in particular. Yn} of M.

...xn) = det(TrKIQ(XiXj)) I 0. x~} is an integral basis. we are interested in computing the discriminant in some special cases. M.. We have :cj = 2. . ... So. R.:7= 1 aijXi (with aij E Z) for j = 1. Section 11): discrKIQ(Xl.. Integral Basis. Then Rh = p~(M'nN) c:. If x~. . we consider the linear transformation v : l'vf ____. and denoted by 6KIQ = bK. DK E Z. and h divides ]2.. • Definition 4.. then v(r 1 x 1 + y) = r 1 + u(y). .. . .. The discriminant (in KIIQ) of any integral basis is called the discriminant of the field K....n} is a basis of M'. .xn)· The matrix (aij kj has determinant ±1 if and only if it is invertible.. and because u(N n M') is not contained in Rf1 we conc:lude that v(M') contains properly Rh. . which is a numerical invariant attached to the algebraic number field.. x~} is another basis of M and !{. p~(xi) = 0 when i I 2. . We shall see later the significance of the discriminant. m. n. • It is possible to prove that if { x~.. and {x1.. E R are nonzero elements such that JJ divides JJ+ 1 for i = 1. {x 1 . which coincides with u on N and coincides with u 1 on Rx 1 .xn) = discrKIQ(x~. Xn} an integral basis. Rh by the preceding considerations.1.1 and {f{x~. . or equivalently {x~. if r 1 E R. We prove first that if u : M ---+ R is any linear transformation. .. Let K be a field of algebraic numbers. hence discrKIQ(x~.. Thus. .· . explicitly. Then v(M') = Rh + u(N n M').. . y E N. We still have to show that h divides ]2. .. .. . For the moment.. . .3 The Discriminant Our purpose now is to introduce and to give elementary properties of the discriminant.. . . fJ are associated for i = 1. x~} is an integral basis. . . then fi. contrary to the maximality of the ideal Rh. Rfi.x~) if and only if {x~. . ..···. Now let p~ be the linear transformation from M toR defined by p~(x 2 ) = 1.. . Xn} is a basis of M and {hxl. .. m. Proof: By definition (see Chapter 2. .. then u(M' n N) c:. 6...116 6. f:C. f:nx. . x 2 .x~) = [det(aij)] 2 discrKIQ(xl. this is a contradiction. Discriminant M' n Nand fi divides fi+ 1 fori= 2. x~ E A then discrKIQ(Xl. .. . Assuming the contrary. . fmxm} is a basis of M'.... A the ring of algebraic integers... . hx2. . . DK I 0.. m.

0 2d .. . Since P + N and P N remain unchanged by the action of each O"i. Proof: By definition. where d is a square-free integer.. . if d = 2 (mod 4) or d =3 (mod 4) then { 1. hence P + N. . Let K = Q(t) be an extension of degree n... t an algebraic integer. If d =1 (mod 4) then bx = d. where each Yi is an algebraic integer..... tn. . Yn) =0 or 1 (mod 4). Let K = Q( v'd). A further limitation comes from the following result due to Stickelberger: 0. 6. .4.. . . . i=1 Hence. discrKIIQJ(y 1. once a primitive integral ele- ment has been found. P N E Q. Let KIQ be an extension of degree n. N) denotes the sum of the terms with positive sign (respectively. . where P (respectively.. • 6.. P N are algebraic inte- gers. Yn) = [det(O"i(YJ))] 2 = (P. • This limits the search of the discriminant.N) 2 = (P + N) 2 . P + N. then by Galois theory P + N. negative sign) in the expression of the determinant. .n -1) with aij E Z. .. Then bx divides discrKIQ(t) and the q·uotient is the square of an integer. .) 2 0 = 4d. We may write n ti = LaijXi (j = 0. v'd} is an integral basis.. If d = 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4) then the discriminant of K is bx = 4d. Therefore TrKIIQJ(l) TrKIIQJ(y(}. Yn) is congruent to 0 or to 1 modulo 4.1. 4PN. Yn} be any Q-basis of K. O"n are the Q-isomorphisms of K then discrKIIQJ(Y1. if 0" 1. . N.. (W). Proof: By Chapter 5. . and let {y 1. . t. Proof: Let {x 1.. discrKIQ(t) = discrKIQ(1. PN E Z. and the quotient is the square of an integer ..1) = (det(aij)) 2 · bx and there- fore bx divides discrKIIQJ(t) E Z. Then discrKIIQJ(Y1. Discriminant of Quadratic Fields 117 For this purpose the following remarks will be useful. Therefore.4 Discriminant of Quadratic Fields P. On the other hand. . xn} be an integral basis of KIQ.

.2 +. Proof: By Chapter 5. (1 + vd)/2} is an integral basis.2Jl/ 2 NIQJ(OIIQJ(<P 0(()) where <PQ is the derivative of <Pp. (. Let us also note in all cases: Q. (P. b E Z.1). ( 2. • 6.1)<P~. the possible discriminants of quadratic fields are integers 8 such that 8 = 1 (mod 4).1)<I>p. or 8 = 8 (mod 16) or 8 = 12 (mod 16). thus for every root ( 1 of <I>p (j = 1..1 + XP. p.118 6. this is true when d = 1 (mod 4).1 = d.1)(p. and conversely.. pXP-l = <Pp + (X .2} is an integral basis ofQ((). {1. By Chapter 2. Integral Basis. so a+ bvd = (2a + 2bvd)/2 = (2a + bv'b)/2 with (2a) 2 =ob 2 (mod 4).1)<I>~((J). . Discriminant If d =1 (mod 4). a. 2. a 2 8b 2 (mod 4). (U).. b E Z. . If d =2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4). The integers of Q( vd) may be written in the form (a+ bVb) /2 where = a. and conversely. But XP . where ( is a primitive pth root of 1. by Chapter 5. hence taking derivatives. (X). . The minimal polynomial of ( over Q is the pth cyclotomic polynomial <Pp = XP. so 2 1 + yd ) Tr KIIQJ (1+vd) 2 TrKIIQl ( 2 2 1 1 1+ d 2 = (1 + d) . = ( -1)(p-1)/2pP-2. Let K = Q(().··+X+ 1. and p is an odd prime number.1 = ((J . • Thus.1 = (X . Then the discriminant of KIQ is {. . then o = 4d and if a+ byd is an algebraic integer. Proof: Indeed.5 Discriminant of Cyclotomic Fields R. we have p((J)P. Section 11: o = discr(<I>p) = (-1)[(p. then {1. since 8 = d. .

y~ in a similar manner.. .. Hint: 1.. and therefore 0 = (-1)(p-1)(p-2)/2pP-2 = (-1)(p-1)/2pP-2 since [(p. . . define y~.(j) = <I>p(1) = p. .. 3. (6 + v'b')/2} is a basis of the Abelian group of all algebraic integers of Q( v'd).. Xn E Z[t] be such that discr(x1. . y~} for the Z-mo- dule J in the following way: using Exercise 4 of Chapter 5. aij < ajj ::::. and let 6 be the discriminant of the field Q(v'd). au for every i.. Xn} is a basis of the Abelian group Z[t]. . j=1 j=1 hence... Xn) is a square-free rational integer. j=1 p-1 p-1 II ((1 . . j = 1. . Xn} be an integral basis of K. . . = NIQ(()IIQ(() = (-1)P- p-1 1 (3 · 1 = 1. so we compute II . Let J be a nonzero ideal of the ring A of integers of an algebraic number field K. and let x 1. Yn = an1X1 + anzXz + · · · + annXn. Exercises 119 Now. Prove that {x 1. Let t be an algebraic integer of degree n over Q.. . Let d be a square-free rational integer. with aij E Z satisfying 0 ::::... NIQ((JIIQ(<I>~(()) = IT. .. . Construct inductively a basis {y~.2)]/2 = (p. then consider the smallest positive integer a2 2 for which a linear combination Y2 = a2 1x1 + a2 2xz belongs to J. Show that {1. Yn} over Z of the following type: Y1 = anx1.1)/2 (mod 2).1)(p...:: <I>~((1). .. Let {x 1. Show that J has a basis {y1. . . 2. . { Yz = az1X1 + azzxz. 1) = II (1.. show that there exists the smallest positive integer a~ 1 such that y~ = a~ 1 x 1 E J. n. • EXERCISES 1.

Let R be a ring. Let K = Q>( H). Let K = Q>(t) be an extension of degree n. Show that {x 1 . . and let d be the discriminant of t in KIQ>... .. (b) {X1. Discriminant 2. Let {x 1 ... Compute the discriminant of the field Q>( J2... 5. . . Xn} is an integral basis of K. Integral Basis... . Prove: (a) discrKIIQI(x 1 . then is also a basis of J. let {x 1 . J3). Yn} of K composed of algebraic integers.. . i). . Xn} is an integral basis if and only if ldiscrKIIQI(xl. 7. . Xn} be a Q>-basis of K composed of algebraic integers. 6. .. (b) The ideal generated by 7 and 4 + .n-li repeat this procedure. . 10..=5. using this fact. .. 12. rn E Z. ... . Compute the discriminant of the field Q>( J2.=5. Find a basis over Z for each of the following ideals of A: (a) The ideal generated by 3 and 4 + . Note that if {yi. Yn)l for every Q>-basis {y 1 .... Compute the discriminant of the field Q>( . xn) is a multiple of the discriminant 8 of the field K. 4. Xn} be a linearly independent set of algebraic integers of the field K of degree n over Q>. . .. Show that {x1. For each i = 1. subtract a suitable multiple of Y~-I from y~.. .. and M an R-module. t E A (the ring of algebraic integers of K). Xn)l = 181. . and A the ring of integers of K.. among all integral elements of the form (with any a 1 E Z and ai cf 0) let Xi be one such that lai I is the least possible. . ..v2). Let KIQ> be an extension of degree n... so that the new coefficient of Xn-l is not negative and smaller than a~-l. .120 6. n. If x E M. . y~} is a basis of the Z-module J and i cf J. 8. . 11. 9. Compute the discriminant of the field Q>( \12). .. Xn)l :S: ldiscrKIIQI(Yl. let Ann (x) = {a E R I ax = 0} . Xn} is an integral basis of KIQ> if and only if ldiscrKIIQI(xl. .

and let N be a submodule of M. Let R be a commutative ring. Let R be a principal ideal domain. N is a pure submodule of M if and only if M / N is a torsion-free module.. Miscalled a torsion module if all its elements are torsion elements. Exercises 121 (the annihilator of x). 13. . x E M imply x E N. Conclude that every integral basis of A is a part of an integral basis of B. let M be an R-module and let N be a submodule of Af. (b) If M is a torsion-free module then the submodule N is pure if and only if ax E N.. Let R be a principal ideal domain. N' are pure submodules of M. We call x a tor sian element when Ann( x) -1. Show that N is a pure submodule of M if and only if there exists a submodule N' of M such that M ~ NEB N'. and M /T is a torsion-free R-module. and let N be a submodule of l'vf (hence N is also a freeR-module). B be their rings of algebraic integers. Ann(x) is an ideal of R. a E R.0 and a torsion-free element when Ann(x) = 0. Prove: (a) If M =NEB N' then N. 15. Show that N is a pure submodule of Af if and only if every basis of N may be extended to a basis of l'vf. Let K r:. (c) Let M be a torsion-free module. a -1. and let A r:. Show that the Abelian group A is a pure subgroup of B.. 14. let M be a freeR-module of rank n. the set T of all torsion elements of M forms a torsion submodule of 1\I.0. (b) If R is a domain. Show: (a) For every x E M. L be algebraic number fields.. let M be a freeR-module of rank n. We say that N is a pure submodule of M when N n aM = aN for every a E R. 16.

We say that a nonzero fractional ideal M is invertible when there exists a fractional ideal M' such that M · M' = A. I n :. contained in K. where x E K. a f= 0. and if necessary. Section 2. The set F of nonzero fractional ideals of A is endowed with an operation of multiplication: M · M' = {2:::7= 1 x. namely those of type Ax. If A1.:. such that a · M c:. However. Let A be any domain and K its field of quotients. is said to be a fractional ideal of A when there exists an element a E A. 123 . We denote by Pr the set of nonzero principal fractional ideals of A. Among the fractional ideals. so isM· M'. K itself is not a fractional ideal of A (unless A = K). E M'}. elements of K (not in A) by a more general type of ideals. We shall return later to this concept. 1. A1' are integral ideals. showing that K = A(1/a) = A. lv12 are invertible fractional ideals if and only if M 1 · M 2 is invertible. it is not true in general that A is a principal ideal domain.7 The Decomposition of Ideals 7.. E M. replacing elements of A by ideals of A. What can be said about ideals which are not principal? We shall imitate the theory of divisibility. otherwise there exists a E A. namely the ideal A itself: M · A = M. Thus. This operation is commutative. x. It generalizes the operation defined for integral ideals in Chapter 1. Definition 1. It is easy to verify that lvf · AI' is again a fractional ideal. Every nonzero principal fractional ideal is invertible. and has a unit element. Then 1/a 2 = bja. we consider the principal fractional ideals. and so 1/a = b E A.1 Dedekind's Theorem We have shown that the ring A of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field is Noetherian and integrally closed. x. such that K = A(1/a). A. An A-module M.x. we shall call it an integral ideal. every ideal of A is also a fractional ideal (taking a = 1). However. It is enough to observe now the following general fact: M 1 . and more generally. a f= 0. with b E A. associative.

if M. Let A be the ring of integers of an algebraic number field K. then a divides b if and only if the principal fractional ideal Aa divides Ab. and it contains exactly one prime number p. let J~ 1 = {x E K I xJ ~A}. But A/Pis integral over the field Fp = Zjp. Thus the nonzero prime ideals of Z are Zp. The Decomposition of Ideals If M. Let us also note that if a. and write MIN. we say that M divides N. We shall soon establish a fundamental theorem. otherwise taking m. Krull. M'. which implies the reverse inclusion. Noether. b E K". Thus. A ~ J~ 1 and J ~ J J~ 1 ~ A. if MIM' then M' ~ M (because M' = M · J ~ M ·A= M). which encompasses the results of Dedekind. So. n E Z is a prime number if and only if Z/n is a domain different from Z (and then also a field). Then J~ 1 is a fractional ideal. In the theory of divisibility of Z the prime numbers play a basic role. (F). We begin with some easy generalities. the nonzero prime ideals of the ring A of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K are candidates to play a similar role as prime elements do in the case of the ring Z.124 7. integrally closed domain in which every nonzero prime ideal is maximal. Let A be any domain and K its field of quotients. and MIM'. The following properties are immediate to verify: MIA1 for every nonzero fractional ideal M. by Chapter 5. the relation of divisibility between nonzero fractional ideals is an order relation. we have shown that A is a Noetherian. No other prime p' =I pis contained in P. We recall first (see the remark after Chapter 6. Moreover A/ P is a finite field containing IF'p = Zjp. A/ P is a field and P is a maximal ideal of A. (E). Hence. • Summarizing. N are nonzero fractional ideals of A. because every maximal ideal is a prime ideal. Proof Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. we shall see soon that for rings of algebraic integers the divisibility relation is equivalent to the reverse inclusion. Then every nonzero prime ideal P of A is a maximal ideal. when there exists an integral ideal J ~ A such that M · J = N. M" are fractional ideals. Thus P n Z = Zp for some prime number p. and Matusita. Actually. which is not the case. if MIM' and M'IM then M = M'. P n Z is a nonzero ideal which is obviously prime. by Chapter 5. (C 1)): If A is any Noe- therian ring. A. for all prime numbers. Since A is integral over Z. . These properties are already very strong and have significant implications on the arithmetic of the ring A. M'IM" then Mll\1". If J is any nonzero ideal of A. every ideal J =I A is contained in a prime ideal. n integers such that 1 = mp + np' we would have 1 E P. As we know.

Let R be an arbitrary domain.1 is obviously an A-module contained inK and if a E J..1 J is still an integral ideal. Pr (relative to inclusion). .1 . Thus..1 is a fractional ideal. r.1.. Similarly P{ :2 J = P1 · · · Pn hence P{ :2 Pi for some i. and let J = P 1 · · · Pr. I' ::J J. then aJ.. P. I' = J + Aa'. multiplying the relation P 1 · · · Pr = J = P{ · · · P. of A.. s and j = 1.I' ~ S. . we have s = r and after some permutation of indices. Thus.1 = A. a =I 0. there exist prime ideals P 1 .. so I. . P2. by (C 1) of Chapter 6 there exists an ideal J E S which is maximal in S (with respect to inclusion). but J :2 P1P2 · · · Pr.. If A is a Noetherian ring and if J is an ideal of A.1 ~ J J.. Now. . (4) The set of nonzero fractional ideals of A is a multiplicative group. Let I = J + Aa. we have P2 · · · Pr = P 1. B. . Dedekind's Theorem 125 Indeed. Hence Pi. . there exist prime ideals P 1 . but aa' E J. Also II' ~ J. Let S be the set of all ideals J =I A for which the statement does not hold. P8 . say j = 1.. a' ~ J.. • Now we are ready to prove the following basic theorem: Theorem 1. so J. Then J ~ S. for all i. .. Proof: Let P 1 be a minimal ideal among P 1 . a. . If J is a nonzero ideal then J is an invertible ideal if and only if J J... . with Pj prime ideals. since P 1 is invertible. there exist elements a. . (3) Every nonzero (integral) ideal of A is the product of prime ideals. Then J is not a prime ideal. . .. it follows that there exists an index j. Pj = Pj.. such that P 1 :2 P{. . . for all j = 1. . since A is a Noetherian ring. for each i = 1. Then if J = P{ · · · P. Let A be a domain. We proceed inductively and arrive at the required conclusion.r. P{. • C.. .1 . If S =I 0. PJ :2 J :2 II' :2 P1 · · · P8 P{ · · · P.1 J = P~ · · · P. Proof: The assertion holds if J is a prime ideal... J. where P 1. by P 1. Pr of A such that Pi :2 J for all i = 1. thus P 1 :2 Pi and by the minimality i = 1 and P1 = P{. J =I A.1 ~ A. Then the following properties are equivalent: (1) A is Noetherian. . such that Pi :2 I :2 P 1 · · · P8 and Pj :2 I' :2 P{ · · · P. . From P 1 :2 J = P{ · · · P.\ we deduce that A ~ J. . a' E A. hence I. integrally closed and every nonzero prime ideal of A is maximal. let P 1 . which is a contradiction and concludes the proof. . Pr be invertible prime ideals. 7. j. (2) Every nonzero (integral) ideal of A is expressible in a unique way as the product of prime ideals. From 1 E J. . r.

.. Pr be prime ideals of A such that P.1 is the inverse of the principal ideal Ad. say P :.. By the hypothesis. :. A. .. r) and J :.126 7. :. let P 1. At any rate P = P ·A<. A. so either P p-l = A or P p-l = P.2 Ac :. we may assume that r is the minimum possible. ajc tic A. Next.2 Pr hence P = Pr. Now we may prove the implication (1) ---> (2) If J = A the assertion is trivially verified. pp-l <..1 = pp-l = P and similarly pp-n = P for every n 2': 1. The Decomposition of Ideals Proof: (1) ---> (2) First we show: (a) Every nonzero prime ideal P of A is invertible. A which is contrary to the fact that A C p-l. Thus p-l <.bi = 0.. then pp. However ajc E p-l.2 J. we have A= pp-l :.. let d E A.2 P1 · · · Pr. P p-l = A. d cf 0 be such that d · J <. c cf 0. with P. hence J = P 1.. this shows that b is integral over A. hence b E A because A is integrally closed.2 P 1 · · · Pr. because A is a Noetherian ring. and so J = J pr-l Pr = P{ · · · P. if a E P. .. let P be a prime ideal of A. (2) ---> (3) This statement is trivial. But P must contain one of these prime ideals. . If the statement holds for ideals containing a product of at most r . we prove that pp-l =A.2 P 1.1 · (Ad· J) where (Ad). .. hence P = P 1.1 prime ideals...2 P1. for which this property holds. Pr such that P :.. Thus.2 P 1 · · · Pr (by (C)). ( 3) ---> ( 4) It will be enough to show that every nonzero prime ideal of A is invertible.1 = Ad. Ad· J and Ad are products of nonzero prime ideals. We may choose r to be the minimum possible. Cn-l E A such that abn = 2:::7==-01 c. if each nonzero prime . r.. a tic Ac. because (ajc)P <..Pr. .2:::~~ c.abi. We have seen that p-l is a fractional ideal of A.2 Ac for every i = 1.. If J is a nontrivial ideal of A.. The ideal J = l::~=O Aabn is finitely generated. We shall prove by induction on r that J is expressible as a product of prime ideals.2 Jpr-l :.. that is.2 = (PP. hence bn. A <.A and P p-l is an ideal of A. we have Ac ~ P 2 · · · Pn so there exists a E P2 · · · Pr. p-l.. We show now that p-l cf A. If this second case takes place. In fact. so there exists n > 1 and elements c0 . say P :. from P :. If r = 1 then P 1 :. so A c p-l.2 J (i = 1. .. .1)P.. such that P :. hence by (C) there exist prime ideals P1. it follows that P contains some of the ideals P... Therefore. J pr--\ = P{ · · · P. r 2': 1.2 J :. The uniqueness of the decomposition into a product of prime ideals was established in (B). P p-l <. since by the hypothesis every nonzero prime ideal is maximal. . Then J = (Ad).. Let c E P. By the minimality of r. . (1/c)P1P 2 · · · Pr <...2 P1 · · · PrPr-l = P1 · · · Pr-1· By induction. if J is any nonzero fractional ideal of A. bE p-l then abn E pp-n = P for every n 2': 1. from (a).2 J :.. where each Pf is a prime ideal.. proving (a).

1 .0. . . Now. a i. showing the other inclusion J' <.1 = P~i =Pi for every i = 1. . where Pi= Pi/P. Let x E K be a root of a monic polynomial. J = P 1 · · · Prn. thus P <. . thus P = Pi is invertible...2 P. and let a E P. we prove that A is integrally closed.. we consider the image a of a. P 2 + Aa.. then P is maximal. m. let J.. P.. with coefficients in A : x= + a 1 xm. J' = P{ · · · P~. a tf.1 + · · · + arn_ 1 x + arn) belongs to the fractional ideal J generated by 1. a tf. P. a tf. then ay E P. J. Finally. Let a E A. so A= JJ. we must have 2m= nand. PJ are prime ideals. in particular. This implies that every element x E P may be written in the form x = y + za with y E P 2 . P + Aa 2 = (P + Aa)(P + Aa) <.. let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. From this fact. then J' = J. actually P <. by hypothesis Aa is a product of prime ideals. . if y E J'. so J' :. The proof will be finished if we show that Pi is a maximal ideal. Let J be any (integral) ideal of A. from a tf. therefore P = P(P + Aa) and since P is invertible then A = P + Aa. Xn generate the ideal J.. A ·a 2 = P{ · · · P~. P it follows that y E P. We note now that J' = J. P. we have J 2 <. Thus J' = P and J P = P implies that J = A... hence it contains some ideal Pi. therefore there exist elements x 1 . . let a E A.a) with y. Xn E J and Y1. Then x= = -(a 1 xm. Pj = Pj/P are invertible prime ideals of A (because a i. and since J i. . . 7. Next... Yn E J.. This is true for every a E A.(y. So.1 be its inverse. so P is a maximal ideal.1 J = A.. P.. which must contain J.1. xm.. after renumbering. and so contain P. Since Aa is invertible then each ideal Pi is invertible. Since J is invertible.. So za = x . therefore P~i. Since A ·a 2 = (Aa) 2 . Aa 2 are invertible ideals). and consider the ideals J = P + Aa. Then A · a = P 1 · · · Pm.1 such that 1 = 2::~= 1 XiYi· If a E J we have a = 2::~= 1 x. Thus the set of all nonzero fractional ideals of A is a multiplicative group.a E J. So.0 is invertible. we have P~i. so P is a maximal ideal. x E A and so A is integrally closed. .1 P <..1 P is such that J J' = P. A. • . But Pis prime..0 so A a. P then z E P.1 . J.0. then the same holds for J. where Pi. This is true for every a E A. respectively. so P :. let P be a nonzero prime ideal. z E A.... J'. we are led to prove: (b) If P is an invertible prime ideal of A. J' = P + Aa 2 . a tf. Dedekind's Theorem 127 ideal of A is invertible.1 = P~i = Pi and so (P + Aa) 2 = P + Aa 2 . by (B). then J <. P and consider the ideal J = P + Aa. In the domain A = A/ P. J i.. so the elements x 1 .y E P and since a tf..2 Aa = P 1 · · · Pr. On the other hand. P 2 + P · Aa <. (4) -+ (1) We show first that A is a Noetherian ring.. . By hypothesis (3). x. P.1 J =A.1 + · · · + arn..

> 0 for each i = 1. By part (4) of Theorem 1. The element p (p =/= 0 and is not invertible) is said to be indecomposable whenever if a. Hurwitz gave a direct algebraic proof.. and (4) of Theorem 1.. (3). of the form J = [}~= 1 Pt. Since the domains with the properties of Theorem 1 are so important. we shall state these results in full generality. the ring A of algebraic integers of an al- gebraic number field K of finite degree satisfies condition ( 1) in Theorem 1. Let us look at the prime and indecomposable elements of A. such that Aa · J is an integral ideal. we introduce a definition: Definition 2.. Matusita proved the equivalence of conditions (2) and (3). .128 7. Thus we may state: Theorem 2. showing that (1) implies (2). . . Then every nonzero fractional ideal J of K is. which we may prove for the ring of algebraic integers. • The unique factorization of ideals of the ring of algebraic integers was discovered by Dedekind.. . J is an integral ideal if and only if e. in a unique way. are actually valid for arbitrary Dedekind domains. Krull improved the form of Noether's properties. r. Pr are distinct prime ideals and e 1. where P1. . er are nonzero integers. 7. in the form indicated. in a unique way. (2). . By Theorem 1.. and later Noether found which purely algebraic properties of a domain imply the unique factorization of ideals into prime ideals.. The reader may consider Dedekind domains as a natural generalization of the principal ideal domains and as a counterpart of the unique factorization domains. thus. The element p =/= 0 is said to be prime if the principal ideal Ap is prime. we arrive at several interesting consequences. as products of prime ideals. The last assertion is obvious. The Decomposition of Ideals According to the previous result~. Let A be the ring of integers of an algebraic number field K of finite degree. With this terminology. . so this fact is usually known as Dedekind's theo- rem. J may be written. A domain A is said to be a Dedekind domain whenever it satisfies the equivalent properties (1). Moreover. As a bonus of Theorem 1. in a unique way. we may say that the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field of finite degree is a Dedekind domain. A a and Aa · J may be written. Proof: By definition. 2 Dedekind Domains Many of the results. b E A and p = ab then p is associated to a or to b. Thus the domain A is a Dedekind domain if and only if the group :F of nonzero fractional ideals is the free Abelian group generated by the set of nonzero prime ideals of A. there exists a E A. a =/= 0..

Dedekind Domains 129 If p is a prime element then it is indecomposable. Let A be a Dedekind domain. and PIJJ'.1 ~ M M. that is. . J' are integral ideals different from P.1 and M' ~M. it follows that P C J.2 M'. From JIP.2. it follows that Pis present among the prime ideals in the decomposition of JJ'. • . M divides M'. from J J' = PI (where I is an integral ideal). Pis not a prime ideal. If p is indecomposable then the principal ideal Ap is not the product of (more than one) principal ideals (distinct from A). If P is a prime ideal in a Dedekind domain A. • The divisibility between ideals means the reverse inclusion: F. Hence. f. and if . Let M. if J.J is an indecomposable ideal. so M' M. Proof: We have already shown that if MIAf' then M -.1 ) M = M'. 7.1 = A. either PIJ or PIJ' . there exists the fractional ideal M. J'IP. If J is any nonzero integral ideal of a Dedekind domain A. Thus. P C J'. it must be a prime ~~. Conversely. if M -. J' are integral ideals different from P.1 is an integral ideal such that ( M 'M . Proof: The following implication holds for an arbitrary domain. then PIJ or PIJ'. Conversely.2 M'. e. r. Then the integral ideals dividing J are precisely those of the form TI~= 1 P{. Next: E. Hence. Then M divides M' if and only if M -. a'~ P. ~ A. where J. • G. either J = 0 (hence it is prime) or J I= 0. An ideal of A is indecomposable if and only if it is prime. Then we may write P = JJ'. J' are ideals of A. which is not indecomposable. then there exist only finitely many integral ideals of A which divide J. and then J is a product of nonzero prime ideals. a' E J'. M' be nonzero fractional ideals of a Dedekind domain. but since J is indecomposable. if A is a Dedekind domain.2 M'. Proof: Let J = TI~= 1 Pt. however. actually. where 0 :::. . for every i = 1. Let P be an ideal. :::. since the nonzero fractional ideals form a group. aa' E JJ' = P. where J.. so there exist elements a E J. such that . But. a reasonable generalization would be the following: an integral ideal P of the domain A is said to be indecomposable when it is not equal to a product P = J · J'. Thus. there are only finitely many integral ideals dividing J. Proof: By the uniqueness of the prime ideal decomposition of J J'. these are no new kinds of ideals: D.. a~ P.

. . there exists M' such that Af M' = Aa. The Decomposition of Ideals We may now consider the greatest common divisor and least common multiple of fractional ideals of a Dedekind domain. Proof: The converse has already been mentioned. Another useful fact follows: J. P. Api is a maximal ideal. From TI~=l p~' = a E P it follows that Pi E P (for some index i). namely. then l'vf + l'vf' is the greatest common divisor of M and Af' and M n M' is the least common multiple of M. A domain. where the ideals Qi are distinct from A and satisfy the relation Qj + ni#j Qi =A for every j = 1. M' are nonzero fractional ideals of the Dedehnd domain A. then 0 "/= (ba)(b'a') E AM n AM' s. By Theorem 1.. ab E Api then Pilab. a i= 0. A then bb'(M + M') s. thus Pila or Pilb. such that l'vf l'vf' is any given nonzero principal ideal.. so let us assume that the Dedekind domain A is also a unique factorization domain. and assume that J = n~= 1 Qi. M + M' divides both M and M' and if M"IM. also. • I. so M" :2 M + M'. and conversely. By (F). M" :2 M'. Af' are nonzero fractional ideals then l'vf + Af' and Af n Af' are also nonzero fractional ideals (for example. Theorem 1 and (C)). it is a product of prime elements. since the nonzero fractional ideals form a group. The proof is analogous for the least common multiple. b E A. M n M'). because if a. Af'. If M. Since a is not a unit. .. hence Api s.130 7. Af" divides M + M'. Then A/J ~ TI~=l A/Qi. b' E A are nonzero elements such that bM s.. a' E M' are nonzero elements. if b. H. the ring of integers • of an algebraic number field is a unique factorization domain if and only if it is a principal ideal domain... If A is a Dedekind domain. if a E l. must be a principal ideal domain. 'r. Let A be a ring. so P = Api is a principal ideal. let J be any ideal of A. noting that A is a unique factorization domain. that is.. Thus. Let a E P.. r > 0. which is both a Dedekind and a unique factorization domain... we have justified our previous remark. It is enough to prove that every nonzero prime ideal P is principal. for every nonzero fractional ideal M there exists a fractional ideal Af'.. • One of the basic theorems in Dedekind domains is the generalization of the Chinese remainder theorem (see Chapter 3. A and b' M' s. But Api is a prime ideal. We may prove an even more general result: K. Proof: Given Aa i= 0. A. a= TI~= 1 p~' ~ 1. thus Af + M' is the greatest common divisor of M and M'.'vf. Proof: We begin by observing that if Af. M"IM' then l'vf" :2 M.

. . x . ~ 1.... for all i = 1. r. We may therefore choose x = z. . Proof: For every i 1.)]+ a. we have shown the existence of an element Zj E A such that Zj . er be integers.. ~ 0 for every index i.. . Pr be distinct nonzero prime ideals of A. E A (i = 1.. ... . • Theorem 3.. in other words. . . = A. e... . for all i = 1. = z E Q. . for all i f= j. whose kernel is equal to n~=l Q. Let A be a Dedekind domain and let P1.Xj = -y E Qj. It remains to prove that B maps A onto IT~=! A/Q. e is a ring-homomorphism. a.. e. . let e 1 . = A. we shall show the existence of an element x E A such that x .. r). E Pr but x. z E ni#j Q. hence z ..X.. 7. are distinct nonzero prime ideals of A. . i=l Proof: It is enough to note that IT~=l Pt' = n~=l Pt' and P? + ITi#j pie. Therefore.. for i f= j. and J = IT~=! Pt' where r ~ 1. • We may sharpen slightly the main assertion of the preceding theorem: L. • We state a special case: with the same hypothesis and notations. E Pt'. By Theorem 2. fori= 2. = [x..Xj E Qj. we may write Xj = y + z with y E Qj.) E Q. given elements X.x. . Let x = 2::. . then x. 'Pr are distinct prime ideals of the Dedekind domain A.2. = J. so there exists an element a... for all i = 1. we have Pt' C Pt'+ 1 .X.x. Then there exists an element x E A such that X .x. . Special Case: There exists an index j such that X. .x. there exists x E A such that x .. + a.ii Zj + (z. .. there exists x E A such that x E P 1 . and z .. Here is a useful variant: M."'+ 1 for every i = 1. be the mapping defined as follows: B(a) = (B 1 (a). r. .. but x t/c P.(a) denotes the image of a by the natural mapping A --> A/Q.e'. Br(a)) where B. ~ 0 for every . P. . . Let A be a Dedekind domain and let P 1 . Xr E A and let e 1 . . ..) E P. let x 1 . r . General Case: For every j = 1. +a. r. t/c Pt'+ 1 .. .. r.. . . . Pr be distinct nonzero prime ideals of A. when PI' . . er be integers. .X.= 1 Zj..(x.(x.. let J be an integral ideal. r. . = 0 for all i f= j. . Zj E Q. Let A be a Dedekind domain. = Lj... E Q. E Pt'. Dedekind Domains 131 Proof: Let e: A --> IT~=] A/Q. . r. t/c Pt'+ 1 . Since Qj + ni#j Q. This follows at once from (H). e. Then r AjJ ~II A/P. 1 :S: i :S: r.

proving that each prime ideal Ph is principal. Thus.. Let A be a Dedekind domain. IT~=l Pi) = A. If A is a Dedekind domain. ej = 0 for j -1. The Decomposition of Ideals i = 1. r. J') = A and Aa + Ab = gcd(Aa.h. . therefore. for each i = 1. . . • Since a Dedekind domain is Noetherian.0 so Aa ~ J hence J divides Aa. . . Then there exists x E A. (B). Proof: We apply (L) with x1 = · · · = Xr = 0. h ::::.h). 1 ::::. This is just the statement of (L). r.132 7. Pr are distinct prime ideals and ei > 0 for each i = 1.. . Proof: Since every nonzero ideal of the Dedekind domain A is a product of nonzero prime ideals. . a -1. there exists an element Yh E A. IT~=l Pi)= A. by (F). so gcd(J. r. B is a Noetherian B-module. • An interesting corollary concerns Dedekind domains. Yh ~ P~. by (F). eh = 1. Pr be the nonzero prime ideals of A. . From Chapter 6.. and Yh ~ Pj for all j -1. (G)). Then B is a Dedekind domain. Since Ax ~ IT~=l Pie. since A is a Noetherian ring then A1 is a Noe- therian A-module (Chapter 6. all ideals are finitely generated.. . where J' is an ideal such that gcd(f1~=l Pi. there exists b E A such that Ab = IT~=l P[' · J'. such that Yh E Ph. If a Dedekind domain has only finitely many prime ideals then it is a principal ideal domain. then Ax = J · IT~=l Pie.. r. it is enough to show that these are principal ideals. r. then every fractional ideal of A may be generated by at most two elements: one of these elements may be arbitrarily chosen. Let a E J. . and K its field of quotients. which have only finitely many prime ideals: N. Thus PhiAyh.h. Let LIK be a separable extension of degree n and let B be the integral closure of A in L.. hence B is a Noetherian A-module. but x ~ Pie. a Noetherian ring. Proof: It is clearly enough to prove this statement for nonzero integral ideals J. r. Let Aa = [1~= 1 Pt' where P1.. By (L).. with x1 = · · · = Xr = 0. Proof: B is integrally closed. fi ::::. • We conclude by studying the integral closure of a Dedekind domain in a separable extension of its field of quotients: P.. . .. where gcd(J. P~ does not divide Ayh and Pj does not divide Ayh (for j -1. Moreover. By (M). Pi does not divide J. by definition.= 1 P/' = J.. ei for each i = 1. for every h.. . Hence the decomposition of Ayh into prime ideals is Ayh = Ph. such that Ax = J · IT~=l Pt.+l for every i = 1.. Thus J = IT~=l P[' with 0 ::::. let P 1. Ab) = [1. that is. we may prove a much better result: 0. we know that B is a submodulc of a free A-module A1 of rank n.. Actually. . .

(b) If h = d(X. proceed by induction on m. c i. and gcd(Ab'.a'b E J. Let afa'. considering the polynomial h. k ::. b1 . (with a 1 . divides every coefficient of fg then. g E A[X]. Prove that A has infinitely many prime ideals.dxm. Ab') = A. 1 ::. if Q is a nonzero prime ideal of B.x). we extend the relation of congruence. apply (b) to this polynomial and . bjb' E K be such that gcd(Aa. g as products of the leading coefficient and linear factors. a~.0. gcd(Ab. Hint: Express f. Let J be a nonzero integral ideal of the Dedekind domain A. Aa') = A. B is a Dedekind domain. (c) Iff. It is straightforward to verify that the relation of congruence modulo J is an equivalence relation and if a a' = Ifb (mod J). soP is a maximal ideal of A and by Chapter 5. m). b~ subjected to the same hypothesis). Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field. (G). Exercises 133 Finally. • To conclude. J) = A. Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K. 2.xl)(X. then a a1 b + + -b1 (mod J) a' a~ b' b~ and a b bl b' (mod J). c divides ab. (E)).1 (X.x) has coefficients in A. Prove successively the following facts: (a) If xis a root of h E A[X] then hj(X . We define -a'a = -b'b (mod J) if ab'. for every coefficient a off and b of g. gcd(Aa'.x2) · · ·(X.Xm) E A[X] then dx1x2 · · · Xk is an algebraic integer (for every k. Hint: Let d be the leading coefficient of h and m the degree of h. first note that dx is an algebraic integer.0 (Chapter 5. then Q n A = P is a prime ideal of A and Q n A#. By Theorem 1. Q is a maximal ideal of B. J) = A. consider fgfc E A[X]. if c E A. a' b' 1 EXERCISES 1.

this representation is unique. Xn is also a Noetherian ring. A a Noetherian subring of B. Assuming that A is Noetherian.. I : J.. 5. Prove that if the ring A' is a homomorphic image of a Noetherian ring A then A' is also a Noetherian ring.. 6. Prove successively the following facts: (a) For every nonzero ideal I of A there exists a nonzero ideal J of A such that I J is a principal ideal. using transfinite induction (or Zorn's lemma) that every proper ideal I of a ring A (with unit element) is contained in a maxi- mal ideal. I.. The Decomposition of Ideals conclude noting that the coefficients of any polynomial are expressible in terms of elementary symmetric functions of its roots. then J · J' <:. Prove the Hilbert basis theorem: If A is a Noetherian ring then the ring A[X 1 . Xn] of B generated by A and x 1 .. (c) If I. : J). I if and only if J' <:. (b) If J' is an ideal of A. For any ideals of A.. indicate a simpler proof for the same fact.134 7. The conductor of J into I is the set of all elements x E A such that x · J <:. . Xn] of polynomials inn indeterminates is also Noetherian. . . J be ideals of A.. . Prove: (a) I : J is an ideal of A containing I. 8. and let x1. Let A be a domain.. 3. I'. . . (d) Every nonzero ideal I of A is equal to a product of prime ideals of A.. . except for the order of the factors. I" are nonzero ideals of A and I· I' = I· I" then I' = I".. Apply the previous exercise to obtain another proof. .. due to Hurwitz. . 7. It is denoted by I: J. Prove. J are ideals of A such that I · J is a multiple of the prime ideal P of A then either P divides I or P divides J. (b) If I.. that the ring A of algebraic integers of K is a Dedekind domain. 4. Let B be a ring. Xn E B.. and let I. Prove that the subring A[x 1 . show: :J = nn i=l (I..

: VI. Show that I is a primary ideal and P = VI. (c) If I.: I. 12. 9. b..lj) ~ .6Y . v'I + J = JVI + VJ.: P <. E B. J ~ I. Prove: (a) Every prime ideal is a primary ideal. J' ideals of B. ab E I. J' are ideals of A such that J · J' <. (b) B(J n A) <. (d) If A is a Noetherian ring and I is a primary ideal of A. 10. show that there exists an integer rn 2 1 such that (VI)= <. Let B be a ring and A a subring of B. a tj. For every ideal I of A let B · I denote the ideal of B generated by I. x. (d) (J + J') n A :=! J n A+ J' n A and B(I +I') = B ·I+ B ·I'..) (e) I: JJ' = (I: J): J'. Prove: (a) VI is an ideal containing I. I. in this situation. Let A be a domain and let I be an ideal of A.. if J.: VI..x. J are ideals of A and there exists n 2 1 such that In <.: J. (b) PI= VI. then J' <. 11. I. I. Let I. I' be ideals of A and J. then b E P. E I. (c) B(B ·In A) = B ·I.. a tj. The root VI of the ideal I is the set of all elements x E A having some power xn (n 2 1) in I.. ab E I. (b) The root VI of a primary ideal I is a prime ideal P.: I. b E A.. then there exists an integer rn 2 1 such that brn E I. Let I. An ideal I of a ring A is said to be primary if the following condition is satisfied: If a.: J and B(J n A) n A= J n A. .. (b) If ab E I. then VIC J]. b E A. a tj. Prove the following facts: (a) B ·I is the set of sums I:~=l b. with n 2 1. Exercises 135 (d) L (~. (d) vT7 = vTni =VI n J}.J. then b E P. if a. P be ideals of a ring A and suppose that: (a) I<. (c) If I is a primary ideal of A.

The system of congruences x = ai (mod Ii) (for i = 1.. Show that the ideals of A satisfy the following distributive laws: In (J + J') = (In J) + (In J') and I+ (J n J') = (I+ J) n (I+ J'). Let I. . 17. Let A be a Dedekind domain. Show that the ring A/ I satisfies the descending chain condition for ideals (every strictly descending chain J 1 -:) h -:) · · · -:) ln -:) · · · of ideals is finite). 20. J be integral ideals of the Dedekind domain A. 13. 16. . Let A be a Dedekind domain. ..2 (J n A)(J' n A) and B ·(I· I') = (B · I)(B ·I').+ I 1 ) for any indices i. j.J37.. (c) For every nonzero ideal I of A the ring A/ I satisfies the descending chain condition for ideals.(InA: J'nA) and B(I: I')<.. B-InB·I'. Prove that the powers of any maximal ideal of a ring A are primary ideals. Prove that there exists an integral ideal I' such that I · I' is a principal ideal and J +I'= A. then J n A is a primary ideal of A v and J n A = VI n A.. 15... Prove that the following statements are equivalent: (a) M is a finitely generated additive group.136 7. (f) J · J' n A :. 18. (B·I): (B·I'). 19. The Decomposition of Ideals (e) (JnJ')nA = (JnA)n(J'nA) andB(Ini') <. Show that the primary ideals of any Dedekind domain A are precisely the powers of the prime ideals of A. (i) If J is a primary ideal of B... Let A be a domain satisfying the following properties: (a) A is a Noetherian ring.. and let I 1 . Prove that A is a Dedekind domain. 14. n) has a solution in A if and only if ai = a1 (mod I. (g) (J: J')nA <. . .. Let M be an additive subgroup of IQl. (h) VI n A = vJ n A and BVf <. Prove the following general form of the Chinese remainder theorem: Let A be a Dedekind domain. . In be ideals of A... and let I be a nonzero integral ideal of A. (b) A is integrally closed.

. 0 except at most for a finite number of primes p.:: vp(M') for every prime p. with p not dividing m. and let e : M -. (g) <Ql has 2No distinct subrings. if and only if e( M) = (np )p satisfies the above condition and.. then: (b) I<:. such that np ::::. LetS be the set of sequences v = (np)p prime. then. x E <Ql. 23.. by the previous exercise. for every M we have vp(M) ::::. If M is a nonzero additive subgroup of <Ql and p is a prime number. J if and only if vp(I) 2: vp(J) for every prime p.vp(J)}. let vp(x) = vp(a) . if and only if e(M) = (np)p is such that each np is an integer and np = 0 except at most for a finite number of primes p. M' if and only if vp(M) :.z. If I. Let p be a prime number.z. gcd(a.vp(b). (e) M is a nonzero integral ideal of . Let M denote the set of all nonzero additive subgroups of <Ql. moreover. x i' 0. r 2: 0. (c) vp(I + J) = inf{vp(I).z. 22. Show: (a) vp(M) E . Define Vp(I) = Vp(x). np E . (b) e is a one-to-one mapping. 0 except at most for a finite number of primes p. (f) M is a subring of <Ql if and only if vp(M) = 0 or -oo. let vp(a) = r. b i' 0. (d) vp(I n J) = sup{vp(I). vp(J)}. M' E M show: (a) M <:. define vp(M) = inf{vp(x) I x EM}.z. (b) M = {x E <Qll vp(x) 2: vp(M) for every prime p}. a i' 0.z. Prove: (a) For every I i' 0 we have vp(I) = 0 except at most for a finite number of primes p. 21. For x = ajb with a. Exercises 137 (b) M is a fractional ideal of Z. (c) M is a principal fractional ideal of Z.. J are nonzero fractional ideals of . (d) M is a nonzero fractional ideal of .z. np 2: 0 for every prime p. b) = 1. U { -oo }. I = Zx. (e) Vp(I · J) = vp(I) + Vp(J). For each a = prm E Z.. b E Z. U { -oo }. (c) e maps M onto S. S be the mapping defined by e(M) = (vp(M))p prime· If M. If I is any nonzero fractional ideal of .

finally. vp(J)}. (g) vp(I + J) = min{vp(I). .. LetS be the set of all sequences (np )PEP. 26. = (d) I divides J if and only if v p (I) :S: v p ( J) for every prime ideal P f. vp(y) then vp(x + y) min{vp(x). and M any A-submodule of K. M}. for every M we have vp(M) :S: 0 except at most for a finite number of prime ideals P. (f) Vp(I · J) = Vp(I) + Vp(J). (c) e maps M onto S. M' E M show: (a) M t:. let I = f]p pvp(I) be its decomposition into prime ideals (where vp(I) E Z and vp(I) = 0 except at most for finitely many prime ideals. vp(J)}. M' if and only if vp(M) 2" vp(M') for every P E P. (b) vp(x + y) 2" min{vp(x). Define vp(M) = inf{ Vp(I) I for every fractional ideal I t:. If I is a nonzero fractional ideal of A. (b) e is a one-to-one mapping. (h) vp(I n J) = max{vp(J). vp(y)}. 0. 24. (e) vp(I) = min{vp(x) I x E I}. P any nonzero prime ideal of A. Show: (a) vp(M) E Z U { -oo }.138 7. let e:M -+ s be the mapping defined by B(M) = (vp(M))PEP· If M. 0 of A. vp(y)}. Let A be a Dedekind domain. let vp(O) = oo. Finally. (d) M is a nonzero fractional ideal of A if and only if ()( M) = ( n p) p where each np E Z and np = 0 except at most for a finite number of prime ideals P E P. Define also v p (x) = v p (Ax) for every x E A. The Decomposition of Ideals (h) For every nonzero additive subgroup M of Ql there exists a largest subring R of Ql for which M is an R-module. 25. let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A. where np E Z U { -oo} and np :S: 0 except at most for a finite number of prime ideals P. Let P be the set of nonzero prime ideals of the Dedekind domain A. If I. K its field of quotients. (c) If vp(x) f. and let M denote the set of all nonzero A-submodules of the quotient field K of A. (b) M = {x E K I vp(x) 2" vp(M) for every nonzero prime ideal P}.. J are nonzero fractional ideals of A. depending on I). Let A be a Dedekind domain. show: (a) vp(xy) = vp(x) + Vp(y). x f.

Exercises 139 (e) M is a nonzero integral ideal of A if and only if the preceding condition is satisfied and moreover np :2: 0 for every P E P. (h) For every nonzero additive subgroup M of K there exists a largest subring R of K for which M is an R-module. (f) M is a subring of K if and only if vp(M) = 0 or -oo for every PEP. . (g) If A is a Dedekind domain with countably many prime ideals then K has 21{" distinct subrings.

pe is a vector space over the field A/ P. we introduce the important concept of the norm of an ideal. (A). Thus it is enough to show that pe-l/ pe has dimension at most 1. let x E pe-l. hence by the isomorphism theorem for rings. this will imply that pe-l/ pe ~ A/ P. We observe that pe-l. h will be equal to 1 if and only if A is a principal ideal domain. assuming it true for e . it suffices to show that #(Pe.8 The Norm and Classes of Ideals We know already that the ring A of integers of an algebraic number field K need not be a principal ideal domain. In this chapter. More generally: A. pe-l/ pe is an ideal of the ring A/ pe. Proof: The result is true for e = 1. we associate with every field K a numerical invariant h. then the quotient domain A/ P (which is a field) is necessarily finite. from which we deduce the required relation. 8.1/Pe) = #(A/P). Then pe C pe + Ax <::. It follows that #(A/Pe) = #(A/pe-l)· #(pe-l. J' such that (Pe + Ax)J = pe and 141 .pe). so there exist (integral) ideals J. we have (A/Pe)j(Pe-1/Pe) ~ Ajpe-1. the dimension of pe-l/ pe is at least 1. we have seen that if Pis any nonzero prime ideal of the ring A of integers of an algebraic number field K. We shall proceed by induction on e. If P n Z = Zp. pe-l. To begin. which measures the extent to which A deviates from being a principal ideal domain. then #(A/ pe) = #(A/ P)e. with a scalar multiplication so defined: if a E A/ P. e 2: 1. then ax = ax (the reader may easily check the details). since we know that pe-l ~ pe. Now. pe. If P is a nonzero prime ideal of A. x t/:. then #(A/ P) is a power of p.1. By induction.1 The Norm of an Ideal In Chapter 7. X E pe-l I pe.

rf) hence . then PlAt. and we now assume it true for e . So pe-l = pe + Ax. . By induction. so so . . More generally. . so pe divides A(r1 . P 2. then N(Pe) = N(P)e.r 1 tf.1} is a system of representatives of A modulo pe.. hence so = sb and therefore (r1 .. it is trivial for e = 1.. Proof: The result is proved by induction on e. we obtain: D. we deduce: C. + se-1 te-2 I (with si. e ::.sb) + (r1.1). if rlI = slI + s2It +. The norm of an ideal J of the ring A of integers of an algebraic number field is defined to be the positive integer N(J) = #(A/ J). Since t E P. t tf.1.ri) ·At...ri)t E pe. • Thus. Then R = {so + s1t + · · · + Se-lte-l I Si E S fori = 0. e. sb E S. Thus. moreover.. if Pis a nonzero prime ideal of A.142 8. P 2. J = fi=l Pt· then II #(A/ P. s~ E S for every i = 1.:. This implies that if y E pe-l I pe there exists a E A such that y =ax. then N(JJ 1 ) = N(J) · N(J 1 ). . r 1 = r~ and we conclude that r = r 1 • Thus R already contains #(A/ P)e different representatives of A modulo pe. • Let us note incidentally the following useful result: B. assume that r . and r =f. e. r 1 = sb + r~t. as shown in (A). t tf. J 1 are ideals of A.r 1 E pe. Indeed. If J is any nonzero integral ideal of A. 1. The Norm and Classes of Ideals pe-l J' = pe + Ax. Let S be a system of representatives of A modulo P. r 1 then r .sb E At + pe C::: P. P 2 fAt. Then pe-l J J 1 = pe and therefore J ] 1 = P. e 2' 1. . r 1 . such that 0 E S. A.r. If J. Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. then (so. which was required to be proved. r #(A/ J) = i=l Proof: We just combine (A) with the above-mentioned theorem. thus pe-liA(rl . let t E P. pe.)€.r~ E pe-l. From (A) if follows that R is a system of representatives of A modulo ~- By means of Theorem 2 in Chapter 7. hence J = P. by means of (C).. We show that if s0 .)t E pe. we have associated with every nonzero integral ideal a positive integer: Definition 1. if r =so+ r 1 t. J =f. ] 1 = A. 1.

x -:f. . ••.. Previously. . and o the discriminant of the field K. .!. Therefore N(J) = #(AjJ) = f1~ 1 If.. the isomorphism being obviously the one which comes from the mapping n n A --> II Z/Zfi. . y -:f. fnxn} is a basis of the free Abelian group J. fnxn) = (f1~=l fi) 2 · discr(x1.. . . . . there exists an integral basis {x 1 . by (E): 2 discr KIQ(Yxl. we shall compare NKIQ(x) and N(Ax). 8. . . Hence.. . Let {y 1 .. JJ' = TI~=l Pt'+e:. . fnxn) = discrKIQ(Yl.. .. . we have: F... while J = ZJix1 EB · · · EB Zfnxn.Yn) N(J) 2 = o . .• . i=l i=l by noting that the kernel is J.xn} and integers h. .. then ei 2:: 0. A = Zx1 EB · · · EB Zxn. For this purpose we need an important relation between the norm of an ideal and the discriminant of any basis of this ideal.. so {yx 1 . . L aiXi >--+ (a... .. we deduce that N(J) 2 = discrKIQ(Yl. The Norm of an Ideal 143 Proof: If J = TI~=l Pt'. 0. For every element y E A. Xn). . yxn} is a basis of the Abelian group Ay.. Then the quotient Abelian group is A/I~ f1~ 1 Z/Zf.1. .. where e~ 2:: 0... . . . so by means of (C) we deduce that N(JJ') = N(J) · N(J').. (L).. . . in the case where x E A. .. Thus. noting that discr( x 1. J' = TI~=l Pt. Proof: Let {x 1 . • The above property is usually called the multiplicativity of the norm. E. Yn} be any basis of the free Abelian group J. Since discr(hx1. mod fih~i~n. Xn} be an integral basis. 0: N(Ay) = INKIQ(Y)I. Yn) for any basis {y 1. Proof: By Chapter 6. Then: discrKIQ(Yl. and discrKIQ(hxi. fn such that {hx1.···. Yn} of the Abelian group J... we have defined the norm of an element x E K (relative to the extension KIIQ)... Xn) = 6 (discriminant of the field K). Let J be a nonzero integral ideal of A. . Yn) o • Now. . yxn) N(Ay) = 0 .

If J is a nonzero integral ideal of A. • The following property will be used in a crucial way in the next section.. N(Ay) 2 (NKIIQI(Y)) 2 .. . if x E A then mx E J.. . h"1sms from K (into C).1 be defined as above. The Norm and Classes of Ideals However. We note that lail ::. Xn} be an intee. Proof: Let N(J) = m = #(A/J). xi(n) b e th e 1mages · of Xi by th e n 1somorp . Let n n f. Iet xi(1) = Xi.. . di ::. there must exist b. . such that INKIIQI(a)l ::. then J divides the principal ideal A· N(J). It follows that INKIIQ(a)l f17=1 12:::~=1 aixjj)l <::: f17=1 k(l:~=l ixlj)i) = knJL <::: N(J)f. and let f. • . k.. there exists an element a E J. . For each i = 1.1 = II L:: lxij)l. N(J) · f. Therefore. YXn) = det(a. For every integer m > 0 there are only finitely many ideals with norm equal to m.1 is a positive real number depending on K (and the given integral basis). 6ij = 0 when i # j).l. Since the ideal Am has only finitely many divisors (by Chapter 7. xi(2 ) .. Section 11: discrKIIQI(YX1. .. k for each i = 1. In particular m = m · 1 E J. a # 0. so J divides Am. by Chapter 2. n. .144 8.c = 2:::~ 1 aixi E J..1 > 0 be defined as above. If J is any nonzero integral ideal of A. Xn} be an integral basis of K and let f. . Let K be any algebraic number field.. Now we prove: H. .. Proof: Let {x 1. c E S. Then for every nonzero integral ideal J of A. j=l i=l so f. . (E)) then there exist only finitely many ideals J with norm equal to m. Let {x 1.l. and since N(Ay) > 0 then N(Ay) = INKIIQI(Y)I. . Consider the set S of all elements L~=l dixi where 0 ::. let k be an integer such that kn ::. such that a = b . .. b # c. Since #(S) = (k + 1)n > #(A/J). • One of the main facts about norms is the following: G.(yxj)) 2 = det(ai(Yc5ij)) 2 · det(ai(xj)) 2 = (NKIIQI(Y)) 2 · 6 (where 6ij = 1 when i = j.ral basis of the field K.. thus in the quotient group AjJ the order of every element divides m. therefore. N(J) = #(AjJ) < (k + l)n. n.

M{ "' M~.. then M 1 · M{ "' M 2 · M~. two nonzero fractional ideals A1. 1 k such that N (1. 0.1 = 1. Now.L. a natural question is the following: is it possible that :F /Pr is an infinite group? We now prove a fundamental theorem due to Minkowski.. Each element of :F /Pr is called an ideal class of K. therefore the number of classes of ideals is at most k.L. defined in (H). such that M' = Ax · M. Proof: The norm of every nonzero integral ideal is a positive integer. 0. such that cJ.L.) ::. . and :F jPr is the ideal class group of K.1 · Ac) = N(Ib) = N(Ab) · N(J) ::.1 ) · N(Ac) = N(Ibc. the larger the group :F /Pr is. If 1 is any nonzero fractional ideal of the ring A then 1h is a principal fractional ideal of A.. such that N(Ab) ::. we obtain N(Jbc. 8.L. . there exists an element b E cJ. An easy corollary follows: I. A1' are said to be equivalent when there exists x E K. while Kummer proved the theorem in the case of cyclotomic fields. hence it is finite. 0. then I is equivalent to some ideal 1.1 . It is denoted by C(K) or also by ClK. N(cJ. We may therefore consider the quotient group :F /Pr. x =f. This is clearly an equivalence relation. f. or some similar notation.L. and if M 1 "' M 2 . We write M "'M'. Given the real number f. b =f. for some index i. let J. thus N(Ibc 1 ) ::.1 ) · f.1 ) · N(l)f. Classes of Ideals 145 8. • We introduce the following numerical invariant: Definition 2. the more the ring A fails to be a principal ideal domain. Roughly speaking. . so Ibc.1 ~ A. So.1 is an integral ideal. c =f. f. by (G) there exist only finitely many nonzero ideals 1 1 . N(cJ. By (H). Explicitly. Pr is precisely the subgroup of those ideals equivalent to the unit ideal A.L = N(Ac)f. The special case of quadratic fields is due to Gauss.1 denote the fractional ideal inverse of I. The number of classes of ideals of an algebraic number field is finite. Multiplying by N(J) and observing that Jbc. so there exists an element c E A. We shall prove that if I is any nonzero ideal of A. The number of classes of ideals of an algebraic number field K is called the class number of K and denoted by h = hK. let Pr be the subgroup of nonzero principal fractional ideals.2.2 Classes of Ideals As before let :F denote the multiplicative Abelian group of nonzero fra- ctional ideals of A. Theorem 1.

so (Ay · . thus Jh = Aa with h h~e1 h~nem a= c a 1 ···am Then the element x = ex~' · · · x~" E K' is such that J = K n A'x. Then Jih.J. Proof: The Abelian multiplicative group :F /Prof classes of ideals has or- der h and by the structure theorem for finite Abelian groups (Chapter 3. h = h1h2 . X.. we have Jh = Ach . . Let X. m). J~e. This is the origin of this terminology introduced by Kummer. Let J1. hm.. Im be nonzero fractional ideals whose ideal classes are the generators of c1. . Conversely. . Then there exist c E K. Theorem 3). . Let J be any nonzero fractional ideal of K. . and integers e1.. thus the hth power of every fractional ideal is principal. moreover. showing that y E J.. the possibility still remains that in any particular case we may enlarge the field K to another field K' whose ring A' of integers is a principal ideal domain. m such that J = Ac · J~' · · · 1:'. -a. ... Let K be an algebraic number field with class number h. In fact ' we begin by notincro that xh = chxhe.. . · · · Jt:. Since not every ring of algebraic integers is a principal ideal domain.h~ (i = 1. and has degree [K' : K] :::. em with 0 :::. . Writing h = h. . such that J is the set of multiplies in K of this element x.{".. . < h.. • The preceding result tells us that for every ideal J. Thus y E K n A'x. = a Now if y E J 1 m · ' then yh E ... .. • The following result gives the justification of the word "ideal": J.e.. .146 8.J.. e. the element x is an "ideal element" and its multiples form the "ideal" J in K.e. . · · · a~"e"' ). since it is integral over A and belongs to K'. Xn) and let A' denote the ring of algebraic integers of K'. thus yjx E A'.. be a root of the polynomial Xh.. now so widespread.1 is also an integral ideal of the Dedekind ring A.Jh = Aa so (yjx)h = yh /a E A. Cm having or- ders h1. h 1h2 · · · hm = h. c =J 0.. Let K' = K(x 1 . (in C). :F /Pr is the product of cyclic groups C1. Iu other words. there exists some element x in a field K' of degree at most hover K. when J is not principal then x does not belong to K. = Aa. is it always possible to find a finite extension K' of K such that the class number of K' is equal to F . There exists an extension K' of degree at most h over K with the following property: for every nonzero fractional ideal J of K there exists an element x E K' such that J = K n A' x (where A' denotes the ring of algebraic integers of K'). . 'm. · · · xhe.. The Norm and Classes of Ideals Proof Just note that h is the order of the multiplicative group :F jPr of classes of ideals. We note that the field K' depends on the choice of a. and yhja = (yjx)h E A' n K = A. hm. E A for every i = 1. . . if y E K n A'x then yjx E A'.. respectively. where a. for every i = 1.1)h is an integral ideal. so if we restrict our attention only to K.. not necessarily princi- pal in K. hence Ay · . ' Cm. = A(cha~..

J) =A. If J = A. Conversely. then Pr+ = PrA. Indeed. T. Thus PrJ. and a= a' (mod J). :FJ n Pr. 1 such that L <:.+(K) denote the subset of PrJ. if K. 1 is finite. Km}. This has been referred to as the "class field tower problem. Classes of Ideals 147 In class field theory. The next natural thing to do is to repeat the procedure just indicated.2. Gauss conjectured that there exist infinitely many real quadratic fields with class number 1 (see Chapter 28).. The quotient group CJ = CJ(K) = FJ/PrJ is called the group of clas- ses of fractional ideals associated to J. :FJ is a subgroup of F. with every algebraic number field K is associated an extension K' of degree h (the class number of K) over K. Shafarevich and Golod showed that there exist infinite class field towers.. 1 = {K1 . so if T is finite. In this respect.+(K) be the quotient group CJ.. Clearly. x f= 0. Let CJ. PrJ = {Ax I x E K.. we make the following remark. there may exist fractional ideals inK'. Let PrJ. Among many important properties. we introduce more general class groups. there exists K 1 E K. with gcd(I. which is an advanced branch of the theory of algebraic numbers." In 1966. . Equivalently. PrA = Pr. I' f= 0. after a finite number of steps one reaches a field with class number 1.+ is a subgroup of PrJ.+ <:. which may be written as quotient I/ I' of integral ideals I. K. Let K.+· . . gcd(Aa. 1 <:. Thus L belongs to the finite set of fields contained in some Ki for 1 :::. 8. whether the above chain is finite.+ = FJ/PrJ. J) = A.. Then T is infinite if and only if K. Let PrJ = PrJ(K) be the set of nonzero principal fractional ideals of the form Aa/Aa' where a. that CJ is finite (see (K) below). 1 is infinite. However. K 1 . not generated by ideals in K. m. Let J be a nonzero integral ideal.. It is clear that PrJ <:. then K. which are not principal.. for every fractional ideal J of K. consisting of all Ax E PrJ such that x is totally positive (that is.+ = PrJ. i :::. if L E T. Thus PrJ is a subgroup of FJ. that is.. obtaining the tower of class fields: K C K' C K" C · · ·and the question arises whether. J) = gcd(I'. 1 denote the set of algebraic number fields having class number equal to 1. Let J be a nonzero integral ideal. We now introduce still another type of classes of ideals. FJ n Pr+.. To conclude this section. J) = gcd(Aa'.+ consists of all the nonzero principal fractional ideals Ax with X totally positive. So PrJ.. For J = A we have FA = :F. We denote by hJ = hJ(K) the number of classes of ideals associated to J.+ = CJ. Let T be the set of alge- braic number fields having finite class field towers. the ideal A' J of K' is principal. a' f= 0. It follows from Theorem 1. x =1 (mod J)}. all real conjugates of x are positive). let FJ = FJ(K) denote the set of all nonzero fractional ideals.

Now we show that Pr/Pr+ is a finite group. then hJ. We show: K. We use the notations h+ = #(C+).+) is called the number of classes of ideals (respectively. -1} be the multiplicative group with two elements. ThenifC of. EXERCISES 1. b E A. x i= 0 let the signature of x be sgn(x) = (EI. For every integral ideal J of. let I be a nonzero integral ideal of A. C is a quotient of C+ = :F /Pr+. LetS= {1. where C E PrJ/PrJ. the group C is finite. moreover. where if O"i(x) > 0. Er 1 ) E Sr 1 . C+ are finite. and we write a = b (mod I) when a . bare congruent modulo I. for some x E K. x of.. respectively.. Obviously. x of. choose x E K. . restricted classes of ideals) associated to J. The proof for CJ.b E I. such that AxPr+ =C. Prove: (a) If Aa + I = A there exists x E A such that ax = b (mod I).+ = hJ. sgn(x)). . We define~: Pr/Pr+-> Sr 1 byletting~(C) = sgn(x). Otherwise x/x' is totally positive and Ax = A(xjx') ·Ax' E Pr+ ·Ax. h+ = h.+ -> (AjJ)* X sri defined by ~(C) = (x (mod J). we should only consider the homomorphism ~:PrJ/PrJ. hJ (respectively.148 8..+. Proof: By Theorem 1. 0. O"r 1 be the r 1 2': 0 isomorphisms from K into R For each x E K. The group CJ is also finite since there is only a finite number of residues modulo J.+ = C. hJ. contrary to the hypothesis. the gro-ups CJ.+. Let 0" 1 .+ is given by AxPrJ. sgn(x').+ = #(CJ. We say that a.+ is similar. The Norm and Classes of Ideals We note the canonical isomorphisms: CJ = (:FJ/PrJ. CJ is a quotient ofCJ. then so is Pr/Pr+ and so C+ is a finite group. For each C E Pr/Pr+. . E2. C' we must have sgn(x) of. 0.+)· h+ is called the • number of restricted classes of ideals of K and we have h S: h+. Ei = { + -1 1 if O"i(x) < 0. and let a. 0. Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of the field K. hJ. So ~ is an injective mapping. if K has no conjugate contained in JR. if y E A satisfies ay = b (mod I) then x y = (mod I).+)/(PrJ/PrJ.+) and C = (:F/Pr+)/(Pr/Pr+)· Thus. . Since Sr 1 is finite.. .

.. In are integral ideals such that Ii + Ij = A for i i= j. then tp( P) = N ( P) . Let a 1 . . Show that there exists an integer m E Z such that a m = (mod P) if and only if aP a (mod =P) where P n Z = Zp. 5. a rf. (c) If I = pe (e . let a E A. Let I be an integral ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of a field K. . n. .NtP)]. .1.r (where P 1 .. 2. Exercises 149 (b) If h. }] [ 1 . . (d) If I= P~ 1 • • • P. then there exists x E A such that x = ai (mod Ii) for i = 1. Let I be a nonzero ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of K.1 + · · · + am-1X +am = 0 (mod P). 4.. P forms a cyclic multiplicative group (of order N(P) .. . Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of a field K. then tp(I) = N(I) . then tp(I) = N(I) [ 1 . Show that the set of residue classes a = a + P of elements a E A. Let tp(I) denote the number of congruence classes modulo I of elements a E A such that Aa + I = A. an E A.. Pr are distinct prime ideals). Prove: (a) If the ideals I. then tp(J · J) tp(I). then aN(P). J are such that I + J = A. if a E A.1).:::: 1). 6.. Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of the field K. Show that there exist at most m pairwise noncongruent integers x E A such that xm + a1xm. (Note that in the particular case where K = Ql then 'Pis identical with the Euler function.. a rf. NtPi)]. tp(J). . am E A..1 =1 (mod P). (b) If P is a prime ideal. .. Show that if a E A and Aa + I = A then a'PU) =1 (mod I).. Deduce Fermat's little theorem for ideals: If P is a nonzero prime ideal of A. .) 3. if a 1 . Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of K. . P.

(). Let J be an integral ideal of the algebraic number field K. e. Show that the ideals J = (x. Show that if Pis a prime ideal. x r:f_ A(l .. WeassumethatJ2 = Aa. Let I be an ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of the field K. Show that J is not a principal ideal of A. 8. NKIIQ(a) < O. 11. Let J be a nonzero ideal of the ring of integers A of the real quadratic fieldK = Qi(Vd). Show that there exists a E A with the following property: For every r 2': 1 and b E A there exists g E Z[X] such that b = g(a) (mod pr). I q such that every ideal class I of K may be written in a unique . and A the ring of integers of K. ( a primitive pth root of unity. Let K be an algebraic number field. . The Norm and Classes of Ideals 7. J. x'. y. Let h be the class number of the field K.ki:::. J be nonzero fractio- nal ideals of K. 17. 9. p a prime number not dividing h. y') coincide if and only if there exist elements a. Show that there exists a positive integer e such that (ex = m (mod A(l -(f) for some m E Z. Show that if there exists a E J such that N(J) = 1Nx 1Q(a)l then J = Aa.150 8. let x E A. such that ad . Show that if x E A there exists m E Z such that xP = m (mod A(l . y' E K. and let C(K) be the ideal class group of !f. then there exists g E Z[X]. Let I. Show that there exists an_ integer q 2': 0 and ideal classes I 1. y) and J' = (x'. 15. -kl ~k wayintheform I= I 1 ··· Iq''. Prove that if IP rv JP then I.. if a E A is the element with the property indicated in the preceding exercise. Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of the algebraic number field K. d E A.__..()P). 10. K = Qi((). NKIIQ(b)). Show that there exist a. Show that in every class of ideals of K there exists an integral ideal J such that I+ J =A. . 13. b.be is a unit of A and { x' =ax+ by y' =ex+ dy.andNKIIQ(u) > 0 for every unit u of A. Let p be an odd prime. deg(g) = f such that P = (p.hi-lwhereh1h2···hq= . Let I be an ideal of the ring A of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K. N(P) = pf. 16. 14. Let P be a prime ideal of A. and let x. g(a)). With the same notations as in the previous exercise. b E I such that N(I) = gcd(NKIIQ(a).withO:::. 1 12.

Exercises 151 -h h (class number of K). . Moreover. it is called the rank of the class group C(K). each hi is the power of a prime number. q is uniquely defined. and Ii' is the unit element of C(K).

0 -<..1 The Theorem of Minkowski In the n-dimensional vector space JRn of all n-tuples of real numbers we shall consider certain additive subgroups. We recall now some well-known notions: If S is any set. . A method of "Geometry of Numbers" is used to provide sharper estimates for the discriminant. a > 0 we define the homothetic image 1 of S (with ratio a) to be the set aS = {ax = (ax1 axn) I x = 1 ••• 1 (x 1 Xn) E S}. A1 E JR. then Ay + A'y' E S. 1. y' E S. Definition 2. A. and A+ A' = 1. . . The fundamental parallelotope of A is the set II = {t k=l xka(k) Xk E JR. A subset S of JRn is said to be convex when it satisfies the following property: If y. and a E JR. n} . having a basis which is also an JR-basis of JRn. if A. Definition 1. The volume of II shall be denoted by 1-1 = 1-1(II). 0 -<:: Xk -<:: 1 fork = 1. 1 ••• 1 153 .. . We can also phrase this property as follows: If y. A is a free Abelian group of rank n..a(n) E lRn.9 Estimates for the Discriminant In this chapter we study the discriminant. y' E S then the line segment joining y. In other words. A lattice A in JRn (n 2 1) is the set of all linear combinations. of n JR-linearly independent elements a(ll.. A1 -<. y' is contained in S. with coefficients in Z. Then any homothetic image of a convex set is convex. contained in JRn. 9.

. * If x = { x1 . our considerations will depend on the volume.. 0). if C is an ellipse of center at the origin. Here is not the place to enter into lengthy discussions on the concept of volume. Definition 3. . Again. we may also consider very elongated ellipses.. .... where d = det(aji) and r. 0. Similarly. . S is contained in the n-dimensional sphere of center 0. . a E IR. (3) If sl.... ..) = "L. r..p(e.p(en) is equal to ldl.. any homothetic image of a closed set is closed. It is very easy to indicate some symmetric convex bodies. . if n = 2. n). This is true. . s2 and if their volumes are defined. s2 are subsets oflRn such that sl c. whatever the radii of the ellipse are and for any slopes of the axes. 0). A nonempty convex.. The "form" of a convex body may be rather difficult to describe.. n} and the closed n-dimensional sphere S = {x E IRn I lx I : : : 1} are symmetric convex bodies. 1) be the standard basis of IRn. Estimates for the Discriminant A subset S of IRn is said to be a bounded set when there exists a suffi- ciently large real number 1 such that lxl : : : 1 for every x E S. . If S is bounded. is any sequence of elements inS then every accumulation point of this sequence still belongs to S. thus. en (0. .p is an invertible linear transformation of IRn... and a > 0 then aS is also a bounded set. This means that S is a closed set in the topological space IRn (with its natural topology).p(ei). we state the main pertinent facts: (1) Let e1 (1.154 9. the closed n-dimensional cubeS= {x = (x 1 . y(k). .7=l ajiej (i = 1. bounded. then the parallelotope determined by the origin and e 1 . the closed bounded region S of IR 2 determined by C (and including the points of C) is a symmetric convex body. If S is a subset of IRn such that when y E S then -y E S. .. .. which is the distance from x to the origin. with center at the origin and axes with irrational slopes. . en has volume equal to 1. . :S 1 for i = 1. 1. * In other words. and closed subset of IRn is called a convex body.. . a > 0. then vol(S 1 ) ::::: vol(S2).. For the convenience of the reader..• Xn} then lxl denotes the positive square root J xi + · · · + x?. . let aS= {ax I x E S}. A subset S of IRn is said to be closed when it satisfies the following property: If y(l). e2 (0. rather than on the form of the convex body. we say that S is a symmetric subset. . . and radius I> 0. .. Xn) E IRn I -1 :S X. let us only say that it will be used in an intuitive way. How- ever.. (2) If r. if the volume of Sis defined so is vol(aS) and vol(aS) = an ·vol(S).. .. then the volume of the parallelotope determined by 0. (4) If Sis a subset of IRn. 0. For example. r.

.(y + z) + >. >. y' are interior points of the convex set 5. (6) If S is a bounded subset of IRn and its volume is defined.. Proof: We recall the concept of an interior point.. distinct from the origin.y + >. y' are in the interior of 5. for every element x E IRn with lx.y + >.1. We have x = z + >.(>. 1. then every point of the line segment joining y. Before proceeding.'y') then lzl < c. then there exists a point of A... let us consider the convex body y + ~ 5 with center y. showing that >. distinct from the origin..y + >.'y' = >. if x E lRn. vol( S) < oo. y' + z are in S and therefore x E S. then 0 ::.Yl < c. p. >. If 5 is a symmetric convex body having volume vol( 5) > 2n JL. • Theorem 1 (Minkowski). y' are points in the interior of a convex set 5.y'l < c.' ::. 1 vol( ~ 5) = 2n vol(5) ::. that is. More generally.y + >. and vol(5 1 U 52) = vol(51) + vol(52)· It will be quite clear that for all the subsets 5 which we shall encounter. Consider now any point >. it can only be said that there is a point of A.. so 0 ::. so is the volume of 5 1 U 5 2 . 5 2 are disjoint subsets of IRn and their volumes are defined.Yl < c. If y. 9. then x E 5. then x E 5 and also if lx.'(y' + z) with I(Y + z). y' also lies in the interior of 5. which is in 5 (but not necessarily in the interior of 5). l(y' + z). which belongs to the interior of 5. since 5 is convex then >. However if val( 5) = 2n JL. + >.Y! < c. so small that if x E JRn. For every y E A. .. >.. and let 11 be the volume of the fundamental parallelotope of A. Let A be a lattice in IRn (n 2:: 1). obtained by translation from ~ 5.y + >. We say that y E 5 is an interior point if there exists a real number c > 0 such that. Let x E JRn be such that if z = x. and x + 5 = {x + y I y E S} then the volume of x +Sis defined and equal to the volume of S.'y' is an interior point of 5. !x.. let us note this easy fact: Lemma 1.y'l < c.. y'. c > 0. a theorem due to Blaschke states that it is possible to define the volume of every convex body. The Theorem of Minkowski 155 (5) If 5 is a subset of lRn whose volume is defined...'y' E 5. it is possible to define the volume in an unambiguous way. y i= 0 in the interior of 5 then vol( 5) ::. If y. 2n 11. we may choose c E JR..'y' of the segment joining y. then y + z... (7) If 5 1 ..' = 1.. since y. Proof: We show that if there exists no point y E A. we have x E 5.

Thus for infinitely many indices n. 1 <::: i 0 <::: n.Sn I <::: ( 1/ n) ISn I <::: m / n. then y. Hence there exist n 1 < n 2 < · · · such that Xn 1 = Xn 2 = · · ·. Thus Am + ~ 5 is contained in the parallelotope 11' = {tk=l xka(k) lxkl <::: m + ~ r} . But. . 25. ..(y + ~ 5) = . . y i 0. Xn i 0. such that Xn E (1 + 1/n)5 <. let Li = 2:::7= 1 aiJXJ (i = 1.. Tn are positive real numbers such that T1 · · · Tn 2 ldl. y + ~ 5 are disjoint.. Let n > 1. .. if x should be in the interior of ~ 5 and of y + ~ 5.x would be in the interior of y... then the interiors of ~ 5. given any index i 0 . Am consists of (2m+ l)n elements. Am + ~ 5 = UyEAm [y + ~ 5]. Then for every point y = (y 1 . Since 25 is bounded. . . hence by the first assertion. or equivalently. Yl i Y2. then lxil <::: r for all i = 1. . would be in the interior of 5 contrary to the hypothesis. we have vol[Am + ~ 5] = (2m+ 1)n · vol[ ~ 5] <::: (2m+ rt · f1. ... hence x E 5 n A. Since 5 is bounded. So x is a limit point of 5. . thus. . such that ILi(xi. If m is sufficiently large.. n. Xn)l < Ti fori i io. soy E A.. such that if x = 2:::~ 1 xia(i) E 5. y 2 + ~ 5 are disjoint. We denote by a(ll. . . this last quantity being the volume of the parallelotope 11'.. therefore. by the invariance of the volume by translation. there exists Xn E A. -m <::: Yi <::: m for all i = 1.x) + ~ x would be in the interior of ~ 5 (by Lemma 1). there exists a sufficiently large real number r > 0. • We apply this theorem to show the existence of solutions for a system of linear inequalities. y i 0. vol((1 + 1/n)5) > vol(5) = 2nf1. not all equal to 0. xi o. If T 1 .156 9. Since the sets y + ~ 5 have disjoint interiors. 2m+ r vol( ~ 5) <::: lim ( 2 )n · /1 = 11· m~oo m +1 Now we prove the second assertion. call this element x. . and ILi 11 (XI.. . a(n) E IRn the generators of the lattice A. Xn E Z..Tn)l <::: Ti 11 • . . we show that the interiors of Yl + ~ 5.~ 5 = ~ 5 (since 5 is symmetric).• Yn) E Am we have IYi + ~Xi I <::: m + ~ r for every point x E 5.. .. . such that d = det( aiJ) i 0. let Am be the set of all lattice points y = 2:::~ 1 Yia(i) such that Yi E Z. if y E A.. for n = 1 the following statement is trivial: A. Y2 E A. n) ben linear forms with real coefficients. namely lsi <::: m for all s E S. Estimates for the Discriminant If Yl. Let vol( 5) = 2n f1· For every n 2 1. In fact. then 25 n A is finite.. n. Let m > 0 be a sufficiently large integer. it follows that lx.. The above relation is true for every sufficiently large integer m. . Xi E IR.. x = (1 + 1/n)sn.. there exist integers x 1 . hence ~ y = ~ (y .

Xn) of integers.. having volume vol( S) = 27I · 272 · · · 27n-I · 2( 7n +b) > 2n7I · · · 7n ?: 2nldl = 2n . xn) E R. .1 and ILn(Y)I < 7n + b.. Xn)l < 7i fori i= io. . then either IL. because the coordinates of its points are integers and the determinant of the coefficients of the linear forms is not zero. . . we have either: (1) there exists i. (i = 1.(xi.1 and lxnl :::.. . . 0). .. 1:::. i:::. and the same holds for all points in T. there is a point ()(y) E A. .. . n. . . 1. Let n > 1 and let L.xn)l?: 7. 1) into linearly independent vectors e(e(ll).. such that IL. 0. LetS be the set of all elements x = (xi. . Xn) then ()(x) = (LI(x). .. not all equal to 0. J. . . let (xi. Let A be the lattice defined by these vectors.. e( 2 ) = (0. moreover. given any index io such that L. Xn)l :::.. . . .. . Xn E Z. Since det(a.. 0 = Li 0 . . Xn) E T' is 7n + b for some b > 0.(XI..n such that lxil :::...1. which is a contradiction.l· By Minkowski's theorem.. Xn)l ?: 7n +b. . = I::7=I 7i. ()(e( 2 l). .. belonging to the interior of S. for some i = 1. . we have shown the existence of b > 0 such that if xi.. .. .1 ) = d i= 0. .. . In other words. .. .l = ldl.. n) ben linear forms with complex coefficients such that d = det( a. then () transforms the linearly independent vectors e(I) = (1. . .... Therefore the minimum of the quantities ILn(XI. there exist integers XI.. n. If T = 0 we have case (1). actually T' is a finite set. Let (): R. ... xn)l < 7~ is not empty. S is a symmetric convex body. .1 ) i= 0. . or (2) ifl:::. Xn) E T and 7~ be such that ILn(Xx. ()(e(nl)..n --> R... .. . . The Theorem of Minkowski 157 Proof: For simplicity of notation we may assume that io = n.. Xn E Z. Thus. and ILi 0 (XI. or ILn(XI. If T i= 0. 0). 0 • .. . not all zero. . . Xn)l when (xi. . . Ln(x)).... 7i for i = 1.. Thus the subset T' ofT consisting of all n-tuples (xi.xn)l< 7. not all equal to 0. if Li has real coefficients then i' = i. . n -1 such that IL..n be the linear transformation defined as follows: If x = (xi. Xn) of integers satisfying condi- tion (2). . and let the volume of its fundamental parallelotope be J. . . 7n be real positive numbers such that ifLi = Li' then 7..... Xn)l < 7~.. . 0. = I:::I ai1X.. . .. • A similar result holds for linear forms with complex coefficients: B. . = 7i'· If 7I · · · 7n ?: ldl. Xn)l ?: 7. ... not all equal to 0.. Yn..1. 1X 1 (the complex conjugate form of Li) is equal to Li'.... .. n .. there exist integers YI. If the assertion is not true.. 7. ... . . 7n +b.. i:::. .. for all n-tuples (xi. 9. Thus. . e(n) = (0.(xi. . n-1 then IL.. . such that IL. . but ILn(X. . ()(y) i= 0.(XI. Xn) such that ILn(XI...xn)l> LetT be the set of all n-tuples (xi... Let 7I..(Y)I < 7i fori = 1. Let us assume that for every i there exists an index i' such that L. .

we may refine the result of Chapter 8. Xn)! < Ti for i # i 0 . where fJ is the discriminant of K. . L. . (K)). Xn. such that for all i = 1. is not a real form and Li' = L.J2. deducing the existence of integers X1. .. distinct from Ql. n ) where aJ(1) = aj. Xn. .. n. where r 2 denotes the number of pairs of nonreal complex conjugate forms Li.. Thus L..158 9. ... = (Li. such that !NKIQ(a)! < N(J) ·Jib~... aJ(n) are t he conJugates . and let us consider the n linear forms Li = L. we put L. Since n > 1. n) then ld'l = 2-r 2 ld\. It follows that if i # io and Ii = Li' with i # i' then if Ii = Li. ..."(xl. and \Liu (xl. not all equal to 0..xn)!::. . . Proof: Let {a 1 . . From T1 T2 · · · Tn ~ ldl it follows that T{ · T~ · · · T~ ~ Tr 2 \dl = \d'\.... = Ti/.. L..(xl.. o f aJ E K over ~: The determinant of the coefficients is equal.. T[. For every algebraic number field K. . are real forms and Li = L. .. . then obviously !Li(xi. ... . and for every nonzero integral ideal J of A there exists an element a E J.]= 1 a3'l XJ (i = 1. (H): C... Let T 1 = T2 = · · · = Tn = ldet(aY))\ 1/n. . to ldet(a/))1 = N(J) · Jfb1 # 0 (by Chapter 8. Xn) I :S Ti 11 • • 9.Li' )/2A and Tf = Tf. an} be a basis of the free Abelian group J (Chapter 6. not all equal to 0. and T{ · · · T~ = 2-r 2 T 1 · · · Tn... n) to the given forms Li and constants Ti in the following way: If Li is a real form let L~ = Li and T[ = Tii if L. by (B) there exist integers x 1 .. Li' = L. .. and constants Tf (i = 1.. Li'. 2 Estimates of the Discriminant As a first application of these methods... (E)).A L. . (i = 1. . . aJ(2) . such that !L. . . Xn)! < Tf for i # io and IL. We are therefore in a position to apply (A). If d' is the determinant of the coefficients of the forms L. = (Li + Li' )/2. .. .. +A L. a # 0. in absolute value. The reader may easily do this verification. Estimates for the Discriminant Proof: We begin by associating real forms L. . .

Of course. because if :1i is a root of a polynomial f. then letting I = Aab. Thus. and n n !NKIQ(a)! =IT L aY)xj < !det(aY))I =N(J) · JfbT.2.. J = A. K(rt) are contained in IR. applying (C).. t) such that N(Ii) < JTbl. then there exists a E K. then its complex conjugate xis also a root o(f. A we have N(I) < JTbl. . By Chapter 8.1 • J <. If K is an algebraic number field. with K(r 1 +i) = K(r 1 +r2 +i) for i = 1. then it coincides with its complex conjugate. b =/= 0 be such that bJ. A very important corollary follows now: D. .therefore.. so there are r 2 pairs of complex conjugate nonreal fields and . r 2 . there exists a E bJ. K(n) be all the conjugates of the field K (over IQ). . As we know. and let b E A. Let K( 1 ).. . (G).. A. a =/= 0. there are only finitely many integral ideals Ii (i = 1. the complex conjugate of any field is a conjugate (in the algebraic sense). letting a = 'L. . 9. then lbl 2: 2. if a field is contained in the field of real numbers. • We apply this method to obtain sharper estimates for the discriminant. . ... hence with at least one strict inequality.1 such that N(I) < JTbl. the conjugates of K may be grouped and numbered as follows: let r 1 2: 0 be such that K( 1 ). .1 <. for which INKIQ(a)l < N(Ab · J.. 2.1 )JibT. every ideal is in the same class as some of the ideals I 1 . Conversely. Then N(J) = 1 and therefore 1 ::::.1 . Hence. . distinct from Q. let J be a nonzero integral ideal and let I be an integral ideal in the class of J.1 =I<. Proof: We take J equal to the unit ideal... It.7= 1 x 1 a1 E J we have a =/= 0 (since not all x 1 are equal to 0)... Since b is an integer. K( 2 ). this provides a new proof of Theorem 1 of Chapter 8. INKIQ(a)l < N(J) · JTbl = JTbl for some element a E A. hence a E J and !NKIQ(a)l < N(J) · JfbT. let r 2 2: 0 be such that are nonreal fields.. then lbl 2: 2. a =/= 0.. that (C) is equivalent to the fact that in every class of ideals there exists a nonzero integral ideal I such that N(I) < JTbl. • i=1 j=1 Let us observe at this point.. a =/= 0 such that aJ. Estimates of the Discriminant 159 with at most one equality. Indeed. K( 2 ). . let J =/= 0 be an ideal in the given class.. A.

. . Let rp(ai) = (ali. For example. . For every symmetric convex body D in JRn. . . r 2 = 0 then n = 2 and D 1 is no more bounded. .. and apply to them Minkowski's theorem. Estimates for the Discriminant It is also convenient to introduce the following notation: l 1 = · · · = lr 1 = 1.j) = det ... where x(i) E K(i) (i = 1. ~n) E lRn.. = r1 + 2r2 = n. an 9\ (rJ+l) 9\ e an(rJ+l) ea1 det(a. (for every complex number y = a + b H we denote a = 9\e(y). r1 + r2. by computing the determinant of their coordinates (relative to the canonical basis of lRn). such that D c.. there exists an element a E J. 1 r1 + r2. n). a f. . . . .0. .1+r2) 1 . therefore (1) al a~l) (rJ) (rJ) (Ll ..... if r 1 = 1. x<n) all its conjugates. . Let Dl = {(6..~n) E lRn I rr. . this is also true for every other case. rp( an) in lRn. . If r 1 = 0.. 9\ e a (r1+r2) 9\ e an(r1+r2) 1 J ma (r1+1) J manh+l) 1 . We may consider symmetric convex bodies D contained in D 1 . r2 = 1 then n = 2 is the closed disk of radius 1 and center 0.160 9. an} be a basis of the free Abelian group J and con- sider the vectors rp( a 1 ). . we denote by x(ll.......--. { ~J = 9\e(xUl) for j = r1 + 1..~~~~l(~J 2 +~J+r2) :S 1}.. We shall show that these vectors are linearly independent over JR. ... ... where ~i = x(il for i=1. lr 1 +1 = lr 1 +2 = · · · = lr 1 +r 2 = 2. r 2 = 0 then n = 1 hence D 1 is the closed interval [-1. . ~J+r 2 = Jm(x<Jl) for j = r1 + 1. such that Proof: Let {a 1. Dni). . J ma (r1 +r2) Jma.:.... . Let K be an algebraic number field of degree n and let J be a nonzero integral ideal of A. Let rp: K ----> lRn be the isomorphism of Q-vector spaces defined by rp(x) = (~1.rl. . .. D 1 . 1] and vol(DI) = 2. hence vol(DI) = 1r...... b = Jm(y))... .. SO L~~ir 2 l. If r 1 = 2. . . If x E K.~li~JI· rr. E. as we did in (C)..

l = ldet(aiJ)I = (1/2r 2 )N(J) · JfbT. E A = 2:~= 1 Zip(ai) = 'P (2:~= 1 Zai) = 'P(J).2. r 2 we have seen that D 1 itself is not a convex body. pn = [2r 1 +r>jvol(D)]N(J) · JfbT. !3n) E D1. 1 +r 2 +1 ). There exists an element a E J. such that . . Estimates of the Discriminant 161 To compute this determinant we make successively the following: (1) Multiply by i = A each of the r 2 last rows. . E D. for it is unbounded and not convex.. a E J. (E).. 9. . pD1. The larger the volume of the convex body D <. thus pt. F.... 0. we have vol(D 1) = 1r. so 'P( a) = (pf31.l. Pf3n) with (!31. p > 0 be such that pn = [2r 1 +r 2 /vol(D)]N(J)JfbT. and let J be a nonzero integral ideal of A. 0. In this situation. r1. such that 2 .. if r 1 = 0. a =f. laUll = Plf3jl for j = 1. whose fundamental parallelotope has volume J. 0. thus INKJQ(a)l :::. Now. a =f. Since a(rl+r 2 +j) = a(rJ+]) for j = 1. After these transformations we arrive at (-1/2if 2 • det(aYJ) and therefore the absolute value of the determinant is as was computed in Chapter 8. and (E) states the existence of a E J. • The statement of (E) gives an upper bound for the norms of elements of the ideal J. . t. .. this introduces a factor 1/ir2 • (2) Add the (r 1 + r 2 + j)th row to the (r 1 + j)th row to get a new (r1 + j)th row. We have 'P( a) E pD <. D 1.. a =f. . similarly. 7r this result was already proved in (C) for any extension KIIQ of finite degree. this introduces a factor ( -1 Y2 • ( 1 /2r 2 ). By Minkowski's theorem.... INKIQ(a)l:::. 'P(an) are linearly independent over lR and define a lattice A. . .. if we consider the homothetic image pD = {p~ I ~ E D}. then vol(pD) = pn vol(D) = 2r 1 +r 2 N(J) · JibT = 2nJ. . = 'P(a). . Thus. the vectors 'P(al). For larger values of r 1. Let K be an algebraic number field of degree n. -N(Jh/fbl < N(J)Jibj. let us compute INKJQ(a)l = TI7=1 la(jll.. r 2 = 1 and if we take D = D 1. 0. Let p E JR. =f. the smaller the upper bound in question. such that pl. we reach different estimates by appropriate choices of the convex body D. 1 +j + f3?. Hence. r2 then la(r 1 +r 2 +j)l · la(r 1 +j)l = (~e a(rJ+Jl) 2 + (Jm a(r 1 +1l) 2 = p2 (f3?. (3) Subtract the h + j)th row from the double of the ( r1 + r2 + j)th row and multiply the result by -1 to get the new (r 1 + r2 + j)th row. there exists t.. For example.

.+r2+1 + · · ·} :S .. This shows that D is convex.L"'1I + . ·.+I + "''f..A~r 1 +r2 +1 + f.+l +(.162 9. Estimates for the Discriminant 4)r2 INKIIQ(a)l :S ( .. then so is (.. Everything is easy to check and only the convexity requires some computation.A.L{i"'II + · · · +2Vry'f.J.A. · + 2y'(..LT/r 1 +r2+I) 2 + · · · :S .. We show that D is a symmetric convex body.-\~1 + /LT/jk because I. :~ 1 JT8T · N(J). Moreover D t.L)n = n (the above inequalities are straightforward).n I 161 +" · + l~r..A +J.AI61 +J.+r2+1 + · · · + 2J~. ('f/I..L :S 1...L = 1.+r2+1 + · · ·} + J.LV"''f. .A{I61 + · · · +2Je.+r2+I + 2J.An + J.AV(.'f/n) are in D.Ln = (. thus .L E R.+l + "''f.... 0 :S .A + J. because the geometric mean between positive real numbers is not greater than the arithmetic mean. Proof: Let D ={(6.Li"'II+···+2.+l + ~'f. ~n) E R.~n)...A~r 1 +1 + f..A6 + J. . Let . ..L"'r 1 +I) 2 + (.···.l + 2J~.+l + ~. D 1 . If(~b···. f.t+r2 + ~~ :S n}..+r2+l + · · · :::.

. If K is an algebraic number field of degree n then Proof: We take J equal to the unit ideal. More generally. Estimates of the Discriminant 163 We may apply (E)..r2 -l(P. r 2 the computation is done by induction and we shall omit the details. which depends on r1. 9.. so there exists a E J. we obtain fr.. .t) dt 1 2 and rp/2 = 27r Jo fr 1 . a i= 0 such that It remains to compute vol(D). For example.+l + ~?:1 +r. c.r (P. Performing the induction.. For larger values of r 1 .. rz.2. we deduce therefore.. applying (F). h. Let us just note that fr.r 2 (p) the volume of D(P). We conclude that • The preceding result gives the following sharper estimation of the discriminant: G. if p > 0 let D(P) be the set of vectors (6..n) E lRn such that 161 + · · · +2J.o(p) = 2p.r 2 (p) = 2r 1 (7r/2t 2 Pn/n! and taking p = n we have vol(D) = 2r 1 (7r/2t 2 nn/n!.+l + · · · :S P· We denote by fr.r 2 (P) = 21p fr -l. hence. f 0 . .. 1 (p) = 7rp 2 j4. .2t)t dt.

Thus. we deduce the existence of integers m 1 .. this is true for \d\ = 1. as we have seen in (D). . Let {xi. r2 = 0 is impossible.. . Given K. with discrimi- nant d. . /fdT. the numbering . \L.. then e<>/l 2 n < e 1 /I 2 < L~= 0 (1/12v) = 12/11. hence \<5\ > (1re 2 /4)n(1/27rn)(ll/12) 2 . If r1 = 0. T1 = M· This means that the element a = :z-=~= 1 mixi E A is such that \n( 1 l \ ::. \a(i)l < 1. = :Z. K = Q( fo). Given T 1 = Vidl. there exists at most finitely many fields K of degree n having discriminant equal to d. so K is an imaginary quadratic extension of Q. while \a(') I < 1 fori i 1. by Chapter 6. let L. we deduce also that all the conjugates of a (I l = a are distinct from a and so a has n distinct conjugates and is a primitive element of K..::7=l :r:j'l XJ. since K has discriminant d.(m1. .mn)l::.. Case 1: r 1 > 0. r2 = 1 then n = 2. n->oo [K:IQJ]=n From this fact we may now deduce the following interesting consequence due to Hermite: H. Let {xi.. a square-free. hence if K has degree n 2': n 0 . . such that . there exists an integer n 0 2': 1 such that if n 2': n 0 then (1re 2 /4)n(1/27rn)(ll/12) 2 > \d\. so there exists at most one quadratic field with discriminant d. and let L. . .mn)l < T. Estimates for the Discriminant since 4 <1 and • We may note that (n-j4)n(nn jn! )2 increases monotonically with n. we shall show the existence of a primitive element a of K which is an algebraic integer and such that \a(lli ::. it is enough to prove that for every integer n. these linear forms have determinant \det(xY))I = ld\. :rn} be an integral basis of the field K. \L1(m1. We proceed in a similar manner.. \NKIQ(a)\ < \a(ll\. = 1 fori i 1. For every integer d there exist at most finitely many fields K having discriminant bK = d.... If we express n! by Stirling's formula n! = V2rn nne-n+(<>/l2n)' where 0 < o: < 1. /fdT and fori i 1. hence lim min { \6 K I} = oo. . . Proof: Given d. so we may assume \d\ > 1.164 9. mn E Z not all equal to 0. For each i = 1.. n. with a E Z.. From now on we may assume that r 1 + r 2 > 1. . . then its discriminant is greater than ldl. n. (P).. Case 2: r 1 = 0.. r1 = 1. d = bK is either 4a or a. Ti = 1 for i i 1. ' Xn} be an integral basis of K. . the right-hand side in the above inequality tends to infinity with n. Hence. From 1 ::. = :2::7=1 xY) xj for i = 1. Since 1re 2 /4 > 1.

or better with a. Iproducts of i conjugates of al :S ( 7) vTJi :S fi.. So. except the origin... Construct a symmetric convex body S of volume 2n /i and having no lattice point in its interior. Thus. then lal = la(l)l :S Jldl. . + Cn E Z[X] be the minimal polynomial of the algebraic integer a.. Develop in detail the argument in the proof of Theorem 1.. . namely the conjugates of K = <QJ(a). THr 2 = 1. . so ldet(xJ )I = y ldl. explicitly. . We shall associate with K. and the required condition is satisfied. la(ill < 1 for all i -=J 1.. let a be chosen as indicated. This is achieved as follows. 1 + r2. . Now we consider the set S of all fields K of degree n and discriminant d. we associate then-tuple (c 1. :S rni :S fi (i = 1. en) which belongs to S. an element of a fixed finite set S.. an. for each such field. proving our statement. 2.1 + . such that if a= 'L7=l aJXj. where -fl.. n) and tL = 1~\a~xn {C)} ·/ldl. Let T1 = Jldl. Ti = 1 for i -=J 1. Show that the homothetic image of a convex set is convex. S is the set of n-tuples of integers (rn1. . • EXERCISES 1. en)... S is a finite set. a E A. thus ci = ( -1) i si where si is the ith elementary symmetric polynomial on a and its conjugates. rnn).. By (B) there exist integers a 1 . .. . not all equal to 0. K = <QJ( a). so K = <QJ(a). 1 + r2. . . there exists y' E An C such that Py' :S Py· 3. hence lei I = lsi I = I'L (products of i conjugates of a)l :S L. Let f = xn + c1xn. There are at most finitely many fields K which give rise to the same element (c 1. We consider the following new linear forms: L: = Li for i -=J 1. The absolute value of the determinant of the coefficients of these forms is equal to ~ Jldl. where it is asserted that if y E A. as in the first case. d. (i) lUI bemg such that Li+r 2 = Li. With K = <QJ(a). with depends only on n. . Exercises 165 . .

1 :::. .r 2 (P) = 2 J6 fr 1 -l. JJ fr 1 .. (see Chapter 16.t) dt. not all equal to 0.166 9. Show that in every class of ideals of K there exists a nonzero integral ideal J such that when 6 > 0. .. 5.. Show that in every class of ideals of the algebraic number field K with discriminant 6. such that jLi(x 1 . (N)). then there exist x1. .xn)i < Ti for all i = 1. . 8. such that Lio does not have real coefficients.. n.2t)t dt.2Vt 2 + u2 ) dt du rp/2 = 21!" Jo fr 1 .r2 -l (p. (c) fr 1 .r 2 (P) = 2r 1 (7r/2f2 pnjn!. there exists a nonzero integral ideal J such that N(J):::.r 2 -l(P..n. . 6. (-1!"4)r2 ~y'jbf. Estimates for the Discriminant 4. Establish the following assertions made in the proof of (B): (a) fr 1 . . Xn E Z. i 0 :::. N(J) <: { when 6 < 0. .. Show that if K is a field of degree 3 then its discriminant satisfies 6 < -12 or 20 < 6. With the notations of (B) show that if there exists i 0 . Let K be a quadratic field with discriminant 6.r 2 (P. 1 nn 7.

and after- ward we shall examine the units of quadratic fields and certain cyclotomic fields. Then there exist only finitely many algebraic integers x in K such that Jx(il I :::. 10. c for all conjugates x( i) of x.1 Roots of Unity We shall begin by describing rather accurately the group W. -1 E W. two elements of a domain are associated precisely when they generate the same ideal. Thus any root of unity in K is a unit of A. we ignore the units.1 (with m 2: 1) is an algebraic integer. How large is W? Can it be infinite? What is the structure of the group W? Is W necessarily equal to U? If not. by considering ideals. However. We shall first consider the simplest type of units. so e-l is also a root of unity. 167 . to gain some insight into the possibilities for a reasonable structure theorem. any root of a polynomial xm . that is. Ifem = 1 then e-m = 1. it will become apparent that a number of arithmetic pro- perties are intimately tied up with the units of the ring of integers A of the algebraic number field K. Thus. since 1. how can one determine the structure of U? These are the main questions we are faced with in trying to study the units. Let U = UK denote the group of units of A and let W = W K denote the subgroup of U consisting of roots of unity. Any root of unity.10 Units As we have said. Let c be any positive real number and let K be an algebraic number field. we prove a remarkable fact: A. W is a nontrivial subgroup of U. First.

. • The number of elements of W will be denoted by w. G)c 2 . and therefore W itself is cyclic. then w is even. this last group is cyclic.. ... Sn be the elementary symmet- ric polynomials in n variables. • Combining (A) and (B). n. x2 ... Since 1. that is. . the same holds for all its conjugates. c'.. Let [K : Q] = n and let s 1 . W must be finite.. soW is contained in the group of hth roots of unity.. By Chapter 2. x( 2 l. we have the structure of the group W: C.. the same holds for every conjugate of x. the order of every element in W divides h. (R). Let c' be a sufficiently large real number. Units Proof: We shall determine a finite set S..en}. so lxl = 1. F is a finite set. . Let S be the set of elements of K which are roots of some polynomial belonging to F. Section 8. . s 1 = X 1 + X 2 + · · · + Xn. namely. From xm = 1 it follows that lxlm = 1. x 2 . . Proof: One implication is easily established. The group W of roots of unity in K is a finite multiplicative cyclic group. for if x is a root of unity. . x 3 .168 10. then sk(x(ll.. . (~)ck. all share this property. whose coefficients are integers a such that Ia I <::. S is also a finite set. that w divides 2bK. .. If lx(i)l :S c for all conjugates of x E K. . Conversely. by (A) there are only finitely many algebraic integers x in K such that lx(il I = 1 for all conjugates of x. . s 2 . • An immediate corollary is a characterization of the roots of unity in K: B. Since x is an algebraic integer.x(il) belongs to F. x is a root of unity in K if and only if x is an algebraic integer of K such that lx(i) I = 1 for every conjugate of x. -1 are roots of unity belonging to any algebraic number field. such that lx(i) I <::.. r < s. such that x' = x 8 • Hence xs~r = 1.. . s2 = Li<j xixj. then lsk(x(ll.. then there exist integers r. Proof: By (A) and (B). ... x(nl)l :S c' for every k 1. We shall prove in Chapter 13. then x E S. and prove that if x is an algebraic integer of K. showing that x is a root of unity. Xn. x E S. s. c for all its conjugates x(i). x<nl) E Z. Since x. . . x< 2l. and therefore the polynomial f1~=l (X. It is another nu- merical invariant attached to the field K. for example c' =max {nc. Lemma 2. Let F be the set of all monic polynomials of degree at most n. depending only on the constant c. Let h be the maximum of the orders of the elements in W. By Chapter 3. . 1 Sn = xl .

-1. (N)).. then the units ofQl(Vd) are 1. b'). With the same argument. We shall show that there exist other units in Ql( Vd). -3. d =f. -1. where we have another solution: a = ±1.N)/2. Proof: Let f = X + aY and consider the set S of values f(a. The units ofQl(H) are 1. 10. (1 . where a. all elements inS belong to the interval [0. Lemma 1. except when d = -1. 0 :::.b2 d. a :::. Since there are more elements in S than subintervals. 2(1 + a)/m]. In all cases. Since d < 0. (1 + a)/m]. b = ±1. therefore #S = (m + 1) 2 . except when d = -3. where d is a nonzero square-free integer. b) = a + ab. it is necessary and sufficient that N(x) = ±1 (Chapter 5. b) =f. the conjugate of xis x' = a-bVd and the norm is N(x) = xx' = a 2 . Thus. b = 0. Since a is irrational. If d < 0 it is pretty easy to find all units: D. [0. and fa+ abf :::. If a > 0 is an irrational real number. the only roots of unity in Ql( Vd) are 1. (a'. b :::. b E Z.. d =f. i. then the integers of Ql( Vd) are of the form x = a+bVd with a. there exist at least two elements in S in the same subinterval: . -i.N)/2. The only possible solutions are a = ±1. . Units of Quadratic Fields 169 Now we pause and determine the units in special cases. (-1.b2 d = 1. then for every integer m > 0 there exist integers a. b = 0. those of Ql( N) being sixth roots of unity. -1.. when 0 :::. m. we are led to solve a 2 . fbi :::. If d < 0.2. (1 + N)/2. not both equal to 0. The only possible solutions are a = ±2. • Let us consider now the more interesting case where d > 0. this means that a 2 .b2 d = 4. when d > 0. m. such that fa[ :::. (1 + a)m]. [(1 + a)/m. b') then f(a. Proof: If d = 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4). if (a. b. If d = 1 (mod 4) then the integers of <Ql(Vd) are of the form x =(a+ bVd)/2. The units of Ql( N) are 1. m. In order that x be a unit. -1.2 Units of Quadratic Fields Let K = Ql( H). b) =f. b = ±1. so Ql( Vd) is contained in the field of real numbers. -1. It is also quite clear that all units are roots of unity. (1 + a)jm. 10. (-1 + A)/2. b E Z have the same parity. every unit is a root of unity. f(a'. where we have another solution: a = 0. m. We divide this interval into m 2 equal parts.

b) E Um>I Sm. Units Therefore. If (a.x2)x~ U=-=1+ =1+_. Um> I Sm is an infinite set... with a = Jd. and vice versa: also. Therefore. m.. For every m.:'--"- X2 x2 N(x2) = 1 + ( a1 ~ a2 + b1 ~ b2 v'd) (a2 _ b2Vd).b1 . = #S. b). if m is sufficiently large and if (a. for every m. lbl ::. we have la+abl ::. b). m. b2 dl = Ia . ={(a. 0 < lnl < (1 + vd) 2 . and consider u = xJ/x2. If Um>l Sm is a finite set then there exists m 0 such that 1/mo < la+bVdl for all (a. where a > 0. thus we have at most n 2 equivalence classes. Since the number of couples is greater than n 2 . b2) when a1 = a2 (mod n).bVdl ~ lal + lbiYd ::. x2 = a2 + b2Vd. m(1 + Yd) so 0 f la 2 . b1 = b2 (mod n).:__::-:-::-7____::. if m = 1 then sr = {(0. Let us define (a 1 . (0. b) E Um>l S~.. which is a contradiction. with a.b2d = n for infinitely many couples of integers (a. ~ (1 + 1/Yd) < 1 which is impossible since b cannot be zero.bVdl · Ia + bVdl ::. b) E Sm I a = 0}. m. lbl ::.. with a. b) E 5~ then (-a. because x1 f x2. Let us write Sm = S~ u S.x2 (x1 . b) E Um>l Sm. s. 2 then s~n = 0 because lbiYd::. (1 + Yd)/m. b). hence also for every (a. m it follows that Ia . b1 ) = (a2. s~ ={(a. b1 ). But x1 x1 . where C is an infinite multiplicative cyclic group. -b) E 5 7-. such that a 2 . it would follow that Um> 1 Sm is finite). is also an infinite set (otherwise from #S. Proof: As we have already said.t.170 10. -1} x C._ u S~. From lal ::. 1). b = b2 . W = {1. Since N(xl) = N(x2) = n then N(u) = 1 and u f ±1. Let XJ = a1 + b1 vd. b) E Sm then Ia + bVdl < (1 + Yd)/m ::. where s~ ={(a. -1}. (1 + Yd)/m implies lbl ::.. x 1 f -x2 since a 1 > 0. letting a= a2 -a 1 . then the group U of units of the field !Ql( Yd) is U ~ {1. (1 +a)jm. each set Sm is nonempty. b not both equal to 0. lbl ::. Thus. and lal ::. there exist at least two distinct couples (a 1 .. hence Um> 1 s. a2 > 0.. Consider n 2 + 1 among these couples (a. Ia + bVdl ::. b2 ) in the same equivalence class. (a 2 . m. b) E Sm I a< 0}. we shall make use of Lemma 1. -1)} and if m ::. b) E Sm I a> 0}. To show that there exists another unit in !Ql( Yd). there exist~ some integer n. 1/mo. such that lal ::.. m. b not both 0. however. (1/m)(1 + 1/Yd) ::. . m(1 + vd) 1 + Jd = (1 + vd) 2 m for every (a. • E. If d is a positive square-free integer. By the lemma. let Sm be the set of all couples of integers (a..

Now. different from 1. u is a unit. u =1.. b1 positive integers of the same parity. if u is such a unit. Thus. if u is a unit. Q( . since these numbers are exactly ±a ± bJd. In fact. • The smallest unit u 1 > 1 is called the fundamental unit of Q( v'd). First let d= 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4). 8 + 3v'7. IQ( v'13). with an = bn (mod 2). it follows that 1/c < u' < 1 or -1 < u' < -1/c and at any rate lu'l < c. b > 0._"+l. uju'[' < u1. .2. for rn E Z. Now we shall prove that among all units u > 1 there exists a smallest possible. 9d. -1. also ±1 = N(ul) = (a 1 2 - bid)/4 hence bid= ai =t= 4 and we have to find the smallest integer b1 > 0 such that bid is a square plus or minus 4. Let u = ud = (a + bJd)/2 be the fundamental unit of Q( Jd). The integers an.-1} x C. respectively. all negative units are of the form -u'['. There must exist some unit u of IQ( Jd) such that 1 < u. bid is a square plus or minus 1. Let C be the multiplicative cyclic group generated by u 1 . . in fact.a2 )/n. Similarly. let d = 3. Units of Quadratic Fields 171 Noting that (a 1 . thus if we write the sequence d. hence necessarily u = u'['. 5 + 2v'6. . if d = 1 (mod 4).1 . there exists an integer rn such that uJ. For example. (3 + v'13) /2 are fundamental units of IQ( VS). 10. if Um = u'[' = am + bm Jd. are the fundamental units of the fields Q( V2). with a. (b 1 . u. then b1 is the smallest integer such that 0 < b1 . then a + bJd > 1 when a > 0.1 are units and the largest of these real numbers is greater than 1.b2 )/n are integers. then bm+1 = a1bm + amb1. then u. 1 + V2. it is enough to show that for every real number c > 1 there exist only finitely many units u such that 1 < u < c. Q( v'?). If u = a+ bJd is a unit. respectively. 4d.J6). -u. u'[') is clearly an isomorphism. Similarly. Now. so are -u. For example (1 + VS)/2.u'['). The mapping U-----+ {1. If u1 = a1 + b1 Jd is the fundamental unit. we note that a b= (mod 2). -u'[' f---7 ( -1. bn may be obtained recursively as we now indicate. b E Z.n ::. then from N(u) = uu' = ±1. we obtain u = a+ bJd. 16d. We shall prove that every positive unit u is a power of u 1 . u < u. -u. so we have b1 < b2 < b3 < · · ·. A crude method of determining the fundamental unit is the following.±1.. From ±1 = N(ul) = ai -bid. we have bid = ai =t= 1. For any n 2 1 let un = (an+ bnJd)/2. a 1 = 2. then uju'[' is again a unit such that 1 ::. Let u 1 be the smallest unit such that 1 < u 1 . For the next considerations we fix the following notation. u.1 and only the largest of these numbers is larger than 1. -u. defined by u'[' f---7 (1.1 . and multiplying out. then b1 = 1. by a similar argument u 1 = (a 1 + b1Jd)/2 with a 1 . By (A) the set of such units must be finite. so 2+J3 is the fundamental unit of IQ( J3).

For each n 2 1. Thus p + J p2 .(3) .(3 = (a + (3) a . Q = N(u) = (a 2 . Units Let P = a. J p2 . With the above notations. For every n 2 0: an_ (Jn Un = and a-(3 Proof: For n = 0 and 1 we have ao _ (Jo a-(3 . (Vn)n20 as follows: Uo = 0. b2dl a-(3 . We have an-1 + bn-!Vd a+ bVd 2 2 hence an = ~ (an-1a + bn-1bd) and bn = ~ (an-lb + bn-la).4Q = (a. Proof: The assertion is true for n = 1 and we proceed by induction. and by induction. Now P 2 . if n 2 2 then an_ (Jn an-1 _ (Jn-1 an-2 _ (Jn-2 a .= 0 = Uo and = 1 = U1.4Q = b2d = (a 2 - (a .172 10..: .db 2 )/4 = ±1.(3 = PUn-! . PX + Q. Q = N(u) = db 2)/4 = ±1. Vn = PVn-1 .QUn-2 = Un.a(J a . (3 be the roots of the polynomial f(X) = X 2 . an = Vn and bn = bUn. a= 2 ' 2 Then a+ (3 = P. a+ (3 = P = V1. Lemma 2.(Jn-1 an= -21 [ (an-1 + (Jn-1)(a + (3) + ----'-::-. if n 2:: 2 then an+ (Jn =(a+ (J)(an-1 + (Jn-1) _ a(J(an-2 + (Jn-2) = PVn-1 . a 0 + (3° = 2 = V0. a(J = Q. 4Q . a-(3 a-(3 By induction.4Q (3 -_ p . We define the recurring sequences (Un)n20.QVn-2 = Vn· • Let P = a.QVn-2 for n 2 2. From the preceding lemma we obtain an-1 . for n 2 2 and Vo = 2. Similarly. Let a. we have: 2 Lemma 3. and P 2 . V1 = P.(3) 2.(3 .

The sequence (Vn (mod 2))n>O is seen to be 0. If a is odd. • There is a narrow connection between units of the real quadratic field Q( Vd) and the Diophantine equations x2 . . 1... then an.1 = {(an/2. dY 2 = -1 is the following: . bn/2) In is even}. 1.. With the above notations: (i) The set of solutions of X 2 .y) Ix > O. The sequence (Vn (mod 2))n>O is seen to be 0. an is even for every n 2: 1.1) (d > 0 and square-free).3n-1) + an-1 . If a is even. that is. (b) If N(u) = -1: { If a is even then Sd. 0. dY 2 = ±1. dY 2 = 1 is the following: (a) If N(u) = 1: If a is even then sd. dy 2 = c}. sob is also odd. . ForE= 1. but became better known since they were discussed in the textbook by Pell-so today. Lemma 4.2. In the next lemma we indicate the parity of an and bn. and so must be bn. { If a is odd then Sd. These equations were studied by Fermat.E· F. they are known as Fell equations. -1. bn/2) I 3 divides n}. (a + /3) l • an. 10. bn/2) I6 divides n}.E = {(x. In the next results we determine explicitly the sets Sd. 0.l = {(an/2.!3 .!3n = b a- /3 =bUn. Proof: Let a = P be even. If a is odd then sd. 1. .y > 0 and x 2 . bn/2) In 2: 1}. thus an (and also bn) is even if and only if 3 divides n. 4. Units of Quadratic Fields 173 Similarly ~ [an-1b ~ [(an-1 + bn-1a] + . (ii) The set of solutions of X 2 . 0. since an = bn (mod 2). Now let a= P be odd.l = {(an/2. or -4 let Sd. ±4 (10.!3n-1 a . bn are even for every n 2: 1. then an (and also bn) is even if and only if 3 divides n. 1.l = {(an/2. ..

:::: 1 such that 2x = an. By the preceding results. is left to the reader. equivalently. dY 2 = -4 is the following: (a) If N(u) = 1 then Sd. (b) If N(u) = -1: If a is even then sd. With the above notations: (i) The set of solutions of X 2 .4 =(an. We have (x. pY 2 = -4 has a nontrivial solution. if E = -1 and N(u) = -1 then n must be odd: finally. dY 2 = 4 is the following: (a) If N(u) = 1: If a is even then sd. similar to the one of (F).-4 = {(an. Proof: Let 1 or -1. bn) I 3 divides n}. this holds for all n . • We now consider the special case when d = p is a prime number. (2) The equation X 2 . while if a is odd. { If a is odd then Sd..1 = 0. there exists n . (3) The equation X 2 . Units (a) If N(u) = 1 then Sd. if E = -1 and N(u) = 1 non satisfies the required conditions. (b) If N(u) = -1: If a is even then Sd. bn) In 2': 1}. H. { If a is odd then Sd.-4 = 0.1 = {(an/2. { If a is odd then Sd. bn) In is odd and 3 divides n}. bn) I 6 divides n}. bn/2) I n is odd}. (4) p = 2 or p =1 (mod 4).-1 = { ( an/2.174 10. bn) In is even}. pY 2 = -1 has a nontrivial solution. Moreover.bn/2) I nis odd and 3divides n}. . bn) I n is odd}. y) E Sd. (b) If N(u) = -1: If a is even then Sd.:::: 1.-4 ={(an. The following statements are equivalent: (1) N(u) = -1. 2y = bn. Proof: The proof. (ii) The set of solutions of X 2 . Let p be a prime number and let u = up = (a + bVd) /2 be the fundamental unit of Q( y'P).c: if and only if ((2x) 2 - E = d(2y) 2 )/4 = Eor. this holds if and only if 3 divides n. (2x + 2yVd)/2 is a unit with norm E.4 ={(an.4 ={(an. • G. { If a is odd then Sd. if E = 1 and N(u) = -1 we must haven even. If a is even.4 ={(an..

(4) ---+ (1) If p = 2 then u = 1 + J2.. p = 1 (mod 4) and assume that N(u) = 1. a . b::::.2 = 2pb~.4 # 0 if and only if N(u) = -1. (X).pb~. a . Units of Cyclotomic Fields 175 Proof: By (F) and (G). ( a primitive pth root of unity. Case 1: a is odd. In cases (c) and (d) we obtain 2 = pbr. similarly. Case 2: a is even.1 over IQl. Then gcd( a + 2. b1 = 1. Let p be a prime. a+ 2 = 4bi.py 2 = -4.2 = 2b~. In case (e) we obtain ((2b 2) 2 . which contradicts the assumption that N(u) = 1. Hence K has degree p. (e) { (f) { a.pb~.2) = 2 or 4. So 4 = pbr . Sd. Thus there exist integers h.3 Units of Cyclotomic Fields Let p be an odd prime. Finally. and let K = IQl( ().3. Sd. since (b 1 + b2yfJ)/2 is a unit then a ::::. in case (f). then -1 is a square modulo p. so N(u) = -1. In the second case. and (3) are equivalent.b~ or 4 = bi . 2b 2 so ab ::::. Thus there are integers b1 . b1 . therefore a ::::. a. Hence a = 1 and -1 = 4pb~.2 = pb~. a contradiction.2 = b~. These relations are impossible. b2 with b = 2b 1 b2 or 4b 1 b2 and either one of the following cases hold: a + 2 = 2pbr' { a+ 2 = 2br' (c) { (d) a . (3) ---+ (4) If p # 2 and if x 2 . so a 2 . the . which is impossible.pb 2 = 4. This shows that the statements (1). this implies that N(u) = -1. 10.p(2bl) 2)/4 = -1 so (2b 2 + 2b 1 yfJ)/2 is a unit of norm -1. and 3 = -pb 2.b~ or 2 = bi. concluding the proof. • 10. which is impossible. As we have seen in Chapter 5. In the first case (b2 + b1 y'P) /2 is a unit with norm -1. a+ 2 = 4pbr. b2 . 2b 1 .2 = 4b~. a . as seen by reducing modulo 4. so b2 = b.2) = 1.2 = 4pb~. b::::.-l # 0 if and only if N(u) = -1. a . hence (a+ 2)(a. (2b 1 + 2b2yP)/2 is a unit. 4b 1 b2 = b in this case. (2). b2 with b1 b2 = b and either (a) or (b) holds: (a) { a + 2 = pbr' (b) { a +2 = bi' a . Now gcd(a + 2. This shows that N(u) must be equal to -1. sop = 1 (mod 4).2) = pb 2 .

.1) is a unit (since 1 .that is. . if necessary.p.. therefore 8(u) = a0 + a 1 + · · · +ap_ 2 = 8(u).1. so (h = ( 2 k. Since pis associated with (1 .1 = [K: Q].. we see that v E JR. let x E W be an element of order w.. E Z... where u is a unit of A. The complex conjugate of u. let u be any unit of Q( ().1 and therefore. -(. .1 . .()P. By (B). . -(. we may take v > 0.1 is also a unit. W is a cyclic group of order w. ( 2 . so 2u E A(1. Thus. Let us consider the ring R = A/A(1 -(). (.1 then p divides 2.2 ). + ap-2C(p-2). -( 2 .1 .. with 0 ~ h ~ p . Now. u = (hu. 1.. . ... For example. -(P. vis a unit. by multiplying (k with -1. if not. . m 2: 2.( 8 ) / ( 1 . Moreover. _. ( 2 .1 }. which is also a unit (because uv = 1 implies uv = 1). so those of u' are u'(k) = u(k) ·u(k). so u = a0 + a 1 (k + · · · + ap_ 2 (P. from u = -(hu. is given by u = ao + a1C1 + a2C2 + . p . (P.. . (1 .1 then r = 1. • We may easily exhibit some outstanding real units of Q((). . So <p(w) = pr. 1 . contrary to the hypothesis. then u(k) = u<k) are the conjugates of u. Finally. then u' = u · u.and let() : A -+ R be the canonical homomorphism. Proof: By (C). for k = 1. Now. for every k = 1.p-1.(B. Then 8(() = 1.2.() ( 1 ~ s ~ p. so w = 2p.1 .. e.().(divides 2.1) · <p(m) and since it divides p . we have lu'(k)l = 1. .. and therefore (~ = (ku = (~k = ( ~). Let k be such that 2k = h (mod p). The multiplicative group W of roots of unity of Q( () is w = {1.()P. u' = -(h then u = -(hu.. Now we prove the main result about units in Q((): I. .1 }.1.176 10. so 8((k) = 1 for every k = 1... -1. 2. p does not divide m. Thus. .2 with a. 2.P. Every unit of Q( () may be written as u = ±(kv where v is a positive real unit of A.. Units ring of integers of K is A = Z[(] and p = u(1 . -1. are the conjugates of u. as shown above.. We must have the positive sign. -( 2 .1 (p. so p = 2. But w = pr · m where r 2: 1. and since u is a unit.(divides 2u. if u<k) = a 0 + a 1(k + a 2 ( 2k + ~ ap_ 2 (k(p. 1 . the element u' is a root of unity and therefore of the form u' = ±(h. <p(m) = 1 so m = 2 and therefore w = 2p. Since x E K then Q(x) ~ K so <p(w) = [Q(x) : Q] divides p. Letting v = uj(k = u(P-k. and u = (kv. Since -( E W and -( has order 2p (because p is odd) then 2p divides w. . thus 0(2u) = 0. W = {1.nA.( are associated elements). we have O(u) = -O(u). . .

1 .•• .(-1 1.(-t 1-( 1 .(s . Thus n = r 1 + 2r 2 . cs 1. generate all the units of the field. (p. with k E Z.(-1. v 9 (g = (p .(-s 1 (-s 2 1-( 1 . Let [K : IQ] = n. Soon. However. if 1 :::. because if v 8 = Vt then 1 .. But then s + t = kp.(-1 ( (k 1 = (-1 ) J and V = 1 . But even for cyclotomic fields. while K(r 1 +l). if s = 1 then v 1 = 1.(-S 1.. distinct from 1. all the units of a cyclotomic field.) are the real conjugates of K. 10. t :::. c.. Actually. Now. We follow the convention already used in the preceding chapter: K(l).-s = cos(21rsjp). thus not roots of unity.1)/2. . .4. so ( 8 = cos(27rs fp) + i sin(27rs fp). the determina- tion of a fundamental system of units requires deep results and delicate computations. Dirichlet's Theorem 177 By the preceding proof. . either s =tor (21rsjp) + (21rtjp) = 2k7r. 2. this is impossible. s.. we shall prove a theorem of Dirichlet.:::: 0 be the number of pairs of nonreal complex-conjugate conjugates of K. together with the roots of unity. K(r. s + s' = p then V 8 = -V 8 . .1. if 1 < s. ( = cos(27r fp) + i sin(27r fp ). and. so that the above relation gives 2 cos(21rsjp) = 2 cos(21rtjp)..(8 1. K( 2 ).(-1 is a real unit in IQ(() for every s = 1. Therefore.(-s 8 1. -1. .( 1. 10. SO (s + (-s = (t + (-t. they are distinct.1)/2) are (p . They are called the circular units. At this point we still have no way of determining. . there exists an even integer 2k such that so 1. v 3 .1.:::: 0 be the number of real conjugates of K and let r 2 . . s' :::. p. which indicates the structure of the group of units of an algebraic number field. p . . this result states the existence of fun- damental systems of units which.4 Dirichlet's Theorem Our aim is to establish Dirichlet's fundamental theorem on the structure of the group of units of a number field K.i sin(21rsjp). Thus v 2 . let r 1 .3)/2 real units.. even in very sim- ple particular cases..

.. Units K(n) are the nonreal conjugates. By hypothesis. aq) E ]RQ I there exists v E Usuch that >. First.(v) = LJ=l aj>. Let ai = l::j=l llog lu~i) II and a = max{ a1. .+r 2+j)l for j = 1. this mapping is surjective. (b 1 . . . .. . .(u) = (0. aq). Then u is a root of unity if and only if >. . r 2 • From the above relations it follows that 2log lu(r.(uj). let u E U be such that lu(ll I = lu( 2 ) I = · · · = lu(r) I = 1.1. aj = bj for all j = 1.. J. Proof: It suffices to show that Gl is a finite set. Proof: If u E W then lu(j)l = 1 for every conjugate of u. n) be the conjugates of x. log lu( 2ll.178 10.)llv(r. 1 .(uj)· Next. . e<> fori= 1. Moreover.(uj) = 0. defined by >.. Let ul = {v E u I there exist (all .bj)>.(ui). . bq) E G 1 are such that >.+l)l 2 · · ·lv(r)l 2 . log lu(r)l) (where luUll denotes the positive real number which is the absolute value of uUl E C and log is the natural logarithm function). 0... +i) = Kh +r 2+j) for all j = 1..+ 2 r 2)1 = 1. >..(uq)} is a linearly independent subset of the JR-vector space !Rr. Uq E U be such that {>..(v) = I:j= 1 aj>. We note that if v E U1 and (a 1.(v) = LJ=l aj>. aq) E Gl. so luh+r 2)1 = lu(r.. G j'll. aq) E zq and v = Tij= 1 u. :S lv(ill :S e<>' :=::. We shall consider in the sequel the mapping >. 0) E JRr. Then e-<> < e-<>. and K(r.. r2. +r 2 +j) for j = 1. '0). ... . ... 0.... .... In order to show that G 1 is finite. . . . We show: Lemma 5. aq) E G1 such that >. T2..(v) E 2:::)= 1 aj>. . Ctr }. +r2) 12 .. Since INKfiQI(v)l = 1 and lv(r. lv(lll· · ·lv(r. where >...(uj)· By definition. . . Let u be a unit. .. . . .(v) = LJ=l aj>. +j) = x(r. we note that G is an addi- tive subgroup of 1Rq-the verification is trivial and left to the reader.. . Thus we may define the mapping v E ul 1-> (all . ... q}.. then I:j= 1(aj.. we note that zq ~ G: indeed.q is a finite group. If v E ul then llog lv(i) II = I Ej=l aj log luY) II :S LJ=l llog lu~i) II for all i = 1.(uj) = I:j= 1 bj>.(uj)}. Conversely. . . .. .r.. .+j)l = lu(r. : U ---> !Rr where r = r 1 + r 2 . it suffices to establish that ul is finite. .. if (a1. different elements of G 1 are in different cosets of G by zq. If x E K let x(i) E K(i) (i = 1.(u) = (0.. u is a root of ®~ • Let q ~ 1 and let u 1. aq) E G I 0 :S aj < 1 for all j = 1. . . Since INKfiQI(u)l = 1 then 2:~= 1 log lu(ill = 0. By (B)... We recall that lu(r. so x(r. Every coset of G relative to the subgroup zq contains a unique element of the sub- set G 1 = {(a 1 . . . q.(u) = (log lu( 1ll. r. . .. Let G = {(a1. Under the above hypothesis and notations.j then >. .(uj)}... . hence >.+r 2)1 = 0. .

.. The units u 1 . .. .A(ui). . .. which is a contradiction. n = 2. and this is contrary to the hypothesis. . if necessary.. . So there exist integers nj. .. The following conditions are equivalent: ( 1) u 1 . . This means that r1 + r2 = 1. not all equal to 0. . so there exists h ?: 1 such that n~=l u7nj= 1. not all equal to 0. . and r = r 1 + r 2 . The group U of units of the ring A of algebraic integers of K has the following structure: u~w X cl X . such that L~=l nj. Therefore.. Let u 1 .A(uk) are linearly independent over R Proof: (1) -+ (2) Assume that . where W is the cyclic group of order w of roots of unity belonging to K. • Now we are ready to prove Dirichlet's theorem on the structure of the group of units of an algebraic number field. uk be units of A.. n. .-linearly independent. By (A).A(uk) are linearly depen- dent over Ql.. Dirichlet's Theorem 179 then there exists (3 > 0 such that lv<il I :S (3 for all i = 1. .. so aj E Ql for all j = 1. (3) .A(u 1 ).-\(us) (with q < s :::.. 10..A(ui). .X(TI~=l u. Hence L~=l mjA(uj) = 0 and so . if h = #(G/Zq) then haj E Z.-\(us) = LJ=I aj..A(ui). . . each Ci is an infinite multiplicative group. . .A(uq)} is lR. . . u"'.A(uk) are linearly independent over Ql. .. .J) = 0. .A(u 1 ). . .A(uj) = 0.A(uk)} would be Ql-linearly dependent. ... • Now we introduce the following notion.. we may assume that {... . . thus if K i= Qi then r 1 = 0. but each . k. r) is of the form . (3) -+ (1) Assume that u 1 .aq) E G.. Proof: We first put aside the trivial case where r = 0. .. uk are independent units.. r 2 = 1.. . ul is a finite set. .4. . Then there ex- ist integers mj. . (2) . . so K = . Thus {. . By (J). Uk of A are said to be independent whenever a relation with mi E Z. Af- ter renumbering.. that is. Lemma 6. q. such that u'[' 1 • • • u~" = 1. .A(uj) with aj E R With the previous notation (a1... 0.. X Cr.j is a root of unity.are dependent. . . (2) -+ (3) Assume that .A(u 1 ). is only possible when m 1 = · · · = mk = 0.1. .A(uk) are linearly dependent over R By hypothesis.... .A(ui).A(uk) would be linearly dependent over Ql.. . Theorem 1 (Dirichlet).) for all j = 1. each ui belonging to an independent set of units is not a root of unity. . .. By Lemma 5. . n~=l u. concluding the proof.A(uj) i= (0.

tk are complex numbers not necessarily in the field K.. uk} is an independent set. d > 0. ak) E JRk I there exists v E U such that . we show that U jW is a free multiplicative group of rank k.. F is a finitely generated torsion-free Abelian multiplicative group.. >. G jzk is a finite group. then u ~ w X c l X . if {u 1 ... By Lemma 6. uh = vz. u tf_ W. Let U' be the multiplicative group of complex numbers. . G is an additive group.\(ui) with (db1. Hence the subgroup U jW is also free. But U' /W' is isomor- phic to the free group generated by {t 1 . So there exists a maximal independent set of units. say {u 1 .\(ui). . Part 1. say h = de. . uk} is a maximal subset of independent units in U). . uk}. if u E F. .. with z E W. Let Z3 be a primitive (hw)th root of 1. thus. . hence W r::: U n W'.\(uh) = l:::i. . therefore rank equal to k. Lemma 1. If u tf_ F then {u. u 1 . . the elements of W are the wth roots of 1. then U jW has rank at least k. .. .. so F is free of rank k (since {u 1 .(uk)} is IQ-linearly dependent. X ck.\(uh) = ~(v).....\( uk)} is an JR-linearly independent subset of Rr.. dbk~ E zk.1 hbi. . Conversely. We note that z. By Chapter 6.(u) = 2:::~= 1 bi. If there exists u E U. . Let F be the subgroup of U generated by {u 1 .. . U = W.. .180 10. . thus k -<:: r. X ck as is required. . uk} is a dependent set of units. Thus . . where 0 :::: k :::: r and each ci is an infinite cyclic multiplicative group.... . Since W' n u consists of roots of unity.. where w = #W... If U = W we take k = 0..(u). ' tk· Let W' be the group generated by Z3. So there exist b1 . )h.z. Indeed. . so they are (wh)th roots of 1. since {u 1 . tk}. By Lemma 2. hence u = z2z1 [1~= 1 t7b'.. . . z E W. uk} is any independent set of units. Thus U/W = U jW' n U t::: U' /W' because U t::: U'. We have uh = (z1 [J~=l t?b. . so z?W = 1.\(v) = 2:::~= 1 ai. . let h be the number of its elements. . . that is.. which has rank k. then W' n U r::: W. .. Sod divides the order h of Gjzk. Let G = {(a 1 . we take v = u.... .\(ui)· Letting v = [1~= 1 u?b. By (D) we know that every unit of K is a root of unity. For this purpose. .Ui for each i = 1. From now on we assume that r 2 1. where zg = 1. Then -\(ud) = 2:::~= 1 dbi. . .uk} and 1-<::: k-<::: r. We show that u ~ w X c l X . z = 1. of rank at most k. Units Q( /=11). so (z 2zi)hw = 1.. which is genera- ted by Z3.\(ui)}. containing the subgroup '"J'}. then {u} is an independent set of units. bk E IQ such that >. Let ti be a root of the polynomial xh . . E F (because hbi E Z) then . t 1 . On the other hand. hence by Lemma 6 {>. by (J). t1. .\( ui)· Let d > 1 be the smallest integer such that dbi = ai E Z for all i. Let Zj be a root of the polynomial x h . We show that for every u E U we have uh = vz where v E F.. ) k. where 0:::: k:::: r. .. then {A( ul).. We divide the proof into three parts.

Letting F(y) = I:~=l ci log IY(i)l we deduce that because IY(i)l) -log ldl :::... Tn) :::./ldl = T. . Ti for i = 1. Dirichlet's Theorem 181 Part 2. ldl thus. .. (B)) in the proof of this statement.. 0 :::. . . {3 = (I:~=l lc. .. In particular.2) T1· "Tn = ldl.. and 1 :::. . for example. 1/ n#i IY(j)l :::. r.. Tr arbitrarily and the above relations deter- mine Tr 1 +r2 uniquely.. Let {3 be a sufficiently large positive real number. T... 2. . Since d2 is the discriminant of the field then 1 < d2 E Z so 1 < ldl. Suppose now that for every h = 1. log ldl. there exist integers x1. aj(i) Xj (i=1.0. let d = det(ajil).(x1. .. n. i :::. rz.. This is basically the content of the following statement: If c 1 . for which ci =1. . .. Thr satisfying the conditions in Chapter 9. an} be an integral basis of K.. (10. (B).0. . y =1. I) log ldl + 1. .. n. Xn) = I:7=l aj')xj then IY(i) I :::. .. Tildl for every i = 1. 10. . .:.. . . . We may choose T 1 . Ti :::. (B).4. We consider the n linear forms n Li = " " L. Cr E lR are not all equal to zero.. .. . . . such that if y(i) = L.j(Tl .. log ( --:.n). { (10.3) i=l This is possible since there exists an index i. we choose positive real numbers Th 1 .. and also the following condition: r L Ci log Thi = 2{3h.. . Let {a 1 . y E A. :::. . We still need to show the existence of sufficiently many independent units. 1 :::...xn.. By Chapter 9.. not all equal to zero.0.. INxjQ(Y)I :::. then there exists a unit u E U such that I:~=l ci log lu(i) I =1. . Proof: We shall require Minkowski's theorem (Chapter 9.. j=l Let T 1 . Tn be positive real numbers satisfying the following conditions: Tr 1 +i = Tr 1 +r2 +i fori= 1. IY(i)l :::. .

182 10.:7=! c. Since F(yh) f F(Yh') = F( uyh) = F(u) + F(yh) it follows that F( u) f 0 so L ci log lu(i) I f • r 0. Now. By Part 2. . We conclude the proof of the theorem. 2. given c1 = -log lu 1 I. .1) < F(yh) < . But N(Ayh) = INKIQ(Yh)l S: ldl. c3 = · · · = Cr = 0 . c2 = · · · = Cr = 0 there exists a unit u1 E U such that log lui 1) I f 0. log lui3) I log lu~3 ) I log lu~3 ) I .. (2) (!) there exists a unit uz E U such that c1 log lu~l) I + czlog lu~2 ) I f 0. so there exist distinct indices h # h' such that Ayh = Ayh' and therefore u = Yh' /Yh is a unit of K.. log lui!) I log lu~l) I ) det ( f 0. Yh # 0 be obtained from Thi. that is. Therefore F(yi) < F(yz) < F(y3) < · · ·... Then IF(Yh) . Thr in the manner indicated above.2. i=l Part 3. given log lu~2 ) I ) ' log lu~3) I there exists a unit u 3 E U such that c1 log lu~IJ I + Cz log lu~2 J I + c3log lu~3 J I f 0.. log Thil < . Cz = log lu 1 I # 0.3hl = IF(Yh) ..2. (log lu\')1 log lu~l) I log lu\')1) det log lui2 ) I log lu~2J I log lu~2 ) I f 0.. log lui2 ) I log lu~2 J I Repeating this argument.3(2h . .3 so .3(2h + 1) for all indices h = 1. that is. Units Let Yh E A. if c 1 = 1.

The positive real number is called the regulator of K. eo < w and e1. Ur are independent. by the uniqueness a2. But considering the conjugates of the units. . hence. and so det(a... Vr} be any two fundamental systems of units of K. .. . for every j = 1. a . the column vectors are linearly indepen- dent over JR. Now. .. we obtain r (i) log lvj I = L~ ahj log luh(i) I h=l and therefore • We introduce therefore the following concept: Definition 2.j)l = ldet(a~j)l = 1. This shows that we have k = r in Part 1. we determine r units u 1... the units u 1. we may write Vj = (bJ u~ 11 u~ 2 j • • • u~'J for every . 0. hence ldet(a.. . Ur be any fundamental system of units of K. Let u 1. Let { u 1 .j). r where bj. we may introduce a new numerical invariant: K. v1 1 v2 1 • • • Vr r. . . Therefore. ( 1 of representation of units. . Then R = llog(2 + v'3)1. • Explicitly. .. Ur} of K (with r = r 1 + r 2 ..1 = 1. Ur}.. . .. For example. Any set of r independent units { u 1... concluding the proof of the theorem. . we have r = r 1 + r 2 .. and as computed before. Dirichlet's theorem on units says that there exist a root of unity ( and r units of infinite order u1. then no column is identically zero. Similarly.1) for which the above statement holds is called a fundamental system of units of K. . . Ur. moreover. by Lemma 6. ..erE Z.J ~ 1. Un such that every unit u may be written uniquely in the form u = (e"u~' · · · U~' with 0 ::::. we may write Uj = b ' al _. a. {v 1 . . so each Uj is not a root of unity (by (B)). . the matrix (a~j) is the inverse of (a..j) · det(a~j) = 1. Since the determinant det(log luY) I) =f.. . their absolute values. . . Exercises 183 In this way. and logarithms. . if K = Ql( v'3). u 1 = 2 + v'3 is a fundamental unit. r. . Definition 1. Then Proof: By the theorem.j E Z. ·.

Show that K has only two roots of unity: 1.al < 1/y2 . (b) d = 14. If a is a real irrational number. since it requires the knowledge of a fundamental system of units.1 then u is the fundamental unit. 4. there exists an algebraic integer x E K such that 0 < lxl < E. which is usually hard to determine. Prove that for every real number E > 0. 6. so K cannot contain a dth root of unity. 5. Let d be a square-free natural number. show that an algebraic number field contains only finitely many roots of unity. Hint: If n = [K : IQ] show that for every large d we have VJ(d) > n. y) with the above properties. 11. 8. Units The computation of the regulator is difficult in practice. Determine the fundamental units of the following quadratic fields IQ( Vd). Determine the roots of unity of K. 3. . 10. EXERCISES 1. Let K be an algebraic number field of odd degree. Prove that if a is rational then there are only finitely many pairs (x. Show that there exists a pair of relatively prime integers x. Let K be an algebraic number field of degree 4.6ij6 + 3{136 is a fundamental unit of IQ( W). show that there exist an infinite number of pairs of relatively prime integers x. Show that if u = x + y-/d is a unit of Q( Vd) such that x > ~ y 2 . Show that u = 1 .184 10. -1. y such that lx/y. not a square. y such that lx 2 . (d) d = 23. Let a be a real number. 2. Using properties of Euler's function. y such that lx/y.al < 1/y2 . 7. Let K be an algebraic number field which is different from iQ and not an imaginary quadratic field. (c) d = 19. 9. Let d be a natural number.dy 2 1 < 1 + 2Vd. Determine the units of the field Q( -Y3). Show that there exist infinitely many pairs of natural numbers x. where: (a) d = 10.

h0 = h when d < 0 or d > 0 and the fundamental unit has negative norm. Exercises 185 12. l > 1 be relatively prime integers. let ( be a primitive mth root of unity. Show that II (p-1)/2 P = ( -1)(p-1)/2 ((j . 16. 20. x2 . However.1 > 0 is square-free then the fundamental unit of the real quadratic field Q( y' m 2 . 15. x2 . pY 2 = -2 is solvable if and only if p =3 (mod 8). dY 2 = -2. with the methods of this chapter. pY 2 = 2 is solvable if and only if p =7 (mod 8). has solutions in integers. 19. Let ( be a primitive mth root of unity. that the class number of Q(() is equal to 1. not a square. 13. 21. Exercise 15). Let ( be a primitive fifth root of unity. Show that if there exist integers x. (b) X 2 . 14. Moreover. 0. not a square. Show that (1 + ay?) + y 1 Vd is the fundamental unit of Q( Vd).1. Given any natural numbers y 1 and a. Let p be an odd prime and ( a primitive pth root of unity. Show that at most one of the equations x2 . Let m > 1. Let K = Q( Vd) be a quadratic field. j=1 . Show that if m 2 . Deduce that for every natural number y 1 there exist infinitely many real quadratic fields whose fundamental unit is of the form x + Y1 Jd.1) is E = m + y' m 2 . verify (for d = 34) that the converse is not true. dY 2 = -1. Let d be a natural number.dy 2 = -1 then every odd prime factor of d is congruent to 1 modulo 4. Prove: (a) X 2 . 17. dY 2 = 2. Let p be an odd prime. Let d > 2 be a natural number. K 0 = K n R Show that a fundamental system of units of K 0 is a maximal independent system of units of K. Show. and let ~ be a primitive lth root of unity. Show that the number h 0 of strictly equivalent classes of ideals of K is finite (see Chapter 8. let d = a(ay? + 2). y such that x 2 . and let K = Q( (). Show that 1 -(~is a unit in the ring of integers of the field Q((. h0 = 2h. Otherwise. cJf. 18.

letv. . is such that NKIIQI(u. r-. Let S be the multiplicative set. Hint: Generalize the method of proof of (I).:~ll/ 2 (( 1q .. Show that: (a) p<q-1)/ 2 =(-1) ". Hint: For (a) note that ((1. Section 1) are called the S-un its of A.. such that every unit u E U1 may be written uniquely in the form u = u~ 1 • • • u~' with e.(-J)q = (1q. let ( be a primitive nth root of unity.. . Let n ~ 2 be a power of a prime.. 1 q} such that kq =-s (mod p). Prove the analogue of Dirichlet's theorem: Us/W is a free Abelian group of rank r.. E Z). where T = Tt + r-2 . 26. . v.) = 1 for i = 1.. with 0 < s <::: (p. . .) = -1fori = k+1. complement in A of the union UPES P. if {u 1 .fori = 1. where r. 0 <::: k <::: r-. .! Tiji. K = Q(().1. (c) Prove anew Gauss' reciprocity law. Let p. Show that if the algebraic number field K contains a nonreal root of unity then NKIIQI(x) > 0 for every x E K. Units Hint: Use the fact that ( 2 is also a primitive pth root of unity and express p in terms of ( 2 and its powers. .c-Jq) I ((1 . .. Let Us denote the group of S-units of A.:~ 1 l 12 ((Jq . (G) and (1)). Then every unit u E Ut may be written uniquely in the form u = (v~ 1 • • • v~' (e. Prove: (a) If n is odd there is a fundamental system of units { u 1 .186 10. = U. 22.+ s. where ( is any root of unity in K. Ur} is a fundamental system of units of K and k.c-Jq)/((1 . . x =/= 0. . 2q. and let A be the ring of algebraic integers of Q( (). k. (b) Tiji.. The units of the ring As (Chapter 12. 25. Let U1 be the group of all units of K having norm N KIIQI( u) = 1.1)/2... .C 1 ) (mod Aq). = u..Ur fori = k + 1.I·''. . Let S be a finite set of s ~ 0 nonzero prime ideals of the ring A of algebraic integers of K. for (c) make use of Euler's and Gauss' criteria (Chapter 2.. NKIIQI(u. . . . 23. (b) If n is even. let ( be a primitive pth root of unity. q be distinct odd primes. C1) = ( -1r. K 0 = K n R Show that every unit of K is the product of a unit of K 0 with a root of unity. E Z. p . Let K be an algebraic number field of degree n. Ur} of K.k.(-Jq (mod Aq).. 24.is the num- ber of integers kq in the set { q.r-..

.. . .. . . Exercises 187 27.. With the notation of the text and assuming r .. Ur such that for all j = 1. (b) Show that { u 1 ..j and lu)l)l > 1. .::: 1 show: (a) There exist units u 1 . .: .r + 1.. Ur} is a fundamental system of units.. luJ')I < 1 when i =1. . r and i = 1.

(I · J) = (B. bi E B. By Chapter 7. Proof: It is trivial if I = 0.: (B. xi E I for all i = 1.I n K)~ 1 r:... be the rings of algebraic integers of K (respectively.I n K)~ 1 . m. then B. The last assertion is now obvious./ n K)~ 1 = /~ 1 . then BIn A= I. hence A = B n K = [(B. B./~ 1 n K). it follows that (B./~ 1 n K and therefore (B. We consider the fractional ideal then 1~ 1 . it consists of all sums 2::7: 1 bixi with m 2.. and let A (respectively.. B = B. /~ 1 c:.11 Extension of Ideals In this chapter./~ 1 n K c:. If I r:. (P). Let I be a fractional ideal of K./ n K) · (B.A = B. in a more general situation. let LIK be an extension of finite degree.1 Extension of Ideals Let A be a Dedekind domain. • 189 . Then B. Therefore B. A. 1. We note that if I. let B. If I is any fractional ideal of A. Let I be any nonzero fractional ideal of K. whenever feasible.I) · (B.: B.(I · r 1) = (B.r 1 ). with the decomposition into prime ideals of B. We note that B. let LIK be a separable extension of degree n and B the integral closure of A in L. But from I r:. 11.! n K is also a fractional ideal.I n K = I.I) · (B. of the fractional ideal of L generated by I. B).I n K. L).0. We begin by proving the following easy fact: A. The aim of this study is to relate the decomposition of I into prime ideals of A.. We study this problem.J)-as follows at once from the definitions.I (or also BI) denote the ideal of B generated by I. we begin the study of extensions of ideals. Kits field of quotients. B is a Dedekind domain.I n K = I. so B. . J are fractional ideals inK./~ 1 )] n K ::2 (B./)· (B.. Let K be an algebraic number field. so let I of. .

such that Aa ·I is an integral ideal. If ei = 1 we say that Qi is unramified in LIK. an+! E A. n + 1.0. we shall use the notation gp(LIK). .. P. . . . Conversely. such that cai f/. hence Q E {Q 1. r.A and Pis a maximal ideal. if I =/= A then B . ei is called the ramification index of Qi in LIK... P.1 J = A. such that 2::~~11 aibi = 0..P n A= P. .bn+I E B/BP. Definition 2. Thus there exists c E J.190 11..B. Let J be the ideal of A generated by a 1. or simply gp. hence so is that of BI. which concludes the proof.I =/= B. bn+l are linearly dependent over A/ P.P may be written in a unique way as a product of powers of prime ideals of B: g B.. • We assume that the relation (11. Then the ele- ments b1.. . . Considering the images in A/ P and BjBP. P. . . so J. an+l· So J -1. .P -1. bn+l are linearly dependent over K.. g. a =!= 0. then the decompositions of Ba · BI and of Ba are also known..1J '1.(LIK) for the ramification index ei· Now we prove: C... If BP is a prime ideal..P. [L: K]. . Then Ba · BI = f1~= 1 BPik. 1 :::.Q9 }. Ba = f1~= 1 BPih. where P1.. Extension of Ideals In particular. Aa = f1~= 1 pih. Pr are distinct nonzero prime ideals of A and ki ~ 0. .P =II Q~'· (11. • . Let I be any nonzero fractional ideal of A. . Q 9 }.. because B. g. Qi n A 2 B. With the above notations. so there exists i. we say that Pis inert in LIK. . If Pis a nonzero prime ideal of A then B. i :::. Since Qi n A -1.. . Let Aa ·I = f1~= 1 pik. . .. ..P. . we obtain 2::~~11 caibi = 0 showing that b1.. so Q divides B. hence there exist a1. We have seen in (A) that g ~ 1. .. so there exists a E A. For every i = 1.. Then Q n A= P if and only ifQ E {Q1.1) holds and introduce the following terminology: Definition 1.1 such that cJ '1. not all equal to 0. . If necessary.. If one knows the decomposition of BP as a product of prime ideals of B.1) i=l B. Proof: Let [L: K] =nand let b1 .. then J. hi ~ 0 for i = 1. let Q be a nonzero prime ideal of B. then Qi n A = P for every i = 1. We shall sometimes use the notations e(QiiP) or eQ.. g is called the decomposition number of P in the ex- tension LIK. Proof: If Q n A = P then Q :? B... B / BP is a vector space over the field A/ P of dimension [B / BP : A/P] :::. . for each nonzero prime ideal P of A.

f = [B/Q: A/ P]. D. if g.. ifb E BjJ then O'(b) = C!(b) (and this is indeed well defined). f' = [B' /Q' : BjQ]. • In the same manner. B. Similarly. Therefore CJ induces a ring-isomorphism 0': BjJ ___. and B' the integral closure of Bin L'. it follows that [B/Qi: A/P] :'::: [L: K] for each i = 1.. B for every CJ E G. Then e(Q'\P) = e(Q'\Q) · e(Q\P).. A notable simplification arises in the important case of a Galois extension. f" = f(Q'\P). With the above notations. in particular.1. f' = f(Q'\Q). showing that CJ(B) = B. Proof: For simplicity. First. BjCJ(J). Definition 3. P = Q n A. f(Q'\P) = f(Q'\Q) · f(Q\P). e" = e(Q'\P). CJ(B) c. let Q' be a prime ideal of B'. e' = e(Q'\Q). Since Qe divides BP. Therefore Q'e' e is the exact power of Q' dividing B' P. namely. Extension of Ideals 191 From relation (11. If J is any ideal of B then CJ(J) is an ideal of B and CJ(J) n A = J n A. 11. contrary to the assumption.. by definition. let Q = Q' n B. so e" = ee'. B'Q = Q'e' · J' where Q' does not divide J'. hence also B = CJ(CJ. thus f" = [B'/Q': A/P] = ff'. so the elements of G leave each element of K fixed. f = f(Q\P). . Let L'\L be a separable extension of finite degree. We shall now study properties of these numbers (decomposition number. and transform any element of L into its conjugates. g.. . inertial degree). but Qe+l does not divide BP. We use the notation fi = !Qi (L\K) = f(Qi\P). we establish the transitivity..1) and the isomorphism between A/ P. let e = e(Q\P). Let L\K be a Galois extension of degree n. ramification index. 0' leaves fixed every element of Aj(J n A). then the decomposition number of Pin L'\K is g" = I:f= 1 g. is the de- composition number of Qi in L'\L. C!(B). we note that if B P = f}f= 1 Q~' . let G be its Galois group.1 (B)) c. otherwise Q = Q' n B :2 B' J n B :2 J. .vector spaces (B/BP)/(Qi/BP) ~ B/Qi. The dimension fi of B /Qi over A/ P is called the inertial degree or residual degree of Qi in L\K. and L be as before. Similarly. and assume P =/= 0.. Let A. Hence B'P = B'(BP) = (B'Q)e · (B'J) = Q'e'eJ'e · (B'J) and Q' does not divide B' J. K. we may write BP = Qe · J where Q does not divide J.

e.. .(x) rf_ Q for i 1. then B/Q ~ B/(J(Q) and (J(Q) is also a nonzero prime ideal of B.(Q) = Q'.192 11. (L). j ::::.. from B/Qj = B/(J(QI) ~ B/Q 1 it follows that fj = h for every j. if Q is a nonzero prime ideal of B. . . having a given intersection with A: E.. . and if A/Pis a finite field. g.2) i=l where P 1 . Proof: Let G = {(Jl. . Let n a= II (J. are the ramification indices. if K is an algebraic number field of degree [K : Q] = n. Proof: Let BP = ITf= 1 Q~'. Extension of Ideals In particular. Thus. up to isomorphism. P9 are distinct prime ideals of A.. then each B /Q. there exists (J E G such that (J( Q) = Q'..g).(x). • As a corollary of (E). 1 ::::. for some index i). then =II Pr. . n. and if [B/Q.: A/P] =!. This is a contradiction. and let us assume that Q' f= (J. . a rf_ Q since each (J. = ep. If Q. there exists (J E G such that (J(Q 1) = Qj· Hence from BP = (J(BP) = ITf= 1 (J( Q. there exists an element x E B such that x rf_ (J. x E Q'.)e' and the uniqueness of the decomposition of BP into a product of prime ideals. n.(Q) fori = 1. . E G such that (J. 1 ::::. there exists only one extension of degree h. hence there exists (J.. If A/ P is finite. • The results indicated hold in the particular case of rings of integers of algebraic number fields of finite degree and their extensions. of A/P. Similarly. if A is the ring of integers of K. g. . If LIK is a Galois extension of degree n. h = · · · = f 9 . by (E).. . it follows that ej = e 1 for every j.. . (otherwise x = (Ji 1 (J. if p is any prime number. E G. we have: F. for every index j. however. By Chapter 7. g. hence all the fields B /Q. i=l then a E A n Q'. j ::::.(Q) for every (J. then e 1 = · · · = e9 . More interesting is the transivity of the action of G on the set of prime ideals of B... if BP = f1f= 1 Q~'. g Ap (11. is isomorphic to the extension of degree f. are isomorphic.(Jn} be the Galois group of LIK.. and f.(x) E (Ji 1 (Q). = [A/ P. j ::::. Q' are any prime ideals of B such that Q n A = Q' n A f= 0. 1 ::::. : Z/Zp] are the inertial degrees (for i=1.

2). . With the above notations [B / B P : A/ P] = [L : K] and [L : K] = I:. . In this case.] = pf[B/Q' :A/PJ.. we say that the prime p is totally decomposed or splits completely in the extension K[Q. 11. P9 • are distinct prime ideals of A.f= 1edi· Proof: Let P n Z = Zp where pis a prime number. • Theorem 1. (F). Proof: Let P n Z = Zp.. B/Bp = flf~l B I BPt: 0 . hence by Chapter 7. . ife:::: 1 then [B/Qe: A/P] = e[B/Q: A/P]. e~ :::: 1 for all i = 1.:edi· i=l Proof: Taking the norms of the ideals in (11.. n. . We note explicitly the particular case where K[Q is a Galois extension: n = efg. We note: H. n. Hence [B/Qe: A/P] = e[B/Q: A/P]. With the above notations: g n = l.Jf. Let Ap = flf~ 1 Pie: where P 1 = P.1. Taking norms N(Qe) = #(B/Qe) = p[E/Q':IF. Extension of Ideals 193 We have the following fundamental relation: G. QnA = P. We have Bp = flf~ 1 BPie:. Theorem 2. where f = [A/P: !Fv]· But N(Qe) = N(Q)e = #(B/Q)e = pe[E/Q:IFP] = pef[BjQ:A/PJ. ei = fi = 1 for each i = 1.. g [NK\Q(P)[ i=l and since NKIQ(P) #(A/ Pi) = pi' then n I::f=l edi· • We note that g ::. . . (D).g' and f! = [A/Pi: !Fv]· From (G). where e is the ramification index and f is the inertial degree of any prime ideal Pi dividing Ap.. we have =II N(Pi)e'. P 2 . [K: Q] = I::f~ 1 e. IfQ is a prime ideal of B.. If g = n.. by Chapter 8.

= • and the prime ideal P is said to be totally decomposed in LIK.1 where c. . Theorem 2. .. g. so L = K(t) and A[t] C: B. then discrLIK(xi. then the principal ideals coincide A discrLIK(xi.(xj))] 2 E A.]. tn-I) = [dct(c. Moreover. g'. =II #(AjP.. J.. Xn)· . [L : K] LeU! i=I i=I = [L : K][K : Q] = [L : Q]. for j = 0. Let K be an algebraic number field and LIK an extension of degree n. .[B/Q. :::. = = 1 for each i 1. n.. . ... .. . We assume that B is a free A-module. ramification indices.jX. Extension of Ideals Let n.t.. Our next aim is to determine the decomposition number. i=l i=l i=I so by (G): 9' 9 [L : Q] = L n.. let A (respectively. where O"I.. 'g'.194 11. . This implies that ni = [L : K] for each i = 1. . =IIpf{e. O"n are the K-isomorphisms of L into C. This is the case (by Chapter 6.j)] 2 · discrloiK(:rl. Let t E B be a primitive element.J E A.: A/P] =Led. As before. . .. be the ring of algebraic integers of K (respectively.. .. [L : K] for each i 1. hence discrLIK(L t.. B).n.x~} is any other basis of the A-module B. we have p[L:Q] =INLIQ(P)I =N(Bp) =#(BjBp) g' g' g' =II #(BjBP.• 'A/Pl ~ t. If {xi.• 'A/P 9 9 = L e. . say when the ground field is Q. in particular. Theorem 2) if A is a principal ideal domain. if g = [K : L] then e.. .. '=I i=I by (H). BjBP ~ fl.. ..=I BjQ~' hence fB/BP' A/P] ~ [tl B/Q. . n . If {xi.. [B/Q. .... x~). .. and inertial degrees.. Xn) = [det(O". . .)e. We need some preliminary considerations..n. if {xi. Counting the number of elements.. But by Chapter 7.. by (C). . Xn} is a basis of the free A-module B. 1.eU! :::. : A/ P. :rn} is an A-basis of B. or also P splits completely in LIK. L).. = [B / BP. . [B/BP: A/P] = [L: K]. Xn) = A discrLIK(x~. .. we may write t1 = 2:7=I C.

1 c . ... we deduce that discrLIK(1. n . so.. y = 2:7~~(aJ/aj) · tJ = z/a with z E A[t].. and let F E A[X] be the minimal poly- nomial of t over K.. . tJ. . We note that if B = A[t]. . then Aa = A. . .. y. We may also assume that aJ. . t. and let P be a prime ideal of A such that P does not divide Aa. Let L = K(t).... y.1. we have discrLIK(1.. . .B = "'nL. tn. Extension of Ideals 195 Let a = det( Cij) so Aa depends on t but not on the basis {x 1 ..1} is then an A-basis of B. for .. a E A. Let A be a principal ideal domain. t. cik aj det(c. t. .. I. . then P does not divide Aaj for j = 0. P..1.1) = [det(cik)] 2 · discrLIK(x1. . t. t1 . tn. If P is a nonzero prime ideal of A and K = A/ P.... . . aJ' are relatively prime elements of the principal ideal domain A.n).c) aj = YJ = det(cik) · So aj · det(c.. Xn). Then every element y E B may be written in the form y = z/a.. where z E A[t].. tn.=1 Ax·' and "'n-l L.. a E A. . . By Cramer's rule.. This means that {yo. .. . having coefficients ai(tJ). expressing the generators of the smaller module in terms of the integral basis with coefficients in A. .. . let A (respectively. .. . \Ve cone lu d e that w1"th Cik. tn-1) YJ = discrLIK(1. a 'f. . Proof: If y E B we may write y = 2:7~~ yjtJ with YJ = aj/aj E K and aj.{l) = aJ · det(cik) and aj divides det(cij) = a.. discrLIK(1. . B) be the ring of integers of K (respectively. Thus if P is a prime ideal of A and P does not divide Aa.... we obtain n-1 ai(Y) = L YJaiW) (i = 1. aj E A.. Applying the K-isomorphisms ai to the above relation. Xn} according to the preceding remark. Xn). Yn-d is a solution of the system of linear equations in L'. tn-1) · But A+ At+···+ Ay + · · · + Atn. . j=O Let L' be the smallest Galois extension of K containing L.J=O AtJ c B = L~=l Axi. since {1. Ul E A . Let K be an algebraic number field and let L[K be an extension of de- gree n.. .. t. .. .. . a ¢ P. Hence. L). with t E B. 11.. . 1. • The main result below is valid under the hypothesis indicated.k))f · discrLIK(xi.1) = [det(c.

P} . so Q(t) is a prime ideal of A[t] and Q(t) n A = P. we may write y = zja where a E A. Q' E Q. Thus Q n A= Q(t) n A= P and Q E Q. let Q(t) be the kernel of w.. deg(Gi) = fi fori= 1. Q(t) = {Q(tliQ(t) is a prime ideal of A[t] and Q(t) n A= P}. . Q(tl. . .. the polynomialsG 1 . so zja E Q(tl. We show that Q ---+ Q n A[t] is a bijection from Q to Q<tl. Let F = Tif= 1 G~' where Gi E A[X]. a E A. then y E Q'. P =An Q'. Then wis a ring-homomorphism. Q = {Q I Q is a prime ideal of B and Q divides B P}. P does not divide Ao: (where o: was previously defined). Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. By (B). Given Q(t) then A[t]/Q(t) = B jQ (where Q n A[t] = Q(tl) as already seen.. thusG E Q. P. G 9 are distinct and irreducible over K.K[X] be the minimal polynomial oft over K. Qi n A[t] = A[t]P + A[t]Gi(t) fori = 1. We define a mapping <I> from Q(t) to Q. then z =a· zja E Q(tl. g. . Let G E .. . (b) B = A[t]. so Q = Q'. a rf. a rf. a E A. . Indeed. . g. let H E K[X] be obtained by the canonical homomorphism A ---+ A/ P = K. let Q = { ~ Iz E Q(t). . and conversely. given G E Q. Moreover. we haveF(t) = 0. by (I). if z /a E Q n A[t] with z E Q(t). g. let Q. P. Theorem 2. Proof: We consider the following sets: Q = {G E K[X]I G is irreducible and divides F}. By the canonical homomorphism A[t]---+ BjQ.. a rf. z E A[t]. By definition. . . <I>(Q(tl) =G.196 11. ay = z E Q'. . the last set is equal to { Q I Q is a prime ideal of B. Indeed. we assume that one of the following conditions is satisfied: (a) A is a principal ideal domain. Q 9 are distinct nonzero prime ideals of B and [B /Qi : A/ P] = fi for every i = 1. It is immediate to check that Q is a prime ideal of B (using (I)) Q n A[t] = Q(t). Extension of Ideals each polynomial H E A[X]. such that.. Now. a rf. so G is irreducible over K andG dividesF. Q n A[t] E Q(t). Then BP = Tif= 1 Q~' where Q 1 . Then z = ay E Q so z E A[t] n Q = A[t] n Q' ~ Q'. and from a rf. Next we show that if Q(t) E Q(t) there exists Q E Q such that Q n A = Q(t). . Q n A = P} . whereF E K[X] and t = t + Q E BjQ. in case (a). With the above notations.. Indeed.. . let e be a root ofG and let w : A[t] ---+ K(e) = K[e] be defined by w(H(t)) = H(e) for every H E A[X]. For each Q E Q. If y E Q.

H(t)] + [Gi(t) + M(t)]H(t) and we take G~ = Gi + M. i=l It suffices therefore to show that e~ ::.. Q7. We also have z = M(t)[1 . then A[t]/Q(t) ~ K(B).. g. We have g g n = l:eUJ = l:edi i=l i=l (by Theorem 1) and also n = I:. The proof also gave JI = fi. g. 11. It follows from the bijection between Q and Q that g' = g. ... hence the kernels Q(t). Now we show that Qi n A[t] is the ideal of A[t] generated by P and Gi(t).. thenK(B) ~ K(B'). Since the canonical homomorphism A[t] --+ A[t]/Q(t). P. hence Gi divides H and therefore H = G$. So G~ = Gi and G~(t) E Qi.. . y <t QT. If Gi(t) tf. ei for i = 1. where Gi E A[X] and Gi is the image of Gi modulo P. Then z = ay E A[t] n Qi but z <t A[t] n Qi. thus <I>( Q(t)) = G showing that <I> is surjective.e. If Gi(t) E Q7 since z <t Q7 then M(t) <t QT. Conversely.g'. Let y E Qi. . G~(t) <t QT. Clearly Qi ~ A[t]P + A[t]Gi(t) sinceGi(t + Qi) = 0. since J: = [B /Qi : A/ P] = deg(Gi) = fi for every i = 1.. so H = GiK + M with K E A[X] and M E P[XJ. rrc. Q. But A[t] n Qi = A[t]P + A[t]Gi(t) so z = M(t) + H(t)Gi(t) where M E P[X]. ... This shows that the mapping <I> is injective.=l edi. . We need to show that e~ = ei fori = 1.P[X]. g there exists G~ E A[X] such that G~ = Gi and G~(t) E Qi.1. Q'(t) of the canonical homomorphisms A[t] --+ K(B)... . Then z = H(t) with H E A[X] and 0 = z + Qi = H(t + Qi). since g F = IIc~' and deg(Gi) = fi (for i = 1.. a E A. A[t] --+ K(B') are equal. . Let Qi correspond to Gi by the bijection. E. Q'(t) are prime ideals in the set Q(t) and their images are both equal to the polynomial G E Q. G~(t) tf.. H E A[X]. . We may write y = zja with z E A[t]. sot= t+Q(t). . a tf. . f) have the same minimal polynomial G. Extension of Ideals 197 thus Q(t) E Q(t). First we show that for each i = 1. we take G~ = Gi. if e = t + Q(t) E A[t]/Q(t)' f)' = t + Q'(t) E A[t]/Q'(t). g. Let BP = f1f~ 1 Q~: with [B/Qi: A/P] =!I for every i = 1.g). If Q(t). By the correspondence indicated. . Gi(t) E Qi. From F = f1f= 1 G~' then g F. Thus z = H(t) = Gi(t)K(t) + M(t) E A[t]Gi[t] + A[t]P. i=l . has also the kernel Q(t). let z E A[t] n Qi. .

In this case. so A/ Ap is a Cartesian product of two fields. c. with a. b E Z. If Ap = P. which concludes the proof. divides the principal ideal BG~(W' · · · G~(tY"· Since c. b E Z and a = b (mod 2) or. g. thus by (G). with P 1 cf. if Ap = P 2 then A/Ap is a ring having a nonzero ideal P/ P 2 . • The theorem holds in particular when A = Z. (2) g = 1. e1 = e2 = 1.(t) E Q. then BG~(t)e' ···G~(tr 9 = Q~' ···Q~"J. ~ e. equivalently.. in this case. If d = 1 (mod 4). Ap = P 1 P2. then the ring A of integers of IQl( vd) consists of all a + bvd. . We haven= 2.. Since the above cases are mutually exclusive. and N(P) = N(Ap) = p 2. Extension of Ideals From F(t) E P[t] then g g II G~(t)e' E P[t] <. Z = Z + Zw where w = (1 + vd)/2. The main question is now the following: Given the prime p. in case (1) Ap = P 1 P2 then A/Ap ~ A/P1 x A/ P 2..d)/4. e = 2. and pis ramified in IQl( vd). in particular. We say that pis totally (or completely) decomposed in IQl( vd). where d is a square-free integer and let p be a prime number..2 Decomposition of Prime Numbers in Quadratic Fields Let K = IQl( vd).198 11. the only possibilities are the following: (1) g = 2. then A consists of all (a+ bvd)/2. Thus Ap = Pis a prime ideal.. . h = h = 1. except 0. N(PI) = N(P2 ) = p. which is nilpotent. f = 1. for which values of d do we have cases (1) (respectively. Theorem 2. we shall determine the decomposition of Ap into prime ideals of A. pis inert in IQl(vd). (V). we have therefore another description of the possible phenomena in terms of the ring A/ Ap. divides Tif= 1 Q~'.(t) tl Q7. 11. for i = 1. i=l i=l so f}f= 1 Q~. Thus Ap = P 2 . Finally. if d = 2 or 3 (mod 4). BP =II Q~. where J is an ideal. hence e.:. N(P) = p. where a. It should be noted here that there exist number fields K c L such that there is no primitive element t with B = A[t]. not divisible by Q1 · · · Q9 . then A/Ap is a field. let c = (1 . it has no nilpotent elements. Thus flf= 1 Q:. By Chapter 7. (3))? From Chapter 5. e = 1. (3) g = 1. . (2). P2. f = 2.

Using the well-known isomorphism theorems for rings. Let 'ljJ : IB'p[X] ---+ AjAp be defined by 7/J(H) = B(H) + Ap E AjAp. 11. it follows that the kernel of 'ljJ is the principal ideal generated by F. Since F is the minimal polynomial of Jd (respectively. Given H E IB'v[X]let H E Z[X] be any polynomial which gives H when its coefficients are reduced modulo p. {1. Then B induces a ring-isomorphism Z[X]/(F) ~ A. and the remarks preceding it. where (F. where (F) denotes the principal ideal generated by the polynomial F. IfF= H 1H 2 whereH 1. (djp) = -1. then the image of 'ljJ is equal to AjAp. It may be easily checked that if H = H' then B(H). (K)) that A/Ap ~ IB'p[X]/(H1H2) ~ IB'p[X]/(Hl) X IB'p[X]/(H2) ~ IB'p X IB'p . Let e : Z[X] ---+ A be the mapping defined by B(H) = { H(Vd) if d = 2 or 3 (mod 4). Proof: We apply (J).d if d =2 or 3 (mod 4). so the mapping 'ljJ is well defined.pZ[X]) ~ (Z[X]/pZ[X])/((F. soAp is a prime ideal. Proof: AjAp = Z[X]/(F.pZ[X])/pZ[X]) ~ IB'v[X]/(F). H(w) if d = 1 (mod 4).wededuceeasily (or by Chapter 7.w}) is a basis of the Q-vector space Q(Vd). that is (djp) = 1. Finally. Then p is ramified in Q( Vd) if and only if p divides d. (Hl)+(H 2) = IB'v[X]. FE IB'v[X] is obtained from F by reducing its coefficients modulo p.pZ[X]) denotes the ideal of Z[X] generated by F and p. K. that is. so F(X) is the minimal polynomial of Jd (respectively. that is. according to the case. pis inert in Q( Vd). then AjAp is isomorphic to a domain.2. X 2 -X+ c if d =1 (mod 4). hence 'ljJ induces the isomorphism 1/): IB'v[X]/(F) ---+ A/Ap. It is clear that 'ljJ is a ring-homomorphism. AjAp ~ IB'v[X]/(F). pis totally decomposed if and only if dis a square modulo p. p is inert if and only if d is not a square modulo p. Let p be an odd prime. w). H 2 are distinct irreducible polynomials of degree 1. • We describe explicitly the above isomorphism. Decomposition of Prime Numbers in Quadratic Fields 199 Let F(X) = { X2. Vd} (respectively. IfF is irreducible in IB'v[X]. since {1.B(H') E Ap. according to the case.thenfrom(H1H 2) = (H 1)n(H2). of w). we have: J.

• Let us observe at this moment that the type of decomposition of the odd prime pin QJ( Jd) depends only on the residue class of d modulo p.d = (X+ a)(X +b) with a i b. then the ring of algebraic integers is A = Z + zJd and Aj2A ~ lF 2 [X]/(X 2 -d) by (J).200 11. If d =1 (mod 4) then A= A+ Aw ~ Z[X]/(X 2 . If p does not divided. that is. If c = 1 (mod 2) then d = 5 (mod 8). If d = 2 or 3 (mod 4). so pld. Proof: If d = 2 or 3 (mod 4). so pld. hence a= 0 and -d = a2 = 0. • We observe that the type of decomposition of 2 in QJ( Jd) depends only on the residue class of d modulo 8. and if d 1 . 2 is totally decomposed in QJ( Jd) if and only if d = 1 (mod 8). if pld then 4(X 2 .d)/4.1) 2 (mod p). X 2 -X +c = X 2 +X = X(X +I). therefore pis ramified in QJ( Jd). then A/ Ap ~ lFp[X]/(1£2) and the ideal (H)/(H 2 ) is nonzero and nilpotent.I) 2 . if pld. Therefore Aj2A has nonzero nilpotent elements. As an addendum. then Aj2A is a field. then X 2 . then pis totally decomposed exactly when X 2 . x + c =(X+ a) 2 = X 2 + 2aX + a 2 .d = (X+ a) 2 = X 2 + 2aX + a2 . we recall that if d = 2 (mod 4) or d 3 (mod 4) then the discriminant of QJ( Jd) is 8 = 4d.d)/4. L.X+ c). Finally.d = X 2 . so 2 is ramified in QJ( Jd). The prime 2 is ramified in QJ( Jd) if and only if d = 2 (mod 4) or d = 3 (mod 4). hence F is the square of a polynomial. ifc = 0 (mod 2) thend = 1 (mod 8). a 2 = d. pis inert when p does not divided. since X 2 . 4X + 1 = (2X. Since d = 0 or d =I then X 2 -dis a square in JF 2 [X]. so 2a = -I. F = H 2 . ab = -d. let H = X + a. then X 2 .X+ I= X 2 +X +I E lF 2 [X] is irreducible over lF 2 . so A/2A is a product of two fields and 2 is totally decomposed in QJ( Jd). and (djp) = -1. then F = X2 . A/2A ~ JF 2 [XJ/(X 2 . Conversely. Hence. Conversely. 2 is inert in QJ( Jd) if and only if d = 5 (mod 8). so a+ b = 0. X+ c) = 4X 2 . In this last situation. so p is ramified. sop is ramified. X+ c). sop is totally decomposed in QJ( Jd). hence. IfF is the square of an irreducible polynomial. (djp) = 1. in this case. (X 2 -I) = (X. Extension of Ideals (because 1Fp[X]/(Hi) is an algebraic extension of degree 1 over 1Fp). If d = 1 (mod 4) letting c = (1 . a 2 = c. where c = (1 . so 2 is inert in QJ( Jd). by exclusion. Thus. hence 4c = I and d = 0.

(R).(2) (d')- - p . From we see that b = 1 (mod 8) if and only if (djp) = 1. pis totally decomposed in Q( v'd). If d = 3 (mod 4) then b = 4d and (~) = (. • . l (::) (:. (S)) we deduce the following fact: M. let d = 2d'.( -1) ~+=.2. We have b = 4d = 8d' sop= p' (mod 8) and p = p' (mod d) hence (d).Jd).!.l ·"2 1 (~) = (. p' are primes with the same type of decomposition in Q( . d ' .. that is. p' have the same type of decomposition in Q( v'd).~ 8 2 2 (p) - d' =(-1)p' 28 . From p = p' (mod b) it follows that p = p'. From p = p' (mod b) it follows that b is odd. l . - p - p . So for each quadratic field there exist only finitely many prime num- bers p which are ramified. Let p. (P)). Proof: If p' is ramified then p' divides b. The case where p' = 2 remains to be dealt with. Decomposition of Prime Numbers in Quadratic Fields 201 (mod 4) then b = d (by Chapter 6. so d = 1 (mod 4).. If d = 1 (mod 4) then d = fJ and by the reciprocity law of the Jacobi symbol Thus by (K) pis totally decomposed if and only if p' is totally decomposed in Q( v'd). 11. By means of the reciprocity law for the Jacobi symbol (see Chapter 4. p' be odd primes. Now 2 is totally decomposed exactly when b = 1 (mod 8).1)(p-1)/2 (~). But p = p' (mod b) implies p = p' (mod d) and p = p' (mod 4) so (-1)(p-1)/2 (~) = (-1)(p'-1)/2 (~) = (:. (L) we de- duce: p is ramified in Q( v'd) if and only if p divides the discriminant b of Q( v'd). p' are prime numbers and p = p' (mod lbl) then p.) and again p. from (K). and these may be determined by computing the discriminant. If d = 2 (mod 4). d' being odd (since d has no square factor). If p. Thus.).1) d.l + p ' . d = b.

and we have <Pm = II (X. Then Aq = . A the ring of integers of K..-aa' _-_-. hence N(A.(a) and the previous observation. Exercise 5).) = p. thus 1 . 1 .1) and its Galois group g is isomorphic to the multiplicative group P(m) of prime residue classes modulo m.) = p.ca 1 .. the absolute values of the norms of the elements 1 .(a.. Extension of Ideals This result is interesting insofar as it tells the type of decomposition of any prime number in Q( Vd) by considering its class with respect to a unique modulus.202 11..)'P(P').-b 1 .'P<P'l. + ((a'~l)a E A 1 . let f 2: 1 be the smallest integer such that qf = 1 (mod pk). 0.. m = pk > 2 (so if p = 2 then k 2: 2). K is a Galois extension of degree ~. K = Q((). where u is a unit of A. and let g = ~.))'P(P'). in some sense the phenomenon of decomposition of primes is already built in the residue classes modulo lbl. is prime and Ap = (A. where q is any prime number. So. We first note that if a.(b)] E A. = 1 .(b are equal.(a)/(1. namely lbl. p = u. thus ( E A. where u is a unit of A. and let ( be a primitive mth root of unity._ = . The minimal polynomial of ( is the mth cyclotomic polynomial <Pm = XP'-'(p~l) + XP'-'(p~2) + .. 1 . Proof: From p = <Pm(1) = f1aEP(m) (1.p( m) = pk~ 1 (p .. N.. relatively prime to m..3 Decomposition of Prime Numbers in Cyclotomic Fields Let p be a prime number. bare nonzero integers.. The principal ideal A.)'P<P')...(a).. has to be a prime ideal of A.ca and similarly [(1. + XP'-' + 1. • Now let q be any prime number different from p. Thus Ap = (A.'> = 1 +(a+ (2a + . We conclude that A.( E A.(b are associated elements of A. Taking norms we have p'P(P') = N(Ap) = (N(A. we may write b = aa' (mod m) and a = bb' (mod m).'P<Pkl. N(A. In particular.(a. then 1 . aEP(m) We shall indicate the decomposition into prime ideals of the ideal Aq. Let . Let q be any prime number distinct from p. In fact.p(pk)/ f. it follows that p = u.. The type of decompo- sition of Aq may be obtained from Theorem 2 and a method which will be subsequently generalized. 11. (see Chapter 2.

then (aq)f is the identity automorphism. . s.) = qf. g.. We fix our attention on the prime ideal Q = Q 1. If. 11. With every a E Z we associate the mapping a : A/Q ---> A/Q defined by a(x) = a(x) where t denotes t + Q E A/Q for each t E A.. however. Thus at (()= (q 1s equal to (. Let aq be the Frobenius automorphism. which is not the case. if a E T then Q contains the element a((). . . aq(x) = xq for each x E A/Q.(. . . It is obvious that a E G(A/QIIFq) and the mapping Z ---> G(A/QIIFq) so defined is a group-homomorphism. Thus. p) = 1 then we have seen that 1. f = [A/Qi : Z/Zq] for each i = 1.. so~ = 1. a=O therefore. e 2" 1. Q9 are distinct prime ideals. We show that T is reduced to the identity so the mapping Z ---> G(A/QIIFq) is one-to-one. Thus g = (Q : Z).( 8 . Thus. therefore a£ is the identity automorph~s~.(ap -t are associated with 1 . . Let Z = {a" E Q I a( Q) = Q}. The kernel is clearly the normal subgroup T = {a E Z I a(x) = x (mod Q) for every x E A}. that is.. Now we show that f 2" 1 is the smallest integer such that qf = 1 (mod pk). then (P'.1 = 1 and therefore pk dlVldes qf . Decomposition of Prime Numbers in Cyclotomic Fields 203 Q1 · · · Q9 where Q1 . so II (X - pl-1 XPL . Q9 are distinct prime ideals of A. N(Ql) = · · · = N(Q 9 ) = qf and efg = VJ(pk). if a. since the mappinft Z---> G(A/QIIFq) is one-t~~ne. g. and gcd ( s. s < pk. which is not true. pk) = 1. T E Q then the cosets a Z = T Z if and only if a( Q) = T( Q)-as can be checked at once. t not a multiple of p.( = -((1 . implying already that e = 1. therefore in this case we conclude also that Q = A~.( 8 ..1 = p1t. Aq = (Q 1 · · · Q 9 )e where Q 1.1 is a primitive root of unity of order p 1. #G(A/QIIFq) = [A/Q : IFq] = j.1). so (q .1 = (apk-l ). . . and N(Q. . If gcd(s. there exists a E Q such that a(Q) = Qi.. the mapping from Z to G(A/QIIFq) is one-to-one and ef = #Z :::. On the other hand. so a(() = (B where 1 ::. In- deed.1. hence #(Z) = ef. for each i = 1.1 and 1.. with 1 :::. Q = A~ and Q divides Ap.( = (B .3. Indeed a(() is also a primitive pkth root of unity. by (F).1. a=O a=O k-l the elements 1 . that is. Then Z is a subgroup of Q and its index is (Q : Z) = g.(are associated elements..( E Q. Proof: By the theory developed so far. l < k.

such that a has order f in P(pk). In particular. for each integer f dividing t. A. A. H9 are distinct irreducible polynomials.s. there exist infinitely many primes q such that Aq = Q1 · · · Q<p(pk) (so f = 1.5 as well as of A+. g. and let A+ be the ring of integers of K+. Let K+ = Ql( ( 5 + (5 -l) be the maximal subfield of K. Extension of Ideals If 1 :::. A. Then Qi = Aq + AHi(() fori = 1.2. 2. cp(pk). so a'{ is the identity. so it has order f.. Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of A. and let A be the ring of integers of K.204 11. Let ( 5 be a primitive root of 1 of order 5. where A is the ring of integers of K. f and pk divides qf' .2. Let K = Ql(x) where x is a root of X 3 . By the theorem of Dirichlet on primes in arithmetic progressions. each of degree f with each Hi E A[X]. (c) Determine all primes p < 100 which are totally decomposed in KIQ- 3..3. f' :::.2.3. and let A be the ring of integers of the cyclotomic field K = Ql( ( 5 ).e. Q 9 are distinct prime ideals and fg = cp(pk). the canonical image <I>P' E lFq[X] decomposes as ~P' H 1 · · -H9 whereH 1 . . .p(pk) there exists an integer a. • By Theorem 2. . Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of the ideals A. A. A. there exist infinitely many primes q.5. i.3. A+. A+. Let K = Q( h ) . (a) Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of the ideals A. and A. . . q = 1 (mod p) ). so q has order f and thus Aq = Q 1 · · · Q 9 . A. such that q = a (mod pk). . Let K = Q( J2). .lO.2..3. 4.. Since the group P(pk) is cyclic of order cp(pk).2. . (b) Determine all primes p < 100 which are inert in the extension KIQ. because Ciq is a generator of G(A/QilFq). i. A.3. A. A.2.. a :::. q mod pis a generator of P(pk)).e. where Q 1 . Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of A.. EXERCISES 1.5. there are infinitely many primes q such that Aq = Q (so f = cp(pk). 1 :::. which forces f' = f. and let A be the ring of integers of K. and similarly. . 7.5.1 then a-{ is the identity.

A. Let K = Ql( v'2. . With notations similar to those of the preceding exercise determine the primes p < 100 such that: (a) Ap splits completely. Exercises 205 5. A. v'3). (c) Ap is inert. (b) A.J3. 6.2. (c) Determine the prime numbers p which are ramified in KIQl. (d) Give a congruence characterization of the primes p which are totally decomposed (respectively. and let A be the ring of integers of K. A. Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of: (a) A. inert) in the extension KIQl.J2. (d) Ap is the product of three distinct prime ideals.3.5. (e) Ap is the product of five distinct prime ideals. (b) Ap is ramified.

we consider pairs (a. denoted by s. The operations between equivalence classes are defined after the model of the field of quotients: a a' as' + a's a a' aa' -s +- s' = ss' s s' ss' It is an easy matter to check that these operations are well defined. this is an equivalence relation in the above set of pairs. Since S contains no zero-divisors. We observe that we only required that the product of two nonzero elements of R is still not equal to zero.1 Rings of Fractions Let R be any domain. b) = (a'. This suggests the concept of a multiplicative subset S of a commutative ring R. b E R. s). If a E R. We recall that K consists of all equivalence classes a/b of pairs (a. Every element a of R is identified with a/1. 207 . In spite of being mainly interested in rings of fractions of domains. K the field of quotients of R. The operations inK are defined as follows: a c ad+ be a c ac -b +-d bd b d bd. To define the ring of fractions of R by S. making R into a subring of K. s') when s' a = sa'. then a is invertible inK.S. which will be needed in the sequel. its inverse being 1/a. 12.0. b') when b'a = ba'. and that we obtain a ring. this chapter is devoted to the detailed presentation of algebraic results. s) = (a'. which need not be a domain anymore. not containing zero-divisors and such that if a. b E S then ab E S. s) is denoted by ajs. The equivalence class of (a. It is called the ring of fractions of R by S. with a E R. b f=.12 Algebraic Interlude For the convenience of the reader. it will become necessary later to consider a ring of fractions of a homomorphic image of a domain.0. Hence 0 </. a f=. s E S. and state that (a. where (a. with a.1 R or Rs. S is a subset contain- ing 1. b).

thus .1 R and every element of S becomes invertible in s. Xi E P. P' n R is disjoint from S. (2) If P' is a prime ideal of R'.1 R. then 1 = (1/s) · s E R'(J' n R) = J'. Every element of R'P is of the form I:7= 1 (ai/si)xi where ai E R. as follows I:7= 1 (adsi)xi = I:7= 1 (bds)xi = (1/s)(2::7= 1 bixi) E R'P (where each bi E R). If S 0 is the multiplicative set of all elements of R which are not zero- divisors.1 R: A.bjt E R' and (a/s) · (bjt) E R'P then (ajs) · (bjt) = xju with x E P.1 R. Proof: (1) Obviously J' :2 R'(J' n R). disjoint from S and R' P n R = P. Now. if S is the set-complement of the prime ideal P in R. S0 and s. then S 0 1 R is called the total ring of fractions of R.1 R is contained in the field of quotients S 0 1 R. namely R'P. a. si E S. s. if R is a domain and S is any multiplicative subset then S c. hence it is a domain. is one-to-one and preserves inclusions. In the case where R is a domain a::1d Pis a nonzero prime ideal of R. R'P is a prime ideal. then by the above mapping we obtain all the prime ideals of R contained in P. this may be rewritten with a common denominator s = s 1 · · · sh E S. h ~ 1..208 12.b E R. hence a = sx E R' J' c. s E S. and R' = Rp has only one maximal ideal.u E S. so a E J' n R and x = (1/s) ·a E R'(J' n R). Conversely. if J' f=.t. R' then J' n R is disjoint from S. (1) If J' is any ideal of R' then R'(J' n R) = J'. let P be a prime ideal of R. P n S = 0.. in other words. and by (1). (2) The mapping P' -+ P'nR sends the set of prime ideals of R' onto the set of prime ideals P of R. and let us show that R' P is a prime ideal of R' such that R' P n R = P. s E S. Moreover. This shows that the mapping J' -+ J' n R is one-to-one and of course it preserves inclusions. hence the mapping J' -+ J' n R. (3) In particular. Let R' = s. this ring S 0 1 R is the field of quotients of R. with a E R. with X E P.1 R is also denoted by Rp and plays an important role in the sequel. Algebraic Interlude R may be considered as a subring of s. because ifajs. then clearly P' n R is a prime ideal of R. the set-complement S of P in R is a multiplicative set. The following proposition indicates the relationship between the ideals of Rand of s. The ring of fractions s. J'. if X E J' then x = aj s. Conversely. In particular. every element of R' P is of the form x / s. If ( J' n R) n S contains an element s. if R is a domain...

so either a E P orb E P. RpJ. Let J be the ideal of R generated by the elements bi. let L be a field containing A. then a = x / s..aik k=1 k=1 E I.. from the set of ideals of R' = s-1 R into the set of ideals of R. If S is a multiplicative subset of A. A reverse procedure is the globalization. Pi. so we assume that this is not the case. s E S. for every ideal I of R we have I<:... but s ¢ P so a E P. (3) This assertion follows immediately from the preceding ones.bik and so m m x = Lcik(bikx) = Lci. then ab E P. then s. It is especially important for us in the case where every nonzero prime ideal of R is maximal (for example. Pi then J <Z Pi for every maximal ideal Pi· Therefore. we want to describe the behavior of the integral closure by going to rings of fractions: D. • • • .1 B is the integral closure of s. In particular. with x E P. Proof: By (A). preserving inclusions. showing that R' Pis a prime ideal. to pass from R to the ring Rp amounts essentially to disregarding all prime ideals P' of R which are not contained in P. Proof: The result is trivial when R is a field. if a E R' P n R. so sa = x E P. Then R' = Rp has only one nonzero prime ideal R' P. 12. We consider the family of all maximal ideals Pi of the domain R. distinct from R. Part (1). E R such that 1 = 2::~ 1 ci. there is a one-to-one correspondence. I (intersection over the set of maximal ideals Pi of the domain R). we have: B. ci. For every maximal ideal pi of R we may write x = adbi with ai E I. every ideal of R. there exist elements Ci 1 . • In order to apply this method to rings of algebraic integers. Let X E n RpJ. every strictly increasing chain of ideals of R' must be finite. Thus. R' P n R.1. a/ s E R' P or b/t E R' P. when R is a Dedekind domain). the prime ideals of R' correspond to those of R which are contained in P. is contained in a maximal ideal (this follows from Zorn's lemma. then R' = s. Since bi (j. J = R. P <:. S a multiplicative subset of R. that is. Let A be a domain. Rings of Fractions 209 abu = xst E P. This process is usually called the localizaton of R at P. • It follows from (A) that if Pis a nonzero prime ideal of the domain R then R' = Rp has only one maximal ideal R' P and P = R' P n R. let B be the integral closure of A in L. but in fact the following holds: C. since P n S = 0. If R is a Noetherian ring. 1 may be expressed in terms of the generators of J = R.1 A in L. because as is known. . Finally. bi E R.1 R is also a Noetherian ring. conversely. bi (j. I = nRp. • As a corollary. that is. in the case where R is a Noetherian ring it is immediate by the maximal condition on ideals). Hence.

hence sx E B and X E s.1 A is a Dedekind domain.. then s.1 A.n5=0 .. there exist elements a 1 . P.n5=0 Proof: By (B) and (E). 81 S2 Sn Letting s = s1 · · · Sn E S. thus bIs is integral over s. then the decomposition of A' J into prime ideals of A' is given by A' J = I1 (A' P. . A' is also a Noetherian integrally closed domain. From J = TI~=l P. such that xn + - a1 x n-1 + a2x n-2 .e' it follows that II (A' P.1 A' then there exist elements a. i = 1. this implies that A' is a Dedekind domain. Also P # 0 since P' = A' P. Let us show that every nonzero prime ideal of A' is maximal. If A is a Dedekind domain and Sis a multiplicative subset of A. . + ··· + -an __ O..1 = 0. we may rewrite X n + b1 n-1 -X + b2 n-2 + · · · + -bn -X = 0. On the other hand. + :~ = O. . P' is also a maximal ideal of A'. E s. if S is a multiplicative subset of A. so P' n A = P is a prime ideal of A such that P n S = 0. By Chapter 7.' P. s s s with b. E A. hence by (A). This shows that sx E L is integral over A. and therefore (sx)n + b1(sx)n. Proof: This is a particular case of (D).2 + · · · + bnsn. Algebraic Interlude Proof: If X E L is an integral element over s.)e'.1 + . J = TI~= 1 P. since bE B. • E.1A (with a. every element bIs of s... Thus.. If A is an integrally closed domain. +an= 0. E S.e'. so ( ~) n + as1 ( ~) n-1 + :~ ( ~) n-2 + . .js. If J is an ideal of A. Combining the previous results. s.1 B is integral over s. then A' = s.1 B. E A. n).. we now prove: • F.1 + b2s(sx)n.1 A.1 A is an integrally closed domain.. P is a maximal ideal of A.)e. Definition 2. an E A such that bn + a1bn.210 12. Let P' be a nonzero prime ideal of A'. indeed.

so they are the invertible elements of Ap. 12. This happens when J = P is a maximal ideal and S is the complement of P in A. (3) The elements of Ap which are not in the only maximal ideal ApP are precisely those which generate the unit ideal. Then the image S of S by the canonical mapping A --+ A/ J is a multiplicative subset of A/ J (containing no zero divisors) and there exists a canonical isomorphism 'P :s. and A' = s. y rj_ Ap. (2) Every nonzero fractional ideal of Ap is a power of ApP and ApP8 n A = ps for every s . If y E K. proving the statement. • As a corollary we obtain: G.1. If ApP8 n A = ps for s . s E S then a E J. In particular. contrary to the hypothesis. If A is a Dedekind domain. Let A be a commutative ring. This proves that R = K. and let n > 0 be such that Apx = ApCn where t is a generator of the principal ideal ApP. let m > 0 be such that Apy = Apcm. x rj_ Ap. there exists no ideal J of A such that ps :J J :J ps+\ thus ApP 8 +1 n A = ps+ 1 . with only one nonzero prime ideal which is ApP.::: m. If r is a positive integer such that rn . then Apx-r = Aprn ~ Aptm = Apy. Proof: First we note that J n S = 0 because if a = 1 · a E J n S then 1 E J. and if P is a nonzero prime ideal of A. Ap is a principal ideal domain. Proof: (1) By (F) Ap is a Dedekind domain. thus by Chapter 7. distinct from A. (3) An element is invertible in Ap if and only if it does not belong to ApP. thus y E Apxr ~ ApR ~ R. if all the elements ofs are in- vertible in A/ J then A/ J = A'/ A' J (after an identification). By (A) we know that ApP n A = P. a E A. (4) If R is a subring of the field of quotients K of A and Ap is properly contained in R then R = K. . • Another useful property relates the rings of fractions to quotient rings: H. the same holds therefore for the nonzero fractional ideals of Ap.::: 1. Rings of Fractions 211 noting that if Pi n S -f= 0 then A' Pi = A' and if Pi n S = 0 then A' Pi is a prime ideal of A'.::: 1 then from (A) we have ps = ApP 8 n A :::> Apps+l n A :. namely ApP.1 .2 ps+ 1 . Since A is a Dedekind domain. by (A) it has only one nonzero prime ideal. (N). then: (1) Ap is a principal ideal domain. Let J be an ideal of A.1 A. (4) Let x E R. (2) By Part (1) every nonzero integral ideal of Ap is a power of ApP. 1 (A/ J) --+ A' I A' J. let S be a multiplicative subset of A. such that: if as E J.

since every element of this ring is of the type (a Is). In fact. n E B' P = B'(A' P) i=l . s'a = sa' E J. . s E S. Algebraic Interlude Similarly. because I E S.as E A' J. from L = KB' it follows that B' has rank n over A'. Finally the kernel of cp is zero. hence.1 A be the corresponding ring of fractions. if P is a maximal ideal then A/ P is a field. K its field of quotients. By Chapter 6. and let LjK be a separable extension of degree n and B the integral closure of A in L. with a. s' E S. 1 (A/P). after an identification. with a. s s' ss' It follows easily that cp is a ring-homomorphism. B' is itself a free A'-module of rank at most n. (B). We now show that it is a vector space of dimension n. By (G). we have a E J. cp maps s. with a E A. . A' is a principal ideal domain. From Chapter 11. In fact. b E S. so ajs = 0. B' / B' P contains the field A'/A' P. (I). we must have a E S n J. .. b E S. we note that cp is well defined. Therefore.1 B is the integral closure of A' in L. which is written as ajs. b E S and a b = 0 then ab E J. • Now we show the generalization of the first assertion of Theorem 1 of Chapter 11: I. if ajs = Ciifi' then (a/s) = (a'/s').1 (A/ J) onto A' I A' J. Proof: Let S be the set-complement of P in A and let A' = s. then a. we define cp(ajs) = (a/s) (image of ajs E A' by the canonical homomorphism onto A'/ A' J). s E S.. S'a = sCii so s' a . Since B is the integral closure of A. which is a contradiction. if a. b E S. (A). in B' /B' P (by the natural mapping).~= 1 aixi = 0 (with ai E A' /A' P) then L aix. . ab E S so ab E S. Xn} is a basis of the A'-module B'. we have BP n A= P and since B' P = B'(A' P) then (A) again implies that B' P n A' = A' P. Clearly.:. S is a multiplicative subset of A/ J. Thus cp is an isomorphism between A/P and A'/A' P. B' is contained in a free A'-module of rank n. On the other hand. xn} generates B' / B' P over A'/ A' P. if L. and we may write A/ P = A'/ A' P..212 12. Given any element of s-1 (AjJ). if {x 1 .sa' E J. 1 (A/P) and every element of Sis invertible inA/Pit follows that A/P = s. s E AjJ. by the hypothesis. also if a. For the second assertion. Let A be a Dedekind domain. hence by the condition on J. if xi denotes the image of x. First. then {x1. hence a a' I I sa. because from (a/ s) = 0 wededucea/s E A'Jsowemaywritea/s = a'/s'witha' E J. in other words.. by (D). B' = s. Since A/P ~ s. By Chapter 6. If P is any nonzero prime ideal of A then B / BP is a vector space of dimension n over A/ P.

.) ~ t..j..i= 1 aixi = L. . A'/A'P = A/P. . • 12. the elements of S are invertible in B'/B'P... .B(<:J ~ t.1...'•J (~a.. .M(B). with each Cij E A. ..2 Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions We shall consider the following general situation: A is a subring of the commutative ring B and B is a free A-module having a basis with n elements.n) i=1 with aij E A. and M' (B) is the corresponding matrix.... if Zj = 2:::7= 1 cijzf (j = 1.. a fortiori. Then n B(z1 ) = L aijZi (j = 1... M'(B) = (a~1 )i.a. Hence ai = a~' = 0.. n (since x1. If { z~. Let B : B ----> B be any linear mapping.. then we have n n B(zj) = L aijZi = L aij i=1 i=1 and. B'/B'P = B/BP. By (H). Since Cis the matrix of a change of basis. on the other hand.:..j..c. Following the well-known method of Linear Algebra. O(. It is well-known that any other basis of the A-module B also has n elements...:... we now consider the matrix XI. y1 E B' . Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 213 ""n ""m an d so we may wn'te L. In particular. it is invertible..) z£. .. { z 1. C = (Cij )i. . The imageS of S by the natural homomorphism A ----> A/ P is the set of nonzero elements of the field A/ P.j= 1 a11 y1 w1'th a11 E A'P.) ~ ~ (t. ... .. and so B/BP is a vector space of dimension n over A/ P.1) = 1. hence M'(B) = C · M(B) · c. . 12.. Zn} any basis of the A-module B.. I is the unit n x n . n). .2. Zn}. .1 is called the matrix of B with respect to the basis { z1.. z~} is any other basis of the A-module B.c. This shows that M'(B) · C = C · M(B).. Xn of the A'-module B' we may write 2:::~ 1 aixi = 2:::7= 1 a~' xi with all a~' E A' P and necessarily ai = a~' for every i = 1'. ... Xn are linearly independent over A'). because det(C) · det(C. where X is an indeterminate. The matrix M (B) = ( aij ). det(C) is a unit of the ring A. expressing the elements y1 in terms of the generators x 1.

that is. Bx(z) = xz for every z E B.M(B) = . In fact. . Sometimes we also use the notation F BIA (B). the entries of X I . a22 -a2n XI. As a temporary notation.M(B)) · det(C. -an1 -an2 X_: ann .M (B)) depends therefore only on B.an -a12 -a1n ) ( -a21 X . The polynomial det( X I . similarly.1 =XC· I· c. . denoted by TrBIA(x) and NBIA(x).C · M(B) · c.1 + a2Xn.M (B) are elements of A or linear monic polynomials in X: X. Then the characteristic polynomial of Bx is called the characteristic polynomial of x in B[A and is denoted by FBIA(x). XI. Let x E L and let f E K[X] be its minimal polynomial over K.2 +···+an. They are. Now we apply these general notions to the following special situation.. The determinant of this matrix remains unchanged when we change the basis of the A-module B. in A. Algebraic Interlude matrix.1 = C(XI. N~ 1 K(x) shall denote the product of all conjugates of x in LJK.1 . It is clear that the trace of B is the sum of the elements in the diagonal of M (B)..M'(B)) = det(C) · det(XI. Then the characteristic polynomial is FLIK(x) = f 8 where s = [L : K(x)] and Tr~~IK(x) = TrLIK(x). Hence det(XI.M(B)). It is important to compare the notions of trace and norm with the ones known for field extensions.C · M(B) · c. while the determinant of B is the determinant of the matrix M(B).1 ) = det(XI. x # 0.214 12. N~ 1 K(x) = NLIK(x). let B = Bx : B --> B be the mapping of multiplication by x.1 . . the trace of Bx is called the trace of x in B[A and the determinant of Bx is called the norm of x in B[A. respectively. J. It is called the characteristic polynomial of B and is denoted by F(B) = xn + a1Xn.M(B))C. thus. Similarly.M'(B) =XI. if L[K is a separable field extension of degree n and x E L let Tr~!K(x) denote the sum of all conjugates of x in L[K and. with each a. . If x E B. We now define the trace of B as TrBIA(B) = -a 1 E A and the determinant of Bas detBIA (B) = ( -I)nan E A.

. Xr}.... i=1 Hence the matrix of ex : L ----> L. for this implies that and Now. 12... Ys} be a basis of the K(x)-vector space L. in K(x)IK the matrix of ex with respect to the basis {1 .2. it is enough to show that FK(x)IK = J. .. .. .x2 ' . Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 215 Proof: Let {x 1 . So is a basis of the K-vector space L (with rs = n). Thus.x r-1} is the companion matrix of the minimal polynomial . . k = 1. with respect to the basis of the K-vector space L. and let {y 1 .. It follows that r XXjYk = L aijXiYk (for j = 1. i=1 Therefore.j is the matrix of ex : K(x) ____. Xr} be a basis of the K-vector space K(x). . r). . r... . .. . considered above. is a block diagonal n x n matrix Therefore hence TrLIK(x) = 8 TrK(x)IK(x).x. . K(x) with respect to the basis {x 1. . s). NLIK(x) = (NK(x)IK(x)) 8 • As we know. T = (aij)i. .. Since x E K(x) we have r xxj = L aijXi (for j = 1. we also have and N£1K(x) = (NK(x)IK(xW.. the minimal polynomial of x over K..

aEAthen TrBIA(X1 + X2) = TrBIA(xl) + TrBIA(x2). With these notations. if B. M(8xJ (where I is the identity matrix) so TrBIA(ax1) =a TrBIA(xl). respectively. Zn} is an A-basis of B then it is still an A'-basis of B'.. L. M(B~) be the corresponding matrices with respect to the basis {z 1. therefore the same happens with the characteristic polynomials... J. eXJX2 = Bx. B' = B 5 . then FBIA(x) = FLIK(x)..M(Bx)) = xr + a1xr. . hence M(Bx. Ijx 1. e~ : B' ----+ B' be the homomorphisms of multi- plication by x E B and let M(Bx).) = a!... . For example. Proof: Let ex : B ----+ B. We shall study the characteristic polynomial.). If {z 1. • In particular. Algebraic Interlude that is.+x 2) = M(Bx. 0 0 0 -ar 1 0 0 -ar-1 M(Bx) = 0 1 0 -ar-2 0 0 1 -a1 Hence Fx(x)IK(x) = det(XJ.x2EB. 0 eX2l then M(Bx. considering the determinants. Finally. TrBIA(x) = TrLIK(x). +x 2 = Bx. TrBIA(axl) =a TrBIA(xl). we have N BIA (x1x2) = N BIA (xi) · NBIA(x2)· • Now we study the behavior of the trace and norm when we consider rings of fractions. Zn}.1 + · · · + ar =f.. B and A' = As. + Bx 2. TrB'IA'(x) = TrBIA(x). NB'IA'(x) = NBIA(x). Let S be a multiplicative subset of A c. A are domains having fields of quotients L. • Let us note the following algebraic properties of the trace and norm: K. .x2) = M(Bx. Bx. and NBIA(x) = NLIK(x). = aeX]l hence M(8ax.) + M(Bx 2). we obtain TrBIA(x1 + x2) = TrBIA(xl) + TrBIA(x2)· Similarly eax. and considering the elements in the diagonal of these matrices. K.1(Bx2) and there- fore. . the trace. with the traces and with the norms of the element x in B[A and in B'[A'. NBIA(x1x2) = NBIA(xl) · NBIA(x2)· Proof: The proof is straightforward. and the norm when we consider Cartesian products of rings.. for every x E B we have: FwiA'(x) = FBIA(x). .Obviously these matrices coincide.216 12.

. .. tn} be a basis of the A-module B1.. ui) for i 1. . that is. which is naturally isomorphic to A. FBIA(x) = Fs.... m.. x2) E B1 x B2 then where (aij)i.M(Bx 2 )). (0. 0). . which is a ring homomorphism from B onto Bi. the matrix of the A-linear transformation eX2 from B 2 to B 2 (with respect to the basis {u 1 . hence. from B 1 to B 1 (with respect to the basis {t 1.~A(1fi(x)). Thus the matrix of Bx : B1 x B2 -+ B1 x B2 with respect to the basis {z1.. . . .. .j = M(Bx2).uj) = La~j(O. . u1).. . then B is also a free A-module of finite rank. We may easily prove: M. . . 0). Similarly. Let B = f1~= 1 Bi be their Cartesian product and 1fi : B -+ Bi the ith projection. 12.. tn}). um)} is a basis of the A-module B = B 1 x B2.• . . if x E B then r FBIA(x) = II Fs.. ..M(Bx. With these notations. .. Zn+m} is Hence det(XI. i=l where (a~j)i.ui).)) · det(XI. a) E B I a E A}. (0. .. Let {t1. Br be commutative rings containing the sub ring A and such that each ring Bi is a free A-module of finite rank.. i=l r i=l r NBIA(x) =II Ns.2. m (x1. .M(8x)) = det(XI. B contains the subring {(a. n and let Zn+i = = (0.. If x = (x1. •. 0) for i = 1. Let Zi = (ti. . the matrix of the A-linear transformation Bx. we may consider A as a subring of B. .j = M(Bx 1 ). i=l Proof: It is enough to prove the statement when r = 2. Um}). . • . um} be a basis of the A-module B2.~A(1fi(x)). Then {(t1. . Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 217 Let B 1 ... and let {u1.x2) · (O. (tn.IA(xt) · Fs2 IA(x2)· The assertions about the trace and norm are now immediate..

The verification is standard and therefore omitted. 1 . + R. . zn} of the A-module B such that {z 1 . . Algebraic Interlude We now consider the effect on the characteristic polynomial of certain ring-homomorphisms. k. Then for every i = 1. . and let 'lj.n).. For each index i = 1. The elements of the K-vector space R. M(B-x) = (a. 'lj.j) (with respect to the above bases). k let B..•• . Applying 'lj. is a basis of R. .} be a set of elements of R.. If x E B then 'l/J(FBIA(x)) = FBIA(x). . 'lj._ 1 .. and consider a strictly decreasing chain of subspaces of R. . .-I/ R. Let () : R ____....: R.. Proof: If xzj = 2::7= 1 a. where z E R. i=1 Thus M(Bx) = (a. Then () induces a linear transformation defined as follows: B. B be a homomorphism from B onto the ring B.. is well defined. for every i = 1..(NBIA(x)) = N81 x(x). : B ____.(z) for every z E B).. are the cosets z + R.. for every z E R..j E A then n XZj = La.j).-I/ R. By virtue of the hypothesis on the subspaces R. Zn} is a basis of the A-module B (where z = 'lj. In particular. 1 + R. .M(Bx)) we obtain det(XJ.JZi (j = 1. . N. = { z..M(B-x)) = F81 x(x). k : constitutes a basis of the K-vector space R. .. ..} forms a basis of the vector space R.. . ..) = B(z) + R.m.. such that B(R. Z. Z._ 1 . .(A) = A. .) c:. . n) with a. The assertions about the trace and norm follow at once.. .(z + R. R beaK-linear transformation.jZi (j=1.218 12._ 1 such that the set of cosets {z. • Let R be a ring.. Let 'lj.(TrBIA(x)) = TrBIA(x). .1 . it follows that B. We assume that there exists a basis {z 1 . to the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial FBIA(x) = det(XJ. and K a subfield of R such that R is a vector space of finite dimension over K.m.

so there exist t E R 1 . so (1. M(B2) . Now. 2. Indeed. thus 1.. and (3) imply condition: (4) Let y.. then R = R 1 +I.. hence . if I is a maximal ideal distinct from R 1 .h + · · · + L akhjZkh mk B(zij) = h=1 h=1 h=1 (with coefficients aihj E K).. by (1) and (2) R 1 is a maximal ideal of R.. .tis an invertible element of R.tk = 1. If we consider the characteristic polynomials of the linear transformations e..t)(1 + t + · · · + tk. if y tf. . so FRIK(B) = [F(R/RI)IK(B1)]k. k there exists no ideal R' of R such that Ri-1 =:> R' =:> Ri. then tk E Rk = 0. . Ri then z E Ri· Indeed..1) = 1. we assume further that: ( 1) Each Ri is an ideal of R. (2). (2) For every i = 1. z E Ri-1 thenyz E Ri· If X E R and e = ex. it may be expressed in terms of the matrices M(Bi) of ei with respect to Bi: M(B 1 ) 0 M(B) = ( M21 . With the above hypotheses and notations. ek then k FR K(e) 1 = II F(R-dR<liK(ei)· i=l 0.hjZi+1. (3) Ify E R1._J/Ri)IK(B. .. u E I such that 1 = t + u. Then L L ffi-i ei(Zij + Ri) = aihj(Zih + Ri) + Ri = aihjZih + Ri h=1 h=l and so M(B) has the form indicated. then for every i = 1. z E R with yz E Ri. . 12. . 'k : F(R. By (3).2. Proof: First we show that (1).. if t E R 1 . Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 219 We shall consider the matrix M(B) of e with respect to the basis B.) = F(R/RI)IK(Br). B1 . B( Zij) E Ri_ 1 hence it may be expressed in terms of the basis Bi U Bi+1 U · · · U Bk as follows: mi mi+l L aihjZih + L ai+1. Mk1 Mk2 where lvfij (i > j) are matrices with entries inK of the appropriate size.

and B the integral closure of A in L. if y + Ri = z + Ri with z E Ri-1 and z = z'u + z" with z' E R. u ¢. (M)). for every i = 1. For every i = 1.Xi(O(y) + Ri) = . . which is absurd. Thus Ai is an isomorphism.. then the matrices of ei with respect to Bi and of 0 1 with respect to . and so we have Ot(. hence Ri C Ri + Ru S: Ri-1· By (1) and (2) we have Ri-1 = Ri + Ru. Hence. y" E Ri. Algebraic Interlude u = 1 -tis invertible and R = Ru S: I. then Ai(Y + Ri) = y' + R1. let u E Ri-1. xy" E Ri. Therefore. B/Q~' be the ith projection induced by the natural isomorphism g BjBP ~II B/Q~'. '1/Ji: B--> B/Qi = Li be the canonical ring-homomorphisms.)IK(Oi) = F(R/Rt)IK(Ot).z')u E Ri. i=1 . ._tfR.Xi(Bi) are the same. for every y' E R if y = y'u E Ri-1. let BP = flf= 1 Q~'.Xi(Y + Ri)) = Ot(Y' + Rt) = O(y') + Rt = xy' + Rt = . This defines uniquely the mapping . then y . Given any element y + Ri E Ri-d Ri let y = y'u + y" withy' E R.. z" E Ri. If Bi is a basis of the K-vector space Ri-d Ri and Ai(Bi) is the corre- sponding basis of the isomorphic vector space R/ R 1 . .Xi o ei.: A--> AjP = K. It remains to show that 01 o . Ri. but y rf. y" E Ri. We apply these considerations of Linear Algebra to the following specific • situation.. Let A be a Dedekind domain. where each Qi is a prime ideal of B. In fact. If Pis a nonzero prime ideal of A. Given y E Ri-1.z' E R1 soy'+ R1 = z' + Rt. Moreover. so B is also a Dedekind domain (Chapter 7. if y = y'u+y" where y' E R 1 then y E Ri (by (3)) hence if Ai (y + Ri) = 0 E R/ Rt then y + Ri = 0 E Ri-1/Ri. BjBP. R 1 then y is invertible and proves condition (4).220 12. then xy = (xy')u + xy" with xy' E R.Xi(xy + Ri) = . We recall (see (I)) that under these hypotheses B / B P is a vector space of dimension n over AjP.. Since u rf. '1/Jo: B--. g let 7l"i: BjBP--.z = (y' . Of course.z')u + (y" . if y = y' u + y" withy' E R.Xi(Oi(Y + Ri)). Let 'lj. it follows from (4) that y'. K its field of quotients. Ri. k there exists an isomorphism of R-modules Ai : Ri-1/Ri--> R/Rt such that fh oAi = Aio(}i· Indeed. F(R. .Xi = . let LIK be a separable extension of degree n. It is also obvious that Ai is a homomorphism of R-modules.Xi: Ri-dRi--> R/R1.z") so (y' . we put Ai(Y + Ri) = y' + R 1. This shows that if y E R.

J(x)W 1 . if y E B then 1/Jo(Y) = y + BP. we have the following relations between characteristic polynomials. R1 = QJ/Qj. and norms: P. . Since B' / B' P' = B / B P is a vector space of dimension n over A'/ A' P = A/P = K (by (I)). taking k = e1 : R = B/Qj.1 A.(TrLIK(x)) = ej Try11 K(1j. P' = A' P. and let A' = s. These mappings are naturally extended to the polynomials. With these notations and hypotheses. moreover. By (H) we have B'/B'P = B/BP. 12. y E Qj.. by acting on their coefficients. complement of P in A. Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 221 explicitly. If x E B then FLIK(x) E A[X] and 9 1/J(FLIK(x)) = IJ[FyjiK(1j. A' is a principal ideal domain. therefore its characteristic polynomial. B' is a free A'-module of rank n. ' we haveR is a ring. j=1 L 9 1j. and B' is its integral closure in L (by (D)). traces.. A'/A'P = A/P. which is a power of the minimal polynomial (see (J)). Let S be the multiplicative set. By the corollary of (L): FB'IA'(x) = FLIK(x). actually. . soB' P' = B'(BP) = B'(A' P). also belongs to A[X]. . and R is aK-vector space of finite dimension (equal to the inertial degree of QJ in LjK). j=1 9 1/J(NLIK(x)) = II[NyjiK(1fJJ(x))]e 1 . 1ri(1/Jo(Y)) = y + Q:'. j=1 Proof: Since x E B its minimal polynomial over K has coefficients in A. j=1 J It remains now to determine these last characteristic polynomials and for this purpose we apply (0). K = A/Pis a subfield of R..1 B.j(x)). (y + Qj) = by + Qj' where b E B. We have the strictly decreasing chain of K -su bspaces R ::) R 1 ::) R 2 ::) · · · ::) Rk _ 1 ::) Rk = 0. .2. we may define a scalar multiplication as follows: (b + Qj) . B' = s. it follows from (N) and (M) that 1/J(FLIK(x)) = 1/J(FB'IA'(x)) = F(B'/B'P')I(A'/A'P)(1/Jo(x)) 9 = F(B/BP)IK(1/Jo(x)) = IJ F(B/Q"j)IK(7rj1/Jo(x))..

Concluding. . so 8 1 is the mapping of multiplication by x = 1rj?jJ0 (x)..11 x(?jJj(x)). . if x E B and x = x + Qj E R then FRIK(x) = [F(R/RJ)IK(BI)]k.:> A. Therefore. F(R/RJ)IK(BI) = Fy. Condition (3) is obvious and (4) follows from the fact that B is a Dedekind domain: if y. Then we have RIR1 ____!]___. Since B is a Dedekind domain there exists no ideal J such that Q. and fj · z = yz + Qj E R.p 1 (x) o TJ(Y + RI) = ?jJj(x)?jJj(y) = ?jJj(xy) = ry(xy + RI) = TJ o B1(Y + RI). o. .. We have the following situation: Cis a commutative ring. hence condition (2) of (0) is satisfied.. we may consider for every element y E C the elements: TrCIA(Y) and TrBIA(TrCIB(Y)) as well as the corresponding elements for the norm. • Now we shall prove the transitivity of the trace and norm. while C is a free B-module of rank m.:> B --. TrCIA(Y) = TrBIA(TrCIB(Y)).. . yz E Qj so z E Qj and z E Ri· Thus. Algebraic Interlude Then each R. but y ti R 1 then y ti Qj.- 1 :J J :J Qj.222 12. and so C is a free A-module of rank mn. Thus. such that C --.(FLIK(x)) = IJ[Fr. Ym} is a B-basis of C. then is an A-basis of C. and we assume that B is a free A-module of rank n. becomes an ideal of R. z = z + Qj E R. we have shown that g lj. for every element y E C. 1x(?jJj(x)W 1 j=l and the relations for the trace and for the norm follow at once. where 81 : R/ R 1 ---+ R/ R 1 is defined by 8 1 (y + R 1 ) = xy + R 1 .l B.. Q. B. A are subrings of C. From this it follows that if {x 1 . the isomorphism TJ : R/ R1 ---+ B /Qj is given explicitly as follows: If y + R1 E R/ R 1 .. Now R/R 1 = (B/Qj)/(Qj/Qj) ~ B/Qj =Lj. with y E B. NCIA(Y) = NBIA(NCIB(Y)). Xn} is an A-basis of Band {YI. y = y + Qj E R.. . z E B. then ry(y + R1) = ?jJj(y)..

with respect to the basis considered above... the matrix M of (}A. Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 223 Proof: Let (} be any endomorphism of the B-module C. it will be denoted by (}A. . i) and column (l.hk k=l at the row (h. To find the matrix of (}A with respect to the basis n n x1bij = L akijXlXk. Byj is a free A-module with basis {x 1 yj... as such. j = 1. Ym} we write m 8(yj) = LbijYi. n b.XnYj} and similarly for By. Thus. .. the matrix Mji of (}ji is obtained as follows: . . . k = 1. be the A-linear transformation defined by (}ji(Xyj) = xbijYi for every x E B.hkxh k=l h=l for alll.. (} is also an endomorphism of the A-module C and. i=l So.2. XlXk = L a. Let (}ji : Byj -> By.. On the other hand.j = L akijXk k=l for all indices i. n. . 12. j). . With respect to the above bases. hence n n n x1bij = L akij L a. m. with bij E B. . that is.. has entry n L akija. (} also sat- isfies 8( ay) = a8(y) for every a E A.. . To find the matrix of (} with respect to the basis {y 1 .hkxh = L k=l h=l h=l Thus therefore.

j)i.. we note the following general fact: With respect to a given A-basis of B. is the matrix of A.. ]1..) = TrBIA(b.::~= 1 (2:::~= 1 akiJafhk)xh· With respect to the basis {x1. because the matrix of B with respect to the B-basis {y 1 . ]1. compute the determinant obtaining a matrix with coefficients in A. if M'.) 1. the matrices of Bb'..J.]) = det(M) = NqA(y)..1' M" are the matrices of Bb'+b"• Bb'b"· From this.224 12.) = TrBIA(I:::-: 1 b. We shall soon establish in a lemma that the computation of the determi- nant of M may be done as follows: Regard the blocks lvlji as if they were elements. then the matrix of JL with respect to {x 1 . }vfmm We now prove that the matrices Mji are permutable (by multiplication). as we proved. .. .::7: 1 TrBIA(b.. so TrqA(Y) = 2:. . . respectively.. Ym} of C. then the corresponding matrices satisfy MjiMkh = MkhMj.) = L Tr(M. and then compute the determinant of this matrix. . (i = 1.. the B~endomorphism of C defined by multiplica- tion with y. Bb" then l'vf' + M". Algebraic Interlude thus Mji is a n x n matrix. xn} is equal to det(M1.::~= 1 akijafhk· Therefore. i=1 i=1 but M... hence Tr(M.(xl) = xlbij = 2:. M" are. Let Aji be the endomorphism of the A-module B defined by Aj. column l is 2:.).. with coefficients in A. thus eA is the induced A~endomorphism of C.(x) for every x E B. TrqA(Y) = Tr(BA).). . . m).. the matrix of Aji is equal to Mji· Since Aji o Akh(x) = xbhkbij = xb. . Now.) = TrBIA(Trqs(Y)). as we have claimed. we recall that NqA(Y) = det(BA) = det(M). thus Aj. Now let B = By. and its entry in row h. (which is the A-endomorphism of multiplication by b..(:r) = xb. so it is equal to the sum of the elements in the diagonal of the matrix M which corresponds to BA.)j. By definition. has diagonal elements b.. In order to prove the corresponding statement for the norm. . on the other hand. we deduce that if JL is the A~endomorphism of B of multiplication by Nq 8 (y) = det(b.j... det(JL) = clet(BNqn(y)) = NBIA(Nqs(Y)). this sum is equal to m L m (sum of diagonal elements of M.). Xn} of B..1 may be written as a matrix of m 2 blocks MJi• each being a n x n matrix with coefficients in A: M1m) M..i· Thus det(JL) = det(c!et[(MJ.m ..jbhk = Akh o Aj.

..fij for any indices i. Computing the determinant of the matrix X by considering cofactors of the elements in any column.. .. we make use of the following device. 12. Proof: The result is true when m = 1. let. if Mii are n x n matrices with coefficients in A. . Mmm)). and consider the m x m ma- trix X = (Xij)i.2. . Nmm) = Nik. h. we have the well-known relations i=l where Dik is the cofactor of Xki in the matrix X. j. we have to prove the lemma used above: Lemma 1. as usual. such that MijMkh = Mkh}. so Nik is an x n matrix with entries in A[T]. Traces and Norms in Ring Extensions 225 showing the formula for the norm. Let T be a new indeterminate. If Nl2 P~cr In 0 Nn In and N12 N. . In order to include the case where the ring A may have zero-divisors.m) C" N21 N22 N2m N= .. is considered as an mn x mn matrix with elements in A. let D be the determinant of X. then det(M) = det(D(Mn.. and it will be proved by induction on m. . Nml Nm2 Nmm . Xmm]· Let Dik(N11 . Let Xii be m 2 indeterminates.. D E Z[X11 . • Now.. and if . . where In is the unit n x n matrix.... . . Xmm]· If A is a commutative ring.. m. we denote by Nii the matrix Nij = Mij + {jijTin. j = 1. j. . fori. .j. k.. {jij be 0 when i :f. for all indices i. j. . so Dik EZ[X11 . and {jii = 1.

• For later use.1)n x (m. .... h*(Nmm))) = det(h*(D(Nn. Nmm)) = det(N). . Algebraic Interlude by multiplication we have D(Nu. having degree n(m -1). Nmm)) = det(N 11 ).1)n matrix with entries in A[T]. . 12. letting h : A[T] --> A be the homomorphism such that h(T) = 0 and h leaves fixed every element of A.... we deduce that h induces a homomorphism h * from the associated matrix rings and det(D(Mu. . on the other hand. Nml Let N22 N2m) Q = ( : : ' Nmz ··· Nmm so Q is an (m. so it is not a zero-divisor in the ring A[T]. Therefore.... where I is the unit l x l matrix. . Now. .. and det(P) det(N 11 ). . . Nmm))] = h(det(N)) = det(h*(N)) = det(M). .. Since the first row of P N has only one block which is not zero det(PN) = det(D(Nu. Let M be as in the statement of Lemma 1. . Nmm)) · det(Q). we record the following special case.226 12. For each i. Mmm)) = det(D(h*(Nu). ... Nmm) N21 PN= ( . we have det(Q) = det(D 11 (Nn. . det(PN) = det(P) · det(N).. Let N = (Xij )i. we conclude that det(D(Nu. . N12. .. Nmm))) = h[det(D(Nu. let L be an l x l matrix.. . Mnn) = det(N)I · Ln so det(M) = det(N) 1 · det(L)n. . . Now D(Mu.. .. But det(N 11 ) is a monic polynomial in T.. j = 1. but. Applying the induction on Q. . . n.J be an n x n matrix..3 Discriminant of Ring Extensions . let Mij = (xiJI)L.

j E A. . Xn) = det(TrBjA(XiXj)). . a1.. . . then a1. that is...xn)· Proof: The proof is standard. then discrBIA(x~. . We first note that n n = L L akiahj Tr(xkxh).. x2. .. Let us note at once. not all equal to zero..x~) = [det(a. Xn) (in the ring extension BIA) as discrBjA(Xl. = 0 for j 1 i... if B = L. For example.j)] 2 · discrBIA(x1. . . . xn)· Since det( a... . we consider then-tuple (x~. with a. then • ... By (R) we have 0 = discrBIA(O..0 and A is a domain. . . xn} is linearly dependent over the domain A then discrBjA(xl. . Discriminant of Ring Extensions 227 Let B be a commutative ring... and ifi > 1. If (x~. . . ..j) and M' denote the transpose matrix of M. . we deduce that it is only interesting to consider the discriminant of linearly independent n-tuples: S. n.tuple of elements in B. . . = 1 for j = i. .. Xn E B we define the discriminant of (x 1. Xn) = 0.. Thus. . Section 11. xn) = [det(a. . where x~ = 0. . x~ = x. for i = 2. R. let a 1 "I..j)] 2 · discrBjA(Xl. Now.j)-entry is TrBIA(x.3. A = K where LIK is a separable field extension of degree n. .1 ) = a 1 "I. . ... . Proof: We assume that there exist elements a 1 . the determinant of the matrix whose (i. . 12. . .. n) by letting aj 1 = a1 .. and A a subring of B such that B is a free A-module of rank n.. . .. If {x1. and xj I:~=l a. . If x 1 ... x~) = det(TrBIA(x~xj)) = det(M' · (Tr(xkxh)) · M) = det(M') · det(Tr(xkxh)) · det(M) = [det(a. x~ = 2:7= 1 a1.. . then by (J) the new concept of discriminant coincides with the one in Chapter 2. xn) E A.jXi for all j = 1. .j)] 2 · discrBIA(xl.xj)· Thus discr(x1.. such that 2:7= 1 ajXj = 0. k=lh=l hence letting M = (a. an E A. n. .. .. x~).. then discrBIA(x~. Xn)· • From the next result.x1 (i = 1... x~) is another n.0. .

i=I Proof: It is enough to prove the statement when r = 2.... Let BI... Br be commutative rings. n. . . . .. discr(BIK) is either 0 or the unit ideal of K (since K has only trivial ideals).xn}. (0·. Then r discr(BI x · · · x BriA) =IT discr(B. Proof: By hypothesis there exist elements a.. Xn} be a basis of the A-module BI. .j) is a unit in the ring A. the unit ideal of IQ. (xn. Then: either discr BIA (xi. the principal ideal A· discrBIA(xi.. . so this concept does not constitute an appropriate generalization of lh. Let A be a domain. Section 1). . i=I for every j = 1..x~} be any two bases of the A-module B..i E A such that n xj = L a. let {yi. and denoted by discr(BIA). .. . Let {xi.. .. .. .. .j)] 2 · discrBIA(xi. Xn} is any basis of the A-module B... .jX. By (R) we have discrBIA(x~. Xn) = discrBIA (x~. . Zn+i = (0. let B be a commutative ring.. YI). that if L is an algebraic number field then discr(LIIQ) = IQ. .. {xi. introduced in Chapter 6..zj)).. Yi) fori = 1. . and let {xi. In the next chapter we shall explain what is the relative discriminant bLIK of an algebraic number field L over a subfield K. Xn). x~) are associated elements of A (see Chapter 1. n.. . is a free A-module of finite rank.xn) is called the discriminant of B relative to A. . 0). ..IA). having A as a subring.xn)· Since (a.. . 0). or discrBIA(xi. . . Algebraic Interlude T. Then {(xi. Definition 4. Ym)} is a basis of the A-module BI x B2. One of the tools used in determining the discriminant is the following easy result: U. . . .. 0) fori = 1. . . . hence either both discriminants are zero or both are associated elements of A. .. Moreover.x~) = [det(a.j )i.. . • The preceding result justifies the following definition: Let A be a domain.... . . we shall see in (W). m. If {xi. In the case where A is a field K. . and such that B is a free A-module of rank n. (0. . then det( a.228 12.. . discrBIA(xi.. Letting z. . = (x.. . Ym} be a ba- sis of the A-module B2. containing the domain A and such that each ring B.. the discriminant of the field L.. then discr(BI x B2IA) is the principal ideal of A generated by det(TrB 1 xB 2 IA(z..j is an invertible matrix. x~) = 0..

Then discr(BJK) =/= 0 if and only ifO is the only nilpotent element of B. . . Let K be a perfect field.. such that L~=l ai ·Trslx(xixj) = 0 for every j = 1. . 12. . such that x 1 = x. hence discrs1x(x1. taking into account the fact that if LJK is separable. xn} beaK-basis of B..IA(t).o) of B 1 x B 2 and Bt of B 1 . Proof: Let us assume that the trace is degenerate.. Thus.. . and if B is a commutative algebra of dimension n over K. * We may therefore identify K with a subring of B. 0) = Trs.3. and let B be a commutative K-algebra of finite dimension.. * then discr(BJK) = 0 if and only if the trace in BJK is degenerate. . In the same way.. Conversely. . if t E B2 then Tr 8 . . Then discr(BJK) is the ideal of K generated by discr 8 1x(x 1.. if t E B 1 then Trs. also. . relative to the basis {z 1. as we deduce by con- sidering the matrices of the endomorphisms Bct.. there exists an element x E B. Xn) = det(TrBIK(XiXj)) = 0. thus. respectively. Thus. . .. Let us consider a ba- sis {x 1. x =/= 0. Section 10). Proof: Let us assume that B contains the nilpotent element x =/= 0.. we have x =/= 0 and for every element y = 2::7= 1 bjXj E B (with bj E K) we have n Trs1x(xy) = L aibj Tr(xixj) = 0. B. i. xB 2 IA(O. let {x 1. Let {x 1. there exists an element x E L such that TrLIK(x) =/= 0 (see Chapter 2. Xn} beaK-basis of B. every algebraic • extension L of K is separable.. Discriminant of Ring Extensions 229 Now. . that is.xB 2 IA(t. xn) = det(Tr 8 1x(xixj)) = 0. we may improve the preceding result.IA(XiXj)) · det(TrB 2 1A(YiYj)) and so this element generates the ideal discr(B 1JA) · discr(B 2JA). . W. = det(TrB. . n. We note that every field of characteristic zero is perfect. such that x 1 = x.. such that Tr 8 1K(xy) = 0 for every y E . Since B is commutative. if discr(BJK) = 0.j=l this shows that the trace is degenerate.. • V. every finite field is perfect. there exist elements ai E K.. Xn} of the vector space B over K. Xn}. . letting x = 2::~ 1 aixi. x =/= 0. .. Let us assume now that K is a per feet field. with x E B. t) = Trs 2 1A(t). that is. such that Tr 8 1x(xy) = 0 for every y E B. Zn+m} and {x 1.. If K is a field. . not all equal to zero.

such that 0 is the only nilpotent element. (K)... Conversely.r. such that TrL. . having the same irreducible factors and degree n. Algebraic Interlude then XXj is also nilpotent. the characteristic polynomial is xn' and TrsjK(xxj) = 0 for every j = 1. We shall require the following lemma: Lemma 2. Now. B is a Noetherian ring. then from Xi = x'(x'. distinct from K. must be finite. The minimal polynomial of the endomorphism Bxxj' of multiplication by XX j' is equal to xr' for some r > 0. • Proof of the Lemma: By Chapter 7. This shows that discr(BIK) = 0. . 0. where each Pi is a prime ideal of B.0. thus.. Since K is a perfect field. • . Assuming the lemma true... x' =f. . there exists an element Xi E Li such that TrqK(xi) =f. Since every element of B I Pi is integral over K (by Chapter 5.. (C).. then PinK = 0 fori = 1. since these ideals are distinct. Thus K <::. n.. we have 0 = TI~=l Pt'.jK(xi) = 0). n Pr = 0..2 Pi for some j =/=. Hence by (U): r discr(BIK) = IT discr(LiiK).. hence x is nilpotent and therefore x = 0. (F)).i and necessarily Pi = Pj which is not true. we know that the distinct ideals P 1. We show that P 1 n . r. Pr are maximal. so the trace is not degenerate (because if there exists x' E Li. so Pi is a maximal ideal of B. we may write 0 = P 1 n · · · n Pr. . (A)) then BIPi = Li is a field (by Chapter 5. i=l But the field Li is a finite extension. . where the prime ideals Pi are distinct.1xi) we would have TrL. As we quoted. 0... By (V). discr(LiiK) =1. . If B is a Noetherian ring.. the characteristic polynomial of BxxJ is a multiple of the minimal polynomial. hence discr(BIK) = K. and B I Pi is a finite-dimensional K -vector space which is also a domain. thus an algebraic extension of K.. thus. ei . Since Pi n K is an ideal of K. If X E pl n . then the zero-ideal is the intersection of finitely many prime ideals. By Chapter 7. We note that since every ideal of B is in particular a subspace of the K- vector space B. . Hence discr(x1.: B/Pi (up to a natural identification).::: 1 fori = 1. hence Pi :. Li is separable over K. hence Pi+ n#i Pi = B. hence also of ideals of B. discr(LiiK) = K.xn) = det(TrBIK(xixj)) = 0 because the matrix of traces has the first row of zeros.jK(x'y) = 0 for every y E Li. as is known from the theory of linear transformations of vector spaces. every chain of subspaces. . . Thus. . let us assume that 0 is the only nilpotent element of B.230 12. we have B = B IO ~ TI~=l B I Pi = TI~=l Li. otherwise Pi :. from the fact that B has dimension n over K.. n Pr then Xe 1 +e 2 +··+ er E P{ 1 P~ 2 • • • Pi' = 0.2 n#i Pi.

. Determine S! 1Z n 82 1Z..Xn) = det(Tr(B/BP)I(A/P)(XiXj)) = det(TrBIA(XiXj)) = discrBIA(x1. Determine explicitly the ring of fractions Ap. and let S = {! E R I f(O... . discr(BIA) = discrBIA (x1. and letS be the set of all polynomials f E K[X 1.. . If M is a maximal ideal of s. by (V). 3. X 2] such that f(O. if {x 1. B / B P has nonzero nilpotent elements if and only if discr((B/ BP)I(A/ P)) = 0. and discr((B/BP)I(A/P)) = discr(B/BP)I(A/P)(x1.1R. and its maximal ideals. By (I).. Determine s. 2. discr(BIA) ~ P.. that is. What is its maximal ideal? . Let K be a field. . Show that S is a multiplicative subset of K[X1.xn} of the A/ ?-vector space B / BP. (P)). (B) and Theorem 1) and a Dedekind domain (by Chapter 7.. • EXERCISES z 1. XnJ. Xn)· Since A/ P is a perfect field. 4. ... .0 and f(1.. and K its field of quotients: let LIK be a separable extension of degree n and B the integral closure of A in L. actually. then their images in B/BP form a basis {x 1.. by (N) this means that 0 = discr(B/BP)I(A/P)(x1. 0) #. Proof: B is a free A-module of rank n (Chapter 6. 1) #. (b) s= s2 is the set of all powers of 2.. . determine n~=o Mn and s. '0) #.0.1R/M.. .. Let A be a principal ideal domain. B/BP is a vector space of dimension n over the field A/ P.1R. Determine explicitly the ring of fractions s. Exercises 231 The following result is the crucial part of the main theorem to be proved in the next chapter: X. n 2': 1. Xn). Xn). Then the ring B / B P has nonzero nilpotent elements if and only if P 2 discr(BIA)... . R = K[X 1. Thus. . . . X2]. Let P be the prime ideal of the ring A of Gaussian integers which is generated by 1 + i. Let K be a field. . Xn} is a basis of the A-module B.1 in the following cases: (a) s= s1 is the set of all odd integers. determine the maximal ideals of K[X 1.0}. X2] 8 . . Let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A such that the field A/ P is perfect. .

Y] and A= Q[X 2 . namely u 2 = u o u. Let R = Z[[X]] and let S be the multiplicative subset of R generated by 2 and X 2 .. Let A be the ring of algebraic integers of a field K of algebraic numbers. Determine s. . Definition 5). Let S be the set of power series with nonzero constant term. Algebraic Interlude 5. u(() = ( 2 . B = A[VX].232 12. 11. . 8.1 R. Y]. R = K[[X]] (the ring of formal power series with coefficients in K). ~ · · · ~ A. VY]. Determine the characteristic polynomial. and let K be its field of quotients. this holds when A is a unique factorization domain). Let uk(V) = ( ~ O"k~() 1 uk((2) Consider the matrix of 3 x 3 blocks Calculate the discriminant of V using the method of Lemma 1. Let ( be a primitive cubic root of 1. Calculate s. Prove that there exists a one-to- one correspondence between the sets of prime elements of A and the rings of fractions of A (with respect to multiplicative subsets). having the following property: Every element of A is the product of finitely many prime elements (for example. 9. u(( 2 ) ( and consider the iterates uk of u. . 6. let V= (~ ~ (\). the trace. 1 (2 ( Let u(1) = 1. . Prove that if B is a subring of K containing A then there exists a multiplicative subset SofA such that B = As. Let B = Q[X. 7. Let K be a field. Y). 12. and the norm of VX + v'Y in the extensions CIA and C I B. 10.1 R. Show that there exists an infinite sequence of subrings A= Roc R1 c · · · of K and also an infinite sequence of subrings K ~ Ri ~ R. Let A be a Euclidean domain (see Chapter 5. Let A be a domain. uk = uk-l o u. and C = A[VX. Let A = Z[X. y:l Calculate discr 8 1A(X.

. Xm/am (with a1. Now we shall introduce the relative norm of an ideal. T 1 the integral closure ofT in L 1 • If J 1 is a fractional ideal of L 1 (relative to T 1 ). . K. We shall introduce the relative trace and norm of fractional ideals of L and. Since J is a finitely generated T-module.. . say by the elements xi/a 1. LIK a separable extension of degree n. B be. all nonzero. 13. T.. we shall consider the relative discriminant and relative different. . Definition 1. We also note the transitivity property. Let J be a fractional ideal of L (relative to T). {TrLIK(ax) I x E J} s. and T the integral closure of R in L.. and let A. and x1... Xm E T) then if a = a1 ···am E R it follows that aJ s. The relative trace in LIK of the fractional ideal J of L (relative to T) is TrLIK(J) = {TrLIK(x) I x E J}. so T is also a Dedekind domain. . and Different Let K be an algebraic number field. respectively. let L'IL be a separable extension of finite degree.1 The Relative Trace and Norm of an Ideal Let R be a Dedekind domain. L. L be as before. If J is an integral ideal. T and a{TrLIK(x) I x E J} s. L an extension of finite degree n over K. . then so is Tr Ll K ( J).. Discriminant. Norm.. am E R.. 233 . the rings of algebraic integers inK. Let R.13 The Relative Trace. Then the set {TrLIK(x) I x E J} is an R-module. .. let K be its field of quotients. in view of characterizing ramified prime ideals. In this situation. A need not be a principal ideal domain and B need not be a free A-module.. then TrL'IK(J 1 ) = TrLIK(TruiL(J 1 )).. R so {TrLIK(x) I x E J} is a fractional ideal of K (relative to R).

Definition 2. the relative norm of Q is NriR( Q) = pf · This definition may be extended to each nonzero fractional ideal J E Fr.(J) = NriR(J) for every J E Fr. R' P1 = R'. if 1/J : Fr -> FR is a group-homomorphism such that 1/J(Q) = NriR(Q) for every nonzero prime ideal Q ofT. then 1/. Then Nr.. It is also a group-homomorphism: NriR(JJ') = NriR(J) · NriR(J') for all J. with respect to R'. If Q is a nonzero prime ideal ofT and Q n R = P... Discriminant. xn} is a K-basis of L where each xi E T. ..234 13. are distinct prime ideals of T and e 1 . We may write. . e. n. f).. Now we assume that Q n R = P.xn} is a set of generators of the R/ P-vector space T jQ. so we may also consider the relative norm of fractional ideals of T'.. By Chapter 7. S the set-complement of P in R. respectively T. F R and Fr are free Abelian multiplicative groups generated by the sets of prime ideals. the relative norm of J is r NriR( J) = II NriR( Qi)"'. is a principal ideal domain. With the above notations. if J E Fr then Nr'IR'(T' J) = R' NriR(J). let J = Q be a nonzero prime ideal ofT. Thus f :::. . respectively Fr. are nonzero integers.1 R. If Q n R = P 1 # P then T'Q = T'.. . Norm. . J = TI~=l Q~'. Section 1. With the above notations.IR'(T'Q) = (R'P)f = R'Pf = R'NnR(q). .. Moreover. i=l Since Fr is a free Abelian multiplicative group generated by the prime ideals. . T' = s. Q. then so is NriR( J). say equal to f. if xi denotes the canonical image of xi in TjQ. in a unique way. Our first result is: A. we have T'Q n R' = R'P and [T'/T'Q: R'/R'PJ = [T/Q: R/P]. 1 T is the integral closure of R' in L. Definition 2'. Proof: First. where Q1 . The Relative Trace. then {x 1 . and Different Let F R. let [T/Q : R/ P] = f. . From the results of Chapter 12.. With the above notations. If {x 1 . be the multiplicative group of nonzero fractional ideals of R. then R' = s. and Nr'IR'(T'Q) = R' while R' NriR(Q) = R' P( = R' (where 1 :::. . J' E Fr (multiplicative property of the relative norm). As already seen (Chapter 12.. the mapping NriR : Fr -> FR is well defined. We note also that if J is an integral ideal. (D) and (G)) if Pis a prime ideal of R.

. Then Nu 1K(Q') = pf" where f" = [B' /Q' :A/ P]. By definition. Then Proof: By the multiplicativity of the relative norm. Let BP = f}f= 1 Q~i where Q 1 . B. ei ::::0: 1 and [B/Qi: A/P] = fi fori= 1. . Then NLIK(BP) = f}f= 1 N(Qi)e. Definition 1.e. as defined in Chapter 8. let P n ::Z = ::Zp. 13. with respect to B. We compare the relative norm with the (absolute) norm of an ideal. The most important case in our considerations is the following. For each nonzero fractional ideal J of K. Theorem 1.: L <:. it is customary to use the notation NLIK(J) instead of N BIA ( J) for every fractional ideal J of L. . N(P) #(A/P) = pf. A the ring of algebraic integers of K.: L' be algebraic number fields.. that is. we have NKjQ(J) = . (D)) that NKIQ(J) = ::Z · N(J) for every J E :FK . of degree n over K. In this situation. it suffices to prove the statement when I = P is a nonzero prime ideal of A. Q 9 are distinct prime ideals of B.. by Chapter 11.. N KjQ(P) = ::Zpf = ::Z · N(P). Let K <:. R = A • is the ring of algebraic integers of an algebraic number field K and T = B is the ring of algebraic integers of the algebraic number field L. so the field A/ P has pf elements.1. that if J E :Fr then Nr'jw(T' J) = R' NriQ(J). On the other hand. and J' any nonzero fractional ideal of L'. due to the multiplicativity of the relative norm of an ideal. Q n A = P. . With the previous notations..z. Let Q' n B = Q. [L : K] = n and any nonzero fractional ideal I of A. Nu 1L(Q') = Qf' where . It follows at once from the multiplicativity of the relative norm and of the norm (Chapter 8. • D. Proof: Let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A. Let [A/ P : Z/::Zp] = f. it suffices to prove the statement when J' = Q' is a nonzero prime ideal of the ring B' of algebraic integers of L'. we have Proof: Once again. The Relative Trace and Norm of an Ideal 235 It follows by the multiplicativity of the norm. • C.. = pn since l::f= 1 edi = n. = Tif= 1 pf. N(J).g. Let K be an algebraic number field.

(E).. n n B · NLIK(Bx) = II a. Norm.(Bx) = II Ba. and Different [B'/Q': B/Q] = f' and NLIK(Q) = pf where [B/Q: A/P] =f. .(x) = BNLIK(x). • E. then NLIK(Bx) = ANLIK(x). then BP = (Tif= 1 Q. Assume that LIK is a Galois extension with Galois group g {a1. First Case: Assume that LIK is a Galois extension. as follows from the first case and (D). (B).. .236 13.)e with e . then NLIK(Bx) =A· NLIK(x). an}· We have.(J) = BNLIK(J). Proof. .. If x E L. by Chapter 11.::: 1.(x) i=l i=l n = B II a... Q9 }. i=l Proof: By multiplicativity.. . Thus TI~=l a. Discriminant. by (E). Thus f" = f f' and therefore = p f" = NuiK(Q I ). We have [NLIK(Bx)Jm = NLIK((Bx)m) = NLIK(NuiL(B'x)) = [NuiK(B'x)] =A· NqK(x) = A(NLIK(x))m..0. . Q 9 } and by Chapter 11. .(Q) = (Ql · · · Q 9 )ef =BPI = BNLIK(Q). let [L' : L] = m. • . it suffices to prove the result when J = Q is a nonzero prime ideal of B. i=l By Chapter 11. with Galois group g = {a1. g acts transitively on the set {Q1 . The Relative Trace. Let Q n A = P. Since A is a Dedekind domain. x =1. • For principal ideals.. General Case: Let L' be the smallest Galois extension of K containing L. . Q E {Q 1 . (A): NLIK(Bx) = B · NLIK(Bx) n K = B · ANLIK(x) n K = ANLIK(x). Moreover. . [B /Q : A/ P] = f. we have: F. an}· For each J E FL we have n II a.

.. (1).. . A'= s.. 13. xn} is a K-basis of L contained in B. . Then fJLlK =A· discrL[K(XJ.jX.. let S be the multiplicative set complement of Pin A..2.. s. if {xi. Xn} of LIK such that each X.. A' · discrL[K(x~. .. x~) = [ det( aij) J2 · discr L[K(XJ. (G).j) discr L[K (x~. with xj E B for every j = 1. Xn} be a basis of LIK such that each x.. . . Xn) = [ det( a. we deduce that {yr. . . .. x~) E A'· discrLlK(Yr.. Conversely.. . ..j E A'. . . . L. X~).. Xn} is an A-basis of B then by definition fJ L[K :2 A · discr£[K(x 1. A' is a principal ideal domain. with a... Yn} is a K-basis of Land discrL[K(x~. Yn) <. LIK an extension of degree n and A. .. .. E B. . Definition 3.. we have n xj = L a. discr L[K (XJ. . By Chapter 12.. B' = s. .. x~} is any K-basis of L. .1 E A.. Xn)· Now. . we have n Xj = L a.. Let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A. for all possible bases {x1. Xn).1 A. Writing x. .. .. . = yi/s. . ..jx. Xn).... .A'· fJL[K· On the other hand. where {x 1 . i=l r· Hence. E B. . ...... . let us assume that fJL[K = A· discrL[K(XJ. let K be an algebraic number field.xn) if and only if B is a free A-module and {x1. .. . . . .xn} is an A-basis of B. Proof: If { x 1... . with a. Xn) <..2 Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields As before. .. Let {x 1 . i=l so discr L[K (x~. .. Xn).. B the rings of integers of K. . .1 B. Xn} generates the A-module B.. Let us show that {x1. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 237 13. withy. which proves the other inclusion. . .. G.. Xn) hence every generator of the ideal fJL[K is contained in A· discr£[K(x1.. . . P' = A'P. (D). The relative discriminant of LIK is the ideal fJL[K of A generated by the elements discr£[K(x 1. . .. . . E S. thus from the hypothesis A' fJLlK = A' · discrL[K(xr. n. B' is a free A' -module of rank n. and Chapter 6.. respectively. E B. ... let {x~. x~).. x~} be a basis of this module.

moreover. From Chapter 7. and {x 1 . that A'/A'P = AjP. . P' = A'P it follows from Chapter 12.. Now we come to the main theorem. they constitute a basis of the A'-module B'. P is ramified when some ei is greater than 1. Xn} is a basis of the A-module B. . that is... Xn} generates the A-module B.. .. connecting the ramification and the discriminant: Theorem 1 (Dedekind). By Chapter 12. B' = s. In particular.. we have B/BP = ITf= 1 B/Q~'. (V). We know further that B' is a free module of rank n over the principal ideal domain A'.. has a nonzero nilpotent element. It follows that {XI. by Chapter 12..x~) for all possible bases {xi. . or. Definition 4. Xn· Since these elements are linearly independent..1 A. Indeed. . (C). this means that discr((B/BP)I(A/P)) = 0. This means that the inverse of the matrix (a~j kJ has coefficients in A' and so each element x~ belongs to the A'-module generated by XI.238 13. . B / Q~. if A' = s. . B'/B'P = B/P so the above condition is that discr((B'/B'P)I(A'/P')) = 0.. r Hence. . We write BP = ITf= 1 Q~'.:~= 1 CiXi with ci E K. equivalently. . we may write y = 2.. x~).. if y E B.. . Theorem 2. But for every prime ideal P i= 0 we have ci E Ap as we have just shown. as introduced in Chapter 6. Thus Ci E nAp = A (intersection of all nonzero prime ideals of A) as follows from Chapter 12. • This result may be applied when A is a principal ideal domain or when there exists a primitive element t of LIK such that B = A[t]. .1 B. Proof: The second assertion follows at once from the first.. and Different hence A' discrLIK(XI. . Now. The nonzero prime ideal P of A is ramified in LIK if and only if P ~ 6LIK. Xn) = A' discrLIK(x~. The above considerations hold for every nonzero prime ideal P of A. (T). . (1)). there exist only finitely many prime ideals which are ramified in LIK. discr((B'/B'P)I(A'/P')) is the ideal generated by the elements discr(B'/B'P)I(A'/P')(xi. . where Qi are distinct prime ideals of B and ei ~ 1. Discriminant. If Sis the set complement of Pin A. if {xi.. . . this expression is unique.x~} is any basis of the A'-module B' then the images~ of these elements by the homomorphism B' ---> B' / B' P constitute a basis over A' /A' P (as was proved in Chapter 12. Norm. It follows that bLIQ is the principal ideal generated by the discriminant DL. (F) and (G). The Relative Trace. by Chapter 7. as we had to prove.x~} of . and therefore det( a~ 1 ) is also a unit. these discriminants are associated elements of A'. (A). B / BP has a nonzero nilpotent element.. thus [det( a~j) E A' is a unit of A'.

Besides. . .. . that is. Q' of B such that Q n A = Q' n A = P. . Clearly.. where each xi belongs to B.2. . for every basis of the A'-module B'. This last condition is actually equivalent to 8LIK ~ P. discr B'IA' (x~..thus{x1. .. so T is also a Dedekind domain.. 'Xn) E P' n A = p and therefore 8LIK ~ P.. if Q is ramified and P = Q n A then Pis ramified. expressing x 1. . . . However. . So discr((B'/B'P)I(A'/P')) = 0 exactly when discr(B'.. We may treat these two cases simultaneously... and Q is ramified while Q' is not ramified in LIK. x~) is a basis of the A'-module B'.letx~ = Xi/siwithxi E B..xn} is a K-basis of L contained in B. . so discrLIK(Xl. . . . • It will be a feature of the theory that unramified prime ideals may be handled without difficulty. si E S.. if 8LIK ~ P if {x~. Let R be a Dedekind domain. Xn) = discrB'IA'(x1. . x~) = discrB'IA' (x~. x~) E P'.. To find out which prime ideals Q of B are ramified in LIK we shall introduce the relative different of LIK. as follows from Chapter 11.. let {x 1. we shall also consider the different above a given prime ideal of A. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 239 B'/B'P over A'/P'. let LIK be a separable field extension of degree n and T the integral closure of R in L.. . x~ with coefficients in A'. gives discrLIK(xl. Xn) E A. if LIK is not a Galois extension. Dedekind's theorem tells which prime ideals P of A are ramified in LIK. . Xn} beaK-basis of L. A more precise problem is to determine the prime ideals Q of B which are ramified in LIK.. because each Xi E B. B' P)I(A' /P') (x~.. .. if LIK is a Galois extension and Q n A = P then Q is ramified. but discrLIK(xl. . T n K = R. . x~) ~ P'.1A'(x~. . and K its field of quotients. (F). .. x~} is a basis oftheA'-moduleB'.. In the next chapter we shall study in more detail the steps of ramification in the case of Galois extensions. . thus the preceding theorem asserts that it is necessary to concentrate only on those finitely many prime ideals which ramify. . . Conversely. .. 13.. x~) = 0. Indeed. Conversely. If (x~.. . . . there may well exist different prime ideals Q. . .. Xn in terms of x~. . Xn) E A'· discr 8 . L is its field of quotients. with E A'P = P'. .

.. . Indeed. If {x 1. if T · M <:. Let us note here that discrLIK(xl.. as is easily verified. .px. If x E L let 'Px : L -+ K be the linear form defined by 'Px (y) = TrLIK(xy) for every y E L. Now we define complementary sets in L. Mt <:. Norm.. .p is an isomorphism between the K-spaces L... . . if X (O"i(xj))i. Let M be a subset of L.j· Therefore.xj) = bij (bii = 1. . .. x~ E L be elements such that {'Pxi.p : L -+ L'. L'.} is the dual basis. . xn} then M* is a freeR-module with basis {xi.. If A1 is a subset of L and M* is the complementary set. that is...j.. x E L) we have a K-linear mapping r. (4) If M is a freeR-module with basis {x 1 .. R. Xn} is a K-basis of L. 'Pxi(xj) = TrLIK(x..xn) · discrLIK(xi.. bij = 0 when if= j). . 'Px. .. In order that 'Px be the zero mapping we must have TrLIK(xy) = 0 for every y E L. Thus 'Px belongs to L'.. . M2 <:.... Discriminant.. r.. x~} is also a basis of L. Thus {xi. X* = (O"i(xj))i.. . let xi..j. which associates with every pair (x. but and discrLIK(xi. L. . and Different The relative trace TrLIK induced a mapping from L x L into K. Xn}. . x2. .. 'Px 1 +x 2 = 'Px 1 + 'Px 2 (for a E K. .. .x~) = 1.x~) = det(X*) 2 so discrLIK(x1. the dual of the K-vector space L and since 'Pax = ar. (2) If M1 <:. det(X) · det(X*) = 1. .. T* and TrLIK(T*) <:. .. L then Mi <:. Section 10). then X*'· X= (TrLIK(xixj))i. M then M* is a module over T. Therefore.. y) E L x L the element TrLIK(xy) E K. . this means that x = 0 since the trace in the separable extension L[K is nondegenerate (see Chapter 2. O"n are the K-isomorphisms of L. x 1. . This is a symmetric K-bilinear form. if 0" 1. x~} and M** = M.xn) · discrLIK(xi...x~) = 1... . Let us note at once the following properties: H.. then: ( 1) M* is a module over R. .. . and if X' denotes the transpose of the matrix X. The Relative Trace. which we call the complementary basis of {x 1. then M* = {x E L I TrLIK(xy) E R for every y E M} is called the complementary set of M (with respect toR). .240 13. . . (3) T <:.

. If bE T. then M** = M.. let 2::7= 1 a. Proof: It is enough to show that the T-module T* is finitely generated.. . Conversely.xi E M*. so x 1 + x2 E M*. because if b E T is a nonzero common denominator of the generators ofT* then bT* ~ T. . n we have n so M* ~ l:Rxi. j and TrLIK(xix. T* is a finitely generated T-module.. . It is clear that TrLIK(T*) ~ R. i=l This shows the first assertion of (4). (G) and (D)). with a. Moreover. Since R[t].. then TrLIK((ax)y) =a TrLIK(xy) E R so axE M*. that is. x E M*. x E M*. Since M C M** and by duality.) = 1 for every index i = 1. x 2 E lvf*. a fortiori. the ideal ~(TIR) may be written in a unique way as ~(TIR) = TI QsQ where each Q is a nonzero prime ideal of T and SQ ~ 0 is an integer. let us assume that T · M ~ A1. If a E R. Since T ~ T* then ~(TIR) is a nonzero integral ideal ofT. we deduce that T* is also a finitely generated R-module (see Chapter 6. hence a Noetherian ring. . E K. andy E M.2. then TrLIK(T) ~ R. • Definition 4. belongs to M* and therefore 2::7= 1 Rxi ~ M*.. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 241 Proof: (1) Let x 1 . From R[t] ~ T it follows that T* ~ R[t]*. thus bx E M. (4) We have TrLIK(xixj) = 0 when i =f. T ~ T*. The ideal ofT equal to the inverse of the fractional ideal T* is called the different ofT over R. Now. . for every y E M we have TrLIK((xl + X2)y) = TrLIK(xly) + TrLIK(X2Y) E R. • I. 13. for all i = 1. The integer SQ is called the exponent at Q of the different ~(TIR). then TrLIK((bx)y) = TrLIK(x(by)) E R since byE M. (3) Since T is integral over R. which is integrally closed. Then for every j = 1. if x.. y E M. Hence each x. n. hence x E T*. xi* =X. (2) This is obvious. since R is a Dedekind domain. n. Since T is a Dedekind domain. Now. and denoted by ~(TIR). . yET then TrLIK(xy) E R. for t E T. it follows from (H) that R[t]* is a finitely generated R-module. T* is a fractional ideal of L (with respect toT). is a finitely generated free R-module. SQ > 0 only for a finite number of prime ideals Q.

1.. We begin with a result. g' t Proof: (1) Let t = t1. which are necessarily distinct and belong to a Galois extension of finite degree over K. we have g = f1~= 1 (X. .. let g' denote its derivative. . n: thus 1 and we have found that .tk) and we may express the above product as a sum 2.ti)) hence for every j = 1. where t is integral over R and g = xn + c 1 xn.. where the elements ak will now be determined: from 1/g = 2..:.2.1 +···+en E R[X] is the minimal polynomial oft over K. Discriminant. Let L = K (t).tk). tn be the conjugates oft over K. and Different Now we give some indications about the computation of the different.tk) we have 1 = t Xa~gtk t (rr k=1 = k=1 ak i#k (X. The Relative Trace. . Since g is the minimal polynomial oft. which dates back essentially to Euler: J. Then: (1) TrLIK ( g. We shall compute TrLIK ( g.:. n .:~= 1 ak/(X. t2. .. 1. hence 1/g = f1~= 1 1/(X. 1. Norm. tn-1 ) TrLIK ( g'(t) = 1.~t)) = 0 when i = 0. . (2) R[t] * = -(-) 1 R[t].tk).:~= 1 ak/(X . . n.. .242 13.~t)) ~ g'~t) = for i = 0. ...

Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 243 By long Euclidean division. Indeed. g'(tk) - -0 for i = 0. Since an-2 - an_ 1c 1 E R then an-2 E R.. . since the set of elements tJ (j = 0. if y = 2::::: 1 aiti 0 E R[t] then n-1 = an-1. n.1 + L aibn-j-i-1 E R. To prove the inclusion R[t]* ~ (1/g'(t))R[t]let y E R[t]*.. 13.1) is such a basis. j=n-i where elements bk E R are defined above.. ..2 k=1 while ""'_k_ - n tn-1 L.~t)) = an-1. E R. n. . we deduce . n... 1. ..!:!5. because tn = -(c1tn. g'(tk) - 1 ..1.. The elements tJ jg'(t) (for j = 0.. .2 +···+en) with Ci E R. k=1 (2) First we show that tJ jg'(t) E R[t]* for j = 0. n . we conclude that ""'_k_ n ti L. b2. Proceeding in the same manner.2....1) form a basis of Lover K. . 1. 1. Similarly. hence we may write y = L~~~ aj(tl jg'(t)) with each aj E K. while k=1 t 1 - g'(tk)(X . ·] t~ Comparing the two formal power series. Then TrLIK(Y) = ~ aj TrLIK ( g. we may write 1 g with b1. ._ + X2 X3 + ... . 1.tk) - k=1 g'(tk) X t _1_ [ 2_ + . .1 + c2tn. hence an-1 E R because y E R[t]*.

Proof: If T = R[t] we have seen in (J) that T* = (1/g'(t))T. where t E T and g E R[X] is the minimal polynomial oft over K. J' ~ T' ~(TJR) · ~(T'JR).:> TrLIK(~(TJR). • Here is an instance when the different may be explicitly determined: K.1 . we have shown that ~(T'JT).1 . This means that ~(TJR).1 = T' ~(TJR) · ~(T'JR)-\ that is. . and let T = B be the rings of algebraic integers of K and L. Again. Proof: A fractional ideal J' ofT' is such that J' ~ ~(T'JT). hence ~(TJK) = T · g'(t). let R = A. from J = T · J and TrLIK(J) ~ R we deduce that J ~ T*.1 · J' ~ ~(T'JR). The Relative Trace. Then TrLIK(J) ~ R if and only if J ~ T* = ~(TJR). ~(T'JR) = T' ~(TJR) · ~(T'JT). Let L'IL be a separable extension of finite degree. . ~(T'JR) = T' ~(TJR) · ~(T'JT). LJK an extension of degree n.1 and therefore R[t]* = ~() g' t R[t]. from R[t] ~ T we have by (J) T* ~ R[t]* soT = g'(t)T* ~ g'(t)R[t]* = R[t] hence R[t] = T. and let T' be a Dedekind domain.1 · J')) = Tru 1K(T' ~(TJR). having a field of quotients equal to L' and equal to the integral closure of Tin L'. this means that T'~(TJR). Let J be a fractional ideal ofT. E R for every i = 0. n .1 if and only if T -:.1 -:. respectively. • Another useful property is the transitivity of the different.1 · J').1 ) :2 TrLIK(TruiL(T' ~(TJR). Definition 5.244 13.. With these notations: M. Let L = K(t). The different ~(BJA) is also denoted by ~LIK and is called the different of LJK. So. Discriminant.1 . ~(TJR) = T · g'(t) if and only ifT = R[t].1 · TruiL(J') = Tru1L(T' ~(TJR). . 1. that is. Conversely. :> ~(TJR).. Conversely.. Then. Proof: If J ~ T* then TrLIK(J) ~ TrLIK(T*) ~ R. Let K be an algebraic number field.1 · J'). • The different satisfies the following characteristic property: L. and Different that a. Norm. so R-:. • We shall apply the theory just developed in two main instances. :> Tru1L(J').

and let TrLIK(zti) = adsi with ai E A.LIKi it may be written in the form x = yjs with y E D. so we may write XZi = bi/ Si with bi E B. B' = s.. so Zi E B'* hence XZi E B' = s.LIK TI Q 8 '2. then sxzi E B for every i = 1. and BP = Q~. let {t 1 .' hence n. A' = s. s E S.1 A. Let s = s1 · · · Sm E S..(B'IA') is called the different of LIK above P. 13. T = B'. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 245 In the special case where the ground field is K = Q the different of LIQ is also called the absolute different of L. soB' is the integral closure of the principal ideal domain A' inLand we may takeR= A'. yzs 0 E B because y E D. N. With the above notations. hence a finitely generated A-module. B* is a fractional ideal of B. For every nonzero prime ideal Q of B we have SQ :::0: eQ . and let A' = s.£. We deduce that xz = yzs 0 j ss 0 E B' showing that x E D.(B'IA').. . We have TrLIK(ziB) ~A.1 B. . SQ = eQ .(BIA).LIK = TI QSQ' with SQ :::0: 0 integer..1 B.p.1 A. Zm} be a system of generators of the A-module B*. Proof: Given the nonzero prime ideal Q 1 of B let P = Q 1 n A. We note D. Let eQ be the ramification index of Q in LIK. Let z E B'* (the complementary module of the A'-module B').. . si E S. • We are able to compute the different D.(B'IA').1 B. Sometimes we denote it by D. S the set complement of P in A.(BIA).=1 . If so= s1 · · · Sm E S then TrLIK(zsoti) =so TrLIK(zti) E A for every i = 1. . B' · D. The different D. and let S be the multiplicative set complement of Pin A. More- over. . hence also sxB* ~ B. tm} be a system of generators. Definition 6. Proof: Let x E B' · D. let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. B' = s. This proves that sx E D.(BIA) and x E B' · D.. and since S ~ K then TrLIK(ziB') ~ A'. that is. Now. . m. Thus TrLIK(zs 0 B) ~ A so zso E B* (complemen- tary module of the A-module B). m. let x E D.LIK = D.p(LIK) or simply D. We know that B is a finitely generated A-module. Conversely..2. so TrLIK(zB') ~ A'. . 0.(B'IA') and the inclusion B' · D.1.(BIA). .1 if and only if the characteristic of B /Q does not divide the ramification index eQ.LIK ~ D.LIK = D. Si E S.(B'IA').. and sometimes denoted by 6. We wish to compare these differents. Let {z1.

=l B'Q~i = B' P. Thus let X En.. Hence Tr(B' I B' P)!(A' /P)(xt) = 0.:ei ·Tr(B'/B'Qi)!(A'/P')('l/Ji(xt)) i=l = e1 · Tr(B'/B'Qt)!(A'/P')('l/Jl(xt)). TI. since B't = B' P = B'Q~'. Now we assume that the characteristic of BIQ 1 = B'IB'Q 1 divides the ramification index e 1 .-e. . B'*.. This shows that x E B'*. that is TrLIK(xt) = TrB'IA'(xt) E A'P.. that if 'ljJ : A' --> A' I P and 'l/Ji : B' --> B' I B'Qi then g 'l/J(TrL!K(xt)) = L. (G). We conclude that t TrL!K(x) = TrLIK(xt) E A' P = A't. hence TrL!K(x) E A'.=l hold if and only if B' Q.::: el. <:. if y E B' then xy also belongs to n.(Tr L!K (xt)) == 0. (L).=l B'Q. .=l B'Q. so xt is a nilpotent element of the ring B' I B' P. we have g ~(B'IA') = B' · ~LIK = IJ B'QI'. . Let X E J.::: ei .=l B'Q~'.-ei. Since B' is a free A'-module. TrLIK(xt) = TrB'IA'(xt). B' P = TI. n. we recall that P' = A' pis a principal ideal.. . (N).g) TI. I1 B'Qie' <:. (P).1 (i=1.-ei so TrLIK(xy) E A'.246 13. B' I B' P is a vector space of dimension n over A' I P and by Chapter 12. .. Norm. sot· TrLIK(x) = TrLIK(xt) E P' = A't and therefore Tr£1K(x) E A'. taking the images by the canonical homomorphisms Tr(B'/B'P)!(A'/P)(xt) = TrB'IA'(xt). we wish to show that g J = B'Q1el . From (N) and Chapter 12. Then the characteristic polynomial of the associated linear transformation of B' I B' pis equal to xn. i=2 hence sl . But e 1 is a multiple of the characteristic of B' I B' Q 1 . B'*. for i = 1. by the previous argument xt E B'Qi. The inequalities si . (F). g. hence '!j. But (xt)e' +··+ e" E Il.=l B'Qi.=l B'QiSi. By Chapter 12. i=l where si = sQ. by Chapter 12. and Different by Chapter 12. (I). We show that TrLIK(xt) E A' P. Thus the complementary module of the A'-module B' is B'* = n.=2 It follows from Chapter 12.=l then xt E n. Discriminant. so there exists t E K such that P' = A't.. The Relative Trace. Now.

• Theorem 2.. . hence sq 2': 1 and so Q divides the different ~LIK· Conversely.1. complement of P in A. eq 2': 2. if the characteristic of B IQ 1 = B' I B'Q 1 does not divide the ramification index e 1 we proceed as follows. it is a fractional ideal of B'. soB' is a principal ideal domain (by Chapter 7.1 B. .. Then B' is a Dedekind domain. .x E B'Q 1 . y "I 0 such that B'* = B'y. we have P. so TrLIK(xy) E A'. s1 = e1 . it is not true that -e1 2': -s1. (L)... x~} is any basis of the A'-module B' then {yx~. A' = s- 1A.1 = ~(B'\A') = B' · ~LIK (by (N)). if eq = 1. g). . Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 247 Now.2.. having only finitely many prime ideals (by Chapter 12. andy E B'Q:' fori = 2..1. g. NLIK(~LIK) = OLIK· Proof: Let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A. yx~} . This shows that ylt rf_ B'*.. TrLIK(Y) if. By Chapter 7.)I(A' /P')('lf'!i(Y)) i=1 = e1 ·'Ir(B'/B'Qi)i(A'/P')('lf'!1(x))-=/= 0 since e 1 is not a multiple of the characteristic of B' I B'Q 1 . Therefore TrLIK(Y) rf_ P' = A't and so TrLIK ( T) = ~ . and this shows that X E B'*. then xy E J. Let x E B' be an element such that its image 'lf'! 1 (x) E B'IB'Q 1 has a nonzero trace.. . A'. if y E B'. therefore. (applied to the Dedekind domain B') there exists an element y E B' such that y . . If {x~. and therefore B'y. An ideal Q of B is ramified in L\K if and only ifQ divides the different ~LIK· Proof: We assume that Q is ramified in L\K. that is. so e 1 > s1 2': e 1 . . so Q does not divide the different. Let B'* be the complementary module of the free A'-module B'.1 = 0. (A)). since B't = B' P andy E B'Q:' (i = 2. . and let S be the multi- plicative set. (P): g 'lf'!(TrLIK(Y)) =Lei· 'Ir(B' /B'Q. • From Theorems 1 and 2 we expect a relationship between the relative different ~LIK and the relative discriminant bLIK· In fact. Conversely. then ylt E B'Q!e' hence B'Q!e' is not contained in B'*. 13. (N)). we conclude that sq = eq . B' = s. since the characteristic of B I Q cannot divide eq. Then by Chapter 12. hence there exists y E L.

Discriminant. . . ..LIK ). ... The Relative Trace.. .. therefore..LIK) =A' NLIK(Ba) ·A' NLIK(!J. .j E A'.. Xn'*) = d"lSCrB"IA' (X '*1 . let {xi. .. .. ..LIK ).LIK) = NB'IA'(B'a) · NB'IA'(B'!J. x~) =A'· NLIK(y.1 ) = A'NLIK(!J. . For every prime ideal P. ... i=l Thus discrLIK E A'· discrLIK(x~. . . . (C)). where J. '*) . x~) ] 2 · [ NLIK (y) ] 2 is a unit of A'. . I ) · .1 = zja with z E B..LIK) = ps' · J'.n) with a. yx~) = discrB"IA'(yx~. By Chapter 12. B'* has also the complementary basis { x~*. . Xn'*) and discrLIK(yx~.LIK· Taking the relative norms (for the ring extension B'JA') it follows from (A) that A'NLIK(z) = A'NLIK(Bz) = NB'IA'(B'z) = NB'IA'(B'a · B'!J. x~) = Ap · NLIK(!J. we show the inclusion 6LIK ~ NLIK(!J.. not multiples of .. . [discr LIK(x~. This being seen. xn} be any K-basis of L such that each element xi belongs to B. a E S. . But . Now y. let 6LIK = ps · J.lSCfLIK (x '* 1 .Xn = 1 and discrLIK(yx~..LIK) =A' NLIK(a) ·A' NLIK(!J. We may write n Xj = L:a~jx~ (j = l.. x~} be any basis of the A' -module B'.LIK ). yx~) are associated elements of A'... x~).. Conversely.. x~} of the A' -module B' we have A'· discrLiK(xi.Xn d"lSCrLIK ( X '* 1 . .1 ). d lSCf£1K ( x I1. Thisshowsthat6LIK ~ npAp·NLIK(/J. . By (H).. and NLIK(!J. . .. so A'· discrLIK(x~. Norm. hence A'NLIK(Y. .. (L) and (T): d.. . . Let {x1. . yx~) = [NLIK(Y)] 2 · discrLIK(x~.. .... . x~) = A'· NLIK(!J. .LIK )..LIK)· We have shown that for every basis {x~. x~} over A'.LIK) = NLIK(/J. .248 13. let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A..LIK) (see Chapter 12.. J' are ideals of A. . and Different is a basis of B'*. so B'z = B'a · B'!J... .

6. Proof: We have seen in Chapter 10. 's..L'IK = B' ..£'1£. Taking norms. so s ~ r = s'. NLIK(bL'Id· As an application of these computations.6. NLIK(bL'IL) = (bLIK )[L':LJ . this will imply that w = rr:=l P7' divides 2DK. Then bL'IK = (bLIK )[L':L] . NLIK(bL'Id· Proof: From (M) we have the following relation between the differents: .6. Let 'T/ be a primitive root of unity of order w.L'IL)j = NLIK ( . . x~} of the A'-module B'.Q(() = . and (P) of this chapter. then bLIK divides. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 249 P..LIK )j · NLIK [NL'IL(. ..LIK ).L'IL) so DL'IK = NLIK [NL'IL(B' .. (C).6.6. . so it is sufficient to prove that pk divides 2DQ((). 2: 1 and PI. Let K be an algebraic number field. But bLIK contains.LIK).6. .x~) =prJ. Ps are distinct prime numbers.. . where I is an ideal of A not a multiple of P. Now...6.6. after multiplication with an element of S we may assume that each x~ E B. (N) and (0). where k. We have seen in Chapter 11..6. Let K <::. let W be the multiplicative group of roots of unity in K. (J). By (Q) the discriminant DQ(() divides DK. .2. then s' = r.. for every prime ideal P #c 0 of A we choose a basis {x~.. . since this holds for every prime ideal P #c 0 of A.LIK · . let W.: L' be algebraic number fields. • Using this result and the transitivity of the different.x~). we obtain the transitivity of the discriminant: Q.j. A' discrLIK(xi.. x~) =A'· NLIK(. that p is the only ramified prime in Q(() and Ap = (A. . then rr#i (. This concludes the proof.. which is due to Ore: R. . NL'IK(.LIK) = (A'P)s'. Then w divides 2DK. (F). . thus the different of Q(()IQ is . (H).6. .~/ 1 ) .L'IK) = NL'IK(B' . . hence divides. it follows from Chapter 12.6. It is enough to show that if K contains a primitive pkth root of unity ( then pk divides 2DK. where B' is the ring of integers of L'. = p. Let w = fl:=I P7'. hence contains N LIK(.6. We shall see that s ~ s'. Let A· discrLIK(x~.. . x~) = (A'PY and since A'· discrLIK(x~.)'P(P').. 13.. that NL'IK(. By Chapter 12. we may establish the following • general result. and w the number of elements in W. = T)w' is a primitive root of unity of order P7' belonging to K for every i = 1. A· discrLIK(xi_.: L <::. that W is a cyclic group.

Now. if x E B. 0.250 13.ui(t)) and g' (t) -f. Discriminant. S. Then g'(t) = TI~= 2 (t. We want to compare the fractional ideals B* and A[t]*. x E g' (t) · B* = Ft. (2) Since B* ~ A[t]* = A[t]/g'(t).1 $ s. we have xy E J so Tr(yx/g'(t)) E A. Proof: (1) Indeed g'(t) · B* ~ g'(t) · A[t]* = A[t] ~ B.O"i(t)) where 0"1 = E. 0 if and only if t is a primitive element of the extension L IK. But this last quantity is at least equal to k when p > 2 and equal to k . it is customary to call g' ( t) the different of t in L IK. Taking norms we have lb!C)I(ol = p8 (by (P) and Chapter 11. We assume henceforth that t is a primitive element of LIK and t E B. in other words. Thus the minimal polynomial oft over K divides g. Norm. In any case pk divides 2p 8 = 2I6Q(ol· • If t E L let g(x) = n~=l(X. For this reason. ' O"n are the K-isomorphisms of L into C. By (J). B* ~ A[t]* = A[t]!g'(t) ~ B · (1/g'(t)) hence g'(t) · B* ~ B so g'(t) E ~LIK· To show the converse. t is different from its conjugates over K. . so g'(t) E A. Then Ft is an ideal of B called the conductor of A[t] in B. g'(t) -f. For every y E B. If this has been shown. let J be an ideal of B which is contained in A[t] and x E J. (2) Ft is the largest ideal of B contained in A[t]. • T. Lett E B be a primitive element of LjK: (1) The conductor of A[t] in B is equal toFt = g'(t)B*. ~LIK is the ideal of B generated by the differents g'(t) of all the primitive elements t E B. TrLIK(x/g'(t)) E A. Proof: Let t be a primitive element of LIK. it is enough to establish that for every nonzero prime ideal Q of B there exists a primitive element t E B such that Q does not contain Ft. and Different (A0 8 and by (0) tp(pk) . . If t E B then. the ideal LtEB Ft generated . . (N)). So g E K[X] and g(t) = 0.1 when p = 2. hence (g'(t) · B*) · A[t]* = g'(t) · A[t]* · B* ~ B*. Conversely. As we know B* ~ A[t]* = A[t]/g'(t). Let Ft = {x E B I x · A[t]* ~ B*}. then Ft = g'(t) · B* ~ A[t]. Therefore. x · A[t]* ~ B* then x E x · A[t] ~ g'(t) · B*. hence x / g' (t) E B* by definition of B*. by (K). 0"2. The Relative Trace.

13.2. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 251

by UtEB Ft is equal to B. Hence

~LIK = ~LIK. B = ~LIK (L L~LIK.
tEB
Ft) =
tEB
Ft

= L ~LIK. g'(t). B* LB. g'(t).
=
tEB tEB

So, let us prove the above assertion. Let Q n A = P and B · P = Qe · J,
where e ~ 1, Q does not divide J.
We divide the proof into several steps.
1o. First we show that there exists t E L such that:
(1) t E J, t ~ Q.
(2) The image toft in B /Q is a generator of the multiplicative cyclic
group of nonzero elements of the finite field B jQ.
(3) tN(Q) - t ~ Q 2 .
(4) L = K(t).
To choose t let u E B be such that its image u E B /Q generates the
multiplicative group of nonzero elements of B/Q (a finite field), which is
known to be cyclic (see Chapter 2, Section 9).
Let q = N(Q), so by Chapter 8, (G), q E Q. Then uq - u E Q. If
uq - u ~ Q 2 let u 1 = u. If uq - u E Q 2 , let v E Q, v ~ Q 2 and let
u1 = u + v. Then 'U1 = u + v = u and ui - u1 E Q but ui - u1 =
(uq- u) + quq-lv + (nuq-lv 2 + ... +vq- v ~ Q2 , since v ~ Q2 but
every other summand is in Q 2 (since q E Q).
Since Q does not divide J. then B = J + Q 2 and we may write u1 = t + v1
with t E J, V1 E Q2 ; then t ~ Q because u1 ~ Q. vVe also have t = 'U1 so
tq- t E Q and
tq- t = (u1 - vl)q - (u1 -vi) =ui - u1 (mod Q 2 ).
Hence tq- t ~ Q 2 .
Now we show that L = K(t). First we note that if t' E t + JQ 2 then t'
also satisfies conditions (1), (2), (3)-this is trivial to verify. We choose t'
in the set t + JQ 2 such that [K(t') : K] is maximal. If JQ 2 <:;:; K(t') let
x E JQ 2 , x # 0, so Bx <:;:; JQ 2 . But Lis generated by Bx over K, hence
by JQ 2 , soL= K(JQ 2 ) <:;:; K(t') <:;:; L, thus K(t') = L.
If JQ 2 (l_ K(t'), let z E JQ 2 , z ~ K(t'). We consider the family K =
{K(t' + az) I a E A} of subfields of L. Since LjK is separable, this family
of subfields must be finite. But A is infinite, so there exist a 1 , a 2 E A, a 1 #
a 2 , such that K(t' + a 1 z) = K(t' + a 2 z) = K'. Then (a 1 - a 2 )z E K'
so z E K', t' E K'. Thus K(t') is properly contained in K', because

252 13. The Relative Trace, Norm, Discriminant, and Different

z rf K(t'). But K(t' + a 1 z) is in the family K, which is a contradiction,
and proves (4).
2°. For every integer l :=::: 1 and element b E B there exists c E A[t] such
that b - c E Q 1, where t is chosen as in (1 °).
Indeed, let S be a system of representatives of B modulo Q. If w = tq - t
then for every l > 0:
R ={so+ s1w + s2w 2 + · · · + s1-1w 1- 1 I so, s1 .... , s1- 1 E S}
is a system of representatives of B modulo Q 1 (see Chapter 8, (B)). In
particular, we may takeS = {0, 1, t, t 2 , ... , tq- 1 }. Then for every element
bE B there exists a unique element c = s0 + s 1 w + · · · + s 1_ 1w 1- 1 E A[t],
with each si E {0, 1, t, . .. , tq-l }, such that b - c E Q 1.
3°. There exists l 2: 0 such that Btl c;;: A[t].
Indeed, let a E B · g'(t) n A, a # 0; let Aa = pr ·I, where r 2: 0 and P
does not divide the ideal I. If his the class number of K, we obtain principal
ideals by considering hth powers of ideals; let Aa 1 = Aah, prh = Aa 2,
hence a 1 = a2a3, where a3 E Jh. J\1oreover, a3 rj P, since the exact power
of P which divides a 1 is rh.
Let us show that the principal ideal B(a 3trh) is contained in A[t]. Given
b E B, let c E A[t] be an element such that b - c E Qerh. Then ba:1trh
(b- c)a 3rh + ca3fTh. As ca 3trh E A[t] it is enough to show that
(b- c)a3trh E A[t].
Now we have
Ba2a3(b - c)trh c Ba 1 · Qerh . BFh
B . prh - Qerh . Jrh
c;;: Bah· B c;;: g'(t) · B c;;: A[t]
because t E J and g'(t)B* c;;: A[t]. Therefore, B(a 3trh) E A[t].
4°. End of the proof. It follows from (S) that B(a3trh) <;;;Ft. But a:l rj P,
so a3 rf Q and t rf Q, hence a3trh rj Q, showing that Ft is not contained
in Q. •
One might ask whether a similar result holds for the relative discriminant.
More precisely, for every primitive integral element x of LjK, :r E B, we
may consider the discriminant b (x) = discr L K ( 1, x, x 2 , ... , xn- 1 ).
1

By definition b(x) E bLIK and we wish to compare the ideal bLIK of A
with the ideal bliK which is generated by all the above elements b(x). We
quote without proof the following results due to Hensel:
For every x as above we have an integral ideal Ix snch that b(x) =
t; ·OLIK·
A nonzero prime ideal P of A, which divides Ix for every primitive in-
tegral element x, is called an inessential factor of the discriminant. In

13.2. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 253

order that b~IK = b(x) for some primitive integral element x it is necessary
and sufficient that there exists no inessential factor for the discriminant.
A necessary and sufficient condition for a prime ideal P of A not to be
an inessential factor of the discriminant bLl K is the following:

g(f) S: yL JL ( ~) N(P)d
dlf

(for any natural number f 2 1) where g(f) denotes the number of prime
ideals Q of B such that Q n A = P and Q has inertial degree f over P and
JL is the Mobius function (see Chapter 3, Exercise 45).
It follows that if Pis an inessential factor of DLIK then N(P) < [L : K] =
n. The converse is also true when there exist n distinct prime ideals Qi of
B such that Q; n A = P.
So, if [L: K] = 2, then there are no inessential factors for bLIK· How-
ever, Dedekind has shown the existence of inessential prime factors for the
discriminant of a cubic field (see Chapter 16, Example 3).
We conclude this section with results relating the degree, rings of integers,
and discriminants of fields K 1 , K 2 and their compositum L = K 1 K 2 .
U. Let K 1 , K 2 be two algebraic number fields, extensions of the field
K, let L = K 1 Kz be their compositum; let P be a nonzero prime ideal of
the ring of integers A of K. Then:
(1) LlLIK 2 divides BLlK 1 1K' LlLIK 1 divides BLlK2 IK where B is the
ring of integers of L.
) d ..d
( 2 ) N K2 1K (uLIK
<:
2
<:[L:KJ]
wz es uK 1 IK an d N K1 IK ("uLIK 1 ) d.wz"d es uK
dL:Ko]
2 IK.

(3) P is unramified in LIK if and only if it is unramified in K1IK
and in KziK.

Proof: (1) We show that LlLIK 2 divides BLlK 1 1K' that is, LlK1 1K <:;;;
LlLIK2 • Let A; be the ring of integers of K; fori = 1, 2.
By (T), it suffices to show that if t E A 1 , K 1 = K(t), if g E A[X] is the
minimal polynomial oft over K, then g'(t) E LlLIK 2 • We have L = Kz(t).
Let h be the minimal polynomial oft over K 2 , so h divides g in K 2 [X],
thus g = hk; since h is monic, then k E A 2 [X]. It follows that g'(t) =
h'(t)k(t) E Bh'(t) <:;;; LlLIK2·
(2) We use the various properties for the discriminant and the different
which were established in this section. We have

NK2IK(bLIK2) = NK2IK(NLIK2(LlLIK2)) = NLIK(LlLIK2)

divides (by ( 1)):
NLIK(BLlKIIK) = NKIIK(NLIKI (BLlKIIK ))

= N KIIK ( °KIIK - UKIIK.
A [L:KJ]) _ <:[L:K1]

254 13. The Relative Trace, Norm, Discriminant, and Different

(3) Clearly, if P is unramified in LIK then P is also unramified in
K1IK and in K2IK.
Conversely, we have (by (Q)):
{J {J[L:K2] N (fJ )
LIK = K2IK . K2IK LIK2
and

NK2IK(fJLIK2) = NK2IK(NLIK2(i:lLIK2)) = NLIK(i:lLIK2)
and this ideal divides
NLIK(Bi:lK,IK) = NK,IK(NLIKl (BflK,IK)

- N (fl[L:K!]) - {J[L:K!]
- K,IK K1 1K - K1 IK ·
Thus, if Pis unramified in K 1 IK and in K 2 IK, by Theorem 1, P does not
divide fJK,IK nor bK 2 1K· Hence P does not divide fJLIK• soP is unramified
in LIK. •
As a corollary we have:
V. Let K c,;; L c,;; L' be algebraic number fields such that L' is the
smallest field containing L for which L'IK is a Galois extension. Let P be
a nonzero prime ideal of the ring of integers of K. Then P is unramified
in LIK if and only if P is unramified in L'IK.
Proof: We apply the preceding result for the fields L = L 1 , L 2 , ... , Lrn,
where each Li is a conjugate of Lover K, noting that L' is the compositum
of these fields. •
For algebraic number fields with relatively prime absolute discriminants,
we have:
W. Let K1, K2 be algebraic n·urnber fields of degree n 1, n2, respectively,
and such that fJK,, bK 2 are relatively prime. Let L = K 1 K2. Then:
(1) [L: Qi] = n1n2.
(2) th = 6'J/Yk'
2 •

(3) If A 1 , A 2 , Bare the rings of integers of K 1 , K 2 , L, respectively,
then B = A 1 A2; if {x1, ... , Xn,} is an integral basis of K 1, and if
{YI, ... , Yn 2 } is an integral basis of K2 then {:r1Y1, ... , Xn 1 Yn 2 }
is an integral basis of L.

Proof: (1) We have [L: Qi] = [K2 : Qi] · [L : K2] = n 2 [L : K 2 ]. If
[L: Qi] < n 1 n 2 then [L: K 2 ] < n 1 . Let K 1 = Q(t) so L = K 2 (t); let
g E Q[X] be the minimal polynomial oft over Q, so deg(g) = n 1 . Since
[L : K 2 ] < n 1 , the minimal polynomial h oft over K 2 has degree smaller
than n 1 and it divides g; let K' be the subfield of K 2 generated by the
coefficients of h, so K' is not equal to Qi because g is irreducible over Qi.
From K' c,;; K 2 we deduce (by (Q)) that fJK' divides bK"·

13.2. Relative Discriminant and Different of Algebraic Number Fields 255

On the other hand, the coefficients of h are elementary symmetric func-
tions of the roots of h, which are among the conjugates oft; thus h E K( [X],
where K( is the smallest Galois extension of IQ containing K 1 . Thus
K' ~ K( and again bx' divides bx;.
If p is a prime number dividing 15 K', it divides 15 x 2 and 15 x;; by Theorem
1 and (V), p divides bx,, which is contrary to the hypothesis.
Thus Jbx, I = 1 and by Chapter 9, (D), we conclude that K' = IQ, a
contradiction. This proves ( 1).
(2) By (Q), we have DL = Nx,IQ(DLIKI) · D'k.2, = Nx21Q(/5LIX2) ·157{2·
Hence b'k.~ and 15'k.'2 divide 15 L and, by hypothesis, b'k.2,15'k.'2 divides 15 L.
On the other hand, from (U), we know that Nx 21Q(/5LIX2) divides
b~;x,] = b'k.2, by (1); hence /5£ = Nx 21 Q(/5LIX2) · b'k.~ divides b'k.2,15'k.'2 and
this establishes the equality.
(3) Let A 1A 2 denote the smallest subring of L containing A 1 and A2;
so A1A2 ~B.
We compute the discriminant of the set {x 1y1, ... , Xn,Yn 2 }. First, we
observe that if a- is any isomorphism of L, if a-x,, a-x 2 denote the restric-
tions of a- to K1 and K 2 , respectively, then the mapping a- -+ (a-x,, a-xJ
is injective, because L = K 1K2, and also surjective since [L: IQ] = n1n2.
Hence,

where a-1, ... , a-n, are the isomorphisms of K1 and TI, ... , Tn 2 are the
isomorphisms of K2.
We have to compute the determinant of a matrix, which is the Kronecker
product of the matrices

and for this purpose we use the special case stated after Lemma 1 of Chapter
12.
Thus

Since XiYj E B, by Chapter 6, (M) {x1y1, ... ,xn,Yn 2 } is an integral
basis of B and, in particular, B = A 1 A 2 . •

256 13. The Relative Trace, Norm, Discriminant, and Different

EXERCISES

1. Let K = Q(x), where x 3 - x2 - 2x +8
0. If y = (:r 2 - .r)/2,
=
compute its characteristic polynomial in KIQ and its minimal polynomial
over Q.

2. Give an independent proof of Theorem 1 for the case of a quadratic
field K = Q( Yd).

3. Let p, q be distinct prime numbers, ( a primitive pth root of unity,
and rJ a primitive qth root of unity:
(a) Find an integral basis for K = Ql((, rJ) and the discriminant of
this field.
(b) Let K' be the maximal real subfield of K. Show that the relative
different 6.KIK' is the unit ideal.

4. Let p, q be distinct prime numbers, p = 1 (mod 4), q 1
(mod 4). Let K = Q(JP, ylq):
(a) Find an integral basis and the discriminant of K.
(b) Let K' = Q(y'P(i); show that the relative different 6.KIK' is the
unit ideal.

5. Applying Hensel's criterion for the existence of an inessential factor
of the discriminant, show the following assertions of the text:
(a) If Pis an inessential factor of 15LIK then N(P) < [L: K] = n.
(b) If N(P) < nand BP is decomposed into the product of n distinct
prime ideals of B then P is an inessential factor.

6. Let K be an algebraic number field, A the ring of integers, and R a
subring of A. Show that there exists an ideal F of A such that:
(a) F <:;; R.
(b) If I is an ideal of A such that I <:;; R then I <:;; F.
Then F is called the conductor of R in A.

7. Let K be an algebraic number field, A the ring of integers, R a subring
of A, and F the conductor of R in A. If I is an ideal of R let AI denote
the ideal of A generated by I. I is said to be a regular ideal of R when
gcd(AI, F) = A. Show:
(a) If J is an ideal of A such that gcd(J, F) =A there exists an ideal
I of R such that J = AI.

Exercises 257

(b) If I, I' are regular ideals of R then A(I ·I') =AI· AI'.
(c) The number of congruence classes modulo F of elements a E R
such that gcd(Aa, F) = A divides <p(F) (see Chapter 8, Exercise
2).

14
The Decomposition of Prime Ideals
in Galois Extensions

14.1 Decomposition and Inertia
Let K be an algebraic number field, LIK a finite extension of degree n,
and, as before, let A, B be, respectively, the rings of integers of K, L. Let
P be a prime ideal of A, and let BP = f};= 1 P;e, be the decomposition of
BP into a product of prime ideals, with fi = [B/ P; : A/ P]. We shall study
in more detail how this decomposition takes place. This has been done by
Hilbert, assuming that LIK is a Galois extension.
Accordingly, let K = G(LIK) be the Galois group of LIK, so K has n
elements, the K-automorphisms of L. We shall make appeal to the discus-
sion in Chapter 11, preceding and including (E), (F), and Theorem 1; in
particular, we write e = e1 = · · · = e9 , f = h = · · · = f 9 .
We shall also adopt the following notation: K = A/ P, L; = B / P;, each
field L; is isomorphic with the extension of degree f; of the finite field K.
Since h = · · · = f 9 , all the fields L; are actually isomorphic; however, we
shall not identify them.

Definition 1. With the preceding notations, the subgroup Z; of K,
defined by Z; = {u E K I u(P;) = P;} is called the decomposition group of
P; in the extension LIK. The field of invariants of Z; is denoted by Z; and
is called the decomposition field of P; in the extension LIK.
If necessary, we may also use the following notations:
Z; = Z(P;I P) = Zp, (LIK),
Z; = Z(P;I P) = Zp, (LIK).

A. The subgroups Z 1 , ... , Z 9 of K are conjugate (by inner automor-
phisms of K). In particular, if K is an Abelian group, then Z 1 = · · · =
Zg·
Proof: Let P;, Pj be distinct prime ideals of B such that P; n A = P1 n
A = P. Since K acts transitively on the set of prime ideals { P 1 , ... , P9 },
there exists u E K such that u(P;) = Pj. Then Z; = u- 1 1 u. z •

259

260 14. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions

B. For every integer i = 1, ... , g we have: [Zi : K] = (K. : Zi) = g.

Proof: This proof has already been in Chapter 11, (0), while discussing
the cyc:lotomic field. We repeat it for the convenience of the reader. vVe
have aZi = TZi (with a, T E K.) if and only if a(Pi) = T(Pi)· In fact,
if aZi = TZi, then a- 1 T E zi, so a- 1 T(Pi) = Pi, hence T(Pi) = a(P;).
Conversely, if a(P;) = T(Pi), then a- 1 T E zi hence TZi = aZi·
Thus, the number g of distinct prime ideals P; is the same as the number
of distinct cosets modulo Zi; that is, the index (K. : Z;). From Galois theory,
we have (K. : Z,) = [Zi : K]. •
The decomposition field has the following minimality property:

C. If Qi = Pi n Zi (prime ideal of the ring of integers B n Zi of Z,),
then Pi is the only ideal of the ring of integer·s of L which extends Q.;.
Conversely, if Zf is a field, K c;;; Zf c;;; L, if Q; = Pi n Zf and Pi is the
only extension of Q~ to L, then Zi c;;; z;.

Proof: We have Zi = G(LIZi); by Chapter 11, (E), Zi acts transitively
on the set of prime ideals of B extending Qi; but, by definition, a(Pi) = P;
for every a E Zi, thus Pi is the only extension of Qi.
Next, if Pi is the only extension of Q~ = Pi n z;, then every element
of the Galois group Zf = G(LIZI) fixes P;, hence belongs to Zi; thus, we
have the opposite inclusion for the fixed fields: ZJ 2 Z;. •

We fix our attention on one of the prime ideals P;, which we shall denote
by P for simplicity.
Let Z = Zp(LIK), Z = Zp(LIK), L = B/P, K = G(LIR} We denote
also by B z = B n Z the ring of integers of Z, by Pz = P n Z the prime
ideal of B z defined by P, and by Z = B z / Pz the corresponding residue
c:lass field; accordingly, let e be the ramification index and f the inertial
degree of P over E_.

D. (1) Z = K, so the inertial degrees are f(Pzl P) = 1, f(PIPz) = f;
the ramification indices are e(Pzl P) = 1, e(PIPz) =e.
(2) The mapping a E Z --> (J E G( IlK) is a group-homomorphism
onto G( IlK), having kernel equal to the normal subgroup
T = {a E Z I a(:r) =x (mod P) for every element x E B}.

Proof: ( 1) By the fundamental relation of Theorem 1, Chapter 11, and
(C), we have
[L: Z] = e(PIPz) · f(PIPz).
On the other hand, [L : K] = efg and by (B), [Z : K] = g. Therefore.
ef = e(PIPz) · f(PIPz ). By the transitivity of the ramification index and
inertial degree, we must have e(PIPz) = e, f(PIPz) = f and e(Pzl E..)='

14.1. Decomposition and Inertia 261

L f(Pzl P) = 1. Therefore

[L : Z] = f(PIPz) = f = [L : K] implies that Z = K.
(2) If a E Z then a(P) = P, hence a induces the mapping Cf: L---+ L,
defined by Ci(x) = a(x) for every x E B. It is immediate that Cf is a
Z-automorphism.
Now, we shall prove that the image is equal to G(LIK). Since.K is a finite
field, there exists b E B such that L = K(b). If~ E G(LIK) then ~(6) is a
conjugate of b over K.
Let h be the minimal polynomial of b over Z; since LIZ is a Galois
extension, all the conjugates of b over Z are still in L, and in fact in B;
thus h decomposes ash= DaEz(X- a(b)); considering the images of the
coefficients by the canonical mapping B ---+ L (which extends Bz ---+ Z =
K), we have h = 0(X - a(b)) E K[X]; of course, b is among the roots
of h; the conjugates of b over K are the roots of its minimal polynomial,
which divides h, thus the conjugates of bare among the elements a( b) E L.
In particular, ~(b) = a(b) = Ci(b), for some a E Z, and therefore c; and (f
must coincide on every element of L.
The kernel of the group-homomorphism is obviously the set of all a E Z
such that Cf(x) = x for every x E L, that is, a(x) =x (mod P) for every
x E B. •

Thus, we have the group-isomorphism Z/T ~ G(LIK) for every prime
ideal P.
It is convenient to remark that T is also equal to the set of all a E Z such
that a(x) = x (mod BpP) for every x E Bp. For if a satisfies this latter
condition, if x E B then a(x)- x E B n BpP = P. Conversely, if a E T,
if x E Bp, we may write x = b/8, with b, 8 E B, 8 tic P; let a= NL 1z(8),
the product of the conjugates of 8 over Z, so a = 88 1 E B n Z, a tic P
(because if a E Z then a(P) = P, so a(8) tic P) and x = b8 1 ja, with
b8 1 E B, a E B n Z, a 1¢ P; thus a(x) - x = (a(b8') - b8')/a E BpP for
a E T.

Definition 2. For every prime ideal P; of B, T; is called the
inertial group of P; in the extension LIK. The field of invariants of T;
is denoted by T; and called the inertial field of P; in LIK.
We may also adopt the following notations:

T; = T(P;I P) = TP; (LIK),
T; = T(P;I EJ = TP; (LIK).
\Vhen we fix our attention on one of the prime ideals P;, which we denote
by P for simplicity, then we write T = Tp(LIK) and T = Tp(LIK). We
also denote by Br = B n T the ring of integers of T, Pr the prime ideal
P n T = Pr, and by T the corresponding residue class field.

262 14. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions

\Vith these notations, we have the first important result:

Theorem 1. (1) TIZ is a Galois extension and G(TIZ) = Z/T ~ K.
(2) [T : Z] = f, [L : T] = e.
(3) L = T, so the inertial degrees are

f(PriPz) = f, f(PIPr) = 1.

(4) The ramification indices of the ideals in question are
e(PriPz) = 1, e(PIPr) =e.

Residue
Rarnification class Inertial
Groups Fields Ideals Degrees indices fields degrees

.r
Ic I, I,

If I,

I,
~K If

I,
I" •K

Proof: The assertion (1) is now obvious.
By (1), we have [T: Z] = #(ZjT) = #(K) = [I: K] =f.
Since n = efg, [Z: K] = g (by (B)) and [T: Z] = f, then [L : T] = e.
To show that L = T we consider the extension LIT. Then Zp(LIT) = T
and Tp(LIT) = T, as is obvious. Hence, by (1), G(LIT) = T jT soL= T.
Therefore, [T: Z] = [L: K] =f.
Considering the Galois extension LIT, we have
[L : T] = e = e(PIPr) · f(PIPr );
but f(PIPr) = 1, so e(PIPr) = e and by transitivity of ramification,
e(PriPz) = 1. •

It is also useful to know the relative behavior of these groups.

14.1. Decomposition and Inertia 263

For the next proposition, we consider algebraic number fields K, F,
F', L with K ~ F ~ L, K ~ F' ~ L; we assume that LjK, F'IK, FIK
are Galois extensions. Let P, Pp, PF', P be prime ideals of the rings of
integers of L, F, F', K, such that Pp = P n F, PF' = P n F', E_ =
Pp n K = PF' n K. We also denote by gE._(LIK) the number of prime ideals
P of L dividing E_ and by fp(LIK) the inertial degree of P in LIK. The
notations
gE._(FIK), gE._(F'IK), gpF (LIF), gp, .. , (LIF'),
fp(LIF), fp(LIF'), !P,. (FIK), fpF, (F'IK),
have similar meanings.
E. With the above notations:
(1) Zp,.(FIK) ~ Zp(LIK)jZp(LIF).
Tp,,.(FIK) ~ Tp(LIK)jTp(LIF).
(2) IfF n F' = K and L = F F' then
Zp(LIK) ~ ZpF (FIK) X ZpF, (F'IK),
Tp(LIK) ~ TpF(FIK) X TpF, (F'IK),
and
gE_(LIK) = gE._(FIK) · gE._(F'IK),
fp(LIK) = fp(LIF) · fp(LIF').

Proof: (1) If a E Zp(LIK) let aiF denote the restriction of a to the
field F; thus aiF E G(FIK) and actually aiF E Zp,.(FIK). The mapping
a ---> aiF is obviously a group-homomorphism and its kernel is G(LIF) n
Zp(LIK) = Zp(LIF). It remains to show that the image of the mapping
is ZpF (FIK). Given T E ZpF (FIK) there exists an extension CJ ofT to a
K-automorphism of L, so aiF = T; then a(P) is such that a(P) n F =
Pp, because aiF = T leaves Pp fixed. By Chapter 11, (E), there exists
a' E G(LIF) such that a'(a(P)) = P. It follows that CJ 1 CJ E Zp(LIK) and
T = (a'a)IF E Zpv(FIK).
The second assertion is proved in the same way. If CJ E Tp(LIK) then
aiF E Tpv(FIK), the kernel of the homomorphism in question is
Tp(LIF) = Tp(LIK) n G(L[F).
Finally, the mapping has image equal to TpF (KIF), as we may easily see:
Tp(LIK)jTp(LIF) ~ Tp, . (FIK) (up to isomorphism), hence, considering
the orders of these groups, which are ramification indices (by Theorem 1,
(2)), we have ep(LjK)jep(LIF) S ep,,.(FIK); from Chapter 11, (D), we
must have equality, thereby proving the second assertion.
(2) In this situation, G(LIK) ~ G(FIK) x G(F'IK). By the cano-
nical restriction mapping G(LIK) ---> G(FjK), the image of Zp(LIK)

264 14. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions

is Zp(LIK)/Zp(LIF) ~ Zp~-'(FIK) by (1), since Zp(LJK) n G(LJF)
Zp(LIF). The same holds with F' instead of F, hence Zp(LIK) ~
Zp, . (FJK) x ZpF, (F'IK). By the same argument we prove the assertion
for the inertial subgroups. We use these facts and the homomorphism the-
orems for groups to establish the relation for the number of extensions of
the ideals under consideration. G(LJK)/ Zp(LJK) contains the subgroup
G(LJF)/Zp(LJF), noting that Zp(LJF) = Zp(LIK) n G(LJF). This sub-
group is isomorphic to G(LJF)Zp(LJK)/ Zp(LJK). The quotient group is
isomorphic to

G(LJK)/G(LIF)Zp(LJK)
~ (G(LIK)/G(LJF)) I (G(LIF)Zp(LIK)/G(LIF))
~ G(FJK)/ZP1•. (FJK)
by (1), since G(LJF)Zp(LJK) has the same image as Zp(LJK) by the
homomorphism considered above.
It follows that gp(LJK) = gp(FJK)gp~-'(LJF).
As was shown, the image of Zp(LIF) by the map from G(LJF) to
G(F'JK) is equal to Zp~-'' (F'IK) hence

gp"'(LJF) = (G(F'IK) : ZpF, (F'JK))
= gE._(F'IK),
showing the required equality.
Since Zp(LIK) ~ ZpF (FJK) x Zp~-', (F'IK) and Tp(LJK) ~ Tp~-' (FJP) x
TpF, (F'JP), then

Zp~-'(LJK)/Tp(LJK) ~ Zp,.. (FJK)/Tp, . (FJK)
X ZpF, (F'IK)/TpF, (F'IK).
So by Theorem 1, fp(LIK) = fp(LIF) · fp(LIF').

14.2 The Ramification
Now we shall study the ramification, which by Theorem 1, (2), occurs in the
extension LJT. Since [L : T] = ep(LJT), we say that Pr is totally ramified
in LJT.
We have to consider the following situation:

LIT is a Galois extension of degree e, with Galois group T, the prime
ideal Pr = P n T of the ring Br of integers ofT has only one extension
P to the ring B of L, BPr = pe, and the residue class fields are L = T.
Thus Zp(LIT) = Tp(LJT) = T.

~~ 11 a..)e and li. then T' ~ TQ. f 0. E p = ( B p) p 1 [ t ].. Let P be a prime ideal of R and assume that there exists only one prime ideal Q in T such that Q n R = P. Epa..2. then Epa = Eppse (for some s E Z). which is impossible. EpP = Ept. Proof: Since S is contained in the set-complement of Q in T.s. j <:::: e .ti. Let S be the set-complement of P in R and R' = s.e +i I a. Let xm + a 1 xm-l +···+am E R[X] be the minimal polynomial oft over K.~~~ a. LIK a Galois extension of finite degree.e + i. it suffices to show that for each t E T.. and some a. 14. Next. this is clear since otherwise we would have 0 f i. it suffices to show that every element of T Q is integral over R'.ti = x. if 0 <:::: i. which is not true. te-l} is a basis of the free module E p over ( Er) p 1 . Q.j = (sj . since (Ep )p. we have m < s.e). that is. T' = s. then for all j such that aj f 0. = EpPs. to show that TQ ~ T'. Thus 1/am E R'. Then {1. Moreover. Conversely.1 R. with a. P.ti with a. Indeed. . in particular. there exists s E Z such that (Br)p 1 a = (Er)p1 Pf. then Epa = Ep(Er)p'f"a = Bp(Br)p1 Pf = BpPf = BpEPf = Bppse. a f 0.1 T.e + j. by Chapter 12. So.L]#i ajtj E Bppm+l. all the conjugates of t are in T but not in Q. 1/t is integral over R'. Since the elements of T are integral over R.Jl < e. Since LIK is a Galois extension and Q is the only prime ideal ofT with Q n R = P by Chapter 11. am if. (E). . E T. if x = L. (D). and T the integral closure of R in L. aj f 0 then s. so it has coefficients in R. am am am therefore 1/t is integral over R'. let i be such that m = s.e + i f Sje + j (where Epa. by Chapter 12. f 0. f 0. (G). But 1/t is a root of the polynomial xm + am-1 xm-1 + . Let R be a Dedekind domain. . • F.1 and a. is a principal ideal domain. t. Then TQ = T'. hence Bpa. we prove that if x = L. +~X+ 1 = 0. t if. x E EpPm and if x E Eppm+l then a. Under the hypothesis stated above. lett E Ep be a generator of the prime ideal EpP of Ep. E T. t is the root of an Eisenstein polynomial with coefficients in (Br)P 1 · Proof: First we show that if a E T. K its field of quotients. Indeed. hence am E R. The Ramification 265 The following lemma will be useful: Lemma 1.= EpP 8 'e} then Bpx = EpPm. if m = min{s. hence over R'.ti = EpPm ~ Eppm+l.

P then Bpt = Bpt'. hence a( pi+ 1) = pi+!.i :2: e + e . . 1 . a. Let g = xe + a 1xe-l + · · · + ae E T[X] be the minimal polynomial of t over T. E (Br )p. Since [L : T] = e.. . a is the identity mapping.e +i I a. a(:z:) = 1: for every X E B. (Br)p. te-l} are linearly independent over T. From x E Bp.:.. 1. we shall show that a. therefore s. .::::: -ile > -1.= BpP 8 'e}. On the other hand.. we deduce that -te = a 1 te-l + · · · + ae. t' E B. These ele- ments generate the (Br)p. ... e = min{s. G.e + (e. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions This implies that {L t. From g(t) = 0... then 0 = BpPrn. 0.. (Br)P-rP:f: in such a case.e + e . so e :S s. . see = e. = {a E T I a(t).~~ a. for if BpP = Bpt.. (2) n~o V. so some a. . thus the above minimum is attained when i = e. hence form a basis. g is called an Eisenstein polynomial. then each a acts on B I pi+l in a natural way: a(x) = a(x ). 0 < ile :S s. For every i = 0. However. E (Br)p. is a normal subgroup ofT and T = Vo 2 V1 2 Vz 2 · · · .1 Pf. e. is a normal subgroup ofT.e + (e. Indeed. E T. (3) lft E B is an element such that BpP = Bpt then V. Then: ( 1) Each V. 0. so V.1: E n~o pi+!' that is. a E V.::::: 0 since it is an integer. s E B. C 1 =1 (mod BpPi)} for every i = 0. E T and some a. E Bp n T = (Br)p.ti with coefficients a. f. .. Epa. 0. = {a E T I a(x) =x (mod pi+l) for every x E B}. but ae rf. therefore. te-l} is aT-basis of L. . . that is. E ( Br) Pn and we assume that x f. e. . that is.1 -module Bp.i).i > e. . 0. if i i. the set {1. thus.266 14. • We note at this point that BpP has a generator t' E B. be- cause if L~~~ a. 2. t.= BpP 8 'e} so s. if Bpx = BpPrn then rn :2: 0.. 2. Thus. We have to show that a. is the kernel of the group- homomorphism a -+ a. 1... therefore.e then s. 1 Pr fori = 1. s tj. a. f. hence (Br)p. Proof: (1) We consider the ring BIPi+ 1 . is the trivial group.e + i . if a E Z then a(P) = P.ti = 0 with a. with t = t'ls. for if a belongs to this intersection then O"(x) . 0.. which is not possible.1 Pr for i = 1. (2) There exists an index r such that Vr is the trivial group. if and only if a acts trivially on B I pi+l. T = Vo ::2 V1 ::2 Vz ::2 · · · . with rn E Z. Epa. Obviously. . . therefore V. i) I a.::::: 0.. f. s. if x E Bp we may already write x = 2:. as we have seen rn = min{s. let V.1 Pr = (Br)pTae and ae t/. f.

therefore will be omitted. hence T /V1 is a cyclic group whose order is prime to p. 2. then there exists r such that Vr consists only of the trivial automorphism. . where Zp = P n z. Conversely. (4) If m = [V1 : T] = #(T /V 1 ) then p does not divide m and e = mp 8 for some s 2': 0. BpP. hence a(t)jt. The Ramification 267 Since T is a finite group. hence Vi/Vi+l is an elementary Abelian p-group (that is.. (3) If a E Vi then a(t). we may use the following more precise notations: Vi = Vi(PI P) = Vip(LIK) and v. (2) For every i = 0. hence a(x). If necessary. Theorem 2. i=O but a(t)i.1 (t)) = a(ca-1)a(t) = [a(ca-1) · ca]t and . with Galois group G(Vi/Vo) = T /Vi.t] · [a(t)i.t E BpPi+ 1 • Next. let us note that vi is also equal to {a E T I a(x) = x (mod Bppi+l) for every x E Bp }. Proof: (1) Lett E B be a generator of the principal ideal BpP sot E B n BpP = P.1 + a(t)i-Zt +···+ti-l] E Bppi+l. If a E T...1 E T. 1. e= [a(t).t E BpPi+l. T is a solvable group. a.. . X E B n BpPi+ 1 = pi+l_ • Definition 3. p 8 = [L : V1] = #(Vl).. hence there exists Ca E Bp such that a(t) = cat· We show that Ca tj. there exists an isomorphism Bi from the group V. . 2. and is called the ith ramification field of P in LIK.1 E BpPi. this implies that a(t).ti).x = L ai(a(t)i.(LIK). The field of invariants of vi is denoted by v. (3) V 1 is a p-gTO'up. then a(t) E P ~ BpP = Bpt. in our case K~Z~T=Vo~V1~V2~···~Vr=L and each extension Vi/Vo is Galoisian.1 (t) =Ca-d with Ca-l E Bp. It is our purpose now to study the structure of the group T = V0 ./Vi+ 1 into the additive group of L. = Vi(Pi E_) = v.2. As for the inertial group. Vi is called the ith ramification group of p in LIK. For every i = 0.. since a(P) = P. (1) There exists a natural group-isomorphism B from T /Vl into r· (multiplicative group of nonzero elements of L). because considering a. if x E B ~ Bp we may write x = L~~~ aiti with ai E (Br)PT ~ T. the proof is the same. 14. Thus. a finite-dimensional vector space over the field lFP). hence e-1 a(x). 1. t = a(a.

268 14. (H). if a E vi+1. induces an isomorphism B.+ 1· (3) The group T has the following sequence of subgroups. By Chapter 12. if a E V1 then a(t) = t(P 2 ) hence a(t) = (1 + bt)t with bE B./V. then aT(t) = a(t +d 7 ti+l) = a(t) + a(d 7 ) · a(t)i+ 1 = t + dati+ 1 + (dr + d'ti+ 1 )(t + dae+ 1 )i+ 1 = t + (da + dr)ti+ 1 + cti+ 2 . (a) = da E L. We shall show that the mapping B.+ 1 intoL. Thus T jV 1 is isomorphic to a subgroup of[·. where d'. then L is a finite field containing lFP. hence a(ut) = c~ut. Conversely. The kernel of B is V1 . hence B. thus B(a) = 1 + bt = I. T E V. if a(t) = Cat. from V. Bpj BpP ~ B / P = L and the image of Ca in L is Ca i= 0. hence B induces an isomorphism e from T /V1 into [·. then a(t). we have to show that 7J is independent of the element t E B. uca + vcat = c~u and. n P.jV. then a(t) = t + cti+ 2 . considering the images in L. and therefore (u + vt)cat = c~ut. so a(u) = u + vt with v E Bp. If Zp = 71. 7J is a group-homomorphism: B(aT) = B(a)B(T). so Ca = c~.(a) + B. then t' = ut where u E Bp is invertible in Bp. The kernel of B. let a(t') = c~t'. if da = 0. so its nonzero elements form a cyclic group of order #(L) . We define the mapping (j : T --> r· by B(a) = Ca. hence a(t)jt 1(BpP) and = a E V1 (by (G)). (2) Let i :2: 1. we have u · Ca = c~ · u. if a. if a E Tis such that B(a) = I. each being actually a normal subgroup: .1)t E Bpt 2 . This shows that lJ is independent of the choice of t. therefore T /V1 is also cyclic of order not a multiple of p.(aT) = da + d7 = B. Let B. --> L is a homomorphism into L. that is ca =I. c E B. thus ca 'i BpP.(T). If a E Vi then a(t) = t + dati+ 1 with da E B.t = (ca . The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions therefore Ca is invertible in Bp.1. But a E T. is vi+ 1' hence B. : V. therefore a(u) =u (mod BpP).In fact. In fact.. soda= ct and da = 0. In fact. hence u 'i BpP. Conversely. In fact. thus B(aT) = C7 Ca + VCat = C7 Ca = B(a)B(T). To be convinced that B is natural. If t' E B is also such that BpP = Bpt'. which is not a multiple of p. then a(t) = t(Pi+ 2 ) so a(t)jt = 1(Pi+ 1 ) and therefore a E Vi+ 1· Noting that Lis a finite-dimensional vector space over lF P' the same holds for V. T(t) = C7 t then aT(t) = a(c 7 )a(t) = (cr + vt)cat = (crCa + vcat)t where v E Bp.

a~I(t) = Ca-d with Ca. the decomposition group Z of P in LIK is a solvable group. (2) If z is an Abelian group then Tq~l E VI for every T E T.2. which follows. we have a(TV1 )a~ 1 = (aTa~I)V 1 . then aT a~ I = T. (3). Ca-1 E Bp and as in the . by (G)). Therefore a acts on the quotient group T /V1 by conjugation. • Later. so V1 = V2 = · · · = L. we have: H. Combining Theorem 1. if K has characteristic p not dividing the degree e [L : T]. thus considering the cosets ofT by VI. (1). By the theorem of Galois. where T is solvable and Z /T is a cyclic group. then #(V 1 ) = 1. Let a E Z be such that its image by the homomorphism Z ---+ Z /T ~ G(LIK) corresponds to the Frobenius automorphism ofLIK. Proof: (1) Let BpP = Bpt.1. We write a(t) = Cat. then P is said to be wildly ramified in LIK. and T /VI has order dividing q . and Pis said to be tamely ramified in LIK. 14. then the polynomial f is solvable by radicals. let f E K[X] be an irreducible polynomial. and let L be the splitting field of f over K. Since T/V1 is a cyclic group and each group V. • In particular. thus Z itself is a solvable group. V1 are normal subgroups of Z. with t E Band let us compute aTa~ 1 (t). Since T. [L: Vr] = #Vr which is a power of p. and Theorem 2. [V1 : T] = #(T /V1 ) which is relatively prime top . defining u(TVr) = (aTa~l )VI· The following proposition due to Speiser describes this action: J. Thus. Let K be an algebraic number field. the polynomial f is solvable by radicals. If p divides e. Proof: We have Z ~ T ~ {E}. aVIa~ 1 = V 1 for every a E Z. Then: (1) If T E T then u(TVr) = TqVr where q = #(K). so K is a solvable group (by (H)). (4) We have e = [L : Vr] · [V1 : T] (with T = K). We have Zp(LIK) = K. in this case there is no higher ramification present. If P is any prime ideal of B such that P n A = P. we shall need the result. then T is a solvable group and Vr is a p-group. If there exists a prime ideal P of the ring of integers A of K which divides only one prime ideal P of the ring of integers of L. • An interesting application is the following: I. The Ramification 269 (for some r./Vi+ 1 is an elementary Abelian p-group. Proof: Let K = G(LIK) be the Galois group of the polynomial f over K.

2 V1 :2 · · · :2 Vr = { c} are the ramification groups of P in LIK. Thus aw. This implies that P is the only prime ideal of B such that P n A = E_. If T E T then O"TO"-l ( t) = aT( Ca. similarly Tq(t) = c~t (mod BpP 2 ). If S is the multiplicative set-complement of E in A. Theorem 3. by (F). We assume as before that LIK is a Galois extension. We note ~p(LIK) = ~(B'IA') = ~(BpiAp) the different of LIK above P.1 A. then (T-qO"TO"-l ). We assume that there exists an element t such that BpP = Bpt and Bp = Ap[t] (for example. a(ca-1) · Ca = 1. T(t) = c 7 t.270 14. it turns out that this expression will involve the orders of the various ramification groups. Moreover BP = pe. We shall now compute the exponent of the different.1 B then B' = Bp. Let LIK be a Galois extension and P the only extension of E to L.It) = a(T(Ca-1) · T(t)) = a(ca-1 + vt) · a(c 7 ) · a(t) = (a(ca-1) + a(v) · Cat)a(c 7 )cat =a(c )t =c~t (mod BpP 7 2) (where v E B p). we have ~p(LIK) = BpP 8 where s . we shall now consider the different above a prime ideal P of A.> 0 is an integer. By Chapter 13.) ~ 1]. T 2 (t) = T(c 7 ) • T(t) = (c 7 + ut)c7 t = c. Then the exponent of the different of P in LIK is r-1 sp(LIK) = L [#(V.t (mod BpP 2 ) (where u E Bp ).1 (t))/t =:= 1(BpP). as was shown in Lemma 1.1 = Tq-l E vl for every T E T.1 E V1 and Ci(TVI) = O"Ta. and Lemma 1 we h~ve ~p(LIK) = B' · ~LIK• hence by Chapter 12. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions proof of Theorem 2. . (G). i=O where T = V0 . so T-qaw. • In order to have a better insight into the higher ramification. it is the exponent at P of the different ~LIK· Sometimes we also denote it by sp(LIK).1 (t) = t(BpP 2 ) and (T-qaw. e 2:: 1.1 = Tq(t)(BpP 2 ) hence T-qaTa. B' = s. this holds when Pis totally ramified over E_. if A' = s. the inertial field T is equal to K).:. that is. Since T /VI is a cyclic group and Tq-l vl = vl (unit of T /VI)' then the order of T /V1 divides q ~ 1.1 V1 = TqVl· (2) z If is an Abelian group. recalling that the Frobenius automorphism (i is defined as being the raising to the power q = #(K). On the other hand. (N).

let I be an ideal of the ring A of integers of K. 4. . Show that In! is generated by some rational integer.. then K' <. then K' <.a(t)). 3. Since P is the only extension of £. if P' is unramified over P. If s = sp(LIK) then BpP 8 = Bpg'(t) = flafE Bp(t.t tf. a tf. but a(t).1] = #(Vo) + #(VI) + #(V2) + · · · + #(Vr-1) .:: T (inertial field of Pin LIK). We write g = flaE. T then a(t) .t E pi+l. Show that if a prime ideal of the ring of integers of K decomposes completely in LIK then it also decomposes completely in L'IK. Show that if P decomposes completely in L 1 [K and L 2IK then it decomposes completely in L 1 L2IK. Let K be an algebraic number field. where g is the minimal polynomial oft over K. Vi+l then a(t).+I = [#(Vo) -#(VI)] + 2[#(VI) . P.a(t)) = Bpps(a) then r-1 r-1 s = L s(a) = L L s(a) = L [#(Vi). that 6.:: Z (decomposition field of Pin LIK).#(V2)] + 3[#(V2). K <.:: K' <.t tf.#(Vi+l)](i + 1) i=O aEV. Let K be an algebraic number field.p = Bp · g'(t). Show that if K' is a field.t E B. Let K be an algebraic number field. 2. Show that if K' is a field. i=O • EXERCISES 1. Let KIQ be a Galois extension of degree n. and P' = P n A'. Let L 1 IK and L 2 IK be finite extensions. and P a prime ideal of the ring B of integers of L.1]. T r-1 = L [#(Vi). P a prime ideal of its ring of in- tegers. and P a prime ideal of the ring B of integers of L. If a E Z. but a(t) . and similarly. if a E Vi but a tf. Let K be an algebraic number field. Pi+ 2 (by (G)). K <. such that a(I) = I for every a E G(KIQ). A' the ring of integers of K'. 5.:: L.. Then g'(t) = flatE(t. LIK a finite Galois extension. LIK a finite Galois extension. L' the smallest field containing Land such that L'IK is a Galois extension.a(t)). Exercises 271 Proof: We have seen in Chapter 13.dX .:: K' <. i=O a\lVi. LIK a finite extension. (T). A' the ring of integers of K' and P' = P n A' is unramified and inert over P. then the decomposition group of P is Z = JC.#(V3)] + · · · + T[#(Vr-d .:: L. where JC = G(L[K).a(t)) and writing Bp(t.

:: 1 be an integer.6. 10. a 2 = T 2 = E. l (n) (compare this statement with Chapter 9. Use the previous exercise to show that given the ideal I ic 0 of A there exists an ideal J ic 0 of A such that I J is a principal ideal (see Chapter 7. 9. and let LIK be a Galois extension of degree n. The Decomposition of Prime Ideals in Galois Extensions 6. T. 7.6. and ramification groups and fields of P. Let n :. Hence .LIK is invariant by the Galois group. Do Exercise 9 in the case where KIQ is a Galois extension with Galois group equal to the Klein group K = { E. aT}. a. and let P be a nonzero prime ideal of A. Hint: Apply Theorem 3. Show that the relative different .272 14. inertia. and p 8 divides the discriminant <5 K. let A be the ring of algebraic integers of K. if p is a prime number. 11. (J)). Show that there exists an integer l(n) (depending only on n) such that: If K!Q is a Galois extension of degree n.11K is the ideal generated by the relative discriminant <SLIK· 8. an odd prime number. Do the previous exercise in the case where K!Q is a Galois extension of degree p. then s ::. (H)). Discuss in all cases the decomposition. Let K be an algebraic number field. aT = Ta. . Let K!Q be a quadratic extension.

Section 8. From the arithmetical point of view. Theorem 1.15 The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions 15. 273 . this will provide excellent grounds for the application of the concepts and techniques developed in the preceding chapters. an Abelian extension of IQ. Proof: We shall consider two crucial particular cases first and then show how to reduce the general case to these two special ones. n > 2) is an Abelian extension of Q. for which we have already indicated in the preceding chapter a rather elaborate theory of decomposition of ideals. called class field theory.1 The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber In Chapter 2. (P). We have also indicated its generalization. such that L <. k ~ 1. In order to investigate other algebraic number fields. m. Therefore the natural question to ask is the following: Which are the possible Abelian extensions of IQ? We certainly cannot attempt to solve this problem in such an elementary text. However. we have shown that every quadratic: extension of Q (which is an Abelian extension) is contained in a cyclotomic field. the cyclotomic fields have been fairly well studied. a whole branch of the theory of algebraic numbers. by Kronecker and Weber. we shall prove a rather interesting theorem about Abelian extensions and indicate without proof the main theorems for Abelian number fields. Already in Chapter 4. In fact. Case 1: [L: IQ] = pm. it is reasonable to consider first the case of Galois extensions of IQ. fJL = pk where pis an odd prime. we have stated that every cyclotomic field IQ(() (where ( is a primitive nth root of 1. We shall require several steps. is devoted to the study of Abelian extensions. then there exists a root of unity(. It is our intention now to prove this theorem.: IQ((). If L is an algebraic number field.

there exists cr E K such that cr(P) = P'. then f(P\p) = 1. There exists only one prime ideal P in L such that P n Z = Zp. q i. Finally. CQQ = CQz. p is unramified in T\Ql. that is. P'. Proof: Since pis totally ramified in L\Ql by transitivity of the ramification index. We show that br = 1.1). we have T' = crT cr.> Z . (E). we deduce that p is totally ramified in L\Ql. z..1 + (p. on the other hand. then CQa = CQzpm. Theorem 1. by Chapter 13. if q is a prime.1 } are linearly independent over Ql and z is a root of an Eisenstein polynomial g = XP + a 1 XP. Theorem 2. . P is totally ramified in L\Ql. • B. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions A. By Chapter 14. P'. then again by the same theorem. Let H be a field. (T). \brl = 1. {1. Q = P n C. Then g = TiaEQ(X. q is ramified in T\Ql.cr(z)). 1)a 1 zP. Proof: Let P. for every integer a E Z.. T = Ql. must coincide (Chapter 14. hence in L\Ql. br has no prime factor. since e(Pr\P) = 1. but p 2 not dividing ap. In particular. because K is Abelian. p dividing each a. Theorem 1. V1 = T. such that [H : Ql] = p. containing p. then CQP = CQzP (p being the degree of H\Ql). Also. provided [H : Ql] = p. E Z.> Ql. If Z is the decomposition field of any prime ideal P containing p. (4). but pm+ 1 does not divide a. Thus. ~Q(H\Ql) = CQg'(z). so every other prime ideal of T extending p (if it exists) must also be unramified in T\Ql. By Chapter 14. since T .1 and therefore T' = T. a contradiction.cr(z)) where g is the Galois group of H\Ql and g'(z) = Tia#E(z. respectively. then by Chapter 14. (D). therefore. pis totally ramified in H\Ql. In view of Chapter 9. from [L : Ql] = efg. We have to compute the largest power of CQQ dividing the principal ideal generated by g'(z) = pzP. By Chapter 11. hence considering the inertial groups of P. p does not divide the discriminant br. (F). By Chapter 13. (C). then the exponent of the different of Q in H\Ql is equal to 2(p. there exists only one prime ideal P in L. .. then Z = Ql. hence. Z' of P. P' be prime ideals such that P n Z = P' n Z = Zp. Let T be the inertial field of P and of P'. with f = g = 1.p. (F)). Ql ~ H ~ L. then the decomposition groups Z. Now..1 + · · · + ap with a. if pm divides a. CQ = Zp[z]. with rn 2: 0.. zP. moreover. by Chapter 14. this value is therefore independent of the field H. If C is the ring of integers of H. (4). if p' is any prime different from p. Since K = G(L\Ql) is an Abelian group. because TIQl is a Galois extension (by Chapter 11.2 + · · · + ap-1· Since pis totally ramified in H\Ql. . If z is a generator of the ideal CQQ. so q divides [JL = pk. and q divides br. (A)). Since [T : Ql] = f(P\p). then p' tic Q so CQp' = CQ = CQz 0 . since [V1 : T] has degree prime to p (characteristic of the residue class field).. and the inertial field T and the first ramification field of P in L\Ql are V1 = T = Ql.274 15.

K = G(LIIQ) (hence i > 1 by (A)). we shall arrive at a contradiction. i. By Chapter 14. O:'. CQ[(p..p-1 It follows that p :::....1 divides s..<3 p-1. and therefore [Vi : IQ] = p. p. 2p .i ..1 1 1< .1 = CQzP+(p. Proof: We have [Vi : IQ] = (Vi-1 : Vi) = #(Vi_rfVi). so p :::.1 .Vi it follows that #(Vi-r/Vi) = p. let H be any field such that IQl <. if CQg'(z) = CQZ 8 then s = min {psi + (p . therefore. 1] = sp(LIH). we have the inequalities p :::.. using Theorem 3 of Chapter 14. CQpzP. Then [Vi : IQ] = p and Vi is the only field of degree p over Q.1).< . 2). Vo(LIVi) = · · · = Vi(LIVi) =Vi while Vj(LIVi) = Vj for j 2: i + 1 (as before Vj = Vj(LIIQ) for every j 2: 0). p-1 ' p-1 (because p =f. We conclude that s = 2(p. Theorem 3. Vj for j 2: i + 1. psj + (p.1).. i)aizp-i. Thus. On the other hand.1.j . Similarly. similarly.i:'. j :::. psi + (p . Vj(LIVi) = Vj(LIIQ) n Vi for every j 2: o. • C. By the argument in the proof of Chapter 14. L.. 15. 0 :::. (F). then Vj(LIH) = Vj(LIQ) n H and. Hence.i)ai = CQzps.1).. the exponent of the different is r-1 s = L [#(Vi).. so from Vi-1 i.p(LIH).+(p-i-1)..i . Let i be the smallest index such that Vi =f. Let H = G(LIH). Vi. Since [H : IQ] = p then #(Vi) is either 1 or p.1. s :::. But. Since f(LIIQ) = 1 then L = 1Fp.p-1. For this purpose we compute the differents 6. thus p. s since si 2: 1.1) for i = 0. hence. Now. . [H : IQ] = p and assume that H =f. i .p(LIVi) and 6..=2+-. j=O j=O . H <. The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber 275 let CQ(P.1)} . so si 2: 1 for every i and so = 1. j are distinct indices. Theorem 2. Vi-r/Vi is isomorphic to a subgroup of the additive group L.< .1) =f. contained in L. and therefore p s 2p..1 ] = CQzps. Therefore r-1 r-1 sp(LIVi) = L [#Vj(LIVi).1. by Chapter 14. V0 (LIH) = · · · = Vi-1(LIH) = H (since Vi-1 = K) while Vi(LIH) is properly contained in Vi (otherwise Vi(LIH) = H hence Vi = H contrary to the hypothesis) and Vj(LIH) <. i=O where Vf denotes the ith ramification group of Q in HIIQ. if i. 1. . (2).1 ) = CQz 2P. p. 1] > L [#Vj(LIH) .1 then psi + (p .

Let G = G I H be the quotient group so #(} = pm-h. and this is a contradiction.1 . we shall establish this and another easy fact about finite Abelian groups. so H' contains H properly (since x rt H). and assume that x has order less than pm. m 2: 2. which may be proved either directly or else by means of the structure theorem of finite Abelian groups (see Lemma 1 below. thus #H' = ph+ 1 . if H is a subgroup of G of order ph. then G has an element of order p (see Chapter 3. having order ph' and containing H.1 of G. with Galois group isomorphic to the group P(pm+ 1) of prime residue classes modulo pm+l (see Chapter 2.) and also ~p(Lj!Ql) = BP~PnH(Hj!Ql) · ~p(LjH). (2) If G has order pm. Rj!Ql is an extension of degree 4?(Pm+ 1 ) = pm(p.j!Ql) · ~p(LjV. (2) Let H be the only subgroup of order pm-l of G. if G has only one subgroup of order pm. Section 8). but H' = H U Hx U · · · U HxP. . from the transitivity of the different we have ~p(Lj!Ql) = Bp~pnv. (L). which must be equal to H. or Chapter 3. the discriminant bRIIQI = bR is a power of p. First we recall that if p is a prime number dividing the order n of the finite Abelian group G. by hypothesis. Theorem 3). By ( 1). This means that :r has order pm and G is a cyclic group. m and then repeat the argument. so x E H. thus there exists an element x E G I H of order p. • E. : Q] = p by (B).276 15. p a prime. • D. (M)). This implies necessarily that K is a cyclic group: it is a well-known fact in the theory of finite Abelian groups. Thus. Let G be a finite Abelian group: ( 1) If G has order pm. since Pis totally ramified in Lj!Ql. By (C). Let H' be the subgroup generated by H and x. the cyclic group generated by xis contained in a subgroup of order pm.1). Rj!Ql is a cyclic extension (since p #. where ( is a root of unity. K is an Abelian group of order pm. • For the convenience of the reader. then G is a cyclic group. By Chapter 16. x tf.(V. K has only one subgroup of order pm.1 . Lemma 1. L c:. because xP E H. and [H : Q] = [V.: Q((). if h < h' ::. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions However. K = G(Lj!Ql) is a cyclic group.1 . Proof: By hypothesis. where m . Proof: (1) It is enough to assume that h' = h + 1 ::. then there exists a subgroup H' of G.:::: 1 and p is a prime. Proof: Let R = Q( () where ( is a primitive root of unity of order pm+ 1 . m. by Chapter 3. In Case 1. a contradiction. we deduce that the exponents of the differents ~p(LIVi) and ~p(LIH) must coincide. (A). H.2). let x E G.

if q is a prime dividing DLR' then by Chapter 13. q is ramified in L[Q or q is ramified in R'[Q. q = p and therefore bLR' is a power of p. Now we show that the discriminant bLR' is also a power of p. if R' = L n R' then R' ~ L and since L.1. R' have the same degree over Q. • This lemma is again included for the convenience of the reader: Lemma 2. Let G be a cyclic group of order pm. where p is any prime number. dividing bR' then q is ramified in R'[Q hence also ramified in R[Q. (U). Section 7. 15. then in both cases R' = L and so L = R' ~ Q((). LR' R = Q(() L L n R' LR'[Q is also an Abelian extension. with degree [LR' : Q] = [LR' : R'] · [R' : Q] = [L : L n R'] · [R' : Q] which is a power of p. then H. namely. Hence q divides bL or q divides bR'. so [R': Q] = pm. The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber 277 The cyclic group G(R[Q) has a subgroup of order p-1 (if a is a generator then aP"' has order p . hence q divides DR and so q = p. ph'. Proof: This follows at once from the uniqueness asserted in Theorem 3 of Chapter 3. q is ramified in LR'. and by Galois theory. We may now apply (D) to the Abelian extension LR'[Q with degree and discriminant powers of p. G(LR'[L n R') ~ G(L[L n R') x G(R'[L n R'). using Theorem 1 of Chapter 13. respectively. In both cases. or Lemma 3 below. Now. H' are cyclic groups of orders ph. it follows that LR'[Q is a cyclic extension.1). If G ~ H x H'. If L = L n R' then L ~ R'. by Chapter 2. with either h = 1 or h' = 1 (hence G ~ H' or G ~ H. In fact. it is quite obvious that such a decomposition as a Cartesian product of cyclic groups of orders powers of p has to be trivial. Thus. • . R'[Q is a cyclic extension and the discriminant DR' is again a power of p (if q is a prime. respectively). whose field of invariants we denote by R'. Let LR' be the compositum field of Land R'. one of the groups G(L[L n R') or G(R'[L n R') has to be trivial (see Lemma 2 below). Theorem 1. By Chapter 13.

But. (U). 6 x is a power of 2. K' be algebraic number fields. • The proof of Case 1 of the theorem is now complete. k ::. which are Galois extensions of IQJ. so a. For the case of Galois extensions we have however a simpler proof. If q is a prime dividing bx then q is ramified in KjiQJ. (A). where ax denotes the restriction of a to K and ax' the restriction of a to K'. showing that q is unramified in LjiQJ.-. ax' are the identity automorphisms. 2b E K' n lR = K. hence also ramified in K'jiQJ. therefore q divides fJx. hence [K : IQJ] = 2m. • G. Given m 2: 1. ax. If q is a prime number. bL = 2k. bE lR. It follows that [K' : K] = 2. Let K. unramified in KjiQJ and in K'jiQJ.bi with a. (by Chapter 13. Then [K' : IQJ] = 1p(2m+ 2 ) = 2m+1 and hence i = J=T E K'.theconjugatesof~belongtoK'. Therefore Q is unramified in LjiQJ. hence a is the identity automorphism. and K c. let L = K · K' be the cornpositurn of these fields. LetK = K'nlR. If a E TQ(LjiQJ) n G(LjK n K') then ax E TQnx(KjK n K'). aK' ). aK' E TQnX'(K'jK n K') (as one sees immediately from the definition of the inertial groups). The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions The following lemma has already been proved in Chapter 1:3. This proves that Q is unramified in Lj(KnK'). K' which extend q are necessarily trivial. Proof: We recall that Lj(K n K') is a Galois extension and that G(LjK n K') ~ G(KjK n K') x G(K'jK n K'). a . where m. We shall show that the discriminant bx is a power of 2. considering the case where p = 2. so q = 2 and bx is a power of 2. then by Chapter 16.soK' = K(i). indepeudent of the theory of the different: Lemma 3.. 1. a fortiori. By hypothesis the inertial groups of the prime ideals of K. and are either real or appear in pairs of complex conjugates a + bi. . But Q n (K n K') is also unramified in (K n K') jiQJ because of the hypothesis. We shall continue. Let Q be any prime ideal of the ring C of integers of L such that Q n Z = Zq. this isomorphism associates to every a E G(LjK n K') the couple (ax.278 15.: IQJ(O for some root of unity~- Proof: Let~ be a primitive root of unity of order 2m+ 2 . there exists only one real field K such that K\IQJ is an Abelian extension. then q is also unramified in LjiQJ. b E K and K' = K(i). and let K' = IQJ(O. then 2a. Theorem 1).infact. Case 2: [L: IQJ] =2m. [K: IQJ] = 2m. Given m 2: 1 there exists a real field K such that [K : IQJ] = 2m. F. if K' = IQJ(~). let TQ(LjiQJ) be the corresponding inertial group. and bf{ is a power of 2. bK' is a power of 2.

thus F K c:. We prove now that L is the compositum of finitely many fields L = L 1 · · · L 8 . so [L(i) : K] = 2. since i rf. F c:. we may assume that m 2: 2. G(FIQl) contains only one subgroup of order 2m-l and by Lemma 1. which is a conjugate of a + bi over Ql.. soH = Ql( v'2). is an extension having degree a power of a prime. then d = 2. either F c:.. [F: Ql] =2m. where ( is a root of unity.. d square-free. hence F contains a subfield H such that [H : Ql] = 2 and the discriminant of H must be a power of 2 (by the same argument). • It remains now to show how it is possible to reduce the general case of the theorem to the preceding ones.. If LIQ is an Abelian extension of degree 2m and the discriminant bL is a power of 2. Ql(~)- Let L(i) = K(a + bi). Thus. with degree and discriminant powers of 2. which is an Abelian extension of degree n over Ql. bp = 4d when d = 2 or 3 (mod 4). Proof: Since Ql( i) and L are Abelian extensions of Ql then the compositum L(i) is also an Abelian extension of Ql. Ql((). So if bp is a power of 2. L(i)[Ql has degree and discriminant powers of 2.. Proof: Let L be an algebraic number field. If the theorem is true for Abelian extensions having degree a power of a prime. But bp = d when d = 1 (mod 4). b E JR. lR then F = Ql( v'd) with d > 0. i) c:. F K IQl is again an Abelian extension of degree a power of 2 and with discriminant a power of 2 (see the argument in (E) and Lemma 3). F c:. hence a E L(i) n lR = K. The complex conjugate a. Reduction to Cases 1 and 2: I. where a. 15. IR. Ql(~. it must be cyclic. it follows that a+ bi is a root of the polynomial X 2 .2aX + (a 2 + b2 ) with coefficients in K. Let K = L( i) n IR. then there exists a root of unity ( such that L c:. Ql((). we consider the com- positum F K. • H. where each L. hence K is a real Abelian extension of Ql.bi. IR. then it is true for any finite Abelian extension of Ql. Thus. still belongs to L( i). L(i) = K(i) c:. By Lemma 2. .1. If F is different from the field K obtained in (F). thus b2 E L(i) n lR = K. and bi E L(i).. hence by our proof just above (considering F K in place of F). G(F KIQl) is a cyclic group. and G(F KIF n K) ~ G(FIF n K) x G(KIF n K). and Dp is a power of 2. F = Ql( v'2). By (G) and (F) there exists a root of unity ~such that K c:. The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber 279 Proof: If m = 1 and [F : Ql] = 2... K then L c:. If F is an Abelian extension of Ql. K or K C F and since both fields have the same degree 2m then F = K.. By previous arguments. then the Galois group G(FIQl) contains a subgroup of order 2m-l (by Lemma 1).

except for the need to establish (K). thus. . .. and finally fJL. by (K) there exists an Abelian extension L 1IIQ and a qth root of unity 6 such that L c. we repeat the same argument.' [L : Q] = n = n:=l P7. we may proceed as follows: If LIQ is an Abelian extension of degree pm (where pis a prime number). different from p. #(1-l.. we shall need to prove the following reduction step: K.. of Q. Lr-1 <. . we arrive at an Abelian extension LriQ such that [Lr : Q] is a power of p... (0)..C. then it is also true for Abelian extensions of degree a power of p.: L2(6). denote the fixed field of the subgroup . then we are already in the first or second case and the theorem is true.) = P7. Lr-1 c... L1 c..-groups: G(LIQ) ~ TI:= 1 1-l... since G(L. then [L. if {JL is also a power of p. Q(~. let ( be a primitive root of unity of order equal to the least common multiple of the orders of 6 .... = {E} thus L = £1 · · · Ls. ..... then already q' divides fJ L. of G(LIIQ). Lr(~r). £ 2 (6). .. . ~r+ 1 ) c. (i = 1.. where ~r is a root of unity. in which case Lr = Q). Q(~r+d.. s). fJ L. we may write Li c. . L 8 then the Galois group G(LIL1 · · · Ls) <. Lr c. IQ( 6.. .C. Assuming the theorem true for each of the Abelian extensions L.: IQ((r+l) and soL c.IQ) ~ 1-l. . Moreover.. by the first or second case. has fewer prime factors than fJ L.. and if q' is any prime dividing fJ L.: Lr(~r). Then L <. . Let LIIQ be an Abelian extension of degree n. . hence there exists an Abelian extension L 2 IQ and a root of unity 6 such that L 1 c. . For every prime q dividing fJL but not dividing n. . Proof: In order to establish (J).. q does not divide the discriminant fJ L. '8.280 15. If there exists a prime q.. ~s. where ~r+l is a root of unity. £1(6). IQ( () where ( is a root of unity of order equal to the least common multiple of the orders of the roots ~ 1 . the Abelian Galois group G(LIQ) is isomorphic to the Cartesian product of p.. q does not divide fJ u. = TI#i 1-lj for every i = 1. Let . and let L.. . [£ 2 : IQ] is a power of p. and fJL 2 has fewer prime factors than 6£ 1 • After a finite number of steps.. if L1 · · · Ls denotes the compositum of the fields £ 1. If the theorem is true for Abelian extensions having degree and dis- criminant which are powers of the same prime p. £ 1(6). Lr <. is now a power of p (perhaps equal to 1... there exists an Abelian extension L'IQ such that [L' : Q] divides n. If 6£ 1 is not a power of p. At worst... then • J. . L c. . : QJ is a power of p. Assuming (K). The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions By Chapter 3.C. ~r+l· This proves the theorem... L'(~) where ~ is a qth root of unity. such that q divides fJL.n:=1 ... [L 1 : IQ] is still a power of p.) where ~i is a primitive root of unity.. and if q' is a prime dividing fJ u then q' divides fJ L too.

obtaining the Abelian extension L(~)IIQ. By Chapter 13. We adjoin a primitive qth root of unity ~ to L. hence L = T(O = L'(~). e = eq(LIIQ) = eq(LIIQ(~)) · eq. L = V1 = T(~) T IQ(~) On the other hand. thus eq(LIIQ(~)) = 1.1. Case (i) : L contains a primitive qth root of unity~· Then L :2 IQ(O :2 IQ. If q' is any prime. Case (ii) : General. the ramification index e = #(T /V1 ) = #(T) divides q . the inertial field of Q in LIIQ. therefore e = q . and we shall prove that it satisfies the required conditions. Theorem 2. Theorem 1).1. Then [L(~) : IQ] = [L(~) : F] · [F : IQ] = [L : F] · [IQ(~) : F] · [F : IQ] divides n( q . Since q does not divide n = [L : IQ] then q does not divide e = eq(LIIQ).(IQ(~)IIQ).1) since [IQ( ~) : IQ] = q . and q' divides Dr. (J). if V1 = V1 q(LIIQ) then [L : VI] is a power of q and divides n. The inertial group of Q in LIIQ(~) is T n G(LIIQ(O). where Q' = Q n IQ(~).(IQ(OIIQ) = q. eq. (N). Next. Thus [L : T(~)] = eq(LIIQ(~)) = 1.1 divides e.1. we note that q does not divide Dr because q is unramified in T (this being the inertial field). thus q. so G(L(~)JF) ~ G(LJF) x G(IQ(~)JF). The Theorem of Kronecker and Weber 281 Proof of (K). Of course. hence the inertial field is T(~). thus q' divides DL (by Chapter 13.q. Let Q be a prime ideal of the ring of integers of L such that Q n Z = Zq. and its degree divides n. .1. By Chapter 14. By Chapter 11. Let L' = T.1. then q' is ramified in TIIQ hence also in LIIQ. soL = V1 . 15. similarly V1 q(LJIQ(~)) = V1q(LIIQ) · IQ(~) = V1 = L. TJIQ is an Abelian extension. Let F = L n IQ(~). q' i.

This would require means far beyond the level of this book.2 Class Field Theory In this section we wish to indicate the main results from class field theory. Since q' f q. hence also in L(O L T L(O/Q.1) · [T: Q] hence [T: Q] divides n. if q' is a prime different from q. Also q does not di- vide [L(O : Q]. hence also in L(O/Q. He studied quadratic extensions and more generally . and q' divides the discriminant of L/Q.1). Thus. We must of course refrain from entering into any details. 2. Since q is unramified in T/Q then q does not divide Dr. By Case (i).1. 15.282 15. Q n Z = Zq. if Tis the inertial field of Q in L(O/Q. This is appropriate. Now. • 15. then T(O = L(~) and [L(O : T] = eQ(L(O/Q) = q. [L(~) : Q] = [L(O : T] · [T: Q] = (q. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions We may apply Case (i) to the Abelian extension L(~)/Q. Theorem 1). it is not ramified in Q(~)/Q. thus q divides DL(O (Chapter 13.1 The Theory of Hilbert Hilbert endeavored to relate the decomposition of prime ideals with some form of reciprocity law. because this degree divides n(q. if Q is a prime ideal of the ring of integers of L(~). either q' is ramified in L/Q or in Q(~)/Q. This concludes the proof of the theorem. we only need to take L' = T. then q' is ramified in T)Q. and dividing 6r. since the theorem of Kronecker and Weber is better understood when viewed as a theorem from class field theory. Let q be a prime dividing DL but not dividing n. then q is ramified in L/Q. By Lemma 3.

Let K be an algebraic number field. Definition 2. (D). which are completely decomposed into prime ideals of inertial degree 1 over Q. Definition 1. With this definition. Thus. For every algebraic number field K. Class Field Theory 283 Abelian extensions of algebraic number fields K (not assumed equal to Q). Theorem 4 (Decomposition). Hilbert proved several theorems: Theorem 1 (Existence and uniqueness). 15.2 The Theory of Takagi Takagi generalized the theory of Hilbert by considering admissible groups of ideals. are the principal prime ideals of K with inertial degree 1 over Q. Let nUl be the subgroup of :F(J) consisting of the principal fractional ideals Aa. the theory of Hilbert is trivial over the ground field Q. the type of decomposition of a prime ideal P depends only on the class of ideals which contains P-this is the justification for the name "class field. let :F(J) be the multiplicative group of nonzero fractional ideals. all . The prime ideals of K are decomposed in the Hilbert class field extension LIK according to the following rule: if f 2 1 is the smallest integer such that pf is a principal ideal of K. It follows from Chapter 9. there exists one and only one (up to K-isomorphism) class field of K. and let LIK be a Galois extension of finite degree. which are relatively prime to J. Theorem 3 (The discriminant). Therefore. For each nonzero integral ideal J of K.2. The relative discriminant 6LIK of the class field extension LIK is the unit ideal. each with inertial degree f over K. The class field of K is usually called the Hilbert class field of K. which had been considered by Weber. In particular.2. Thus." which was given to L. [L : K] = h (the class number of K) and LIK is an Abelian extension. then P is decomposed into the product of h/ f distinct prime ideals of L. If L is the Hilbert class field of K. that the Hilbert class field of Q is equal to Q. then G(L\K) = :F /Pr (where :F is the multiplicative group of nonzero fractional ideals of K and Pr is the subgroup of :F of principal fractional nonzero ideals). This led him to formulate the concept of a class field and to establish various important theorems. Theorem 2 (Isomorphism). such that a is totally positive (that is. Let K be an algebraic number field and let A be the ring of algebraic integers of K. every prime ideal of K is unramified in the class field extension. 15. L is said to be a class field of K when the following condition is satisfied: the only prime ideals of K.

[H'] and [H'] ::. J' such that J F = J' F' and H 1 ~ H~ where H 1 . In this situation. then F divides J'. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions real conjugates of a are positive) and a =1 (mod J). H~ .::::o H.. [H].::::o H' if there exists a nonzero integral ideal I such that H n :F(J) = H' n :F(I). J'. If H = Pr+ (with conductor also . where a is totally positive. hence :F(F) /H ~ :F(JF) /H'. [H'] and [H'] ::. Assume that there exist integral ideals J. Let K be an algebraic number field. Every subgroup H of :F(J) such that RYl ~ H ~ :F(J) is called an admissible group of ideals associated to J. let J be an integral ideal. This leads to the following considerations: If H and H' are admissible groups of fractional ideals associated to J and J'. RVl is called the ray defined by J. belongs to H if and only if P is relatively prime to J and P is decomposed into distinct prime ideals of L. The above relation is an order relation: [H] ::. H' be admissible groups.::::o H'. the ray R(J) is a subgroup of finite index in :F(J). [H"].::::o H' and H' is associated to J'. The ideal F is called the conductor of the equivalence class of the admissible group H. The Galois extension LIK is said to be a class field of K associated to the admissible group H when the following property is satisfied: a prime ideal P of K. Definition 4. let H . :F(JF)' then H' = H n :F(JF). Let H. and let H be an admissible group of nonzero fractional ideals of K associated to J. respectively. We define now an order relation on the set of equivalence c:lasses of admissible groups.. Definition 3. respectively.. H' <. If H = Pr (with conductor the unit ideal A) the class field of K associa- ted to Pr is the Hilbert class field of K. Let Pr+ denote the multiplicative group of principal fractional ideals Aa. It may be shown that in each equivalence class there is an admissible group H associated to an ideal F such that if H . [H"] then [H] ::. if [H] ::.. each having inertial degree 1 over Ql. [H] then [H] = [H'].. It is useful to state that for each integral ideal J.. H~ are associated to J F = J' F'. having inertial degree 1 over Ql. and H 1 . after verifying that the property depends only on the equivalence class of admissible groups. [H'].284 15. If H is an admissible group with conductor F and n(F) ~ H ~ :F(F)' and if H' is an admissible group with n(JF) <. Thus Pr+ = n(A)' so the admissible groups with conductor F = A are equivalent to the groups H such that Pr+ ~ H ~ F. we write [H] ::... with conductors F. if [H] ::. It is also a fact that a multiplicative group of ideals H may be admissible with respect to two distinct integral ideals J. We recall that the index h 0 of Pr+ in :F is the number of restricted classes of ideals. F'. This is an equivalence relation on the set of admissible subgroups of F. We denote by [H] the equivalence class of H.

F(F). LIK is an Abelian extension and[£ : K] = #(F(F) /Ji(Fl). and each one has inertial degree f in the extension LIK. Theorem 7 (The discriminant). R_(F) <::. and if 1i ~ Ji(F) where R_(F) <::. like Wei! [29]. the associated class fields L. and let L. We refer the reader to books on class field theory. decomposes in the extension LIK (where L is the class field of K associated to 1i) according to the following rule: let Ji(F) be S'uch that Ji(F) ~ 1i. be the associated class fields. 1i' be admissible groups of nonzero fractional ideals of K. L' if and only if [H'] :S: [H]. Theorem 6 (Isomorphism). In particular. then Pis decomposed as the product of [L : K]/ f distinct prime ideals of L. let f 2: 1 be the smallest integer such that pf E Ji(F). If 1i. If L is the class field of K associated to the admissible group 1i with conductor F. A fundamental feature is that the isomorphism between the Galois group G(LIK) and the quotient group is canonical. L' coincide. such that . Takagi proved the following theorems: Theorem 5 (Existence and uniqueness). Besides the above theorems. Ji(F) <::. then G(LIK) ~ F(F) /1i(F). then P also divides the conductor F. there exists an admisS'ible group 1i of nonzero fractional ideals of K. If P is a prime ideal of K which divides the relative discriminant 8LIK. Theorem 10 (Characterization).:(F). 1i' are equivalent admissible groups of nonzero fractional ideals of K. Let 1i. which extended the ones by Hilbert. Ji(F) <::. Then L <::. which does not divide the conductor F of the admissible group 1i. So the only prime ideals P which ramify in the extension LIK must divide the conductor F of the admissible group 1i to which LIK is the associated class field extension. Let L be the class field extension of K associated to the admissible group 1i with conductor F. L'. then the class field of K associated to Pr+ is called the absolute class field of K. Theorem 8 (Decomposition). Every prime ideal P of A. But the most important theorem is the characterization of class field extensions.2. there exists a class field L of K associated to 1i. Takagi also proved the following new theorem: Theorem 9 (Order-reversing correspondence). For each admissible group 1i of nonzero fractional ideals of K. . respectively. which is conveniently stated appealing to the ideles introduced by Chevalley. If LIK is an Abelian extension. It is embodied by the general reciprocity law of Artin. 15. Iyanaga [14] or Neukirch [22]. Class Field Theory 285 the unit ideal A).

By definition and the uniqueness of the class field. :F(F') such that 'H <::. Takagi proved: Theorem 12 (Ramification). we have: Theorem 11 (Conductor and discriminant). . then pis unramified. we have: L. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions L is the class field of K associated to 'H. Altogether. the order of p modulo m is the inertial degree of the prime ideals of Q( () dividing p. As a consequence. if pis a prime number.::::. then 'H . so by Theorem 10 there exists an admissible group 'H of nonzero fractional ideals of Ql. Then P decomposes as the product of [L : K]/ f('H' : 'H) distinct prime ideals of L raised to the power e = ('H' : 'H). Let 'H' be the smallest admissible group with conductor F'. such that L is the class field of K associated to 'H (by Theorem 10).286 15. 'H <::. that is. p = 1 (mod m). which decomposes in Q(() into the product of distinct prime ideals of inertial degree 1. associated to an admissible group 'H of conductor F. and let 'H be the admissible group of nonzero fractional ideals and conductor F. Moreover.:::: 1 be the smallest integer such that pf E 'H'. then a prime ideal of K divides the relative discriminant bLIK if and only if P divides the conductor. By Chapter 16. Ql( () is the class field of Ql associated to the ray RCLm). depends only on the order of the coset of P by 1-f(F). 1{ . 'H'. is the field Q((). R (F') <::. m 2': 1. • With this property. such that R('Lm) <::. p decomposes in Q( () as the product of distinct prime ideals. :F(F). moreover. if 'H' has the same property as 'H. thus it is equal to 1. 1-f(F). (D).::::. 'H' <::. where R(F) <::. 'H'. so it does not divide the discriminant. and the ground field K = Ql. where J = Zm. Proof: Let p be a prime number. the type of de- composition of Pin the class field extension L. hence p does not divide m. Conversely. If L is the class field of K associated to the admissible group 'H with conductor F. The class field extension of Ql associated to the ray R(J). :F(F). each of inertial degree equal to 1. p = 1 (mod m). where ( is a primitive mth root of unity. For the finitely many prime ideals P dividing the conductor F. For admissible groups which are rays. let F be the integral ideal of K. Let LIK be an Abelian extension. if P is a prime ideal not dividing the ideal F. Let P be a prime ideal of K such that pr divides F (with r . R(F) <::. it is easy to deduce the theorem of Kronecker and Weber from the theorems of Takagi: Proof: Let LI«Jl be an Abelian extension.:::: 1) but P does not divide F' = F p-r. Let f . 1-f(F) <::.

. A natural question arises. and let (Si)iEJ be a family of sets. such that Ki = Ki+ 1 = · · ·. This problem remained open for a long time. (2) If i :S: j :S: k then 1rki = 1rJi o 1rkJ· Show: (a) There exists a set S and a family of maps 1ri : S ----+ Si with the following properties: (1) If i :S: j then 1ri = 1rJi o 1rJ· (2) If S' is a set. in the following sense: if S. Let K = K 0 C K 1 c K 2 c · · · be the tower of absolute class fields of K. This would imply that K is a subfield of a field of algebraic numbers in which every ideal is principal. (iri)iEJ sa_!isfy the properties of (a) then there exists a bijection a : S ----+ S such that iri o a = 1ri for every i E I. let 1rji : sj ----+ si be a mapping such that: ( 1) 1rii is the identity map. L s. Q((). For every pair of indices (i. Ki has restricted class number h 0 = 1. such that i ::::. • Another important theorem was proved in 1930 by Furtwangler: Theorem 13 (Principal ideal theorem). for each i 2 1. where ( is a primitive mth root of 1. Using methods of Galois co- homology. 1ri : S' ----+ Si is a map such that 1r. hence also h = 1. Exercises 287 1t s... (b) The setS and maps (7ri)iEJ are uniquely defined. Let I be a set of indices. By Theorem 9 and (L). :F(7Lm). EXERCISES 1. such that L is the class field of Q associated to H. = 1rJi o 1rj when i :s. Let L be the class field of K associated to the ray R(A) = Pr+ of conductor equal to the unit ideal. j) E I x I. Then every ideal of K generates a principal ideal of L. since not every ideal of L is generated by some ideal of K. j then there exists a unique map 8 : S' ----+ S such that 1ri o 8 = 1ri for every i E I. if for every i E I. i.e. j. Ki is the absolute class field of Ki-l (class field associated to the ray associated to the unit ideal). where Zm (m 2 1) is the conductor of H. . The question is whether there always exists an index i. Golod and Shafarevich provided a negative answer by exhibiting a criterion and an explicit counterexample. depending on K. in other words. It should be noted that this does not imply that the ring of algebraic integers of L is a principal ideal domain. let :S: be an order relation on I.

. ). = Q (for every prime number p). is the field generated by U Tp (for all prime numbers p). Sis the subgroup of the product lliEI Si.denotes the field generated by Uqh Tq. with respect to the maps Irji fori $ j. F'IKO are Galois Txtensions. Conclude that G(KIKo) is the inverse limit of the family of finite groups G(FIKo) (for F E 9) with respect to the group-homomorphisms PFF'· 4. . Explicitly. (b) If r. .. for every FE 9 let eF : H---+ G(FIKo) be a group-homomorphism such that ifF's. (b) IfF" S: F' S: F belong to 9 then PFF" = PF'F" o PFF' and p F F is the identity. ~k) = Q((). .. Show: (a) IfF.. Let p be a prime number and let Tp be the field generated over Q by all pmth roots of unity (form= 1. It is denoted by S = ~ Si. . . (Iri)iEI) is called the inverse limit or projective limit of the family (Si)iEI. Show: (a) TpiQ is a Galois extension of infinite degree. consisting of the families ( si)iEI such that if i ::. F' E 9 then FF' E Q. Let KIKo be a Galois extension of infinite degree. and let mi be the order of ~i.. let PFF' : G(FIKo) ---+ G(F'IKo) be the group-homomorphism which associates with every Ko-au- tomorphism of F its restriction to F'.. 2. Show that Q(6.. K 0 S: F S: K such that FIKo is a Galois extension of finite degree. Let m = lcm(m1. 5. Show that there is a unique group-homomorphism e: H ---+ G(K!Ko) such that PKF o e = BF for every F E Q. j then Irji ( Sj) = Si· 3. ~k be roots of unity. denoted by Ab. In the previous exercise. Show that S is a group and the maps Iri are group-homomorphisms. .. . Hint: Apply the theorem of Kronecker and Weber.. assume that each set is a group and that each map is a group-homomorphism.288 15. (c) IfF' S: F belong to 9 then PKF' = PFF' o PKF· (d) Let H be a group. mk) and let ( be a primitive mth root of unity. (c) The Abelian closure of Q. . Ko S: F' S: F S: K. Let 6. The Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Extensions ( S. If FIKo. and let 9 be the family of fields F. F then PFF' oeF = eF'. then Tp n r. 2.

where Zp = ~ ZjZpm for m > 1. i=l 7. n. Show that G2 = G(T2[Q) is isomorphic to Z/2 x Z2. . Hint: Apply the two previous exercises. Prove that Gp ~ Zj(p. let Li[Ko be a Galois extension. with respect to the canoni- cal group-homomorphisms Zjzpm ---> Zjzpn ~ (Z/Zpn)/(Zpm jZpn) when m::. where Z2 ~ Z/Z2m for m . Show that G(Ab[Q) ~ DP G(Tp[Q). Let p be an odd prime and GP = G(Tp[Q). Hint: Apply the previous exercises and Chapter 3. Li ~ K. (K). Exercises 289 6.. 9. 8.::: 1. Show that 00 G(K[Ko) ~IT G(Li[Ko). For every i = 1. Let K[K0 be a Galois extension. 1 Li.. . Hint: Apply Chapter 3. (b) K is generated by U:. 2. such that: (a) If L~ is the subfield of K generated by U#i L1 then LinL~ = Ko. (J).1) x Zp.

These may be due to the noneffectiveness of the methods of proof of the theorems. Con- cerning the class number. no algorithm in a finite number of steps may be seen from the proof indicated. even though there is a theoretically finite algorithm to solve the problem. it may be too long to perform and therefore shortcuts have to be found. 291 . the determination of a fundamental system of units and the computation of the regulator. in the first section we point out the existence of certain algorithms. We recall that there exist algorithms. Accordingly. The handling of a definite example may offer many difficulties. that is. there exist classical analytical methods for its determination.1 Some Algorithms We begin by pointing out that the matters discussed here are the object of much attention and research.16 Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples In this chapter we shall work out some numerical examples to illustrate the theories developed so far. however. but they had been often expressly considered by the classical mathematicians. We should stress that much more is known about computational methods than we are able to explain in this text. 16. these will not be dealt with in this book. the computation of the different and the discriminant. The basic problems are the following: the determination of the ring of integers and of an integral basis. We suggest therefore that the reader consult more specialized books about these problems. especially after the advent of computers. We shall also add some complements. Sometimes. that is. the decomposition of a natural number into a product of prime ideals of the ring of integers of the field. procedures with finitely many steps: (a) to recognize if a nat ural number is a prime.

by then tn is identified with -(a 1tn-l + a 2tn. we add the following ones. the elements of K are written in a unique way in the form x = b0 + b1 t + · · · + bn_ 1tn-l. tn+l. The trace and norm of x are the appropriate coefficients in the minimal polynomial of x.1 Calculation of the Minimal Polynomial. (e) to find if a polynomial with coefficients in Z is irreducible over Z. 16. tn-l.2 +···+an). for example. .292 16. .. Thus. It is therefore the minimal polynomial of x over IQl.n-ltn-l we may write x 2 . The operations are performed as if t were an indeterminate. or Gauss' elimination. over IQl... tn+ 2. Thus t may be viewed as a symbol. Trace and Norm of an Element Let F = xn + a 1xn. we obtain one which has the root :r..1 + · · ·+an E Z[X] be an irreducible polynomial. similarly. more closely related to the subject of this book. (f) to express any polynomial of Z[X] as the product of irreducible polynomials of Z[X]. i = 1. n. This leads in a finite number of steps to a solution in IQl. given x = bw + but+···+b 1. . en using Cramer's rule.1tJ. j=O The search of a polynomial G(X) = xn+clxn-l + .. so K = Q[t] ~ IQl[X]/(F) (where (F) denotes the principal ideal of all multiples ofF in IQl[X]).. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples (b) to find the complete factorization into primes of any given natural number. . t. 2..1) by the above relation. . c2 . and (g) to determine all the subgroups of a finite Abelian group. say n-1 xi = L b. (c) to find if a polynomial with coefficients in a finite field is irreducible.. . are expressed in terms of the lower powers tJ (0 <:::: j <:::: n. + Cn with G(x) = 0 requires the solution of a system of n linear equations in the n unknowns c 1 . thus giving G E IQl[X] such that G(x) = 0. (d) to express any polynomial with coefficients in a finite field as the product of irreducible polynomials with coefficients in the given field.. By determining the irreducible factors of G. To these basic algorithms.1. .. let t be a root ofF and K = IQl(t). xn as linear combinations of 1. or equivalently by Gauss' lemma. . xn-l.

if there is a subring J\i[ as above. namely Pk = t~ + · · · + t~ where t 1 . discr(F) is the discriminant of a matrix whose entries are the sums of like powers of the roots of F. Moreover. 16. where x E M. let t be a root ofF. A. where a E A. (1/r)A.1. and let K = Q(t). Ring of Integers and Discriminant Let F E Z[X] be an irreducible monic polynomial of degree n.. so t E A. Xn) = det(Tr(xix1 )). then x = x · 1 E 1\!IA).. ... without requiring the actual computation of the roots of F.. 3 Determination of an Integral Basis. . Z[t]* must be contained . let M A be the set of finite sums of elements of the form xy. m2:0 So p-m <:. By Newton's formulas Po = n. showing that every subring M. p 1 . Since every element of K is of the form ajm. it is possible to identify those Z[t]-submodules M which are actually subrings of K. For the special case of the discriminant of {1.1. By Chapter 13. . y E A. To compute the dis- criminant one needs to compute the traces... By Chapter 2. This is impossi- ble. it is possible to find a basis of M and by multiplication. Z[t]*. there exists a prime ideal P of A such that the subring . according to the formula in Chapter 2. . Therefore Z[t]*/Z[t] is a finitely generated torsion Abelian group.. P2n-2 are computed recursively in terms of the coefficients ofF. tn are the roots of F. Exercise 31. not contained in A. Xn} By definition. (L). M <:. Section 11. . By using the result in Chapter 6. A the ring of integers of K. Indeed.1. Z[t]* = (1/ F'(t)) Z[t] and Z[t]* is a free Abelian group of the same rank n. hence also all the subgroups M such that Z[t] <:.. x rf. We show that there is the largest subring which is equal to A. Some Algorithms 293 16. . discrKIQ(x 1 . .2 Calculation of the Discriminant of a Set {xi. By Chapter 7. Let Z[t]* denote the complementary Z-module. P2.. (J) and (H). hence it is a finite Abelian group. then there exists r E Z such that MA <:. m E Z. Z[t] <:. Section 11. A} = U p-m.. (f).. According to (g) it is possible to determine in finitely many steps all the subgroups of Z[t]*/Z[t].NI A contains the set {x E K I there exists m 2: 0 such that pm Ax<:. . which is possible as indicated above. hence Z[t] <:.. (1/r)A and pm divides Ar for every m 2: 0.. MA is a finitely generated Z-module. t. 16.. . . and then the determinant.. tn-l} there is a more expeditious method. A. It is also sometimes feasible to use the norm of the derivative of F E Z[X]... M <:. Then M A is a subring of K and A is properly contained in M A (if x E 1\1.

. .. .. let m = pk > 2. We begin by noting that if f. k 2:: 1. . 16. .1)/ 2NKIIQl(<I>~(()). where g 2:: 1. . [det(aij)] 2 8K.. (. (P... By Chapter 2. tn.. d = discrKIIQl(1. . .pk-l(k(p-1)-1) }J • Proof: First we compute the discriminant. so {1. then it is important to note that it may well happen that the discriminant has a square factor m 2 > 1 which divides discrKIIQl(1. This possibility was indicated at the end of Chapter 13. let K = Q(().. may be computed in finitely many steps. The discriminant is " VIQl(() -. . We shall prove: A.. . u. Xn} is an integral basis. . then Ap = P~' · · · P. ei. (~'.1) = d = 8K so A= Z[t]. . and the various integers g. This follows from Chapter 11. Now we shall extend these results." where the prime ideals P 1. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples in A.1} is a Q-basis of K and of course Z[(] ~ A. where p is a prime. So it is possible to determine the ring A and an integral basis in finitely many steps. . Thus. Theorem 2. let F E Z[X] be the minimal polynomial of the primitive element t E A of K. . since tJ = 2:::~= 1 aijXi (with aij E Z). If { x1.2 Complements on Cyclotomic Fields In Chapter 5. we have determined the ring of algebraic integers and the discriminant of the cyclotomic field K = IQ((). Indeed. N(Pi) = pf'. where (is a primitive mth root of unity.. t. 81Ql(() = ( -1)(p-1)/2pP-2. if dis square-free. . Hi E 1Fp[X] are distinct irreducible polynomials-this decomposition may be performed in finitely many steps. IfF = H~' · · ·H~ 9 .. Therefore A is determined as the largest of the subrings M which correspond to subgroups H of G = Z[t]*/Z[t]. e 1. .. Section 11. /i. ..294 16.1 } is an integral basis. d = (-1)JL(p. (P.. H 1. Section 5..4 Decomposition into Prime Ideals If pis any prime number. . Section 5.1. First. Namely A= Z[(].L = 'P(Pk) then {1.. One may wish to find out if Z[t] = A.. let /i = deg(Hi). Let F E 1Fp[X] be its canonical image. and Chapter 6... where (is a primitive pth root of unity and pis an odd prime.1). P9 . and let A denote the ring of integers of K... then d = discrKIQ(1. (.1 ) for every integer u of K such that K = IQ(u). 16. . However. .(-1)"'(pk)/2. H 9 E A[X]. (. un.. e9 2:: 1. then Pi= Ap + AHi(t). A = Z[(].

If this is established we are able to conclude that each Xi E Z. In fact. Complements on Cyclotomic Fields 295 where <I>m E Z[X] is the mth cyclotomic polynomial. In order to show that Z[(] = A we consider an arbitrary element x E A.1 is a primitive pth root of unity. then d = ( -1)1L/2pPk-1(k(p-l)-1).1) = II (1. bi E Z relatively prime .2. Since p. p...(p. . . 16. let Xi = a)bi with ai. Section 11. Thus and so d = ( -1)1L(tL-l)/2pP'..1). we arrive at But II (a = NKIQ(() = (-1)1L ·1 = 1 aEP(m) and II ((ap'-1 . It is our purpose to show that in fact each Xi is an integer. hence so Considering the conjugates of this expression and taking their product.(a) = <I>p(1) = p and a system of representatives of the prime residue classes modulo rn = pk gives rise to pk-l systems of representatives of prime residue classes modulo p..1)/2 =p.1(k(p-l)-l).(apk-1) = pPk-1' aEP(m) aEP(m) because (P'. flaEP(p/1. We shall prove that if q is a prime number and x E Aq then also Xi E Zq (i = 0. where each xi E Q./2 (mod 2). But by Chapter 2. 1. It may be written in a unique way in the form x = xo + x1( + xz( 2 + · · · +xiL_ 1(M-I.

hence q does not divided. Let h = xo + x 1 X + · · · + x'"_ 1 X~". .L· j=O Thus (x 0 .. 1.1 so if~ = 1 .(( 1 ). then q divides aj..~) 2 h"(1) 3 h 111 (1) + ~ .. 2! ..1. Xj = qyj so dxj = dyjq.L. f..1. .( then :r = h(() = h(1 .. -3.1. q divides x. Assume that there exists a prime number q such that qr is the highest power of q dividing bj. y = Yo + Y1( + · · · + Y'"-1(~"..1)! .f. .b'"_l) and l = bili. E Z. --.. ...+ . .. i=O If we show that q divides each coefficient ail~. 1. (JL.1 )(1) + (-1)'"-1e-1. O"'" ( x) E A. But q #c p. . f.. . i = 1.L relations 1"-1 O"i(x) = L Xj0". 'f.L. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples integers.. By Cramer's rule.b 1 . . hence q divides daj... Thus q divides dx 1 = d(a1 fbJ) (a 1 . .~. .:.1. a contradiction..----. From l = qrl' we have 1"-1 lx = L)aiz:)(' = (l'x)qr E Aqr. bj E Z). 1 = h(1). but q does not divide lj. q divides ajlj..:.. in particular.. . Thus aJ E A.... dx1 = a 1 Jd E A n Q = Z for j = 0. so q divides aj. Thus l = 1 and each x. h (1) ~ h(l". so q does not divide lj..1 with Yi E Q.i for j = 0. Considering the conjugates in KIQ we obtain the f.. Now we shall prove that if x E Ap then p also divides Xj for every j = 0. .L .. . x'"_l) is a solution of the system of linear equations with coefficients O" i ( ( j) E A and determinant whose square is Let a j be the determinant of the matrix obtained from (O" i ( ( 1 )) by replac- ing the j th column by that formed with elements O" 1 ( x). . Let l = lcm(b 0 . If q #c p is a prime number such that x E Aq then x = qy.. that is. with dy1 E Z.296 16.

L . • We consider now the cyclotomic field K = <Q( () generated by an mth root of unity(.. . ((m') 2 = 1. sop divides h(1).-1) ' qlm where s is the number of distinct prime factors of m. with the above hypothesis: <P( rn) (1) {j _ ( l)s<P(m)/2 m IQ( () . h(1) = xo + x1 + x2 + · · · +x~t-1· Since p = u~Jt and p divides x then ~ divides x. Thus h(l) E A~ n Z = Ap.)-.1l. where m' is odd.L > 1. where m > 2 is any integer.1)xll_ 1.L.so(m' = 1.. -=n=--q-<P-:-(m--. p divides X~t-2 + (J.. thus ~ divides pj~ E A.l)x~t-1. Complements on Cyclotomic Fields 297 The coefficients h(k)(1)/(k!) are integers which may easily be computed: h(M. =h'(1)-~--+···+(-1)M-1~~t-2 . So (or -( belongs to <Q((') and therefore <Q(() = <Q((') with m' odd.1)! Thus~ divides h' (1) and sop divides h' (1 ). we deduce that p divides xll_ 1. .L .1)(1) . 16. On the other hand.1). p divides X~t-3.L. Thus we have established that A = Z[(] and therefore the discriminant of K is {jK = d = (-1)MI 2pP'. ~ 2! (J.L ~ 1 )x~t-1.1 ) (1) 2! 3! ' .L. We may continue in this manner showing successively that p divides h" ( 1) h"'(1) h(Jt. But J. so (' E <Q(().1)! . ' (J. . We have. hence ~ divides h(1). if(' is a primitive (m')th root of unity then ('m = 1.1 (k(p. We may assume that if m is even then 4 divides m. h'(l) l! = x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + · · · + (J. which divides X. Taking into account the values of these elements. if m = 2m'. hence p divides x~t-2· Similarly.1)! h'~il) = x2 + G)x3 + · · · + C)xk + · · · + (J.andinthiscase(-()m' = -(m' = 1..1 )(1) (J.or(m' = -1. Indeed. h(l) h"(l) h(Jt. p divides xo.2. B.-/(:-q--::-. .

w-2 + .. • We applied Eisenstein's irreducibility criterion to show that <I>p(X) E Z[X] is irreducible. and all other coefficients multiples of p.. with ((ap")m' = 1.1 = [(X+ 1)P"-1 . It is equivalent to showing that <I>P' (X + 1) is irreducible. We assume it is true for s . where k 2': 1. pk:p(p" )<p(m') ( ) p['P(P' )/(p-l)j<p(m') <p(m) = (_ 1)[<p(m)/2]s =--m-.. ( brn ' is a power of T).-----.1 . Again. it is irreducible.--. T/] = Z[(]. . ((bm')p' = 1. by Chapter 13. and we conclude that Q(() = Q(~) · Q(T)). By (A). (W).1] + p..1) [<p( m') /2] :p (p" ) . p-2 Developing.1 ..1. Then there exist integers a..1] + 1}P. we obtain a polynomial with leading coefficient 1.. But (X+ 1)P" . Proof: (1) The proof is by induction.. A= BC = Z[~. By induction DQ(~) and {JQ(ry) are relatively prime. + ( p ) [(X+ 1)P".. Thus if~ is a primitive (m')th root of unity and T) is a primitive (pk)th root of unity.. C = Z[T)]. hence by Eisenstein's criterion. b such that 1 = apk + bm' and ( = (ap'. the polynomial <I>P" (X) is irreducible.1 <l>P' (X+ 1 ) = (X+ 1)P' 1 . Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples (2) A= Z[(]. p does not divide m'. (W): >: >:'P(P'l .---:-:- n qlm q <p(m)/(q-1) · (2) If B is the ring of algebraic integers of Q(~) and C is the ring of algebraic integers of Q(T)).. (bm'.1 (X+ 1)P' 1 . .298 16..--.. B = Z[~].<p(m') U<QI(() = UQ(O · u<QI(ry) m''P(m')<p(p") = (-1) (s. Let p be a prime dividing m. then (ap ' is a power of ~. then by induction. and m = pkm'. By Chapter 13.. More generally we have the following corollary: C.----~--:-:---~ nqlm' qi'P(m')/(q-l)j<p(p") X -1 ['P(P' )/2]·rp(m') . it is true when s = 1.. In the same way. constant term p. w-1 + (n [(X+ 1)P'-1 . For every m > 2 the cyclotomic polynomial <I>m E Z[X] is irreducible inQ[X].1 {[(X+ 1)P".. we may show that for each k 2': 2.-.

(0). We proceed by induction on s. . As seen in the previous proof. taking q = p. the assertions are true and have been proved in Chapter 11. f'g' = cp(m'). . so ci>m is irreducible in IQ[X].. where A= Z[(]. efg then e = cp(pk). let m = qkm' where k ~ 1 and q does not divide m'. P 9 are distinct prime ideals..1. We need to show that f is equal to the order of p modulo m. Section 3. (N). By Chapter 13. let f be the order of p modulo m'. By induction Bp = Q1 · · · Q 9 . (W). Cp = R'P(P') where R is a prime ideal of C. (1) If m = pkm'.. and f is the order of p modulo m'. thus ci>m is necessarily the minimal polynomial of ( over IQ. Finally. pis unramified in Q(().. 16. D. Let p be a prime. and p does not divide m'. . f = f'. Let ( be a primitive mth root of 1. By induction we have Bp = Q 1 · · · Q 9 . so Ap = (P1 · · · P9 )'P(P'). . To prove (2) we proceed similarly. by induction. IQ(~). Q 9 ' distinct prime ideals of B. . Then Ap = P 1 · · · P9 . and f" is the order of p modulo qk. g = cp( m) /f... f g = cp( m). . g = g'. and f' is the order of p modulo m'. . about the decomposition of Ap as a product of prime ideals. Q 9 . (W): [IQ(() : IQ] = [IQ(~) : IQ] . R 9 " of C. f being the inertial degree of each prime ideal Pi. fg = cp(m'). P9 are distinct prime ideals. By the transitivity of the inertial degrees. Also. with distinct prime ideals R 1 . assuming the results true for s . where P 1 . now p does not divide m. Let Ap = (P1 · · · P9 )e where efg = cp(m).2. Then Ap = (P1 · · · P9 )'P(P') where P 1 . B = Z[~].. with Q 1 . . with k ~ 1. (N). C = Z-[77] are rings of integers of IQ((). If s = 1. .. Proof: Let s be the number of distinct prime factors of m. are prime ideals of B... let g = cp(m')/ f. efg. . (2) If p does not divide m. IQ(7J). Let q be a prime dividing m. and f' is the order ofp modulo m'. f'g' = cp(m'). we have Ap = P 1 · · · P 9 . • Now we shall extend the results of Chapter 11. Let m > 2 and assume that 4 divides m if m is even. let f be the order of p modulo m. P9 are distinct prime ideals. and f is the inertial degree of each ideal Pi in IQ( () IIQ.. IQ(() = IQ(01Q(7J) and also A = BC.. .. where P 1 . By Chapter 11. . Let~ be a primitive (m')th root of 1 and 7] a primitive (qk)th root of 1. We prove (1). Complements on Cyclotomic Fields 299 Proof: By Chapter 13. e(f'g')::. . and decomposition numbers: = cp(m) = cp(pk)cp(m') ::. ramification indices. Cp = R 1 · · · R 9 ". [IQ(7]) : IQ] = cp(m') · cp(pk) = cp(m). sop =J q and pis unramified in IQ(~) and in IQ(7J). where Q1 . f"g" = cp(qk).

2b . This is an irreducible polynomial. !") = 1. We have -23 = m 26g. Let OK be the discriminant of K. 5. hence A· 5 = Q 5 · Q~. F c.1. how the primes 2. 23 are decomposed. F23· Over F 2..300 16. We have homomorphisms 1/Js from A onto F 5 and 1/J£ from A onto F 25 with kernels. To see. 2) and . gcd(f'. Since fg = cp(m) = cp(rn')cp(qk) f' g' f" g" = f' f" g then f = f' f". WehaveF c. 7. BjQ.f"/fo) = 1 and [B/Q: F] f'/fo. respectively.4). Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples By Chapter 14. let F be the unique extension ofF P with [F : F P] f 0 . Q~.. If fo = gcd(f'. 4 = (t + 2)(t. 2) + c(t 2 .4). f"). On the other hand. so there exists m E Z such that a = 5m . where t is a root off = X 3 . -1. t. 1 is irreducible. From t2 . Since gcd(f'/fo. CjRwhereQ = Pn!Q(ry). hence m 2 = 1 and {)K = -23.2) ffi Z(t2 -. P is a prime ideal of !Q((). hence Q 5 ~ Z · 5 EBZ(t. This shows that CJ 5 = Z · 5 EB Z(t. Over F 3. 1 is irreducible. 1j.5(a + bt + ct 2) = 0 then a+ 2b + 4c = 0. c E Z and 1j. then f = f' f" is the order of p modulo m' qk = m. that is. 1j. we consider the decomposition into irreducible polynomials of the images of f in the fields F2. F3. Exercise 48). hence A· 3 = Q 3 where Q 3 has inertial degree 3.. if a.4c.. [C/R: F] = f"/fo then B/Q n CjR = F and we have f = fo[A/P: F] = fo[B/Q: F][CjR: F] = fo fo · fo = fo !' !" f thus fo = 1. g = g'g". F7.5(t 2) = 4. where m E Z. 4). R = Pn!Q(~). Over F 5. 3. F5. b. 1 = (X . f").3 Some Cubic Fields Example 1: Let K = !Q(t). hence A·2 = Q 2 where Q 2 has inertial degree 3. because by Gauss' lemma the only roots in !Q could be 1.5(t) = 2. The discriminant off is equal to -(4(-1) 3 + 27(-1) 2) = -23 (see Chapter 2. so f = f' f" = lcm(f'. The only ramified prime is p = 23. for example. Q~ has inertial degree 2. Since f' is the order of p modulo m' and f" is the order of p modulo qk. • 16. t 2 } is an integral basis. (E). equal to Q 5. Q 5 has inertial degree 1.2)(X 2 + 2X + 3). It follows also that {1. thus a+ bt + ct 2 = 5m + b(t.X .2) EBZ(t 2 .

5 (since the decomposition A· 7 = Q 7 · Q~ implies that Q 7 -=/:.5) EB Z( t 2 .henceA·7 = Q 7 ·Q~.I into irreducible polynomials modulo 23. 7/J 7 (t) = 5.X .I. which is impossible because NKIQ(x) E Z. hence 7 ri A(t.3) = 0 so a= 7m + 3c. t+t' +t" = 0. hence either A · 23 Q~ 3 · Q~ 3 or A · 23 = Q~ 3 . Multiplying]' by X and subtracting 3} we have 2X + :1 =0 (mod 23) hence t = 10 (mod 23) is a double root and this yields the congruence X 3 .5). and taking norms.2). We conclude that Q~ is the ideal generated by 7 and t2 + 5t + 3. we show that Q 23 = Z · 23 EB Z(t. t" are the conjugates oft. we know already that 23 is ramified. because -23 = (t-3)(t' -3)(t" -3). We have homomorphisms 7/J 7 from A onto lF 7 and '1/J~ from A onto lF 49 . Q~. thus Q~ 3 is the principal ideal generated by t . b = 7l + 5c with l. Some Cubic Fields 301 it follows that 5.4 = (t + 5)(t. 7 = x(t. Over lF 23 .5) + 3 x 7 and NKIQ(t.3. OverlF 7 .8 = (t + 10)(t .2).10) EB Z(t 2 - 8). In fact.10) = (-1) 3 /(10) = -989 = -23 x 43. x E A.2) = t't". 'I/J~(7t) = 0. hence 23 ri A(t . 16. otherwise. To decide what actually happens. Q 7 hasinertial degree 1.3) = (-1) 3 /(3) = -23. hence Q5 = A(t. tis a unit.2(t' + t") + 4 = 1/t + 2t + 4 = (2t 2 + 4t + 1)/t.X.X.2) where t'. Inthesameway.2) = -(t'.4). we factorize X 3 . By a similar argument. Since there will be a root of multiplicity at least 2.3.I. 7/J 7 (t 2 ) = 4. the generators are linearly independent over Q and if 'l/'JHa + bt + ct 2 ) = 0 then a+ bt + c( -5t. hence by a calculation already explained Q 7 = Z · 7 EB Z( t . Next.10 ri A · 23. N KIQ(23) = 23 3 . tt't" = 1. Q~ 3 have inertial degree equal to 1. From NKIQ(t) = 1. f = (X-5)(X 2 +5X+3). and a+ bt + ct 2 = 7m + 7lt + c(t 2 + 5t + 3). Q~ 3 is the principal ideal generated by 3t 2 +9t+1.10) + 4 x 23. t 2 . 343 = -NKIQ(x) x 7 x 17.5). 4 belong to the principal ideal A(t .1 = (X -10) 2 (X.A· 7). Therefore Q 7 is the ideal generated by 7. thus Q~ = A(2t 2 + 4t + 1). But tt't" = 1. In particular.2)(t". mE Z. 'I/J~(t 2 + 5t + 3) = 0 then Q~ = Z · 7 EB Z · 7t EB Z(t 2 + 5t + 3). Therefore the decomposition is A · 23 = Q~ 3 · Q~ 3 where Q 23 . t . t 2 .3) (mod 23). and of its derivative}' = 3X 2 . From A · 5 = Q 5 · Q~.10) and t . this will be a common root off = X 3 .5) = (-1) 3 /(5) = -119 = -7 x 17. But t 2 . because NKIQ(t.Q~ 3 = Z·23EBZ(t-3)EBZ(t 2 -9). t 2 -9 = (t+3)(t-3) and NKIQ(t. Q~ has inertial degree 2.2)(t". t + t' + t" = 0. Q 23 is the ideal generated by 23 and t . hence (t'. it also follows that Q~ is the principal ideal generated by 5/(t. .10. with kernels Q 7 .

X 3 . and {1. \Ve shall describe in detail the decomposition of some primes p in A. 3t +9 = 0 (16.3X + 9 := X 2 +X+ 1 (mod 2) and this polynomial is irreducible over lF 2 .= -(3t 2 + 9t + 1). ±9 and none of these numbers is a root).3/t 2 + 9jt 3 = 0 and multyplying by 3. t.3 t Example 2: Let K = Q(t). Thus A· 17 = Q 17 · Q~ 7 . . Over lF 17 . A 1 =A. In fact. t. 11.u} is an integral basis. where Q17 has inertial degree 1. we have 2 t = 3 . Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples NKIQ = 1. so (16. (3/t) 3 .{X + 9 and its derivative . t. where tis a root off = X 3 . The discriminant off is d = -(4 x ( -3) 3 + 27 x 9 2 ) = -27 x 7 x 11. d 1 = DK. dividing (16. Z[t] is properly contained in A 1 . t.t 2 and since this expression is unique (because {1. we have d = rn 2d 1 . from A 1 ~ A follows d 1 = r 2 bK. This is an irreducible polynomial (by Gauss' lemma the only roots in IQl could be ±1. So. Now. Let u = 3/t. { u 2 = u.302 16.{X 3 . tu = 3. X 3 . t.2) by u. The only ramified primes are therefore 3.3X +9 = (X. preceding Theorem 2.3u. t 2 } is a IQ-basis of K) then u rf Z[t]. sot is a unit and 23 1 -.:t 1 mod 7 is such a root and we have the decomposition X 3 . 7. From t3 . Referring to our discussion in Chapter 11.5)(X 2 + 5X + 5) (mod 17) where X 2 + 5X + 5 is irreducible modulo 17. u). t. discrKIQ(1. where d 1 = discrKIQ(l. But d 1 has no square-factors. Considering the discriminants. Hence rn 2 = 9 (this is the only square dividing d) and d 1 = -3 x 7 x 11.3X + 9 has the root 5 mod 17 and we have X 3 . We shall determine a subring A 1 of A which properly contains Z[t].1) by t and (Hi. thus r 2 = 1. u) Over JF 2 . we look for the roots common to X 3 . Over lF 7 we know that X 3 .3X + 9. 1 and this provides the multiplication table of A 1 .t. t 2 ) a= = 3. Q~ 7 has inertial degree 2.:3X + 9 must have at least a double root.:3X + 9 '"' .1) we have 1. Also u = 1. we have discrKIQ(1. Hence A· 2 = Q2 where the inertial degree of Qz in KIQ is equal to 3. Therefore.2) and u E A.t. The Z-module A 1 generated by {1.. u} is actually a subring of A. ±3. (3/t) 2 + 3 = 0. with 1 < rn 2 .

2u = -2(u + 4) + 11: 5u(t.2) EB Z(u + 4). By the computation explained in Example 1. t we deduce that 3'¢7 (u) = 3 . Next. Over lF 11 we have. t" are the conjugates oft. Hence Q~ is the principal ideal generated by (t -1) 2 and Q~ is the principal ideal generated by 7 j(t -1f. From the relations between u.2) = (u + 4) . hence '1/Ju(u) = 8. Q~ 1 have inertial degree equal to 1. Similarly.3). Some Cubic Fields 303 (X -1) 2(X + 2) (mod 7).(u) = u satisfy F = 0. showing that Q~ 1 = A(t .1) EB Z(u. Theorem 2. while Q~ is the kernel of'¢~. then Q7 is the principal ideal generated by t -1.1) = (-1) 3 /(1) = -7.2).2) (mod 11) so A· 11 = Q? 1 · Q~ 1 . lF 3 is any homomorphism then 'lj.3 = -u(t. u2 = u.2) + 2. Then 3'¢11 (u) = 3.1) 2 = [(t 2 + t. If t'. then t+t'+t" = 0. Thus A· 7 = Q~ · Q~. Q7 = Z · 7 EB Z(t. Thus Qu = Z · 11 EB Z(t + 1) EB Z(u + 3). similarly.2).1) and NKIQ(t.3. The prime ideal Q7 is the kernel of the homomorphism '¢7 : A ---> lF 7 such that '¢7 (t) =I.(u.2 = 4u(t + 2) . Thus 7 E A(t + 2) and u(t + 2) = 3 + 2u = 2(u. Since u.1)2(t".2).2) + 7 therefore 4u(t + 2) = (u.3X + 9 = (X+ 1) 2(X. Q~ 1 = Z · 11 EB Z(t. From the relations satisfied by t. Q~ have inertial degree equal to 1. NKIQ(t + 2) = ( -1) 3 f( -2) = -7.'¢u(t 2 ) = 3.11(u + 4) + 11 hence u + 4 E A(t .I = 2. tt't" = -9so-7 = (t-1)(t'-1)(t"-1). u it follows that if '¢ : A ---. '¢~ 1 (u) = 7. The only possibilities '¢3 . '¢~ 1 : A ---> lFu has kernel Q~ 1 and '¢~ 1 (t) = 2. tu = 0.---7~ = t (t'.1) · 7 E A(t + 2).9)u] 2 = 9(1 + t. Q 11 is the kernel of the homomorphism '¢ 11 : A ---> lF 11 such that '1/Ju(t) = -I. X 3 . Now we describe the decomposition of A · 3. where Qu. NKIQ(t.2) = 3. Also u(t. cannot be applied to the prime number 3. and u.9)2 (t.3u) 2 = -( 2 + t) 63 63 ' so Q~ = A(t + 2). noting that Q~ Z · 7 EB Z(t + 2) EB Z(u.1)2 = (t2 +7tt2. This shows again that Q~ = A(t + 2). We could also see this directly. where Q 7 . 'lj. 16. so 11 E A(t. with '1/JHt) = -2.2).(t) = t. '¢~ are '¢3(u) = 0. . Similarly '1/JHu) = 2. Similarly. Since u + 3 = u(t + 1) and NKIQ(t + 1) = (-1) 3/(-1) = -11 then 11 E A(t + 1) therefore Q11 = A(t + 1). hence '¢7(u) = 3.'¢7 (t 2) = 2.2) = (-1) 3 /(2) = -11. The method indicated in Chapter 11.2) + 7(u. (t'-1)(t"-1) = -9/t + t + 1: -.

discr KIQ( 1. because if f = hh with h. multilpying by 8.3). so Q3 is the principal ideal generated by u. Let K = IQ(t). Since 503 is prime then A = A 1 and the discriminant of K is fJ K = d1 = -503. In our discussion in Chapter 11. before Theorem 2.2t +' u. t.~(t) = 0. Moreover. The only ramified prime is 503.1). We shall determine a subring A1 of A which properly contains Z[t].4) hence u EA.~(u) =I. ut = 4. f is irreducible over IQ.t.(1/2)t 2 (and the expression of u in terms of the IQ-basis {1. Thus Z[t] is properly contained in A 1 . If Q3 = ker( 1/. dividing (16.4) by u we have t 2 = 2. -3 = NK!Q(u.(1/2)t. Hence m 2 = 4 and d 1 = -503. The Z-module A 1 generated by {1. The constant term of h is congruent to 1 mod 2. Thus At = Q3 · Q3 and A· 3 = Atu = Q~ · Q3.3) we have 1 + 1/t. u2 + 2u + 8 = 0. Letting u = 4/t then u3 .2X + 8.16/t 2 + 64jt 3 = 0. deg(h) > 0. t. 8 + 8/t. 1/. t. From (16. u et Z[t] since u = 1 . t 2 } is unique). If d 1 = discrKIQ(1. we have discrKIQ(1. Exercise 48).3) by t and (16. Q~ = ker( 1/. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples and 1/. Example 3: Now we discuss a classical example of Dedekind.2/t 2 + 8jt 3 = 0 and.1. . Similarly. u) Let us study the decomposition of the primes 2 and 503 in the ring A. ( 16.2u { u 2 = -2. From t = -(u -1)u and 3 = N K!Q( u) it follows that Q 3 is the principal ideal generated by u. where tis a root off = X 3 + X 2 .304 16.~) then Q 3. u} is a subring of A.0. h E Z[X].0. t. u) then d = m 2 d 1 with 1 < m 2 . t2) a= = 2. These relations provide the multiplication table in A 1 and show that A 1 is a subring of A. We have Q3 = Z· 3EBZt EBZu. Q~ have inertial degree 1. t. In fact. Since it divides 8 it must be 1 or -1. f(-1) I. then reducing the coefficients modulo 2 we would have 1 = X 3 + X 2 = X 2 (X + I). But f(1) /:. so f is irreducible. Q3 = Z · 3EBZtEBZ(u -1). deg(h) > 0.27 x 8 2 = -2012 = -4 x 503 (see Chapter 2. The discriminant off is equal to d = 4-4 x 8 + 18 x (-2) x 8-4 x ( -2) 3 .

a E Q2. or At= Q§·Q~ 2 .1) / (t + 3) = a+ bt + cu where a. u . either At = Q§ · Q~.1). Thus N KIQ(t -1) = -8. 1/J~ are 1/J2(t) 0. We have Q2 = Z · 2 EB Zt EB Zu. Hence Q'2 =A(~) t +3 is a principal ideal. t divides NKIQ(t). Q2.a tf. u.1) must be a power of Q2 and taking norms we conclude that A(t. Q~ = Z · 2 EB Zt EB Z(u. hence the only prime ideals appearing in the decomposition of At are those which divide 2. Q2 = ker(1/J~). we may write (t . we see that Q§ does not divide Au. If a E Z is even but not a multiple of 4 then t . Q2. Q~. u .a2 .a)(t". Q~.a tf. t -a tf. Q~ but u E Q2. Q2. u E Q~. 1/J~ (u) I. From the above we know that A(t.(u) = u satisfy P = t. Otherwise. In terms of the integral basis.f(a).a)= (t. c E Z are easily determined taking into account the multiplication table. and t - a E Q 2. Q22.a E Q~.6. Q 2. If Q2 = ker(1/J2). Au= Q22. u. Q2 and t E Q 2. We show that Q§ does not divide At. t . 1/J~(t) = 0. 1/J2 (u) 0.3. Let us note that if a E Q and if t. Similarly. Now we show that these prime ideals are principal. A(t + 2) = Q§ · Q~ . Thus NKIQ(t. In the same manner. therefore the prime ideals dividing A(t. we see from NKIQ(t + 3) -8. u 2 = u. NKIQ(t) = -8 and similarly NKIQ(u) = -8 since ut = 4. With the same argument. then 8 = INKIQ(u)l = N(Au) = (N(Q2)) 2 = 4. If a E Z is odd then t -a E Q2. Similarly. b. So A · tu = A · 4 = Q§ · Q~2 · Q~ 2 . 1/J~(t) = I. Therefore At = Q 2 · Q~ 2 and Au = Q 2 · Q!]. namely (t. tu = 0. t'. Butt tf. t -a tf. 16. u tf. The only possibilities 1/J2. a 3 = . u we see that if 1/J : A -> lF 2 is any homomorphism then 1/J(t) = t.2) = Q~ · Q~. A(t + 2) is easily seen: A(t. Q~. Q~ = Z · 2 EB Z(t.1)/(t + 3) = -5 + 3t + 2u.1) must be among Q2. t . u .1) EB Zu. t E Q~. t" are conjugate over Q then NKIQ(t.1) = Q23 .9 + 27 = 4 that A(t + 3) = Q22. 1/J~.a) = -8 + 2a. Some Cubic Fields 305 From the relations satisfied by t.2) = -16. Q~ and u .a)(t'. Q~ have inertial degree 1 and A · 2 = Q 2 · Q2 · Q~. 1/J~ (u) 0.a E Q2. Q~ and u -a E Q~.2).a tf. lj. thus Au = Q~2 · Q~ which is impossible. Q~ = ker(1/Jn then Q2. which is absurd.a tf. NKIQ(t + 2) = -8 and the decomposition of A(t.a tf. Q~ 2 (as may be seen from the norms).a tf.

t. 5 (u) = 4 hence 1j.Z(t + 1) EB .Zv EB . Taking the norms into account. So Qs =A ( (t +t1~t1+ 3)) and this generator of Q 5 may be easily expressed in terms of the integral basis {1. Hence A · 5 = Q5 · Q~.306 16. A· 5. we see that Q5 = . If p = 3 we have A · 3 = Q3 since 1 = X 3 + X 2 + X + 2 is irreducible over lF3. We conclude the study of this example by noting the following facts. The only possibilities are 0. that is. If 1/. where Q5 has inertial degree 1 and Q~ has inertial degree 2. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples (because of the norms). Similarly.Z(u.. From NKIIQ(t+1) = (-1) 3 f( -1) = 10 we see that the prime ideals dividing t + 1 are among those dividing A· 2. Then 1 = X 3 + X 2 + 3X + 3 = (X + I)(X 2 + 3) over lF 5 .2 (A) = 1/Jb(A) = 1/J~(A) = lF 2 . Finally.1). Q~ = Z·5EBZ(t 2 +3)EBZ(u 2 +2). respectively. This tells us that the discriminant of K has an inessential factor. respectively. Hence A· 7 = Q7. p = 11. Thus 1j. a contradiction. · Q~. (t + 1)(t + 3) For the primes p = 7. A · 2 = Q 2 · Q. For every integer v E A we have A i= . we see with some computation that 1 is irreducible over JF 7 .5 (u) =I and by a computation already explained.Z EB . after (T)).u). I E JF 2 . namely Q" = A ( 2 (t + 2 )(t + 3)) = A( -5.Z · 5 EB . u}. t. thus Q~ is also a principal ideal. then 1j. N(A · 2) = 2 < 3 = [K : IQ] (see Chapter 13. we must have A(t + 1) = Q. so there would only exist two homomorphisms from A onto JF 2 . Indeed A· 2 = Q2 · Q~ · Q~.2t + u). Q~ have inertial degree equal to 1.1) EA. From A· 5 = Q5 • Q~ we deduce also that Q~ is a principal ideal generated by 5(t. Indeed. The class number of K is 1. (F). A · 2 = Q2 · Q~ · Q~. Hence t -- Q2 =A ( - t+2 2) = A(2. We have seen that t + 1 E Q. · Q 5 . 1/J~ are homomorphisms from A with kernels Q 5 . Q~. 2 (t-1)(t-2) Now we study the decomposition of other primes p into prime ideals of A. If we had A = Z[v] then the homomorphisms would be determined by the image of v. Q~.5 . every ideal of A is principal. A ·ll = Q11. over lFn. Let p = 5. so the prime ideals Q 2 . It is enough to show that every prime ideal is principal. namely 2. By Chapter 9.5 (t)1j. in .Zv 2 .

We assume that K1 = IQ(t1). Let K = K1K2 = K1K3 = K2K3 (since t1 + t2 + t3 E Z) so KIIQ is a Galois extension of degree 6. Some Cubic Fields 307 every class of ideals of K there exists an integral nonzero ideal J such that In our case. 3 where 8 = 8K 1 = 8K2 = 8K3 • Indeed. I8KI = 503. : IQ] = 3 for i = 1. ~2. E Z.\IQl(t. R 1 . . K1 hence K = K1 ( J8). denote prime ideals of C. . hence d. . . This has already been established. ~isanormalsubgroupof~.t2) = -/dl. . K = K.t2)(t3. We denote by C the ring of integers of L. hence N(J) < 7. The following notations will be used: P = P1. [K: K. = {c:}. [L: IQ] = 2. the ring of integers of K.. thus K 2 K1(J8) = K1(/dl) 2 K1. ~3 are conjugate subgroups. 3. 2. n = 3. t 2. 1.) = (t 1 . 3). We shall discuss all possible types of decomposition of an arbitrary prime number p in Kj!Q. however. Z[t. In fact. Thus it suffices to prove that every prime ideal of A having norm less than 7 is principal. [K. Clearly~n~. ~~i = ~. the alternating group on three letters. The Galois group of KIIQ is the symmetric group on three letters~= 63. Moreover. Q. 16. The nontrivial subgroups of~ = 6 3 are~ = G(KiL). R2. 2. r2 ::. K2 = IQ(t2). Let t 1 = t. .t2) 2(t 1 . Let L = IQ(Jb) thus [K: L] = 3. denote prime ideals of A. ~i = G(KjK.3. Qi2. Example 4: Let K 1 = IQ(t) be a field of degree 3 over IQ (where t is an algebraic integer). 3.] ~ B. K3 = IQ(t3) are distinct fields.] = 2. for the permutation we have a(/dl) = (t1. P2. But /d1 ef. denote prime ideals of Bi. 2.(J8) fori = 1. group of order 2 generated by the transposition for i = 1. t 3 be the conjugates oft over IQ. if /d1 E K 1 from [K1 : IQ] = 3 it would follow that /d1 E IQ.1.t3)(t1. 2. . = discrK.t3) 2(t2 - t3) 2 = m~8 with m. We denote by A the ring of integers of K and by B. ~1. (i = 1.).

I) = 2.) = 3 so Ap is the product of three prime ideals.I) generates a prime ideal of A. 2 decomposes into the product of two prime ideals of A (which are distinct from P 1 ). AQ. e = f = 1. equal to Tp(KIQ) = { E }. thus P 2 n B. Cp = R 1 R 2. Each prime ideal P. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Case 1: pis unramified in KIQ. = {E} hence p n B.p = QilQ. e = f = 1. 1 (i = 1.p = Q. AQ. thus Cp is the product of two prime ideals. Tp(KIQ) = K. 3).2Q. Ap = P1P2P3. (2) in the extension K. On the other hand. B. where the above prime ideals are distinct. thus necessarily A(P1 n Bi) = P 1P 2. since p is unramified. Cp = R 1. AQ. j(P1Iqil) = 2. has degree 1 over IQJ. B. Moreover.IQ : n = g = 3.I) · j(Q.IQd cannot be 2 then j(Q. by Chapter 14. = Q. Hence Zp2 (KIK. Ap = P1P2P3P4PsP6. (b) In this case. 2. j(R1IZp) = 2. (E): ZPnc(LIQ) = Zp(KIQ)jZp(KIL) = QljQl = {c}. In fact. The possibilities for the decomposition group of P in KIQ are the following: (a) Zp(KIQ) = {c} (b) ep(KIQ) = Ql. 3). 3).3 (i = 1. respecti- vely. In fact. and Zp2 (KIQ) = (J2 1 Zp(KIQ)(J2 = IJ3J (j i= i). g = (~ : Ql) = 2 soAp = P 1P 2. Ap = P 1P 2. Since f(PziZp) = j(P1IZp) = j(PliQ. j(Q. e = f = 1. g = (~ : IJ3. = {c}. Therefore B.2) = f(P. and j(R1IZp) = 2. From the fundamental relation in KIKi we have J(P1IQ. From Zp(KIL) = Zp(KIQ) n Ql = IJ3i n Ql = {E} it follows that if R 1 = P n C then AR 1 is the product of three prime ideals of A thll:i necessarily AR 1 = P 1P2P:J. and (3) in the extension LIQ : n = g = 2. so we know that Qi 2 i= Q. Let Qi 2 = P2 n Bi. 1. 2. and (c) Zp(KIQ) = IJ3. 2.) = Zp(KIQ) n IJ3.1IZp) = 1. 1. .p = Q. Since Zp(KIKi) = Zp(KIQ) n IJ3. (c) In this case. Also Zp(KIK. (i = 1. Since P2 is conjugate to P 1 by some (J2 E ~then (J2 ~ IJ3. then Pn Bi (denoted by Q. (a) In this case.J.2IZp) = 2.2 = P2P3.1 = P1.JIZp) = 2 and j(P2IQ. R.) = Zp2 (KIQ) n IJ3. 2 = P 2 P 3 . j(Q. decomposes into the product of two prime ideals of A. Cp = R1. 1 = P 1 .1Qi2 (i = 1.308 16. Cp = R 1 R2. hence AQ. that is. 3). 2.... B. In fact. by the fundamental relation n = efg we have: (1) in the extension KIQ: n = g = 6. Cp = R 1R 2. B.2IZp) = 2.p = Q. Q.p must be a prime ideal of B. The inertial group and the inertial field of P in KIQ are.

when K 1 = Q( V'3) (the reader should verify this statement). and (d) Tp(KIQ) = Zp(K\Q) =lEi fori = 1. (c) Tp(K\Q) = Zp(KIIQ) = 21. c . Then A· 3 = Pf. Some Cubic Fields 309 Case 2: pis ramified in K\IQ. so necessarily p = 3. 2. for example. But the order of V 1 is a power of p and #6:~ = 6 thus V1 # ~.3. The- orem 2). (b) Tp(KIQ) = 21. thus V1 -=J {c:} since~= 6 3 . By transitivity of the decomposition number and inertial degree. 3. C · 3 = Ri. The case in question may actually arise. V 1 is a normal subgroup ofT = Tp(KIQ) and T jV1 is a cyclic group (Chapter 14. . Zp(KIQ) = ~. 3 = Rr. It suffices to recall that Tp(KIQ) -=J {c} and that Tp(KIQ) is a normal subgroup of Zp(KIIQ). it has order 3.Hence V1 = 21. Bi · 3 = Qrl . hence Bi · 3 = Qr1. From Tp(K\Q) = Zp(K\Q) = ~ it follows that the decomposition number and inertial degree of Pin KIIQ are equal to 1. (a) This case may only happen when p = 3. hence A· 3 = Pf. those of P1 n Bi. The possibilities for the inertial group and the decomposition group of Pin KIQ are the following: (a) Tp(KIQ) = Zp(KIQ) = ~. P1 n Care also equal to 1. Let V 1 be the first ramification group of P in K\IQ. 16.

Hence B. In fact. . that is. If p = 2 let VI be the first ramification group of PI in KIQ. AR 1 = Pf.IQ(b).) = {E }. P 1 is the only prime ideal of A dividing Zp.2 (i = 1. that is. Thus 2 is an inessential factor of the discriminant t5 K 1 .'i inertial degree 1). g = (it : lEi) = 3 soAp has three different prime factors. AR 1 = P 1P2P3 and so Cp = Ri. however. by Chapter 14. Cp = Ri. B. But #(VI) is a power of p.2.IQ(b) = (b1 . hence also in KIIQ.p = Qi1Q. Thus Cp = R1R2 and AR1 = Pf. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples (b) = Pf. b2. AQi2 = P2P3 and therefore Bip = Q. thus p = 3. Thus f(PIIZp) = 2 and by the fundamental relation for KIQ.Ap = P'fP:}P(f. dividing Bip. = {E} thus if Qil = PIn Bi then AQ. B. b3 are not all in different residue classes modulo P 1 • Hence P[ divides discrK. From this discussion we deduce: If A· 2 = P1 P2 P3P4P5 P6 then 2 is unramified in K 1IQ. a contradiction. so V1 = Ql has order 3. 2 is unramified in KIQ. 3). Zp2 (KIQ) = ~B 1 (j =f. so 4 divides discrK.b2) 2(b1 .p = Qr1 (i = 1. 2. P2 in KIQ are equal to 1. Cp = R1R2. From Zp(KIL) = IE. Let Qii = Bin P 1. i) hence Zp2 (KIK. so by the fundamental relation R 1 is totally ramified. then discrK.1 Q72. so b1 . n Ql = {s}. by the fundamental relation. Since p is ramified then Ap = Pl P:} Pf. Then there is only one prime ideal in B. #(Tp.310 16. (LIQ) = Tp(KIQ)/Tp(KIL) = {s} hence the inertial degree f(R 1 1Zp) = 2.p = Qr1 (i = 1. Theorem 2. Cp = R 1 . if RI = P 1 n C then AR 1 has three different prime factors.p = Qr1 because f(Qi 1IZp) divides the degree 3 and the inertial degree f(PIIZp) = 2. Also Zp(KIKi) = Ql n IE. say Q.b3) 2(b2. On the other hand. (c) In this case. Ap We have Tp(KIL) = Zp(KIL) = Ql. We have Zp(KIQ) = Ql. (d) Inthiscase. hence Zp(KIL) = Ql and Zp(LIQ) = {s}. if b = b1.p = Qri· We show now that p f= 2. the inertial degree is also 1. B.b3) 2. it divides the discriminant of every primitive integral element b of K 1. therefore if P1 n C = R 1 then the decomposition number of P 1 in KIL is 1. thus necessarily AQi 1 = P1 P2.3). But N (Pr) = 2 (since P1 ha. p f= 2 and Ap = PfP~.l is the product of two distinct prime ideals. so f(QiiiZp) = 1 and by the fundamental relation B. Since Zp(KIKi) = lEi then AQil = P'f. If Qi2 = BinP2 ("I= Qii) then AQi2 is the product of two different prime ideals. 1 .p has only one prime factor Qil· But the inertial degrees of PI. Indeed. that is. b2. B. that is.IQ(b) E Z.3).2. In this case. AR2 = P~ hence Ap = P{P:j. b3 are the conjugates of b over Q. Ap = Pf. (KIQ)/VI) divides #(TF 2') = 1. On the other hand. Also TR.

T( i) = i. a' . d2 ) E Z. d i) = -i. (a 2 . T(x) = a .bfi. c' have the same parity. 16. 2a 2 + 14d2 E Z..7. From these relations we deduce: 2c 2 + 14b 2 E Z. d' E Z.2 b' ' c = l.ci + dfii.7). If x E A then TrKIIQl(v'7)(x) = x + (J(x) E B. T( ft) = . while the fixed field of {E. and therefore b'.4. We express these conditions in terms of the coefficients of x: Taking into account that B = Z EB z. c. and again 12d2 = 3d'2 E Z so (a' 2 + d' 2 )/2 E Z and a'. C = Z EB Zi. 2b E Z. i).4 Biquadratic Fields Example 5: Let K = Q( . let A be the ring of integers of K.7.bfi + ci . c2 ) .7. Thus the fixed field of {E. B the ring of integers of Q( ft). b.2 c' with a' ' b' ' c' E Z ' then 12b 2 = 3b'2 E Z ' so (c' + b' 2 )/2 E Z..ci . (J. (JT( i) = -i. TrKIIQl(i)(x) = x + T(x) E C. N KIIQl(v'7)(x) =X· (J(x) E B and. similarly. But a' d' r.dfti..7..7. Letting a = fl. T. T} is Q(i). (a 2 + c2 ) + 7(b 2 + d2 ) E Z. (JT(x) = a . b'. C the ring of integers of Q(i).:. 2(ab + cd) E Z.c' with E Z. NKIIQl(i)(x) = x · T(x) E C. (JT} where (J( ft) = . similarly. Then (J(x) = a+ bft..d' Z. 7(b 2 .7bd) E Z.dfii. then 2a E Z. 2c E Z. Biquadratic Fields 311 16. d' have the same parity. KIQ is a Galois extension.. its Galois group is {E. 2 ..d' d' ( 1 + fti ) a'.. 2(ac. Since 14d2 has a denominator at most equal to 2 then d = ~ d'. Every element of K may be written uniquely in the form x = a + bft + ci + dfti with a. b = l. d E Q. 2 +2 v 7i = 2 + 2 with 2 E and. (J} is Q( . a' . and (JT( ft) = .

( .fl + i 1..J7 . c = 7m.fii)/2] = 'lj.(t)'lj.( i) = I... But computing the discriminant of the integral basis 1.4).7(t) = ~A= "f E lF 72.(u)+'lj.fl +i)/2.4 = .(u) = 0..(t') = I.. hence 'lj..i)/2 E A. m E Z such that a= 7l.( -1) = I.fii)/2 sou+ u' = 1. Let u' = (1 .J7i)/2theni'Hc"(+d4 = 0. (H)). c = 0.7(1/2) = 4 E lF7..4). We need to describe the possible 2 homomorphisms 'lj. therefore.fii 1 .j7 2 2 -... Let us note here that t = ( .f7..( . Exercise 48). (. Similarly ['lj. Ifx = a+b. 7.fl + i)/2 sot+ t' = i.(t')'lj.(u') =I.3X 2 + 4.J7i)/2) = 2i and t'u' = (( -. This shows that Q7 = Z · 7 ffi z.J7+i)/2)·((1+.(u) are either 0 or I and there are only ..(t)'lj.7 [ (1 + . and since these elements are integers and are linearly independent.j7 + i 1 + . From i 2 = -1 it follows that 'lj.(u') = 0.fl... 'lj.fl.(7) = 'lj.. Then 'lj.7(7) = 0 it follows that 'lj. In the notation of the proof of Chapter 11. (1 + .i 1 .. Lett' = ( -. and x = 7l + bV"1 + 7mt + d(u. being a conjugate oft. .(1) =I it follows that 'lj. a = 2..(t') = 0.7( .fl 2 2 Thus Z[t] -:/. 'lj.f7 + i) /2 is a primitive integral element of K.7 be the homomorphism from A onto lF 72 having kernel equal to Q7. Since f = (X 2 +2) 2 (mod 7) and X 2 +2 is irreducible over JF 7 it follows that A · 7 = Q? where Q7 has inertial degree 2..fl ffi Z · 7t ffi Z( u. so there exist integers l. see Chapter 4.(i)] 2 = 'lj. and since 'Y fj_ lF 7 then a+ 4d = 0. Finally. Its minimal polynomial is easily computed and equal to f = X 4 . From tu = ((.J7 + i)/2.fl.(u') = 0. .. from A onto a field extension of lF 2 .(u)'lj. 'lj. 'lj..fii 1 .J7 + i)/2) · ((1 . From 'lj. . tt' = -2.withu = (1+. (I). The only ramified prime ideals are 2. because u .. We now consider the decomposition of 2. Its discriminant is d = 16 x ( -3) 4 x 4-128 x ( -3) 2 x 42 + 256 x 43 = 43 x 72 (see Chapter 2.. So 'lj. they constitute an integral basis of KIQ. 'lj.. The fact that d has square factors does not allow us to decide at once whether Z[t] is equal to A. (1 + .fii 1 -.. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Thus every element x E A is a linear combination with coefficients in &:.. 'lj..fl) =I.J7+ct+du E Q 7.17. Now we conclude that Q7 is the principal ideal generated by .fii)/2) = 2i we have 'lj.A. From [ 'lj. uu' = 2. '" 1.fii)/2 we arrive at 2 .i 1 + . (.i) /2] V7 and ( .j7.fii)/2.fl)] = 'lj.4d. hence 'lj.[ ( .j7 2 2 -.fl 2 2 8K = det = 42 X 72 . Let 'lj.(t) + 'lj.312 16..(t).J7i 1 -.fl) = 0.7(i) is the square root of -1 over lF 7 (X 2 +I is irreducible over lF 7 because -1 is not a square modulo 7.

3X 2 + 4 X4+ = 1 = (X 2 +X +2)(X 2 -X +2) (mod 3). From 1/. u. Q~ have inertial degree equal to 1.1 = (1 + v'7i)/2. But 2 = -iut E At. Q~ = Z · 2 EB Z(1 . Let us now compute the decomposition of 3.i).v'7) 2(1 + v'7) 2 = 36 and NKIQ(t) ~ ( J72+ i) . then Q 2 .3. For Q~ we observe that u -1 = it implies that u = i( t.t). Thus Q2 is the ideal generated by 1 . these factors being irreducible over lF 3 .i.J7 + 1) EB Z · 3t EB Z(u + t).1) EB Z · 3t EB Z(u. Now.(-v: + i) . thus Q~ is the ideal generated by 1.( i) 2 = 1/. It is easily seen that 1. Q~ be their kernels.( v'7) = 2. so the ramification indices of Q2.1). 1/.(u) = -(1 + 1/J(v'7)'r). where Q 3 .( v'7) 2 = 1/. 1/J~. 1/JHu) = 'Y + 2.v'7).(J7 i) . we arrive at an impossibility). 1/J~(u) = 0.v'7 = xt with x E A. If Q 3 is the kernel of 1/. 16. hence A· 2 = Q~ · Q~2 . V7) EB Zt EB Z(u. namely: 1/J2(t) = 0. hence t ~ A(1.3(t) = -('y +I). 1/. then 1/.3( u) = -('y + I). Q~ have inertial degree equal to 2. f = X 4 . then 1/.( -1) = -I and the fact that -1 is not a square modulo 3. V7) EB Z(t. Then 1/.v7) = (1 .v'7. Q~ are equal.(t) = -(1/J(v'7) +"f). We note also that hence t . Letting Q 2 . t.(-v:. 1/.v'7 ~ A(t. 1/J~(t) = -('y + 2).i) E A(t.v'7 ~ At (for if 1.1) EB Zu. Then A· 3 = Q 3 · Q~. and we have the following homomorphisms 1/.i).i) ~ 2. where 'Y E lF32 is a root of X 2 +I.1 = (-1 + v'7i)/2 it E At. 1/.i) E A( t. 4.f7. 1/.v'7 and t.3' defined by 1/.( v'7) = I or 1/. Let 1/J be a homomorphism from A onto a field extension of lF3. We note that N KIQ(1 .i ~ A(1 . it is easily seen that Q2 = Z · 2 EB Z(1 . Biquadratic Fields 313 two possible homomorphisms 1/.4. . But KIQ is a Galois extension.i). 2 = -iut = t(t. and if we express x in terms of the integral basis.2(u) =I.2.(7) = I so 1/.(i) = "f. Q~ = Z · 3 EB Z(.v'7) and it is also easily seen that 1 .~(t) = I.3 and Q~ is the kernel of 1/J~ then by a computation already explained Q3 = Z · 3 EB Z(.

1) and . hence the Galois groups G(Q(()IQ(t(i 2 )) and G(Q(()IQ(t)) are conjugate subgroups of G(Q(()IQ). that is. ." ibid. .1. V. Math. But Q(t(i 2 ) and Q(t) are conjugate over Q. Thus p-1 f = II (X .a E Z[X].314 16. t(. Z[t] are free Abelian additive groups of rank p. otherwise there would exist a rational number whose pth power is equal to a. (u-t ) 2 2 then Q3 is the ideal generated by 3 and .. Since this is an Abelian group then Q(t) = Q(t(i 2 ) hence (i 2 E Q(t). We also deduce that Q(3 is the ideal generated by 3 and ..1 ~ A · 3.a are t. p . . Hence. Bull. :Vl. (2) 93 (1969). A contains Z[t] and we know that A.. 16.1 where ( is a primitive pth root of unity.1 and f would have a linear factor over Q. where a = q1 q2 · · · qn and p.. which is impossible. p cJ 2. 3 ~ A( . t( (. 7 + v'7i . It has no linear factor. Un Exemple de Determination des Entiers d'un Corps de Nombres.f7 . . Moreover. Q(() = Q(t). (2) 96 (1972). i=O Now we show that f is irreducible over Q. Thus g has degree p. It follows that K = Q(t) has degree p over Q.. t(i).::. If the minimal polynomial g E Q[X] of t has degree less than p.. qr are distinct prime numbers. q1. tCJ) E Z[X] j=1 with 1 < k < p and 0 = i 1 < i 2 < · · · < ik :::.f7 . 1 + (i 2 +···+(i•) E Q and t E Q((). and Flexor.. j < p. tP = a. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Since r. 0 :::. * See Gautheron.f7 + 1.f7. See also "Rectificatif. since Q~ is conjugate to Q3 . 172-179. as one sees taking norms. The roots of f = XP . E. taking j such that ji 2 = 1 (mod p) we have ( E Q(t).f7. Sci.. t(P. We have Ap C Z[t] and the Abelian group A/Z[t] is isomorphic to (Z/Zp)l for some j.1.i -3+ . it is of the form k g = II (X . 3-13. Let A be the ring of integers of K. . ( v7-1 ) ( v'7-+-i ) -- .5 Binomial Extensions Example 6: * Let f = XP .

1 ) = ( -1)( 1 / 2 )p(p. so Aq 1 = Qf. and in this manner. the decomposition into prime ideals of Aq 1 is (after renumbering) of the type Aq 1 = Q~ 1 • Q~ 2 • • • QZ'. The discriminant of KIQ is fJ K = ZpP-. because 1 rf.. Binomial Extensions :315 Proof: By Chapter 6. Apa <.. We shall compare the decomposition into prime ideals of Za = Zq 1 · Zq 2 · · · Zqr and At. divides one (and only one) ideal Aqj. where j is as in (E). : A --> A/ At denotes the canonical homomorphism then 1/!(Z) is a subring of the ring A/ At ~ Z/Za. because of the uniqueness of the decomposition into prime ideals. and Z[t]/Ap =f.1 ) NKIQ(J'(t)). t(P-l (where (is a primitive pth root of unity).(A) as we intended to show. hence multiplying by t. Proof: The discriminant of t is d = discrKIQ(1. Z[t].. j < p .. t(. Z[t]. Z[t] it suffices to prove that if 1/J : A --> A/ At is the canonical homomorphism then 1/!(Z) = 1/!(A). . Z[t]p + Aap <... so A= Z +At.. In fact..... .5. t. = 1. Ap (otherwise 1/p E An Ql = Z).. r and we conclude that s = r.A<. . . (i = 1. We shall prove that s = r. is totally ramified in KIQ and therefore A/Q. Aa = Aq 1 · Aq2 · · · Aqr.. [1/f'(t)]Z[t]. ~ Z/Za.. 0. A it follows that A/Z[t] ~ (A/Ap)j(Z[t]/Ap) and since A/ Ap is a vector space of dimension p over lFP (see Chapter 11... The conjugates oft are t. Z[t]. by the fundamental relation k = 1..1. .. p it follows that h 1 = p and 11 = 1. Hence we have r ::. By the same token Aq.. so IT (i = pPaP-1. If ·lj... r). r..2J aP.1. = Qf for every index i = 1. tP.. Indeed. Let us note that Z[t] is not contained in Ap.. Z[t] <.. Each Q. . s. Repeating. = Qf for i = 1. A <. But f'(t) = ptP.. . 0 ::. Aa = (At)P = Q1{ 11 · Q~12 · · · Q~ 1 '.. .. The- orem 1). 16. where each Q. So pl1 = h1 and from h 1 ::. . .1. Then AptP. is a prime ideal of A and 1 ::.. and Aq. this means that given any element of A there exists an element of Z in the same residue class modulo At. From Ap c Z[t] <. Since this ring has no nontrivial subring then 1/!(Z) = lj. A= Z + (Z + At)t = Z + Zt + At 2 ... For example. where f'(t) = ptP. Z[t] + AtP = Z[t] + Aa hence Ap <.. l...1 <.1.. ~ Z/Zq. p-1 NKIQ(J'(t)) = pPtp(p-1) i=O and therefore ldl = pPaP.. Let At = Qi1 • Q~2 • • • Q~'.... (B). In order to show that Ap <. on the other hand. ~ f1~= 1 Z/Zq. Therefore. • F. then A/Z[t] has dimension j. l. each prime ideal q. Z[t]t <. where the exponents hj satisfy the fundamental relation L:~= 1 !Qj (KIQ) · hj = p.... Now we have A/At ~ f1~= 1 A/Q. So.

Since p cl q. that is. From this result. the exponent of the different at each P. fP such that if y. Aq. < p and L. = f. over p. Xp} of the Abelian group A and integers fi. (3) --. . there exists an integral basis {x 1 . = l. we obtain f = XP -a = (X . Hencej = 0. if f is the inertial degree then ef = p. in K/Q. But p is ramified in K[Q. where f. Qr are only ramified prime ideals.Kat Q. Taking norms..::= 1 fi. (i = 1. (P). .a)P.. . because a E 1Fp hence aP =a. with each l. by Chapter 13.. hence e > 1. If these conditions are not satisfied then Ap = Pt 1 • • • P1<.. (0). By reducing modulo p the coefficients of f = XP -a.x.. Proof: The equivalence of (1) and (2) has been seen in (E). i=l i=l • Since p is odd then 2j < p. But p p lFb ~ A/Z[t] ~ Ef1(Zx. each prime q.316 16.f. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples We have seen that Z[t] is contained in A and the Abelian group A/Z[t] is a vector space of dimension j over lF p· By Chapter 6. . qr.2laP-l. The following facts are equivalent: (1) A= Z[t]. and (3) p is totally ramified (that is.. that the exponent of the different at Pis sp 2': ep = p. < p. soAp= Pt 1 • • • P1<. where f. so e = p. f = 1. . = Qf.. . (3) Let A = Z[t]. Then Zd = (!I··· fp) 2fJK. where each prime ideal Q. = p.::=l l. we know that the only ramified primes are p and q 1 . . G. . . Ap = pe.) ~ E9 Z/Zf. PP divides the different !::. Since the ramification index of P over p is the characteristic of the residue class field. . is equal top. with l. Since P 1 . Hence p does not divide l. (L). we know that there exists only one prime ideal P of A above p. .x. . 2j = 2:. we conclude from Chapter 13. Ap = PP where P is a prime ideal of A). the exponent of the different !::. of A is totally ramified over q. (1) --. and therefore by Chapter 13..1. that is.K. is the inertial degree of P. . Now we study the ramification of p. . .. .1.. . is the inertial degree of P..K) = fJK = zpP..p) then {y 1 . (2) Let Ap = PP so the inertial degree of P over p is equal to 1. . is totally ramified in K[Q. it follows from Chapter 13.. (0)..s. that pP = N(PP) divides N(t::. Theorem 2./Zf. We have seen in the proof of (E) that At = Ql Q2 · · · Qr. From Chapter 11. As we saw in (E). P8 and Q 1 . Yp} is a basis of the Abelian group Z[t]. Now we assume that pis not totally ramified in K[Q. is . (0). that is. and p is therefore totally ramified. (2) j = 0.

a and p. By Chapter 11. there exists only one prime ideal P of Z[t] such that E.. Ft ~ Z[t] so A'Ft ~ Z[t]' and so =A' Ft n Z[t]' =n(A' Pi n Z[t]') =Z[t]' E. Since pis not totally ramified then A "!=. (N): ~(A'IZ') =A'· ~K = A'(Aj'(t) · Ft .a)P since aP =a in lFp. If p is not totally ramified then j = 1.2j = 2. Ap = Pf Pre. is.1z. i=1 On the other hand. P 2 are equal to 1. 16.1Z[t].=II A'P/. The ring Z' has only one nonzero prime ideal which is Z'p and Z' /Z'p ~ Z/Zp = lFp (by Chapter 12. we get p .. each li < p.5.1 and. let Z' = s.2 jap. Binomial Extensions 317 then ~K = pl1-1 . therefore A' Pin Z[t]' = Z[t]' P. Thus Ft = Af'(t)~}/. Reducing the coefficients of f = XP . (H)). n Z = Zp and Z[t]p = pP_ Hence the inertial degree of P over pis equal to 1. We shall show that A'Ft = Z[t]'E_. (A'Ft). s A' Ft i=1 because each prime ideal A' Pin Z[t]' lies over Z'p.. Comparing these expressions A'Ft =II A'Pi =nA'Pi.1 =A'p.(!.1A.. hence ~(A'IZ') = IT:= 1 A'P/'.-1) {)K = NKIQ(~K) = Zp d · (q1· · ·qr)P. comparing. (A'Ft)- 1 1... since p is not totally ramified. It follows that Z[t]' Pis the only nonzero prime ideal of Z[t]' and Z[t]'/Z[t]'E.1 . By Chapter 13.1 . so the exponent of the different at Pi is li.a modulo p we obtain f = XP - a= (X. and the inertial degrees of P 1 .1) = A'p · A'tP. Let Ft be the conductor of A in Z[t]. Proof: We shall find a new relation between j and the inertial degrees fi. so 2j = 2.::=1 fi.Z[t]. Qp-1 .1. Z[t]' = s.::=1 k • H. . Let S be the multiplicative set-complement of Zp in Z. . (S). A' = s. . i=1 i=1 But by Chapter 13. We note also that E.1 ·(A' Ft). But t5K = ZpP.:·: f. ~ Z[t]/P = JFP. pl 8 -1.. Theorem 2. is the ideal of Z[t] generated by t .::= 1 fili 2.This will be done considering the conductor of A into Z[t] and localizing above p. Qp-1 1 s 1 r · Taking norms we have 2.

• It remains to indicate the conditions to decide whether j = 0 or j = 1.a E P then A(t.. Since P is the only prime ideal of A whose norm is a power of p. In the proof of (H) we have seen that P is generated by the elements t . it follows that p does not divide N(J).. p.1. Since p E PP then t. from the decomposition of J into a product of prime ideals. = A/ P.a)i = N(A(t. So INKIQ(t. which is not true..a (this polyno- mial is irreducible because Ql(t..a) = P[" 1 P:.a)) = pm 1 +m 2 • N(J). Z[t] '/A' Ft = Z[t] '/Z[t] 'E = IFP' hence #(Z[t] '/A' Ft) = p. hence #(A'/A'Ft) = pL. We conclude that a(aP. (2) ----> (1) Now we assume that A =J Z[t].1 "/= 1 (mod p 2 ).. From 2j = :L~ j. aP. The following conditions are equivalent: (1) A= Z[t]. :L~ fi = 2 and s ::. 2. But A' /Z[t]' ~ A/Z[t] ~ IF/ and so j = :L~ fi. because A'/ A' P. If we had s = 1 then h = 2 and from the fundamental relation ed1 = p.1 -1) "/= 0 (mod p 2 ) and since p does not divide a.3 + · · · + tP.1 "/= 1 (mod p 2 ).) .a) = PJ where P does not divide the ideal J of A. f.. . hence aP. we deduce that 2j = j + 1. hence j = 1. is the inertial de- gree of P. (2) aP. Thus A(t.2 + t 2apP.1 elements. sop would be even. t.- l is an integral basis.a) is a multiple of P 1 and of P 2.a tJ_ P 2. ..2. e 1 + e2 = p and we have concluded the proof..1 =1 (mod p2) since p does not divide a.a over Ql is (X+ a)P. tP.a.1.1 } { 1. where f. Since t .' 2 J where J is an ideal of A not containing p and m 1 ~ 1. hence j =J 0. m 2 ~ 1. Proof: (1) ----> (2) By (G) we know that Ap = PP. I. with m 1 + m2 ~ 2. Thus s = 2 and h = h = 1.1)1 = N(A(t. If A =J Z[t] then 1 + taP. with P1 n Z[t] = P2 n Z[t] = P. We have A'/A'Ft ~ IT:= 1 A'/A'P. But the minimal polynomial oft.1 .... 1'. INKIQ(t. .a= a(ap-l -1). Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples We shall prove that j = Cz:=:= 1 f...a)) = N(P) · N(J) = p · N(J).a) I = aP. therefore j = 1 and Ap = Pf Pre.. Taking norms.318 16. the only prime ideal of Z[t] above p. so we may write A(t. Taking norms we have ia(aP. .a) = Ql(t)). So the Abelian group A'/Z[t]' ~ (A'/A'Ft)/(Z[t]'/A'Ft) has pL..

Let d 1 = discrx Q(1. hence for i = 1.1lb. The only possibility is . tP.1 . We have A/Z[t] ~ Z/Zp since j = 1.3 +···+aP. u 2 = t and ut = 2.1 .8jt 3 = 0. z. pP(aP. because t 2 .1 belongs to the Abelian group generated by 1. i < p) is equal to ci = ( p-l p . It follows that lb K I i=. t. generated by every element different from 0. We have 3u = (3/2)t 2 ~ A. .1 = p 2 (P.1 +atP.1)P = aP. u). Relative Binomial Extensions 319 Now we shall prove that when A i=. t. 2(p -1). let f = X 3 .)Pi(aP. hence A/Z[t] is a cyclic Abelian additive group. t. we deduce that pztP.1 XP .1. Hence Z[t] i=. t.1 - 1)P.1 -1)P because (aP. so u 3 . The coefficient of Xi (0:::. z ~ Z[t] then A = Zz + Z[t]. t. tP. and p :::. b E Z.2 . 16.1 )jp belongs to A.1) divides Ci· Similarly. A then d1 = m 2 bK. P = 2u. 1) E Z. u it follows that d = 4d 1. We have w-1)p -1 = w-1 -1)(1 + tp-1 + t2(p-1) + . u is a subring of A. .(aP.4. Z[t].2 .1 . Since A 1 <.1 . K = Q(t).. showing that pP(aP. The discriminant oft is d = -27 x 16.1 . t. tP.1 -1)(1 +tp. .21 x 42. therefore u E A.1... The Z-module A 1 generated by 1. then the same holds obviously for the elements 1. ..2 +a 2 tP. t. The prime ideals of A dividing 3 are the kernels of the homomorphisms 1/J : A ----> IF 3 such that u2 = t.1 . Let us begin by showing that z = (1 +taP. . 1 + i + 2(p.1)b with bE Z..2 = 0.1 -1) divides c0 = (aP.1 = aP.. m 2 ~ 1.1 -1)P-i. Letting u = 2/t.2 . Similarly.1) = 2p. tP. From the expression of 1.1 = (aP. .1 =1 (mod p 2) be- cause A cf. t 2 in terms of 1 1. 1 + pX)P which has leading coefficient pP(aP. z because We conclude with the following observation.. For example. From (tP.4/t = 0 implies t 2 = 2u.i ~ p.3 +···+tP.)Pi(ap-I .2 +t 2 aP.4 = 0 we have 2. from t 3 .. where t 3 = 4. . and therefore pPzPaP.Z[t] there exists an integral basis of the type indicated. +t(p-1)2) = w. 1 . .2 t) = w.1 + pz)P.1)p-i = pl+i+ 2 (p-i-ll(aP. Finally.. Thus z is a root of the polynomial pPaP. Since z E A. But aP.1: ( p . t 2 } is a Q-basis of K and u = t 2 /2 then u ~ Z[t]. The results indicated above • do not hold when some square divides a.1 are linearly independent over Z. thus pAis not contained in Z[t]. ut = 2. p-l therefore. Since {1. t. Since 1.6.A.. Hence z is an algebraic integer. It remains to show that these elements generate A. 1)pz. p.i .33 . tP..1 + pz.. hence d 1 = -27 x 4.

f = g = 1: BP = PP. hence a = a'h(ab-h)l'p and in the same way we see that t E K(t'). Next. but P 2 does not divide Aa. We shall determine the decomposition of the prime ideals of A in LfK. Indeed. Pis decomposed. From the choice of b we deduce that the exact power of E_ which divides Aa' = Aa1 • AbP1' is phl+pl' = P. Let Aa = ph I_. In fact. So there is only one prime ideal P dividing 3 and A · :3 = P3. t(. Indeed. It follows that t(l:~=l (ij) E K.. . p .1 {P. e = g = 1: BP = P. P = gcd(BP.. Proof: We may assume without loss of generality that P divides Aa. and [L : K] = p. From the fundamental relation p = efg we deduce the following possibilities: (o:) e = p. a'h = a 1hbPl'h = a(bha. G has degree p. Let a E K be an element which is not the pth power of an element of K and consider the polynomial F = XP -a E K[X]. Pis totally ramified. 16. Taking a' = a 1bP 1' then XP -a' generates the same field extension LfK. Thus 3 is totally ramified. If k < p then L~=l C1 =/= 0 so t E K( () = K which contradicts the hypothesis about a. Let P be any nonzero prime ideal of A. t(P-l and they belong to L.320 16. and A the ring of algebraic integers of K. We deduce that the Galois group G(LfK) is the cyclic group with p elements. Then pP = gcd(BE_P. yet Z[t] =/= A. b rj. Thus G = fl~=l (X . Hence k = p. P is inert. if t'P = a' = a 1bP1' = tP1bP1' then t' = (it 1b1' E L (for some pth root of unity C). . . First we note that LfK is a Galois extension. (. that is. the roots ofF are t. J.1 and 1 < k ::. conversely. P 2 . p. G = F. Now let P be the ideal of B generated by BP and Bt. where I_ is not a multiple of P.6) f = p. let l. BP · BI_) = BP.6 Relative Binomial Extensions Example 7: Let p be a prime number. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples t = I. Now we shall indicate which case holds for any given prime ideal P of A. let bE P.tC 1 ) with 0 = i1 < i2 < · · · < ik ::. that is. Bt). L = K(t) and B the ring of integers of L. where I_ is an ideal of A not a multiple of E_ and h > 0 is an integer not a multiple of p. K an algebraic number field con- taining a primitive pth root of unity (. then BP = flf= 1 pie and all the prime ideals Pi have the same inertial degree f over K. u = 2. e = f = 1: BP = P 1 · · · Pp. Ba) = gcd(BE_. Thus Aa = E_ ·1. (r) g = p. Let t be a root ofF. l' be integers such that lh + l'p = 1. by hypothesis the minimal polynomial G oft over K cannot be linear (since a is not the pth power of an element of K). we show that [L : K] = p. In fact. Then E_ is ramified.

PI) = B so there exist elements y E P 1 . z E B. Actually.( = y(1 . (2) Let us assume now that Pis not inert in L)K. Zi. . with each Pi =f. We conclude that P decomposes in L)K. Indeed. y E BP. where I_ is an ideal of A not a multiple of P and p divides the integer h ~ 0.6. hence t(1. In particular. .t( E P 1 = · · · = Pp. Relative Binomial Extensions 321 It follows from the fundamental relation that P is necessarily a prime ideal of B and E. we may assume without loss of generality that P does not divide Aa. we would have x.() + zt(1 . and NLIK(Pl) = P.(i-lt) = gcd(BE_.. E. and therefore Pin A = P fori = 1. E_ divides Ap which contradicts the hypothesis.t)) = 1 y + z(xP.) =A then gcd(Bt. Now p = u(1 . so t' E K(t) and.(i. i=l where Yi.t)(x. t E K (t')).t E P 1 . Proof: (1) Let us assume that there exists x E A such that xP. there exists x E A such that x . (1) If the congruence XP = a (mod P) has a solution in A then P decomposes in L)K. We have P 1 P2 • · · Pp = BP because every element of P 1 P 2 · · · Pp is a sum of elements of the form p IJ (Yi + zi(x..(P. from BP = P 1 P2 · · · Pp. we choose an element b E P. the exact power of P dividing Aa' is now equal to h. so either P 1 = P2 = · · · = Pp or these ideals are all distinct. K.() E P 1 n A = P. So P 1 divides B ( x . b ~ P 2 . . B(x. Assume that P divides neither Aa nor Ap.. In the first case.1 t). is totally ramified in L)K. Moreover. since gcd(Aa.(hjp)p = 0. Pi n A ~ E.1t)) fori= 1. if h > 0 and if a' = a(b-h!P)P then XP . gcd(Aa. • In the second case. so if some Pi = B then P 1 = · · · = PP B and P1P2 · · · PP = B. It follows that A =f.(t) · · · (x. we see that each Pi must already be a prime ideal of B.()p-l where u is a unit. contradiction).(i..a' generates the same field extension L)K (because a root t' of this equation satisfies t'P = a' = tP(b-hiP)P. These ideals of B are conjugate over K. By Galois theory. a) E BP. z E B such that 1 = y + zt and 1 .t) . x. 16. P) = A..a E P. sop E E_. In particular. the decomposition group of Pi in L)K has order 1 or p. We have xP. P 1 is a prime ideal of B with inertial degree over A equal to 1. that is. Taking into account the fundamental relation.() E P 1 . Hence each Pi is different from B (for these ideals are conjugate. conversely. 2. p..a= (x. P is a prime ideal of A such that Aa = ph J.t. So either BP = Pf or BP = P 1 P 2 · · · Pp· At any rate. Let Pi = BP + B(x. thus Bj P1 ~ A/ E. It remains to show that these ideals Pi are all distinct. B. . (2) If the above congruence has no solution in A then P is inert in L)K. p.

But these rings have the same number of elements. xP. Now we show that Pt n A = ps for every s ::0: 1. Let u E p-m.a) E P. With these notations we have: ( 1) If the congruence XP = a (mod E. This will establish ( 1). j :::. p-1 The coefficients of this polynomial belong to A as we show now. namely N(P) 8 = N(Pi) 8 . In fact.a.1 + (~)u 2 x 2 XP.1 then E.1 with Pt n A =/= E.a. .322 16. Since p = u(1.t). this is true for s = 1 and if it is true for s . Consider v = u( x . This element is a root of (X. and m ::0: 1. Conversely.()P.1 = Ap.. .().a E E. L. Pp are distinct prime ideals of B. so the congruence XP =a (mod pmp+ 1 ) has a solution in A.t)) = A(xP. (3) If the congruence XP = a (mod pmp) has no solution in A.1 X . +( p ) uP. hence also Pt n A = ps. Pt divides (BP)s. if P decomposes in LIK then the inertial degree of each Pi is equal to 1..uP(xP -a)."'P+ 1 divides B (x. (2) If the above congruence has no solution in A. so B/Pt = A/P 8 • Thus there exists x E A such that t = x (mod P.. otherwise.1 . = P 1 P 2 · · · Pp. u tf.. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples and therefore P = NLIK(PI) divides NLIK(B(x..mp+ 1 ) has a solution in A then P decomposes in L. then P is ramified in L.ux)P + uPa = XP.t) = xP.1) divides A(1-()P."'P+ 1 ). hence Au · pm = l_ is an integral ideal of A. where P does not divide the ideal I.1 then P divides A(1. Moreover. For every j such that 1 :::.a) because NLIK(x.s is a subring of B /Pt. Proof: (1) We first show that the congruence XP =a (mod pmP+ 1 ) has a solution if and only if BE. Hence Pt n A =/= ps. where P 1 . (~)uxXP. We deduce that A/E.() = pm ·I.t) = Tif=1 (x.1 for s ::0: 1.s. .a. we de- duce that pmP+ 1 divides xP.1).mp+ 1 . ci- 1t) = xP.mp) has a solution in A. p-1 we have m(p. This means that the congruence XP = a (mod P) has the solution x E A. P. then P is inert in L.s ~ Pt n A ~ Pt.m(p.We write A(1. p-m+ 1 .2 . Taking norms and noting that N L1K (x.1 and the exponent of Pi in the decomposition of BP into prime ideals could not be equal to 1.1 xP.1 n A = ps. let x E A be such that xP = a (mod pmp+ 1 ). hence (~)ujxj E A._ divides Ap but does not divide Aa.. but the congruence XP = a (mod E. • It remains now to study the case where E. thus uP(xP.1 = BPs.mj ::0: 0. We know that E.t). . that is.

Hence a = cap (mod pr.1 )m-p(p. .. p . This shows that Pis unramified in LIK. Therefore. . the exact power of P dividing A(uPa(1 . Indeed. If we also assume that the congruence XP = a (mod E.Bu(x-C... if P contains g'(v) then P n A = P contains g'(v)P = pPuP(P.(i. uPa(1 .()P) is p-mp+mp.1 t)) fori= 1. with each Pi #.1) = 1.1.LIK does not divide any of the prime ideals P such that P n A = P. i=1 where Yi..p-1. because the exact power of P dividing this element is pP(P.ux)P . Now. conjugate over K.1 laP.1). Consi- dering the decomposition group of Pi in LIK. Hence each ideal Pi is different from B.1 are relatively prime. c' E Z be such that cp + c'(pr. . we see that each Pi must already be a prime ideal of B.uPa. But this is not true. P is inert in LIK.1 ..B. We have P 1 P 2 · · · PP = BP.mp+ 1 ) has no solution in A. Taking {3 = ca we have w!3P = wo: and if x E A has residue class modulo P equal to w!3 then xP = a (mod P). As before. taking the pth power..() E P 1 and. so there exists an integer a such that wo: is the residue class of a modulo P. We consider the integral ideals Pi= BP+Bu(x-(i. Therefore Pi n A = P for i = 1. A/ P is a finite field with pr elements and the multiplicative group of A/ P is cyclic. Zi. u ¢ E.1 . so P would not divide this ideal.1 )m. o gcd(P. We choose u E p-m. u(x . let c. a contradiction.(i. (2) Now we assume that the congruence XP = a (mod pmP) has a solution x E A. Indeed. p. Since p. (T). hence v E B because xPa E pmP.t)) = 1 y + zuP(xP -a) E BP. Relative Binomial Extensions 323 Therefore.. Let w be a generator. The different of the element v in LIK is g'(v) = p(ut)P. v E B and the same holds for the conjugates u(x.6. In the latter case. pr . . since these ideals are conjugate and P 1 P 2 · · · Pp = BE.1 t) = gcd(BP.-m+ 1 .t).t) and u(x .()P E P 1 n A = P. . because the Galois group of LIK has order p. because every element of P 1 P2 · · · Pp is a sum of elements of the form p IT (Yi + ziu(x. We conclude from Chapter 13. Bg'(v)) = B for every prime ideal P dividing BE. Taking into account the fundamental relation.. y E BP. that 6. (3) We assume that the congruence XP = a (mod pmP) has no solution in A. and v = u(x. .(t) belong to P 1 so ut(1 . the minimal polynomial of v oer K is g(X . It remains to show that all these conjugate ideals Pi are distinct. we see that either all ideals Pi are distinct or P 1 = P 2 = · · · = Pp. from BP = P 1 P 2 · · · PP. 16. the congruence XP = a (mod P) has a solution in A. . then from (1) we deduce that Pis not decomposed.1 t) for i = 1. However. z E B.

xP E pPh. i :::. But E_Ph j E_Ph+l is a vector space of dimension 1 over Aj E. . E_h+J. hence E. the raising to the pth power is an automorphism. P 2 . hence yP E E_P\ yP rf.1. so by Chapter 13. a . As before. ()P). (2) In the case gcd(Aa. . Ap) = A. we deduce that v E B and pk is the exact power of P dividing uP(xP -a) = NLjK(v).:>:ph+ 1. Therefore. Proof: We assume that 8LIK = A. E_Ph+l. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Let l . + Ziu(x. Similarly. which is a root of (X . is not inert in LfK. p. Let P = BE_+ Bv = gcd(BP. . which is false since k < p. hence pP = NL 1x(BP) divides A· NLjK(v). For suppose that l = ph. ph+!. and xP =a (mod P 1). Pis not decomposed. By (1). and that XP = a (mod E_Ph+ 1 ) has no solution in A. with 1 :::.t)) = 1 y + zuP(xP. a . This shows that l is not a multiple of p. Therefore v rf.:>: 1 be the largest integer such that the congruence XP = a (mod P 1) has a solution in A. . Indeed. that x E A is a solution of XP = a (mod pPh). because h :::. so there exists w E A such that z = wP (mod P). Since Aj Pis a finite field of characteristic p. and consider v = u(x. (A)).xP (mod E_Ph+J ). So BP -/= P. which is a contradiction.1. Bv). But then x + yw E A would satisfy the congruence (x + yw )P =a (mod pPh+ 1). BP divides Bv. We show that l is not a multiple of p. a) E BP i=l with y E BP. Then P 1 P 2 · · · Pp = BP.t). Let y E E_h. zi E B. • From the study of the decomposition of the prime ideals of A in LfK we may infer the following result about the relative discriminant: M. otherwise. z E B. m . . (see Chapter 8. Pp which are the conjugates of Pin LfK. This may be seen by considering the ideals P 1 = P. Also P -/= B. 1 :::. xP + yPwP =a (mod E_Ph+ 1 ). E_Ph+l. Theorem 1.ux)P + uPa. We write l = ph + k. there exists x E A which satisfies the congruence XP =a (mod A(l . by the argument already used: If Yi E BP. (x+yw )P = xP +yPwP (mod E_Ph+J) since the exact power of P dividing each of the terms (~)xp-iyiwi is at least m(p.1. BP. m.324 16.1) + ih . We conclude that BP is not a prime ideal of B. hence there exists z E A such that zyP = a. y rf. by hypothe- sis. u rf.xP rf. no prime ideal of A is ramified in LfK. Since the ideals Pi are all equal or all distinct. hence Pis ramified in LfK. The relative discriminant 8LIK is the unit ideal of A if and only if the following conditions hold: (1) Aa is the pth power of an ideal of A. Let u E ph. k < p and h :::.c. p-/= B. then p II (y.

and m > 0. not a multiple of P.7. E A such that xf = a (mod P r. Conversely. [3. where I. Chapter V. Section 2. Replacing a by another element a'. Since Ap = A(1. as we saw in Chapter 15. and let Aa = pm · I_. This being true for every prime ideal E. v'd} is an integral basis of K. §29. because P does not divide Aa.(). There exist more efficient methods using the theory of characters and transcendental arguments. with m 2 1. so xP = a (mod A(1 .. 16. not a multiple of P. divides A(1. By (L) it follows that P is not ramified. By (J).Let A(1. does not divide Aa. if d= = 2. In the preceding result we saw that this fact need no more be true for the relative discriminant. r. we follow the exposition of Hasse [7] or [8. Now we assume that gcd(Aa.. §4]). w} is an integral basis. Also. Chapter III. we assume now that conditions (1) and (2) hold and we shall show that every prime ideal P of A is unramified in LIK.()P). The procedure is appropriate for small values of the discrimi- nant. where I_ is an ideal of A. • In Chapter 9. By the Chinese remainder theorem. Ap) = A. . By (2) there exists x E A such that xP -a E A(1 .()P-l then E.() = pm ·I_.. let 8 = 8x be the discriminant. we may assume without loss of generality that P does not divide Aa. there exists x E A such that x = x. . where I_ is an ideal of A. 16. The Class Number of Quadratic Extensions 325 Let P be a prime ideal of A dividing Aa. pmP. the interested reader should consult the literature (see [9]. a = b . and let A(1 . If P divides Ap then necessarily Ap does not divide Aa. (mod P '('') fori = 1.() = TI~=l P '('' be the decomposition of A(1 . hence P. where a.'. If d 1 (mod 4) let w = (1 + v'd)/2. In this latter case. is not ramified. is an ideal of A not a multiple of P. In class field theory. 8LIK is the unit ideal.7 The Class Number of Quadratic Extensions In this section we indicate a method to compute the class number of quadratic extensions. divides Ap. 3 (mod 4) then 8 = 4d. dividing Aa. By Chapter 13. then by (1) m is a multiple of p. it follows that Aa is the pth power of an ideal of A. b E Z..P). (D). We recall that if d = 2.() into prime ideals of A.Jd) /2. If Aa = pm ·I_. Theorem 1. Thus P. by (L) there exists x. the elements of A are of the form (a+ b. we showed that if K is any algebraic number field then its absolute discriminant 8KIQ is different from the unit ideal. m is a multiple of p. Since P.()P <. and if d = 1 (mod 4) then o = d.3]. it is important to consider field extensions with relative discriminant equal to 1. then {1. and A the ring of integers of K. Let K = Q( v'd) where d is a square-free integer. Pis not ramified in LIK.. If P does not divide Ap then by (K). 3 (mod 4) then {1.

with P. [ 2r 1 +r 2 / vol( D)] # . • Let N(N) denote the set of integers N(I). If b < 0 we take D = D 1 hence vol(D) = 1r and N(J)::. . Ar = R 2 . Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples (mod 2). N. If 8 > 0 then r 1 2. that is. ep (p E ][))). If b < 0 then r1 = 0. and D1 = {(~1. A nonzero integral ideal I of A is said to be normalized when its norm satisfies the following conditions: (1) N(I) = re. P' distinct prime ideals of A. Aq = Q. where R is a prime ideal of A. 1}. 0). 1}. rER pEllli with er = 0 or 1. therefore vol(D) = 8. r2 = 1. (E).). such that Am divides I. and ep = 0 or e~ = 0. (0. where Q is a prime ideal of A. 2). hence N(J) ~ Vfbl. Let N be the set of normalized primitive ideals of A. m # 1. Thus I is a normalized ideal. where I E N. that is.6) I~?+~§::. Every nonzero fractional ideal of K is equivalent to some ideal belonging to N. then the integral ideal J is equivalent to an integral ideal I such that I = II Re. Thus if m E N(N) then m = II Re.. Ap = P P' for every p E ][)) are principal ideals. the elements of A are of the form (u + vVd)/2 with u. as follows from the limitation on the exponents er (r E R. and D 1 {(6. ~#. e~ ~ 0. ep ~ 0.. Ap = P P'. ep.6) I 161 161 ::. where D is a symmetric convex body in IR 2 such that D c:.. 0). D 1 and D 1 is defined as follows. II pe. Proof: From Chapter 9. In all cases.II Pe" II rER pEllli with er = 0 or 1. pte. it follows that every nonzero fractional ideal of K is equivalent to an ideal J such that N ( J) ::. (0.if b < 0 then N(I) ::. II Pe" rER pEllli . u 2 -= v 2 d ( mod 4 ) . that is. A nonzero integral ideal I of A is primitive when there exists no integer m E Z. Let R. Aq = Q for every q E . But I is also primitive. be the set of prime numbers r which are ramified in K.326 16. (2) If b > 0 then N(I) ::. -2). Thus if 8 > 0 we may choose D to be the square with vertices (2. Let .:1 be the set of prime numbers q which are inert in K.:1.. ( -2. (2/Ir)vlbl. r2 0. Let ][)) be the set of prime numbers p which are decomposed in K. (2/Ir)#. Noting that Ar = R 2 for every r E R. v E Z.

is the exact power of p E []) dividing m. Of course. the question is to find all possible ideals inN and to decide when I. If d =2. If d > 0 and N (c) = -1. Indeed. v) = 1 when d = 1 (mod 4). The following conditions are equivalent: (1) N(Ax) = m. b) = 1. 3 (mod 4). Once the set of integers N(N) is known. 3 (mod 4) then we have to consider representations of the type ±m = a 2 . 16.v)/2. ep 2:: 0. as follows from the hypothesis on u. u = v (mod 2). let km = # {p E []) I PI m}. Moreover. when 6 > 0 or m <::::. m or -m admits a primitive representation as indicated in (2) of (0). If d < 0 then m admits a primitive representation. possible ideals I E N such that N(I) = m. The Class Number of Quadratic Extensions 327 wither = 0 or 1. or gcd((u. v) = 1 when d = 1 (mod 4).7. (2) (u 2 . we deduce: P. • We need therefore to find for which integers m E N(N). If d > 0 and N (c) = -1 then m and -m both admit a primitive representation. Proof: In view of (0) and the hypothesis that h = 1 for every m E N(N). with gcd(a. v even when d =2. m or -m admits a primitive representation. Proof: (1) --> (2) m = N(Ax) = INKIQ(x)l = l(u 2 . (2/7r) /fbi when 6 < 0. we may choose an ideal I E N such that pe. since m E N(N). v E Z. Given the field K it is possible to determine all integers m E N(N) by the computation of a finite number of Legendre symbols. Assume that the class nnmber of K ish = 1 and that m E N(N). if Ap = P P'. divides I or such that pte. then there exists 2k. v/2) = 1 when d = 2.v 2 d)/41. Let m E N(N) and let x = (u + vVd)/2. if pe.b2 d. 0. if m (or -m) has a primitive representation. we proceed as follows: . 3 (mod 4). v/2) = 1 when d 2. • Summarizing. and u. ~/fbi. if d < 0 then necessarily -m has no such representation. ideals I E N such that N(I) = m. I' EN are equivalent. (2) --> (1) Let I = Ax so N(I) = m and I is a primitive ideal. If d > 0 and the fundamental unit c of K has norm N(c) = 1 then m or -m admits a primitive representation. -m has no primitive representation. This gives rise to 2k. then gcd(u/2. divides I. with u. In m E N (N). m). so also has -m (respectively. and m <::::. v. as already said.v 2 d)/4 = ±m and gcd(u/2. If d < 0. or gcd((u. to determine the class number of K.v)/2. As a corollary. 3 (mod 4).

J are in the same class. Let us consider some of these values. Thus h = 1. But ±2 have no primitive representation. d < 500. The fields with discriminant 15 = -3. -2 · 3 = 2 2 . 41. -20 are the only ones such that n = 2. 21. (b) n = 2.1 is a principal ideal. the question of primitive representation of a prime number may not be as immediate to answer as in the above example. -4. -7. P~ =Ax'. -15. it is equivalent to decide whether I· J. . x' = (3. 61 are the only ones such that n = 3. The fields with discriminant 15 = 5. x = (3 + -117)/2. For the same reason ±3 has no primitive representation. Case 1: d > 0. We consider one of these values. 60. hence R 2 = Ax.328 16. Let n be the largest integer such that n :<::. 12. 29. (a) n = 1. If 15 = 17 then N(N) = {1. otherwise ±2 = a 2 -10b 2 (with a. 53. 57. Thus h = 1. so A · 2 = R~. 44. In general. 3} since 2 is ramified and °) ( 13 = ( ~ ) = 1. From the tables of class numbers of real quadratic fields. 28. Finally. The fields with discriminant 15 = 17.6 · 12 is a primitive representation of -2. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Step 1: To determine the set N of normalized primitive ideals and the set N(N) of integers which are their norms. (c) n = 3. it requires the theory of the Hilbert symbol.33 are the only ones such that n = 2. 13 are the only ones such that n = 1. x = 2 + v'6. since 2 is ramified.10 · 12 . Let n be the largest integer such that n :<::. Now we shall consider numerical examples. 56. so P2 = Ax. (a) n = 1. If 15 = 24 then d = 6 and N(N) = {1. It is not known whether there exists an infinite number of real quadratic fields with class number 1. one sees that there exist 142 square-free integers d. (2/7r)Jlbl.17 · 12 )/4 is a primitive representation of -2. 1t should be noted that when the discriminant is positive. -19. 8. 2}. to decide whether I. Case 2: d < 0. The fields with discriminant 15 = 37. In this case. N contains only one element and therefore h = 1. Step 2: For every pair of ideals I. But -2 = 2 2 . The fields with discriminant 15 = -11. this is impossible since the last digit of a square is not equal to 2 or to 8. (b) n = 2. 2 :<::.-117)/2. J E N. 2. 24. But -2 = (3 2 . In this case N contains only one element and therefore h=l. hence A · 2 = R~ and A · 3 = P3 · P~. -8 are the only ones such that n = 1. ~ Jlbl. b E Z) hence a 2 = 10b2 ± 2. 40. such that the class number of Q( Yd) is equal to 1. 2} since 17 = 1 (mod 8) so A· 2 = P2 · P2. If 15 = 40 then d = 10 and N(N) = {1. Therefore h = 2. hence R 2 · P3 is principal and so is R 2 · P~.

thus 6 5 (mod 8). We conclude that h = 3. -19}. If I E N. Since 2 =f. but P~ 3 is a principal ideal. hence Pi is not a principal ideal. If Q( v'd). v) = 1 then P2. Now 2 =f. Proof: This is true when 161 < 7. 2} since -31 = 1 (mod 8) so A · 2 = P2 · P~. • Gauss developed a theory of genera of binary quadratic forms. Hence h = 1. The Class Number of Quadratic Extensions 329 We consider some of these values. If 6 = -15 then N(N) = {1. so 6 = -11. If 6 =f. q :S: n (largest integer such that n :S: (2ln)jf6T) then (-plq) = -1 (this means that q is inert). The question of determination of the imaginary quadratic fields with class number 1 may be tackled as follows: Q. a contradiction. If 6 = -31 then N(N) = {1. actually.1 = P:j · (A· 2). v integers. v) = 1. -19 satisfy the required conditions. there exists a prime ideal P dividing I. so let 161 2': 7. . -3. so P~ is equivalent to Pi. or -p. -24. and the class of the ideal P2 is a generator of the class group. It implies: If h = 1 then 6 = -4. on the other hand. so N(P) p :S: (2ln)jf6T. hence 161 < 7. p = 3 (mod 4). Section 1. (u 2 + 15v 2 )14 for u. but 23 = (1 2 + 31 · 12 ) I 4. We consider one of these values. -8. v E Z. -31. where pis a prime. v E Z. has class number 1 then N contains only the unit ideal. 16.7. Similarly 22 =f. I =f. (u 2 + 31 v 2)I 4 for u. But 2 should be inert. If Pis a principal ideal generated by (u + vv'd)l2. (-3113) = -1 hence 3 is inert in Q(v=. -7. gcd(u. We shall discuss this topic more amply in Chapter 28. Then P is not a principal ideal and h > 1. -4. From 6 = -p. Then -20 :S: 6 :S: -11. in order for N to contain only the unit ideal it is necessary and sufficient that -p = 5 (mod 8) and if q is an odd prime number. Pi p~. with u. -35. gcd(u.1 is a principal ideal. hence h = 2. so A· 2 = P2 · P~. -8. but P:j is a principal ideal.IT) and 3 ¢ N(N). p = 3 (mod 4). P~ are not principal ideals. then p =N(P) =INKIQ ( u +2vv'd) I= Iu2 ~ v2d I· So v =f. 2} since -15 = 1 (mod 8). then 6 E { -11. 0 and therefore (2ln)j[6T 2': p 2': 16112. u = v (mod 2) and u. v E Z. The fields with discriminant 6 = -23. P~ are not principal ideals. Let n = 2. P~ 2 are not principal ideals. (u 2 + 31v 2 )14 for u. A. If 6 = -11 then N (N) = { 1} since -11 = 5 (mod 8) so A · 2 is a prime ideal. -39 are the only ones such that n = 3. v even when d "¢ 1 (mod 4). Hence P2. From P2 · P~ = A· 2 it follows that P~. but P2 · P~ is principal. (c) n = 3. d < 0.

~19. ~157}. ~149. 1447. From 15 = ~p. Thus f 41 (X) assumes 40 successive initial prime values: 41. so 15 E {~67. ~117}. 17. ~43. Then ~88 :S: 15 :S: ~62 so 15 E { ~67. . ~7. 1601.971. we have shown that if ~200 :S: 15 < 0 and IQ( Vd) has class number 1 then 15 = ~3. 113. It is an interesting fact that this property is intimately connected with the class number of imaginary quadratic fields.853. 53. If n = 8 then ~199 :S: 15 :S: ~158 so 15 E { ~163. If n = 7 then ~157 :S: 15 :S: ~121. Also ( ~43/3) = ~1.. 197. 5. ~199}. hence 15 = ~43 satisfies the required conditions. . As we have men- tioned in Chapter 5. ~23. ~173. ~31 do not satisfy the condition 15 5 = (mod 8). ~ 71.641. Chapter III. 461. 251. and ( ~83/3) = 1 we deduce that 15 = ~67 is the only possibility. 61. ~11. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Let n = 3. ~101. If n = 6 then ~ 120 :S: 15 :S: ~89 so 15 E { ~89. But ( ~107 /3) = 1 so no value of 15 is possible. From 15 = 5 (mod 8) it follows that 15 E { ~131. ~ 79. Then ~39 :S: 15 :S: ~23. 3. Section IV B]). 11. ~47. 281. 383. ~43. ~197. From 15 = 5 (mod 8) it follows that 15 = ~163 is the only possibility. (~67/5) = ~1. q ~ 2. From (~67/3) = ~1. then 15 E { ~23.1033. From 15 = 5 (mod 8) it follows that 15 = ~107. 97. ~167. as discovered by Rabinowitsch in 1912 (see Ribenboim [22. Then ~59 :S: 15 :S: ~40. ~163. or 41. 83. so 15 E { ~131. 1301. ~103. But ( ~131/3) = 1 and ( ~ 139 /5) = 1 so no value of 15 is possible. ~193.743.1097. 421. But 15= 5 (mod 8). 223. Again 15 E { ~41. From 15 = 5 (mod 8) it follows that 15 = ~43. 1.593.797. Let n = 4. ~ 73. ~83}. then Jq(X) = X 2 +X+ q has prime values fork = 0. -:n }. Note that Jq(q ~ 1) = (q ~ 1) 2+ (q ~ 1) + q = (q ~ 1)[q ~ 1 + 1] +q = [(q ~ 1) + 1]q = q2 . ~4. Altogether. ~113. 1373. 173. ~139. ~53}. . ~107. ~109. ~83}. 131.547. However. 1523.330 16. Section 4.8 Prime Producing Polynomials Euler discovered that if q = 2. 71. Let n = 5.. ~181. 347. ~191. 47. ~137. ~8. ~151.1231. 16.691. ~97.503.911. 151.1163. 43. these are the only imaginary quadratic fields with class number equal to 1. p = 3 (mod 4). ~139}. 313.

. such that p divides NKJQ(b + w). • The main result is the following: S.a)(X.1) + 2w) = (p. It follows that (p. h_ 11 = 1. (2) fq(k) is a prime number for every k = 0. As follows from the discussion in Section 7.1 + 2w=2£(a. q . 1. £(a. b+w). y) the ideal generated by the elements x. we may assume that q 2': 5.1) + w). Let q be a prime number. 2£(a.2. then d = -7 or -11.3.1) + 2w) = (p. there exists an integer b. Q( v/1 . (2) -> (3) Let 1 . We simply denote by (x. R. (3) The class number of Q( jl="4q) is equal to 1. More precisely. and let fq(X) = X 2 +X + q. since q = 2t . a+ vd) = (p.a') (mod p). b :::. £(a -1) +w) where 2£ = 1 (mod p). a. it suffices to show that if pis any prime. 17. Thus. there exists s such that 2s =1 (mod p). in particular (Q). hence (2/d) = -1 and 2 is inert. then 2 is invertible modulo p and there exists b such that 0:::. from Chapter 11. 16. p-1. (2) Ifp is not inert in Q( Vd). p-1.4q = 5 (mod 8) sod= 5 (mod 8). (2/7r)Jf8T.1 + 2w). . Let p be an odd prime. as was computed. 11. and its discriminant is {j = d. then (p. d = 1 (mod 4).8.41. 0 :::. d = (X. then pis inert in Q(J1=4Q)IQ. a+ Vd) = (p. 2b = a-1 (mod p). Proof: ( 1) Since a+ vd =a. then P1 = (p. (a. Proof: (1) -> (2) This is a simple numerical verification. (1) If a is any integer. then du 2 = 1 . Pz are (not necessarily distinct) prime ideals of A. Then P 1 = (p. Prime Producing Polynomials 331 First we need the following fact. . where d is square-free. If q = 2 or 3. (2) If pis not inert in Q(Vd)IQ then Ap = P1P2. Then p = N(Pl) divides N(A(b + w)) = NKJQ(b + w). y of K. p :::.1) + 2w (mod p) and since pis odd. Theorem 2. b:::. so d 1 = (mod 4).5. Then the following conditions are equivalent: (1) q = 2. h_ 7 = 1. If p = 2.4q = u 2 d.. Since p is odd.4q) = Q( Vd). if X2 . a+ vd) = (p. .1 and u 2 = 1 (mod 8). where P1.

hence again q = 2 or 3. then fl.2. (!!lp) = -1.1) 2 + (p. This implies that q = 2. 17. where a' is the conjugate of a. (3) -> (2) Let d = 1 . As was shown. Since k 2 + k + q is odd.) = N(Aa)N(Aa') = N(Aa) 2 . .1. there exists an algebraic integer a = (a+ bvf=P)I2 with a = b (mod 2). q . = N(Aa) = (a 2 + b2 p)l4. so q = p :::. also q > 2. 3.1 = (2k + 1)" + p. such that AI! = Aa · Aa'. where pis a prime. (2k + 1)2 + p < ( p. 2 is inert in IQ(Vd) = !Ql(vf=P). d = -p. -163. p. J4(l=l so q = 2 or 3. such that fq(k) = k 2 + k + q is not a prime. We conclude that J4(l=l > p = Jq(b) ~ Jq(O) = q.I p) = -1. If it is not inert. the results quoted in Section 7-will be needed. -67. Otherwise p divides fp(P. (3) -> (1) It is known that if the class number of IQ( Vd) (with d < -3. by the theory of genera.4q and assume that the class number of IQ( Vd) is equal to 1. the theory of genera-more precisely. hence fl. -43. 2 Now we note that b of. • In the implication (3) -> (1) we used the determination of all imaginary quadratic fields with class number 1. d square-free) is equal to 1. < q. of. Since the class number is 1. 11. -3. -2. Then there exists a prime fl. k 2 + k + q = a/!. -7. then (fl. Indeed. then by (R). Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples Let p be an odd prime. -19. sop= 3 (mod 8). Sob of. Also 4f2 :::.1) + q = q (mod p). Now assume that there exists k. fl. 0 :::. -11. Since the class number is 1. However. is decomposed in IQ( vf=P). with a ~ 1. k :::. then d = 1 . b2 = 1. is an odd prime.1) = (p. 1) 2 Hence f < (p + 1)14 = q. and 4/! = p. But it is possible to give a direct proof that (3) -> (2) For this proof.1)p. Then either d = -1. such that /! 2 :::. p-1 and from the hypothesis Jq(b) is a prime number. Taking norms 1! 2 = N(Afl. 5. 4af! = (2k + 1f + 4q. so a= 0. or d < -7. there exists an integer b such that 0 :::. which is absurd. I p) = + 1 then fl. Hence 1 > a2 + (b 2 . a contradiction. 2. 1) 2 + p = ( p. b :::. if (fl.1 and p divides NK!Q(b+w)= ( b+ 1+Vd) 2 ( b+ 1-Vd) =b 2 +b+q=fq(b). sop+ 1 = 4q > 4/! = a 2 + b2 p. p = 3 (mod 4). p . which is a contradiction. so it must be equal to p.:3:32 16. We show that if fl. (2/Tr)Jidl < Jldl : :. As noted before.4q = -7. or 41.

5. 2. (b) Find the discriminant of K and the ring of integers A of K. Let g = X 3 . 3.78 = 0. 54v . Show that these fields have the same discriminant 22 356 = 22 x 35 x 23. by considering the decomposition of the prime numbers 5. ijl75. where t 3 . 7 are completely ramified in KIQ. x 2 }. Let K 1 . (c) Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of the ideals of A generated by 2. v satisfy the equations t3 . (d) Does there exist an inessential factor of the discriminant? 4. (a) Show that g is irreducible over Q. K = Q(t).4 = 0. Let K = Q( ijl75) and let A be the ring of integers of K. v3 . • EXERCISES 1. x. Show that they are distinct. K 3 be the fields of the previous exercise.7X. Let t be a root of g. K 3 = Q(v). 11. 18t . ij245} is an integral basis. Exercises 333 hence -p is a square modulo £ and using Gauss' reciprocity law and this is absurd. 5. where t.t . (c) Show that fJ has no inessential factor and find the decomposition of 2 into prime ideals of A. Which prime numbers are ramified in K? Determine the decomposition into prime ideals of A of the ideals . 5. u. (d) Show that A has no integral basis of the form {1. 36u . Determine the ring of integers and the discriminant of the field K = Q(t). 11.6 = 0. 3. K 2 = Q(u). K 2 . (b) Show that 3. (a) Show that {1. and that the discriminant of K is fJ = -3 3 x 52 x 72 .150 = 0.7. Let K 1 = Q(t). u3 . 7.

In order that there exists x E Z such that <I>n(x) = 0 (mod q) it is necessary and sufficient that q =1 (mod n). 9. Hint: Use the results about the decomposition of primes in cyclo- tomic fields. 15. Let q be a prime number not dividing n. b be square-free positive integers. 13. Let a. 6. Let m = pk > 2. In this case the solutions are the integers x such that xn = 1 (mod q). Show that there exists no integer x such that <I> (x) =0 (mod 5). and the decomposi- tion of prime numbers in the field Q( J2. Show that the discriminant of Q( Vab2) is b = -3c 2 . and let n = qan 1 . Show that if s is any integer. Hint: Use the results about the decomposition of primes in cyclo- tomic fields. In this case. and the decomposi- tion of prime numbers in the field Q((12). b) = 1. Let ( 7 be a primitive seventh root of unity. 11. 5. 7. Show that there exists an integer x such that <I>n(x) =0 (mod q) if and only if q = 1 (mod nl). The number of pairwise incongruent solutions modulo q is <p(nl).::. Determine the ring of integers. where ( 12 is a primitive twelfth root of unity. the discriminant. 10. 1. 12. 15 14. Let c = ab when a 2 = b2 (mod 9) or c = 3ab when a 2 =J:. p a prime number. b2 (mod 9). Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples generated by 2. the discriminant. Determine whether there is an inessential factor of the discriminant. Determine the ring of integers.334 16. Hint: Let m be the product of all primes congment to 1 modulo n > 2. such that 1 2= s 2= . let ( be a pnnu- tive mth root of unity. k . and note that this is impossible. the solutions are the integers x such that xn' = 1 (mod q). 3. n 1 not divisible by q. Let q be a prime factor of n. Determine the minimal polynomial of ( 7 + (7 1 and show that the discriminant of Q( ( 7 + (7 1 ) is equal to 49. Prove the following particular case of Dirichlet's theorem: for every natural number n there exist infinitely many prime numbers which are congruent to 1 modulo n. show that every prime factor of <I>n(nm) is congment to 1 modulo n. gcd(a. The number of pairwise incongruent solutions modulo q is <p(n). i). 8. Determine the integers x such that <I> 20 (x)=0 (mod 41).

Show that J is not a principal ideal.p(n)/2 when gcd(n.(-s 1 . t. n) = 1. p. such that C1(a)/ar is the pth power of an element of Q(().p(n)/4 when gcd(n. 8) = 4. 20.p(n)/2.p(n)/4 when gcd(n. t. and the previous exercise). gcd(h. Section 3). gcd(s. Let x be an algebraic integer of K such that N KIQ(x) < 0 and Ax = J2. m) = 1.( 8 ) is a real unit of IQ(() (see Chapter 10. where 1::::. Let L be the algebraic number field of Example 7 with K = Q((). 1 ::::. s ::::. where n > 2. Show: (a) Q(cos(27rh/n))IQ has degree t. r ::::. where MIIQ is an extension of degree p. and let C1 be a generator of the Galois group of Q( () IQ. gcd(s. p. gcd(s. . ki ~ 1.p(n)/2. Show: (a) LIQ is a Galois extension if and only if there exists r. 17. Let n > 2 and let h be an integer.p(n) when gcd(n.p(n)/2 when gcd(n.1 )IQ has degree t. 8) > 4. where J is an ideal of the ring of integers of K. Exercises 335 m. s::::. 8) = 4.p(n) when gcd(n. 8) < 4. Pi prime numbers. (b) If n =/:. then v 8 = y'(1 . Section 3. m) = 1. having norm equal to 1. (b) LIQ is an Abelian extension if and only if C1(a)/a 8 is the pth power of an element of IQ((). (c) If LIQ is a Galois extension then L = IQ(() · M. Show that if s is any integer such that 1 ::::. Let KIQ be a real quadratic extension. (c) If n > 4 then t. 8) < 4.(-1 is a real unit of IQ(() (see Chapter 10. C1( () = ( 8 .( 8 )(1 .1. Let m = p~' · · · p~r with r > 1.4 then t. and let ( be a primitive mth root of unity. and let co be a fundamental unit of K.1. 16. 18. then _J Vs - 1 .( • 1 . m. Q(tan(27rh/n))IQ has degree { t. Show that Q(( + (. Q(sin(27rh/n))IQ has degree { t. 8) > 4.p) = 1. 19.(8 1. Let ( be a primitive nth root of unity.

28. reduce to the consideration of the principal ideals generated by 2. Hint: By a result of Chapter 9. 29. Let p be a prime number. Show that the class number of Ql( y'=14) is h = 4. show that the ideal generated by 3 and 1 .336 16. Complements and Miscellaneous Numerical Examples 21. and also show that the ideal ge- nerated by 5 and 3 .J34 is not a principal ideal. 5. 27. 26. 25. Show that the class number of Ql( J -127) is h = 5. Show that the ideal class group of Ql( J=P) has an element of order 2. by the previous exercise. 30.J34 is not principal. 3. Show that the class number of Ql( J=T§) is h = 1. 31. Show that the class number of Ql( J34) is h = 2. p = 1 (mod 4). Show that the class number of Ql( J=3§) is h = 4. Show that the class number of Ql( J -163) is h = 1. conclude by showing that these ideals are equivalent. 24. Show that the class number of Ql( J2I) is h = 1. . 22. Show that the class number of Ql( y'=23) ish = 3. 23. study their prime ideal decomposi- tions in Ql( J34) and. Show that the class number of Ql( J65) is h = 2. Show that the class number of Ql( J37) is h = 1.

Part Three .

the finite generation of the group of units. it is often convenient to consider the development of integers in the base p: a= ao + a1p+ · · · +arnpm 339 . 17. K = Q( () the pth cyclotomic field.17 Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields In his investigations about Fermat's last theorem. and it is fully developed in my book [26]. which today are called "local. and A Z[(] the ring of cyclotomic integers. In this section we indicate the definitions and a few results. and later extended for all number fields. Kummer worked with -\-adic numbers. His ideas and results were extended by his illustrious contemporaries or successors. and Hensel. As a preparation presenting a proof of Kummer's result on Fermat's last theorem (see next chapter) we shall consider here the methods. The topic belongs to the Theory of Valuations.1. among them Dedekind. which are a generalization of p-adic numbers. are the concepts of an ideal (ideal number in Kummer's terminology). We have [K : Q] = p . These topics have already been dealt with in this book. Hermite. Kummer developed the theory of cyclotomic fields. the unique factorization of ide- als into a product of prime ideals.1.1 The p-Adic Numbers In order to study divisibility properties of a prime p. the classes of ideals. let ( = cos(27r/p) + isin(27r/p) be a primitive pth root of unity. 17." Let p > 2 be a prime number.1 p-Adic and A-Adic Numbers In his research on cyclotomic fields. the finiteness of the class number. Hurwitz. and the type of decomposition of prime numbers into prime ideals of the cyclotomic field. Some of the ideas and theorems proved by Kummer for cyclotomic fields.

(3) dp(x. (2) Vp(xy) = Vp(X) + Vp(y). .1. . Hensel described the operations of addition and multiplication of p-adic integers. :r) 0. The systematic study of these numbers is given in [23. pm ::::. (2) dp(x. a < pm+l. The mapping Vp : Ql . we also have (3 1 ) If Vp(X) < Vp(y) then Vp(X + y) = Vp(X).. dp is called the p-adic distance. dp(z. where a. Numbers defined by infinite p-adic developments are the p-adic integers. thus Ql becomes a metric space. We shall describe here very briefly the concepts of p-adic numbers and give a few results which will be needed. y) = dp(y. Let vp(O) = oo. These considerations allowed the introduction of methods of Analysis in the study of questions on divisibility. b I 0. b E Z. b I 0. (By convention n < oo and n + oo = oo + n = oo + oo = oo. y). Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields with 0 ::::. . . let vp(ajb) = vp(a) . y) = p-v.(x-y) where x I y and dp(x. max{ dp(x. The set Av. y) ::::. The p-adic numbers may be considered as being the limits of sequences of integers. z ).. Let dp : Ql x Ql . (4) dp(x + z. . Then dp satisfies the following properties: (1) dp(x. relative to the p-adic distance. For any nonzero rational number ajb. x). ai ::::. bE Z.vp(b). = Zpz = { ~ E Qll a. for every integer n.) Moreover. p. Chapter 2]. but pm+l does not divide a. . y + z) = dp(x. . So dp is a distance function compatible with the operation of addition.. vp(y)}.o be defined by dp(x. Z U { oo} is called the p-adic valuation of Ql. and proved a very important theorem concerning the existence of p-adic integers which are roots of certain polynomials. y )}. = {x E Ql I vp(x) 2' 0} is a subring of Ql. containing Z called the ring of the valuation Vp· It is easy to see that Av. y) = 0 if and only if x = y. Then the following properties are satisfied: (1) vp(x) = oo if and only if x = 0. pfb }· The ring Zpz has the unique maximal ideal ZpzP. IR. b) = 1. gcd(a.340 17. and the residue field Zpz/ZpzP ~ lFP. For any nonzero integer a let vp(a) = m if pm divides a. (3) vp(x + y) 2' min{vp(x). Let p be any prime number.

consisting of the multiples of p.1. (3 E Qlp.1.e.G(X). vp((3). Hensel proved. m E Z. . which is defined as follows: Thus. we write a = (3 (mod 1) if 1 divides a . The element a E Zp is a unit in Zp when a divides 1. These congruence relations satisfy the usual properties of congruences of integers. (3. 17. which is isomorphic to the field lF p· If a. the values of Vp are also integers or infinity. 1 # 0. still denoted by ZP" Its elements are called the p-adic integers. The proof of this result can be found in [26. Similarly. Let F(X) be a monic polynomial with coefficients in Zp. then there exists a p-adic integer a E Zp such that a =a (mod p) and F(a) = 0. 1 # 0 and F(X). vp(a) = 0. this means that vp(a) ::s.(3. in 1908. The p-adic valuation may be extended by continuity to a valuation of the field Qlp (still denoted by vp). i. It is also clear that Zp n Ql = ZpZ· The only nonzero prime ideal of Zp is Zpp. de- noted Qlp and its elements are called p-adic numbers.If a E Z is a simple root of the congruence F(X) =0 (mod p). 1 E Qlp. The topological closure of Zpz in the field Qlp is a ring. 00 an (the limit is relative to the p-adic distance). what today is known as Hensel's lemma: A. The set Up of units of Zp is a multiplicative group. p-Adic and . we say that a divides (3 if there exists 1 E Zp such that a1 = (3. Thus a E Qlp is a p-adic integer exactly when vp(a) 2: 0.. G(X) E Qlp[XJ we write F(X) = G(X) (mod 1) when 1 divides each coefficient of F(X) . The residue field of Vp is Zp/Zpp. and am # 0. Chapter 3]. The nonzero elements a of Qlp are represented by p-adic developments L 00 a= aipi i=m with 0 ::s. ai ::s. if 1 E Qlp.\-Adic Numbers 341 The completion of Ql relative to the p-adic distance is again a field. If a. p . If n an= L aipi i=m (for each n 2: m) then a = limn_.

1 (p. The mapping which associates to each nonzero residue class j modulo p the (p-1)th root of unity Wj in Zp.342 17. for every j there exists Wj E Zp such that 1 = 1 and wr. By (A).1 1 and Wj = j (mod p). • Let P(p) = (Z/pZ)" denote the multiplicative group of nonzero residue classes modulo p."' wr = 'It. Proof: Indeed.1. 1: B. hence LwE!l wr = p . and w k (mod p). so j = k.1 are all the roots of this congruence. by (B) it follows that WjWk = wh (mod p). More precisely. = Wj For the uniqueness. k.e. With the above notations: (1) If p. we observe that if w E Zp. say w = wj. we have: C.. the mapping j (mod p) f-> Wj is an isomorphism. . Since Wj = j (mod p).. • D.1.1)th roots of unity in Zp· As a corollary. and they are simple.1)th roots of unity.. jP.1. 2.1. j=1 Thus 1. The last assertion is trivial. 1 =IT (X .1 . 2. Proof: For every j = 1. . if 1 :S: j..1 and jk = h (mod p). wP.. then w must coincide with one of the roots of XP.1lr then wr = 1 for every w E n. p.1fr. . establishes an isomorphism between the multiplicative groups P(p) and 0. then j = Wj = w = k (mod p). Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields We apply Hensel's lemma to the polynomial xp-l . Zp contains p. Then p-2 1_ W (p-1)r 'It. there exists a unique element w J E ZP such that wlj. p . . Moreover. • .1{r then LwE!l wr = 0. such that Wj = j (mod p).1 .1 =1 (mod p).p. L L 1-w r wEll j=O g (2) If p . .1lr then LwE!l wr = p. Let n denote the multiplicative group of (p .- = j (mod p). w =Wk.1. i. for every j = 1. Wg is a generator off! if and only if g is a primitive root modulo p. h :S: p. Proof: (1) Let g be a primitive root modulo p."' w/r = 9 = 0 when p. . so w9 is a generator of the multiplicative group n.. (2) If p.1 = 1. j) (mod p). so p-1 xp..

The >.(o: + (3) = v. by defining: for o: -1- 0.-adic integers. K is the field of fractions of A.1.. which is a commutative ring.d. (3 E K. (2) v..(o:) < v.(o:) = oo if and only if o: = 0..(o: + (3) 2 min{v.\-Adic Numbers 343 11. o: -1......_(a-/3) foro:..-adic numbers.(. 17. Let >. We also note that v.. is a prime ideal and Ap = pP. p-Adic and .1 ..). (3 E K): (1) v. : K x K ----> lR.._ (the ring of the valuation v. It is immediate that v. v.1 = A>. in fact.-adic valuation and the >. and A/A>. : K ----> ZU {oo} satisfies the following properties (foro:. on K..-adic valuation v.(o:(3) = v. and d..({3) then v. Then v.. .. we shall use the notations v. The operations of addition and multiplication extend by continuity from K to K.-adic distance function and K becomes a metric space. so K is a topological field.. by letting 11. For simplicity...(o:) = m if A>. Then d. satisfy the same properties already indicated for v.P.....-.(o:).({3)}.-adic distance extend canonically by continuity to K.._(a-/3) when o: -1. n---+oo when (o:n)n>O is any Cauchy sequence inK. (3) v. d. The unique maximal ideal of A is A>._. v.~ lFP. The elements of A are called >.(x) = (p-1)vp(x) for every x E Q.(o:n). But..(o:.. The set A= {x E K I v. Moreover: (3') If v. (3) = e-v_.m divides Ao: but A>. = 1 . v.(o:) + v..(o:. d.:::o be the mapping defined by d.. d. (lim n---+oo O:n) = lim v.m+l does not divide Ao:.(o:). d..(p) = p-1 and.(x) 2 0} is a subring of K.. Let K denote the completion of the metric space K. v..((3). and An K = Av_.. whose elements are called the >.(3 and d... o:) = 0... moreover. instead of v.. satisfies the same properties indicated for the p-adic distance. more generally..2 The A-Adic Numbers We now consider the pth cyclotomic field K = Q(().. We define.0 is invertible. Let d.1. every o: E K.. then P = A>.. We introduce the >.(o:.(O) = oo. is called the >. (3) = e..

.344 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields Hensel's lemma. then there exists a . is a formal sum L 00 S = S(X1. .\) and F(a) = 0.o is still a Cauchy sequence inK. still denoted by CJ..-Adic Exponential and Logarithm We begin this section with a brief discussion of formal power series. Thus. Xr. every CJ E G(KIQl) may be extended in a unique way by continuity to an element of G(KIQlp).1 Formal Power Series Let A be a commutative ring. given in (A).1. KIQlp is a Galois extension with a Galois group canonically isomorphic to G(KIQl) = P(p). S 0 E A. If a E A is a simple root of the congruence F(X) =0 (mod A-\).adic integer a E A such that a =a (mod A.. Chapter 7]. in the indeterminates X 1 .. with coefficients in A. n->oo n->oo because (u(an))n:.. Xr) = Sm. . X r.\. . Let F(X) be a monic polynomial with coefficients in A. m=O where each Sm is zero or a homogeneous polynomial of degree rn. . Indeed. Xr (r 2: 1) be the indetermi- nates. If 00 . let X 1 .. A (formal) power series in X 1 . The proof can be found in [26. a= lim On (with On E K) then CJ(a) = lim CJ(an). 17.. if a E K. Other aspects of formal power series are discussed in [23. K contains the subfield Qlp of p-adic numbers and [K : Qlp] = [K : Ql] = p. with coefficients in A.2. Chapter 3]. . . is still valid with A instead of Zp: E. if a E K then 17. S 0 is the constant term of S. Explicitly.2 The >.

Conversely... ... if S 0 is invertible. The . A series S E A[[X 1 . then for every n 2 0 the following sum is finite: oo n Un = 2:T~j) = LT~j).. the set A[[X 1 ...\-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 345 we define 00 S+T=2)Sn+Tn) and n=O With these operations. Then SoTo = 1 so So is an invertible element of A. . .. We assume henceforth that A is an integral domain. we write U = L~o y(J). If 00 T (j) = """' ~ T. XrlJ of power series is a com- mutative ring. XrJl· n=O In this case. . .. It is clear that w(S + T) 2 min{w(S). ... . each power series is of the form 00 """'s ~ n xn. the order of zero series is oo.2. letT = -S0(S. w(T)} and w(ST) 2 w(S) + w(T).. . Xr]].. . .. XrlJ such that ST = 1. let S 0 E A be such that S 0S 0 = 1... By convention.{( ) E A [[ X1. The ring A is naturally identified with a subring of A[[X1. . . . In the case of one indeterminate X.S 0 ) so w(T) 2 1 hence w(Tl) 2 j.' n=O each sn is called a coefficient of S(X). 17. Then SQ (~ T1) E A[[X. . .. j=O j=O Let L 00 U = Un E A[[X1. XrlJ is an integral domain.. .Xr ]] m=O and w(T(j)) 2 j for every j 2 0. The order w(S) of S is defined to be the smallest integer n 2 0 such that Sn =f 0.. . X. Then w(ST) = w(S) + w(T) and A[[X1 . XrlJ is invertible if there exists a series T E A[[X1. . XrlJ· The elements 0 and 1 of A are also the zero and unit elements of A[[X1.]1 .

if S E A[[X]] and its derivative is 0. then S = So is a constant. If A has characteristic 0.T) ::. XrlJ· n=O n=O If w(T) ::. If 00 S(X) = L SnXn. n=O S(T) is called the power series obtained by substituting T for X in S. If S...T) (f rJ) )=0 = 1.1 for the inverse of S. w(T) ::. U. and 5 1 = S(T(X)) then Sf(X) = S'(T(X)) · T'(X). we have the higher derivatives 00 S"(X) = L n(n.. n=O its derivative is 00 S'(X) = L nsnxn-l. If S. . T E A[[X]].. i. T. Then Dd is an ideal of the ring A[[X 1 . if S(X). .> 1 or if S is a polynomial.> 0 and let Dd be the set of all power series S E A[[X 1 . if S. Moreover. XrlJ we writeS= T (ord d). V are power series... it makes sense to consider the power series 00 We write 00 S(T) = S(T(X1. . . d. d. T = LTn E A[[X1... Let d ::.]]. . . Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields is the inverse of 8: 50 (f )=0 Ti) S = (1 . n=2 etc.. . . Z C::: A.2 . .. With the same hypothesis. this is an equivalence relation.346 17. XrlJ such that w(S) ::. T(X) have the same derivative S'(X) = T'(X) and the same constant term.. . when w(S.e. X.. . We write s. .> 1. then S(X) = T(X). Let 00 00 S = L snXn E A[[X]]. n=l Iterating. T E A[[X 1 . 1 Xr)) = L SnTn.1)snxn.

T E A[[X]]. . In particular. and that T is a polynomial or w(V) ::::0: 1. M = {1 + S E A[[X1. Xr]]\ w(S) ::::0: 1}. In particular. X = X 1: ex= exp(X) = L 00 1 1 xn (17.2) n=O n. Lemma 1... sn for every s E A.2. U. XrlJ\ w(S) ::::0: 1}. The . Let r ::::0: 1 and A= {S E A[[X1. . . We note that the derivatives of these series are exp'(X) = exp(X).. if = S T (ord d). then S ± U T ± V (ord d). because log'(l +X) = 1 -X+ X 2 .1n)n-1 sn (17. it follows that A is an additive group and M is a multiplicative group. if r = 1..1) n=O We also write e 8 = exp(S). let log : M -> A be the mapping defined by log(1 + S) = Loo ( . U = V (ord d).. (3) exp(S + T) = exp(S) exp(T). (17.. = From now on. Explicitly we have: (1) exp(log(1 + S)) = 1 + S. . X 3 + .4) n=l is called the logarithmic series.. is called the exponential series. we assume that A is an integral domain containing Q.. The mapping exp is an isomorphism from the additive group A onto the multiplicative group M.. and . and we shall introduce the exponential and logarithmic series. . if r = 1. V E A[[X1. On the other hand.. U = V (ord d). then S(U) T(V) (ord d).\-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 347 if S= T (ord d). From the above considerations. assume that S is a polynomial or w(U) ::::0: 1. Let exp : A -> M be the mapping defined by 1 L 00 exp(S) = I n. Let S. XrlJ. SU = = TV (ord d).1)n-1 n xn (17. (2) log(exp(S))= S. the mapping log is the inverse isomorphism. X = X 1: log(1 +X)= Loo ( . I 1 log (1 +X) = 1 +X. . 17.3) n=l for every 1 + S E M.

the relation holds for every SEA. . the relation holds for every S E A. so log(exp(X)) =X. n=l AnXn. Since exp'(X) = exp(X) then A 1 = 1. so we may write exp(log(1 +X)) n=O = f [log(l ~ X)t = 1 + n. n. A2 A 3 = · · · = 0. Taking derivatives exp(log(1 + X)) = ~ nAnxn-1' 1+X ~ n=l hence 1+ ~ AnXn cc exp(log(1 + X)) ~ (1 + X) ( ~ nAnXn. (3) f ~(S+T)n f ~ [ L l( exp(S+T) = = (n)saybl n. hence exp(log(1 + X)) = 1 + X. By substitution. then L L oo ( -1)n-l oo log(exp(X)) = [T(X)t = AnXn n n=l n=l where each An is given by a finite sum. a n=O n=O a+b=n sa yb sa ) ( yb ) =~ a~n ~bl ~~ ~bl oo [ oo oo = = exp(S) exp(T). (2) We show that in A[[X]] we have log(exp(X)) = X. Proof: (1) We show that in A[[X]] we have exp(log(l +X)) = 1 +X. f where each An is given by a finite sum.348 17. log(1 +X) has order 1. it follows that A 1 = 1. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields (4) log((1 + S)(1 + T)) = log(1 + S) + log(1 + T). ' } Comparing the coefficients on both sides. Indeed. T of order at least 1. Writing exp(X) = 1 + T(X). for any series S. A2 = A3 = · · · = 0. Taking derivatives exp'(X) exp(X) = f n=l nAnxn-l. By substitution.

. ...r).. . . hence by (2): log((1 + S)(1 + T)) = log(1 + S) + log(1 + T)...r)). .. is just a special case. ..r).r). .-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 349 (4) By (1). ... where each .x.r) and Sis convergent at T( 6..Xr))... . .. .. .XrlJ n=O (with r . is called the domain of convergence of S. when the series L::=o Sn (6.r) = S(T(6. The present situation of K. .. we use the same notations as in Section 17.2... .:::: 0) is a convergent sequence in K... ..r) and U(6.r) is convergent in K. It is easy to see that the series L::=o O:n is convergent if and only if limn_.1.. .. . . . we write 00 S(6..A-Adic Exponential and Logarithm. We write 0: 00 = L O:n n=O if o: = lim N->oo (t n=O O:n).i E K.. such that the series S is convergent at (6. . The >.. in this case. .... • 17. A series L::=o O:n of elements O:n E K is said to be convergent when the seq~ence of partial sums L::=o O:n (for all N . 1fT is convergent at (6. exp(log(1 +X))= 1 +X. 00 v . . 00 O:n = 0 and. In the book [23. . LetS E K[[X]] and T E K[[X 1... Chapter 7] we have studied in greater detail power series in valued fields. . . . Let p be an odd prime. . . . . endowed with v.2. . ..r) then U is convergent at (6.r) = L Sn(6..r)· n=O The set of all (6. . · · ·. · · ·.2 The . .. The formal power series 00 S = LSn E K[[X1. . this is equivalent to limn_.. in turn.. Substituting S + T + ST for X we have exp(log((1 + S)(1 + T))) = (1 + S)(1 + T) = exp(log(1 + S)) · exp(log(1 + T)) = exp(log(1 + S) + log(1 + T)). . Let U = S(T(Xl. XrlJ where w(T) .x (O:n) = oo. 17..:::: 1 or S E K[X].:::: 1) is said to be convergent at (6. (B). We are especially interested in series S(X) E K[[X]].

. Then Proof: [x]ja -1 <:::: xja -1 < [xja] Also a[xja] <:::: a(xja) < [x] + 1. the exponent of the exact power of p dividing n! is n- [~] + [. [x] denotes the only integer such that [x] <:::: x < [x] + 1. 0 <:::: n 1 . If n ::::0: 1 and p is a prime. . Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields Now.] + [.. so n 1 = [njp]. Proof: Let n! = pem.. so [x/a] <:::: [x]ja. . wherepfm. Now we note that if with 0 <:::: ai <:::: ]J .. If xis any real number. n 1 p <:::: n.] +···=~.~] + [. when considered as series with coefficients inK. Sn e= where and Sn = ao + a1 + · · · + ak. log(l +X). 1. The multiples of p no bigger than n are p. hence a[xja] <:::: [x]. we determine the domains of convergence of the series exp(X). 2p.. and let a > 1 be any integer. . so pfm'. Thus n 1 + e 1 = e where e 1 = vp(n 1 !).. 0 <:::: r 1 < p. by induction el = [7~] + [.350 17. This proves the lemma.] + . Let x be any real number. Let n = n 1 p+r 1 . Lemma 2. We need the following easy lemmas. • Legendre proved: Lemma 3.. thus e = vp(n!). Since n 1 < n..n + . By Lemma 2: [nl] p' [[n/p]] p' = = [~] pt+l so e = [~] + [.

x(~).1) + .x ( ~~) = nv. So if v.A. The >..1) + a2(P2. where~ E K. vp(n!) = (n.x(~) 2: 2} = A.(p.1)vp(n!).. Hence v.] k = al + a2(P + 1) + a3(P2 + P + 1) + .x(e) :::... 17..sn)f(p.But if v.x(~). 1). By Lemma 3.( n .1) where is the expression of n in the basis p and sn = a0 + a 1 + · · · + ak..x(~) . Proof: (1) We have v.x (~) 2: 2 then lim v.1)] p-1 • 1 = . + ak(Pk-1 + Pk-2 + . +ak(Pk.x(n!) = nv.x(~) .-\2 • (2) The domain of convergence of the logarithmic series inK is {1 +~ E K Iv. (1) The domain of convergence of the exponential series inK is {~ E K Iv.2. then the limit of v.sn)· p-1 With these lemmas we show: F.x (en fn!) when n tends to .. 1) + Sn 2: n(v.x ( ~~) = n(v.x (~n fn!) = oo and the series converges at ~. 1. since there exist infinitely many integers n such that sn = 1 (namely all the powers of p).] so 8 [.v. +p + 1) = _1_ [ai(P.x(~) 2: 1} = 1 +A.-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 351 then [~] [.

hence the exponential series is not convergent for such~· (2) If~ E K then ( -1t-l~n) V. m is a multiplicative group. • We define the >. .-1.. Similarly. Since pv.(p.m + . 1 +A>.-adic exponential and logarithmic functions as follows: oo L ~n exp(~) = I n.1)m.(n) divides n then vp(n) logp :':::log nand (-1)n-lc) P -1 V.-adic exponential and >. First we note that for every m 2 1.1)vp(n). 2 onto the multiplicative group 1 +A>. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields infinity does not exist.\ ( 2: nv.)... Proof: First we show that if~ E A>..1) = V. converges to some element {3 E A.m is obviously an additive group...(k-l)m) 2: (k.. it suffices to note that if a E A then since a+ a2>..\(0. if v"(~) :'::: 0 then and considering integers of the form n = pk we see that the general term has no limit.. G.-adic logarithm.\ ( n = nv.\(<..V. 2 .\(0 . n ogp Again if v" ( ~) 2: 1 then the limit of the general term is oo and the series converges at~· However.log n... Indeed..\(n) = nv"(~). The exponential function defines an isomorphism from the additive gmup A>..(k-l)m + .. because v"(ak>. n=O and log(1 + TJ) = Loo ( . The inverse isomorphism is defined by the logarithmic function (restricted to 1 + A>..352 17.1)n-1 n T}n n=l Now we indicate several properties of the >. Ji>. 2 ). +ak>. 2 then v"(exp(O .

T(X1.>. ~ 2 ~ 2 Thus. The . U(X1. TJ n.x (log(1 + TJ)) = v.1 + · · · + p + 1 > k. so exp( -~) = (exp(~)).1 . If k ~ 1 it follows from n .. ( TJ) = v .(p. X2) exp(XI) · = exp(X2) by Lemma 1. Sn ~ 1. since 6 + 6 E A>. Now we consider the restriction of the logarithmic function to the sub- group 1 + A. X2) = X1 +X2. v.x(TJ).>. ( 0 ~ 2. .\-Adic Exponential and Logarithm 353 Indeed.. So for every m > 1: v. X2). then exp(6 + 6) = exp(6) exp(6). 17. it follows that if~ E A) 2. Since log(1 + TJ) = oo ( 1)n-1 n L - TJn n=1 we need to compute v. X2)) = U(X1.1) + v.x(TJ). Indeed.>. ~ i= 0.1) = pk. From the above. Hence if m ~ 1 we have and taking the limit. Taking S(X) = exp(X). then exp(~) i= 1. So the exponential function defines an injective homomorphism from A) 2 into 1 + A) 2.x(O because v.>. If ~ E A) 2 then 1 = exp(O) = exp(~ .>. let c =I::.1)(v.n + sn ~ (n. 00 exp(~) = 1 + TJ. if 6. At the limit we have v . 2 then v. n=1 If n ~ 2 then v.1 jn)TJn).1 ~ pk .~) = exp(~) exp( -~).1) / (p . and we show that if TJ E A. Clearly exp(O) = 1. where k ~ 0 and p does not divide n'.x (TJ).x(0 .x(~) > v.6 E A>.2. S(T(X1. ( n TJn = nv. .1)k > v.x (~m~n) = v.x(~) ~ 2. . It follows that if 6 i= 6 then exp(6) i= exp(6).x(log(1 + TJ)) = v. Let n = pkn' ~ 2.x ( ~~) = nv.x ((( -l)n.x(TJ).1 and (pk . this is true if k = 0 because n ~ 2.xW. Then vp(n) = k and ( -l)n-1 ) V.x(~) n! as follows from (3'). 2 .

354 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

Thus the logarithmic function maps 1 + A), 2 into A) 2 .
Moreover, from Lemma 1, it follows that
~ 2
log(exp(~)) = ~ and exp(log(1 +ry)) = 1 +77 for ~,r7 EA.\.
Therefore the exponential function is an isomorphism from A) 2 onto
1 + A.\ 2 and the logarithmic function is the inverse isomorphism. •
We shall also work with the polynomials
xn
L -,
p-1

Ep(X) = and
n.
n=O
They have p-integral coefficients and degree p- 1.
We note that exp(X) =
Ep(X) (ord p) and log(1 + X) Lp(1 + =
X) (ord p). It follows that if T(X) is a power series and w(T(X)) 2" 1,
then exp(T(X)) =
Ep(T(X)) (ord p) and log(1 + T(X)) Lp(1 + =
T(X)) (ord p). In particular, exp(log(1 +X)) =
Ep(log(1 +X)) (ord p),
log(exp(X)) =
Lp(exp(X)) (ord p).
Lemma 4. Let X, Y be indeterminates.
(1) Ep(X) · Ep(Y) =
Ep(X + Y) (ord p).
(2) [Ep(X)( =Ep(kX) (ord p) fork 2" 1.
=Lp(1 +X)+ Lp(1 + Y) (ord p).
(3) Lp((l + X)(1 + Y))
(4) Lp((l + X)k) =kLp(1 +X) (ord p) fork 2 1.
(5) Lp(Ep(X)) =X (ord p).
(6) Ep(Lp(l +X)) =1 +X (ord p).

Proof: (1) Since Ep(X) =exp(X) (ord p), Ep(Y) =exp(Y) (ord p),
then by Lemma 1:
Ep(X)Ep(Y) = exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(X + Y) = Ep(X + Y) (ord p).
(2) This follows at once from (1).
(3) From Lp(1 +X) = log(1 +X) (ord p) and Lp(1 + Y) = log(1+
Y) (ord p) it follows from Lemma 1 that
Lp(1 + X) + Lp(1 + Y) =log(1 + X) + log(l + Y)
log((1 + X)(l + Y)) =Lp((1 + X)(1 + Y)) (ord p).
=

(4) This follows at once from (3).
(5) Since Ep(X) =exp(X) (ord p), then
Lp(Ep(X)) =Lp(exp(X)) =log(exp(X)) =X (ord p).
(6) From Lp(l +X) =log(1 +X) (ord p) it follows that
Ep(Lp(1 +X)) =Ep(log(1 +X)) =exp(log(1 +X)) = 1 +X (ord p) .

17.3. The >.-Adic Integers 355

To conclude we note a general fact: let A be any commutative ring, let
I be any ideal of A, and let P E A[X]. If o:, f3 E A and o: = f3 (mod I),
then P(o:) =
P(/3) (mod I).
From this it follows that if m 2 1, o:, f3 E A, and o: = f3 (mod A>. m)
then
(17.5)
and
(17.6)

17.3 The A-Adic Integers
In this section we shall study in more detail the ring of >.-adic integers.
We recall that A = Z[(], i.e., {1, (, ( 2 , ... , (P- 2 } is a basis of the
Z-module A.
From this we easily obtain:
H. The ring A of >.-adic integers is a free module over the ring Zp of
p- adie integers, having the basis {1, (, e, ... ,
(P- 2}.
Proof: A is the direct sum
p-2
A= EfJz(i.
j=O

Let M be the multiplicative set of integers not multiples of p. Then
M- 1 z = ZzP (the ring of p-integral rational numbers) and
p-2
Ar 1 A = EB Zzp(1 .
j=O

But M- 1 A = AA.\· Indeed, if o: E A and m E M, then m tf. A>. since
z
A>. n = Zzp· So o:jm E AA.\, showing that M- 1 A <:;; AAA· Conversely,
let o: E A, let f3 E A, and let f3 t/. A>.. The conjugates ai (!3) cannot belong
to ai (A>.), but this is a prime ideal containing p, hence equal to A>.. So
ai (;3) t/. A>. and therefore
p-2
N (!3) = II (Jj (!3) t/. A>..
j=O

But N(/3) E Z hence N(/3) tf. Zp, so
o: o:a(/3) ... aP-2(/3)
/3 N(/3)
proving the equality.

356 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

Therefore
p-2
AAA = E9 Zzv(J.
j=O
Taking the closure in the completion K, relative to the valuation vA, we
deduce that
p-2
A= EBZp(J,
j=O
which was to be proved.
Our aim is to indicate another basis of the Zv-module

A, which behaves
nicely with respect to the trace.
First we show:
I. If a E A, vA(a) = 1, and {1, a, a 2 ,. :.-.·, aP- 2 } are linearly
independent over QP, then this set is a Zv-basis of A.
Proof: Since [K : Qp] = p- 1 then {1, a, a 2 , ... , aP- 2 } is a basis of the
Qp-vector space K.
Given (3 E A<:;; K, we may write, in unique way,
p-2
(3 = L:CJai,
j=O
with each CJ E <Qlp; we shall prove that each CJ E Zv·
Let
then

so each dJ = p-kcJ E Zv·
We note that if 0 ::; i < j ::; p- 2 then vA(diai) # vA(djaJ). Otherwise
vA(di) + ivA(a) = vA(dj) + jvA(a) so
(p- 1) [vv(di) - vv(dJ)] = (j- i)vA(a) = j - i,
that is, j - i is a multiple of p- 1; but this is impossible, since 0 < j - i <
p-1.
Let j 0 be the smallest index such that vp(dj,,) = 0. Then vA(dJoaJ") <
vA(djaJ) when j # Jo. Otherwise
Jo = vA(djoaj") :2: vA(dja1 ) = (p- 1)vp(d;) + j;
ifvv(dj) :2: lthisimpliesthatj0 :2:p-l,whic:hisimpossible;ifvv(dj) = 0
then j 0 > j. contrary to the choice of j 0 . Therefore

17.3. The .\-Adic Integers 357

on the other hand,
V>.(P-k/3) = -kv>.(P) + V>.(/3) ~ -k(p- 1).
Therefore k ~ 0 so each c1 = pkdj E Zp.
We now show the existence of a special element p, which will play an

important role.
J. A contains one element p which is unique, satisfying the following
two conditions:
(1) pP- 1 = -p; and
(2) p =-,\ (mod A,\ 2 ).

Hence Ap =A,\.
Proof: First we establish the uniqueness. If p, p1 E A satisfy the above
properties then
,.,p-1 y-1
p = -p = 1'1

i.e., 7J = p1 p- 1 is a (p - 1)th root of 1. But
P1 =-,\ =p (mod A,\ 2) so p7J =p (mod A,\ 2 ).

Since p = -,\ + a,\ 2 = ,\( -1 +a,\) with a E
(mod A,\). If 7) cf. 1 then X - 7J divides
A then Ap =A,\. Thus 7J =1
xp-1 - 1 2
= xp- + ... +X+ 1
X -1
and computing these polynomials at 1, we deduce that 1- 7J divides p- 1.
But ,\ divides 1 - 7), hence,\ divides both p and p- 1, which is impossible.
Thus 7J = 1 and this proves that PI = p.
To prove the existence of p, let a = -p/(1 - ()P- 1.
First we show that a = 1 (mod A,\).
We write
p <f>p(1) (1- ()(1- ( 2) · · · (1- (P-I)
(1 -()p-I (1 - ()P-1 (1 - ()(1 - () · · · (1 - ()
= (1 + ()(1 + ( + (2) ... (1 + ( + (2 + ... + (p-2).

Since,\ = 1 - (then ( =1 (mod A,\), hence
+( =2
1~ ~.(. ~ .(~ .~ ~ .(~~~ .~~):
1 (mod A,\),

....
1 + ( + ... + (P -2 = p- 1 ~
(mod A,\).
Hence, from Wilson's congruence
p
( 1 _ ()P- 1 = 1 · 2 · · · (p- 1) = -1
~

= (p- 1)! (mod A,\).

358 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

Therefore a = 1 (mod A.\).
We shall show that a is a (p - 1)th power in A. Let
F(X) = xp- 1 -a then F(1) =0 (mod A.\).
But the derivative
F'(X) = (p- 1)XP- 2 is such that F'(1) -=f. 0 (mod A.\).
Thus the image of 1 modulo A.\ is a simple root of F(X) = XP- 1 - a
(polynomial with coefficients reduced modulo A.\). According to Hensel's
lemma of Section 17.1 there exists a root (3 of F(X) in A, such that (3 1 =
(mod A>.), so (3P- 1 = a.
Let p = -/3(1 - (), then
pP-1 = f3P-1(1 _ ()p-1 = a(1 _ ()p-1 = -p

and
p = -/3(1- () =-(1- () = -,\ (mod

In the next few propositions we derive some congruences satisfied by
A.\ 2 ). •
expressions involving this element p.
K. (1) [Ep(p)Y =1 (mod A.\ 2 P- 1 ).

(2) For every integer k 2: 1: Ep(kp) = (k (mod A,\P).

Proof: (1) We write Ep(X) = 1 + XG(X), where
x xp- 2
G(X) = 1 + 2! + · · · + (p _ 1)! E Zp[X].

So
[Ep(X)]p = 1 + pH(X) + XP[G(XW,
where H(X) E Zp[X]. By Lemma 4:
[Ep(X)]p = Ep(pX) + XPT(X),
where T(X) E Zp[X]. We show first that pH(p) pp (mod A.\ 2P-l ).
Indeed,
pH(X) = [Ep(X)]p- 1- XP[G(XW
= {Ep(pX) - 1} + XP(T(X)- [G(X)]P).
Since
pX P2 x2 JiP- 1 xp-1
Ep(pX)- 1 = If + ~ + ···+ (p _ 1)! E Zp[X]

then T(X) - [G(X)]P E pZp[X]. Hence pH(p) = pp (mod A,\ P-I ),
2

because Ap = A,\ and Ap = A.\P- 1 .

17.3. The >.-Adic Integers 359

Next we show that
pP =-pp (mod A,\ P- 1).
2

Indeed, since G(p) = 1 (mod A>.) then [G(p)]P =1 (mod AAP) hence
pP[G(p)jP = pP = -pp (mod A,\ 2 P).
Therefore
[Ep(p)]P = 1 + pH(p) + pP[G(p)]P = 1 + pp- pp = 1 (mod A,\ 2P- 1).
(2) We first show that Ep(p) = ( (mod A>.P).
We have
then
so C 1Ep(p) =
1 (mod A-\ 2) and there exists an element a E A such that
(- Ep(p) = 1 + a-\ 2. Raising to the pth power
1

[C 1Ep(p)]P = [Ep(p)]P =1 (mod A,\ 2P- 1)

by the first part of the proof. On the other hand,

(1 +a-\ 2)P = 1 +pa,\ 2 + e)a 2,\ 4 +···+aP,\ 2P

and comparing

a (p,\ 2 + ( ~) a,\ 4 + · · · + aP- 1,\ 2P) =0 (mod A>. 2P- 1).
Since v;..(p,\ 2) = (p- 1) + 2 = p + 1 and

V>.[ (nak- 1>. 2k] 2: (p -1) + 2k > p + 1, k = 2, ... ,p- 1,
v;..(aP- 1 ,\ 2P) 2: 2p > p + 1,
then

v;..(p>-2+ (~)a>-4+···+aP-1).2P) =p+ 1,

therefore V>.(a) 2: (2p- 1) - (p + 1) = ;p- 2, i.e., a 0 (mod A}P- 2) =
and, consequently, (- 1Ep(p) =
1 (mod AAP), so Ep(p) (mod A>.P). =(
Now if k > 1, it follows from Lemma 4 that Ep( kp) Ep(P)] k =[
(mod A,\P). But Ep(p) =(
(mod A,\P) hence Ep(kp) (k (mod A>.P) .=

L. (1) If a E A,\ 2 then Lp(1 +a) = log(1 +a) (mod A,\P).
(2) If a1, a2 E A>. then
Lp((1 + al)(1 + a 2 )) = Lp(1 + al) + Lp(1 + a 2) (mod A,\P)

360 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

and
Lp((l + al)- 1) = -Lv(1 + al) (mod A.V).

(3) Lv(() =p (mod A.v).
Proof: (1) We have

n=p
and we shall determine the value V>-.(an jn) for n 2 p.
We have V>-.(an /n) = nv>-.(a) - V>-.(n) 2 2n - V>-.(n). Since V>-.(n) =
(p - 1 )vp( n) and since pv'- (n) divides n then vp( n) log p ::; log n. Therefore
an) lorr n
V>-. ( - 2: 2n- (p- 1) -"'-.
n logp
We shall show that this last quantity is greater than p. For this purpose
we consider the function oft, t 2: 2:

F(t) = log t .
t- 1'
since
F'(t)= 1-1/t-logt <O
(t - 1) 2
for t 2 2, F(t) is monotone decreasing. In particular, if p < n then
logpj(p- 1) 2: log nj(n- 1).
Therefore
logn
2n - (p - 1) - - 2: 2n - (n - 1) = n + 1 > p.
logp
This proves that V>-.(an/n) > p, and establishes the statement (1).
(2) By Lemma 4:
Lp((1 + a 1)(1 + a2)) =Lp(l + al) + Lp(l + a2) (mod A.\P),
since a 1, a2 E A.\.
The second formula follows at once.
(3) By Lemma 4:
Lp(Ep(p)) =p (mod A.\P).
By (K), Ev(P) =( (mod A.\P) hence by (17.6):
Lv(Ep(p)) =Lv(() (mod A.\P)
and therefore Lp(() =p (mod A.\P).
With the element p we build a basis:

M. {1, p, p 2 , ... , pP- 2 } is a basis of the Zv-module A.

17 .3. The ,\-A die Integers 361

Proof: Since Ap =A>. then V>.(P) = 1. Now we show that the elements
1, p, p 2 , ... , pP- 2 are linearly independent over Qp.
Indeed, if c0 + c1p + · · · + cp-2rfP- 2 = 0 with ci E Qp, not all zero,
then there must exist two indices i, j such that 0 ::; i < j ::; p - 2
and V>.(ci) + iv;..(p) = v;..(c1 ) + jv;..(p) (as follows from (3')). So j - i =
(j- i)v;..(p) = v;..(ci)- v;..(c1 ) = (p- 1) [vp(ci)- vp(c1 )].
This is not possible since j - i < p - 1.
It follows from (I) that {1, p, p2 , ... , rJP- 2 } is a basis of the Zp-module
A. •
So every element of A (respectively, K) may be written in a unique way
in the form ao + a1p + · · · + ap-2rfP- 2 with ai E Zp (respectively, ai E Qp)·
N. (1) For every i = 1, 2, ... , p - 2, the trace of pi in the extension
KIQp is o.
(2) An element of K has trace 0 if and only if it is of the form
p-2
L aipi,
i=l

Proof: (1) By definition TrKIIQJ,, (pi) is equal to the trace of the endomor-
phism of K of multiplication with pi. This is equal to the trace of the matrix
of this endomorphism with respect to any basis, say {1, p, p 2 , . . . , rJP- 2 }.
As seen immediately, all elements in the diagonal of this matrix are zero,
hence the trace of pi is also 0.
If
p-2
~ = L aipi
i=O

then

TrKIIQJ, (~) = TrKIIQJ,, (ao) = (p- 1)a0 .
So TrKIIQJ, (0 = 0 exactly when a 0 = 0.
Now we consider the real cyclotomic field K+ = Q(( + (- 1), which is the

field fixed by the automorphism of complex-conjugation: a_ 1(() = (- 1 =
(.The extension of a_ 1 to K leaves invariant a subfield, denoted K+. It is
easily seen that K+ coincides with the closure of K+ inK. The elements of
~+ ~+
K are the real >.-adic numbers. The elements of the ring A , the closure
of A+ inK+ are the real >.-adic integers.
~-~-

0. (1) a_l(P) = -p, a_l(p2) = p2, K · is the set of all elements
(p-3)/2
L aip2i,
i=O

362 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields
~+
with ai E IQlp; A is the set of all elements of the above form,
~+
with ai E Zp; [K : IQlp] = (p - 1) /2.
(2) Let
~+

S={aEA I TrKIQ,(a)=O}.

Then S is a Zp-module equal to the set of all elements of the form
(p~3)/2

L aip2i
i=l

Proof: (1) Since pP~ 1 = -p then [CJ ~ 1 (p) ]p~ 1 = -p = pP~ 1 thus
CT~J(P) = TJP where TJ E K, ryp~J = 1.
But there are at most p- 1 (p- 1)th roots of 1 in R. By (B), they all
belong to Zp. In particular, TJ E IQlp.
It follows that

hence ry 2 = 1. If TJ = 1 then CJ ~ 1 leaves invariant every element of K
(since these are combinations of 1, p, ... , pP~ 2 ), and CT~J would be the
identity automorphism. In particular, every element of IQl(() would be real,
a contradiction. This proves that TJ = -1, so CJ ~ 1 (p) = - p.
It follows that CJ ~ 1 (pi) = pi exactly when i is even. Hence the subfield
K+, invariant by CJ ~ 1 , is the one indicated.
(2) Combining (N) with what we have just proved immediately yields
the present statement. •

We conclude this section with a result about units:

P. (1) If Eisa unit of K then Ep~J =1 (mod A.A) and

TrKIQ,(log(sP~ 1 )) = 0.

If, moreover, E is a real unit then log( Ep~ 1 ) E S.
(2) /j6 2 , ... , b(p~l)/ 2 are the circular units of K then log(b~~ 1 ) E S
fork= 2, ... ,(p-1)/2.

Proof: (1) Let E be a unit of K, hence also of K; thus E = a0 +
a 1 p+ · · · +ap~2pP~ 2 , with ai E Zp and actually vp(ao) = 0. Thus E ao =
(mod A,\) hence Ep~l = a 0 p~l (mod A.A). But a 0 = m 0 + a'p with m 0 E
Z, a' E Zp, so a 0 p~l = m 0 p~l =
1 (mod Zpp). We conclude that Ep~l 1 =
(mod A,\) and the .A-adic logarithm is defined for Ep~ 1 .

Exercises 363

Since each Qp-automorphism of K is continuous, then
p-1 p-1
TrKIIQJ,,(logcP- 1 ) = 2:::a-1 (1ogEP- 1 ) = Llog(a-1 (cP- 1 ))
j=1 j=1

= log(NKIQ(EP- 1 )) = log((±1)P- 1 )
=log 1 = 0.
Finally, if E is a real unit so is EP- 1 and, therefore, log( EP- 1 ) is also a real
>.-adic number, hence it belongs to S.
(2) This follows from (1), because the circular units are real positive
units of K. •

EXERCISES

1. Calculate the 7-adic developments of the integers 328, 171.

2. Calculate the 7-adic developments of -1, -2, -3, ... , -6, -7.

3. Calculate the 7-adic developments of ~,- ~, ~,- ~.

4. Which of the following integers have a square-root in the field of 5-adic
numbers 2, -2, 5, -1, 25? In the affirmative, write the 5-adic development
of the square-root. ·

5. Is ~ a square in Q 5 ? If so, find the 5-adic development of its two
square-roots.

6. Let p = 5, 7, or 11. For which values of p does the field Qp con-
tain a primitive cubic root of 1? In the affirmative, calculate the p-adic
development.

7. Which of the numbers 2, -2, 3, ~, -1 have a cubic root in Q 5 , Q 7 ?
In the affirmative, calculate the 5-adic or 7-adic development of the cubic
root.

8. Does Q 7 contain a fifth root of 2? If so, calculate its 7-adic
development.

9. Let p = 5. Calculate the 5-adic developments of the four fourth roots
of 1.

364 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

10. Let p be a prime. Show:
(a) Each p-adic series L~m aipi (with m E Z, am =f. 0, 0 :::; ai < p)
converges to a unique element x of Qlp (with respect to the p-adic
distance dp); in this situation, write x = L~m aipi and show
that vp(x) = m.
(b) Distinct p-adic series converge to distinct elements of Qlp.
(c) Every x of the completion Qlp of Q is the sum of a uniquely
defined p-adic series.

11. A p-adic development L~o aipi is said to be finite if there exists
r ?: 0 such that ai = 0 for all i ?: r. Show that x E Qlp has a finite p-adic
development if and only if x E N.

12. A p-adic development L~o aipi is said to be periodic infinite if there
exists r ?: 0 and k ?: 1 such that

a,.+k-1 = a,.+2k-1 = a,.+3k-1 = · · ·,
and a,., a,.+1, ... , a,.+k-1 are not all 0. Show that x E Qlp has an infinite
periodic p-adic development if and only if x E Q, x r/. N.
13. Determine the rational numbers with 7-adic developments:
(a) 3 + 6 x 7 + 6 x 72 + 6 x 73 + · · ·, and
(b) 2 + 72 + 3 X 73 +2 X 74 + 76 + 3 X 77 +2 X 78 + ·· ·.
14. Prove Hensel's lemma (statement (A)). With the notation of the
statement, show:
(a) There exists a1 E Z, 0::::; a 1 < p, such that F(a + a 1 p) E Zpp 2 .
(b) Show by induction that there exist a 1, a2, ... , an E Z, 0:::; a; <
p, for each i, such that F(a + a 1p + · · · + anpn) E Zppn+l.
(c) Let a = L~o aipi E Zp with ao = a. Show that F(a) = 0 and
that a = a (mod Zpp).

15. Let F E Zp[XJ be a nonconstant polynomial, and let F' denote its
derivative. Assume that there exists a E Z such that 2vp(F'(a)) < v(F(a)).
Show that there exists a E Zp such that F(a) = 0 and a a (mod Zpp). =
16. q-adic solutions of Fermat's equation. Let p, q be prime numbers
(not assumed to be necessarily distinct). Show that the equation XP + YP =
ZP has a solution in nonzero integral q-adic numbers.
Hint: For p =f. q use Exercise 14, for p = q use Exercise 15.

Exercises 365

17. Prove the A-adic Hensel's lemma (statement (E)) for the field K
and the A-adic valuation.
Hint: Follow the method indicated in Exercise 14.

18. Let n 2': 1 and let a0 , a 1 , ... , an_ 1 be complex numbers. The
circulant of (a 0 , a 1 , ... , an- 1 ) is the determinant of the matrix

Let G(X) = a0 + a 1 X + · · · + an_ 1 xn- 1 and for j = 0, 1, ... , n - 1 let
(j = cos(27rj/n) + isin(27rj/n).
Show that the circulant is equal to
n-1
II G((j)
j=O

and also equal to Res( G( X), xn - 1) (the resultant of the polynomials-see
Chapter 2, Exercises 53, 54).

19. Let p = 5. Express the inverse of 1 - ( + ( 2 + 3( 3 as a IQ-linear
combination of 1, (, ( 2 , ( 3 . Do the same for (3 - 2( 2 )/(1 - ( + ( 2 + 3( 3 ).

20. Let p = 5. Express the periodic infinite A-adic development
3 - A + 2A 2 - 4A 3 - A4 + 2A 5 - 4A 6 - A7 + ...
as a IQ-linear combination of 1, (, ( 2 , ( 3•

21. Calculate the inverse of the series 1- 2X + 3X 2 - 4X 3 + 5X 4 - · ...

22. We consider the power series in one indeterminate. Let f : A -+ A be
the mapping defined by f (S) = exp( S) - 1. Calculate the terms of degree
at most 4 in the series f 2 (S) where f 2 = f of.

23. We consider the power series in one indeterminate. Let g : M -+ M
be the mapping defined by g(1 + S) = 1 + log(1 + S). Calculate the terms
of degree at most 4 in the series g 2 (1 + S) where g 2 = g o g.

24. Let p be a prime number. Following as a Il}_Odel the text about the
A-adic exponential and logarithmic functions on K, define the exponential
and logarithmic p-adic functions on iQp.
Determine the domains of convergence and study the properties of the
p-adic exponential and logarithmic functions.

25. Let p = 5. Calculate explicitly the A-adic development of the element
p from statement (J).

366 17. Local Methods for Cyclotomic Fields

26. Let p = 5. Use the explicit >.-adic development of p (obtained in the
preceding exercise) to verify the congruences in the statement (K).

27. Let p = 5. Calculate explicitly the expressions of>., >. 2 , >. 3 as Zp-linear
combinations of 1, p, p 2, p3.

28. Let p = 5. Express ( + (- 1 as a linear combination of 1, p, p2 , p3 .

1 . B 1 ~.1)! + 3!(k. (18.18 Bernoulli Numbers Bernoulli numbers appear in the expression of sums of a fixed power of consecutive integers. e: - For every k ::.~ and if k ?': 2 then Bk Bk-1 Bk-2 B1 1 kf + 2!(k.1] [ exp(.. B 0 = 1. so it is invertible.1) /X has order 0 and constant term 1.! X 3 + ..1.:. 1 the following recurrence relation is satisfied 1 )Bk + 1)Bk-1 + . The Bernoulli numbers are rational numbers..1 Recurrence for the Bernoulli Numbers The series (exp(X) . We write its inverse in the form X _ ~ Bn xn (18. 18.1 Algebraic Properties 18. ·).! X2 + .. A..1) exp(X) . These sums are intimately connected with the class number of cyclotomic fields.. we deduce that B 0 1. B 1 = . 367 . ·) x (Bo + B1 X + B2 X2 + B3 X3 + . + kf + (k + 1)! = O.) _ 1 ] = (X+ .2) Proof: X =[exp(X). e: e.L n! · n=O The numbers Bn are called the Bernoulli numbers. + 1)B1 + 1 = 0. 1! 2! 3! Comparing the coefficients of the powers of X.2)! + .

we have: B. e. comparing coefficients of X 2 k on both sides.1 Bzk > 0. (2) This proof is due to Mordell. 2 2X exp(2X) . Therefore Bk = 0 for every odd index k 2: 3. yields (for k 2: 2): 0= . Bernoulli Numbers e: e. (1) If k 2: 3 and k is odd. (2) Ifk 2: 1 then (-1)k.1 = 1 + L k! X .1) .1 2 hence X 2X S( -X) . then Bk = 0.368 18. k=2 We have X X X exp(X) X S(-X) = .1 Multiplying with Xj(exp(X).S(X) = exp(X) _ 1 (exp(X) .1 exp(X). that each Bk is a rational number.2n) Bn n! xn)· n=O n=O The left-hand side is equal to Since Bk = 0 when k is odd.1 exp(2X). 1 = (~ L Bnn! xn) (~( L 1 . e: Multiplying with ( k + 1)! we have 1 )Bk + 1 )Bk-1 + 1 )Bk-2 + . Proof: (1) We consider the series S(X) = X + X ~ Bk k 2 exp(X) . T = 0... by induction on k.1) gives X. • Moreover.- 2 exp( -X). It follows. k > 1. + 1 )Bl + 1 = 0. We have X X 2X exp(X) +1 exp(X).

.n The proof of the proposition is by induction.1B2n > 0. exp(X) exp(X) . B18 798"" . B3o 14322 7 7709321041217 B14 6. • In Subsection 18.1B 2k > 0. B34 6 etc. B26 --6- 5 23749461029 Bw 66. .2730. B28 870 691 8615841276005 B12 . 18.1B2k > 0.1B2m > 0.1. The result is assumed true for B2i fori = 1. k -1. m.22n k-1 1 .510 . . Thus 2m+2n=2k 0<7n.22n ( -1) ( 2 m)! ( 2n)! B2mB2n = ( -1) (2 m)! (2 n)! B2mB2n >0 so ( -1)k. B4 -30. B2o -33() 1 854513 .1) x L()() B2k x2k 2 + k=1 (2k)!2k . B22 ~ 1 236364091 B6 42. B2 6. Algebraic Properties 369 In the right-hand side. if m = 1 or n = 1 the summand is 0. ( -l)n. it suffices to consider the summands with even indices and 2n 2: 2.1 = ~ X +~ + 2 f B2k X2k-1 (2k)! k=1 and log ( exp(~ .. 1 174611 . B32 510 3617 2577687858367 B16 . We shall also need the following formal power series expressions: c. B24 2730 1 8553103 B8 -30. hence m+n-1 1 . n. . Here are some Bernoulli numbers: 1 43867 B1 2.3 we shall give another proof that (-1)k.1. for 1 :::. By induction ( -l)m.

It follows from (A) that the expression in the bracket is equal to 0.370 18. • 18. Hence the first formula is established. xk 2 + L (2~).1 X exp(X)./IX kl oo Bk 1 oo B oo Xk = x + L k~ xk-l + L (k + 1)! k=l k=O k B ) ~ + 1)! oo ( + {. 1 1 B = x - oo x2k-l + 1 k=l + (k 1 + 1)! {. so they are equal. and this proves the second formula. We note that X ~ B2k 2k 2 + k=l L (2k)!2k X has derivative equal to ~ ~ B2k x2k-l 2 +L (2k)! . Since the trigonometric functions may .1 1 [X + ~ (k + 1)! oo xk l [1 +{.1). h! (k. 00 { 1 + {. the derivative of log((exp(X).1 X By virtue of the first formula these derivatives are equal.exp(X) +1 exp(X) 1 exp(X) .2 Relations of Bernoulli Numbers with Trigonometric Functions The Bernoulli numbers were introduced as coefficients in the power series expansion of the function z j (ez . {. But both expres- sions have constant term equal to 0.1. For the second formula we consider the derivatives of the expressions in the right-hand side and in the left-hand side of the identity.1 X2 exp(X) .1)/X) is equal to X X exp(X) . Bernoulli Numbers Proof: We have exp(X) exp(X) X exp(X). k=l Similarly. k (k +h 1) } Bh xk.

.. 18.. For lzl < 1r /2: t = ~(-1)k-1 22k(22k.5) 2i cosz = (18.. (18.. k=O k=1 Substituting cot z = ~ + ~( -1)k B2k22k z2k-1 z ~ (2k)! . e2iz . 1 2iz cot z = ..4) and e-iz = cosz.1) as a power series ~ 2iz e2iz _ 1 = L.. ( 2k)! z k=1 k=1 = ~( -1)k-1 22k(22k.zz +~ L..3) k=O Proof: From eiz = cos z + i sin z (18. ( 2k)! z · k=1 Proof: tan z = cot z .1)B2k 2k-1 • L. )k kf 2zz = . for 0 < lzl < 1r.--.1)B2k 2k-1 (18..1. k=l . using (D): oo B 22k oo B 4k-1 t = "(-1)k _2k_ 2k-1 ... (2k)! z .2 cot 2z (18... sin z =I 0.. For lzl < 1r: oo 2kB zcotz = L.6) 2 here. and cos z eiz + e-iz i(e 2iz + 1) .e-•z . there are also relations between certain trigonometric functions and the Bernoulli numbers. So for lzl < 1r /2.1 = z + -z e2iz . ( 2k)! z L.isinz it follows that eiz _ e-iz sin z = --.. • E. Bk ( . 1... D.2 "(-1)k 2k2 2k-1 an z L. " (18. B2k ( 2 k)! 2 2k( -1 )k 2k z ..(-1) k 2( 2 k)!2k z 2k .= i .. Algebraic Properties 371 be defined in terms of the exponential functions..2 sin z e' ..7) an z L....8) as is well known.1 · Expanding 2iz / (e 2iz .

372 18.cot 2z gives 2z cosec 2z = 2z cot z .9) tan z = L. on the other hand. (18.:~= 1 1/n is divergent. Let 00 1 ((s) = "'""" . . (2k)! z ' k=O and this proves (18. (2 k _ 1)! z .3): oo 22k B oo 22k B 2z cosec 2z = 2 L(-1)k . • 18. For lzl < Jr/2: z cosecz = f)-1)k B2k 2(1. (See Chapter 22). the series 2:.10) 2k . which are defined by 00 "'""" T2k-1 2k-1 (18.12) L. Applying (18.:~= 1 1/n 8 is convergent.1) ( 1)k-1 B (18. k=1 satisfy y:2k-1 = 22k(22k. for s > 1.11).22k-1)z2k (18. Bernoulli Numbers Identity (18.2z cot 2z. Proof: The well-known identity cosec 2z = cot z .3 Bernoulli Numbers and the Zeta-Function It is easy to see--and we shall return to this topic in Chapter 22--that for s > 1. ns n=1 The zeta-function was studied by Euler (for real numbers s > 1) and later Riemann (for complex numbers s with real part 9'\e(s) > 1).7) shows that the tangent coefficients T2k_ 1. the harmonic series 2:.11) k=O (2k)! .1.-2-k 22kz 2k k=O (2k)! k=O (2k)! oo ( 2k-1)B = "'"""(-1)k 2 1-2 2k (2 fk L. 2k· F.L(-1)k .-2-k z 2 k .

i-0 This function is also meromorphic with period 1. which was also given by Euler.1.13) z L-.h(z).+ '"'( -1)k . Algebraic Properties 373 In order to present Euler's beautiful result. G.2z'"' -=--=---::. By (18. and showing that it is identically zero. with only poles at k for every k E Z. (2k)! k=l hence cot z has poles of order 1. having residue 1.. Its only poles are n. Let f(z) = 1r cot 1rz. with residue 1 at the points k1r for all k E Z. with period 1r. (18. having order 1 and residue 1. with period 1. n=l Proof: The function cot z = cos z / sin z is meromorphic.-1 ) hz=-+ n~= (18.. n27r2 . z->0 . and no other poles. by considering the difference g(z) = f(z). At z = 0: lim z->0 (t (z) . hence lim (f(z).h(z)) = g(O) = 0. n2 z z +n n . Then f(z) is a meromorphic function. we need the expansion in partial fractions of the cotangent function cot z.3). for lzl < 1r: 1 oo 22 k B2k cot z = . z2 . they are of order 1. For !z! < 1r: 1 00 1 cot z = . 18.14) ( ( ) z .z2k-l z L_.z2 . for n E Z. ~Z ) = 0 and lim (h(z)- z->0 ~) Z = 0. n::.. Now we introduce the function 1 00 2z 1 =-+ 00 -1. We shall compare the functions f(z) and h(z)..

(z + n) 2 + (z. Thus g(z) is a constant and since g(O) = 0. z n 21r 2 . showing that g'(z) = 0 for lzl < 2. n=l Hence. + . sin 2 1rz L + n=-oo (z + n) 2 · In particular. lzl<2 If lzl < 2 then lz/21 < 2 and l(z + 1)/21 < 2.374 18.2 + ""' ---'----------'---~ sin 1rz z ~ (z.n)2(z + n) 2 7r2 1 00 [ 1 1 ] = . Let M = sup lg'(z)l. Therefore the entire function g'(z) = 0 for every z E <C.z 2 n=l .= .sin 2 1rz + z 2 + .. then g(z) = 0 for every z E <C. hence lg'(z)l ~ ~ {jl(~)l +jl(z. for z/2 and (z + 1)/2: g' ( z.-2- 2 sin 1rz +4 00 ""' n~oo (z 1 + n)2 = 4g'(z).n)2 7r2 00 1 = . for lzl < 1r: L • 1 00 1 cot z = . Therefore f(z) = h(z) for every z E <C..1)1} ~~ Thus M ~ M/2 hence M = 0.-2. 1) 7r2 cos 2 (1rz /)+ 2 4 " ~ 00 " n=-ex> 1 (z + 2n + 1) 2' Hence '(z) g - 2 +g '(z+1) 47r2 . Thus 1 00 2z 1r cot 1rz = - z + ""' ~ z 2 -n 2 . for lzl < 1r: ' 7r2 1 oo 2(z2 + n2) g (z) = . Bernoulli Numbers By differentiating termwise the series for g(z). 2z .

(2k) ~.2 Loo (.::: 1: (18.. the function zeta appears: H.17) (( 4) = f n=1 ~4 (18. k=1 z2k-1 1r • And now we derive Euler's famous expression for ((2k) in terms of Bernoulli numbers.(2k) = (-1)k.. ' B4 = . (18.2z LL n=1k=0 (n7r)2k+2.3) and (18. Algebraic Properties 375 In the next result.1 )k2 2kB2k = _ 2 ((2k) (2k)! 7r2k hence • (27r )2k (.2z z oo L k=O 1r z2k 2k+2 ( Loo n=1 1 n 2k+2 ) 1 = -z .. the coefficients of z 2k.15).1. Euler gave the values of the sums (( 2) = f n=1 ~2 (18. . 18. Fork. interchan- ging the order of summation gives 1 cot z = .(2k) ------zk.. taking into account that B2 = i.1 in both series are equal (. 310 ' 1 42' etc.2"""""' (.13): 1 oo oo z2k cot z = . For lzl < 1r: 1 00 2k-1 cot z = .1 2 ( 2k)! B2k· Explicitly.::: 1.18) . I.15) z L. For every k .16) Proof: It is enough to compare (18. Since the above double series converges absolutely for izl < 1r. 7r2k k=1 Proof: From 1 Hence by (18.

It is now easy to determine the signs of the Bernoulli numbers.376 18. k~oo (2k)N Proof: (1) If 1 < s < s' are real numbers then ((s) > ((s') > 1 and limS-->oo ( (s) = 1. Hence from (I).1) IB2kl > 6(2k + 1) \B2k-21 and if k 2 4 then IB2kl > IB2k-2l· (3) Asymptotically.2 < 6(2k + 1)12(2n) 2k. if k 2 2: 2(2k)! 2(2k)! (2k)! (2n)2k < IB2kl < (2n)2k ((2) = 12(2n)2k-2 because ((2) = n 2 j6. (2) By (1). Fork 2 7 we have k(2k.2)! 6(2k + 1) 2 k. Concerning the absolute values of the Bernoulli numbers.4 2(2k)! I I < (2n)2k < IB2k ' since n 4 j32 (2k + 1) < 2.1) IB I k(2k.19) and so on. if k. 4.:::: 3 then k(2k. as k tends to infinity 2(2k)! k ) 2k IB2kl rv -- (2n ) 2 k rv 4hk ( -ne ( 4) For every integer N .Also for k = 3. we have IB10\ = 656. IBd = 26i31o' . (2) If k 2 3 then k(2k. 5.:::: 1: lim IB2kl = oo.1)(2k. Bernoulli Numbers ((6) = f= ~6 n=l (1R. we prove: J. we give a new proof of part (2) of (B): Since ((2k) > 0 it follows from (I) that ( -1)k-l B2k > 0. (1) Ifk 2 2 then 2(2k)! (2k)! (2n) 2k < IB2kl < 12(2n)2k-2.1) > 6(2k + 1) hence IB2kl > IB2k-2l. 6.

For every integer k 2: 0 there exists a polynomial Sk(X) E IQ[X] with the following properties: (1) Sk(X) has degree k + 1. (2) (k + 1)!Sk(X) E Z[X]. e.. (18. These polynomials satisfy the recurrence relation: S 0 (X) = X and if e e.. Fork ~ 1 we have + . and constant term equal to zero. • 18. Algebraic Properties 377 "th 1 1 5 691 W1 42 < 30 < 66 < 2730 .4 Sums of Equal Powers of Successive Natural Numbers Now we shall study the sums "L:7= 1 jk. + +1.1. we have k ) 2k-N 4 vJrk ( 1re (27re )N ' thus lim k-->oo IB2k I (2k )N = oo. 18. (3) It follows from (I) that 2(2k)! IB2k I "' (27r )2k .21) Proof: (X +1)k+l_Xk+l = e e. (18. By Stirling's formula 2k (2k)! "' /2iiv2k ( 2ek ) .1. leading coefficient 1/(k + 1). (3) Sk(n) = "L:7= 1 jk for every n 2: 1.20) (4) By the above. . K. k 2: 1 then ~ 1 )sk(X) + 1)sk-l(X) + · · · + 1)s1(X) + So(X) = (X+ 1)k+l . l)xk-1 e: l)x The statement is true fork ~ l)Xk+ = 0.1.

(k + 1)!Sk(X) E Z[X]. .. (18. e: (X+ 1)k+ 1 . . and the recurrence relation (18.j') + ')s. Bernoulli Numbers Let n 2:: 1 be an arbitrary integer and let X be successively equal to 1. by induction e. we see that Sk(X) has degree k + 1.22) Proof: Let n 2:: 2 be an arbitrary integer. 2. 1 = ~ 1)sk(X) + 1)sk-l(X) + · · · + 1)s 1 (X) +X. we have. S1(X) = S2(X) = S3(X) = S4(X) = Ss(X) = S6(X) = S7(X) = Ss(X) = etc. n. leading coeffi- cient 1/(k + 1). Sk(n) = 1 jk 2. Adding up the relations so obtained..(k = ~ 1)B 1 Xk + Xk+ 1 e. Euler expressed the coefficients of Sk(X) (for k :::. • For example: So(X) =X.21) is satisfied.1)T)]. e: (n + 1)k+ 1 . then by induction on k._. . 1 ~e ~ 1) (t. 16) in terms of the Bernoulli numbers and he indicated how to compute the coefficients recursively L.378 18.(n) C f 1)s.:7= for every n 2:: 1. We consider the formal power series in the indeterminate T: U(T) = k!T[1 + exp(T) + exp(2T) + · · · + exp((n. no constant term. For every k 2:: 1: (k + 1)Sk(X) . 1)B2 Xk-l + · · · + e: 1)BkX.(n) + So(n) If Sk(X) E Ql[X] is defined by the relation e e.

B3 3 T +··· ) 1! 2! 3! n2T2 n3T3 ) x ( nT+ .23). .23) But Sk(n) = Sk(n-1)+nk for every n 2 2. 1)B2xk-l + . while the second part follows from jP.. 1)BlXk + c. S2k(P.. Thus Sk(X) = Sk(X -1) +Xk and since B 1 = . 18... + k! = Sk(n.1). 1)Blnk + e.Xk+l + (k +1 1)B 1 Xk + (k +2 1)B2 xk-l +···+ (k +k 1)B k X • (18. + k! n hence (k + 1)Sk(n.lf2k.1. p..~ then (k + 1)Sk(X) = xk+I.2) for the Bernoulli numbers.23) with X = 1. The first part follows from (18.24) if p. 1)BkX· • Writing (18.1] =k! ( B1 1+ -T+ B2T2 + - ..1/2k.1. 1)B2nk-l + .+···. 1)Bkn. we obtain the recurrence relation (18.1 = 1 (mod p) when 1 :::..1) = -1 (mod p) (18. On the other hand U(T) = k!T ( \ ~ e::~~~)) = k! ( exp(. c. Since this holds for every n 2 2.) _ 1 ) [exp(nT).. + e.. j :::. Let us note the following congruences: _ { 0 (mod p) if p.1) -. then (k + 1)Sk(X.- 2! + -3!. By comparing the coefficients of yk+I we have nk+l B 1 nk B2 nk-l Bk ) Sk(n..1) = nk+l + e.1) = k! ( (k + 1)! + 1T kT + 2f (k. Algebraic Properties 379 The coefficient of yk+l is equal to 1 2k (n-1)kl k! [ k! + k! + . + c.1)! + .

' + (~ G~) 2 i '. let k uk = :L::u. which was discovered by Euler.25) For even integers 2k.j. formula (18. . For every k = 1. u2. (18. . i=l Then n n UnVn = L(u1 V 1 + VjUj).27) j=l j=l Proof: n UnVn = L U.. 5 Quadratic Identities We shall give here a quadratic relation satisfied by Bernoulli numbers.1..X ( 18.x'•+') + B. _1_ + 2k 1 (2k + 2j 1) B 21 x2k+l-2j = _1_ ( 2k +1 2k 2k+1 ) + 1 . Then (18. ..380 18. Bernoulli Numbers Formula (18. .c..2j B 21 ·X2k+l-2j = (2k) _1_ + 2i B 2i 1 2k - 2' X2i+l with i = k . + x.(X) c ~':.22) may be rewritten as follows: xk+l Sk(X) = k + 1 xk +2 (k) + 21 1 B2xk-l 1(k) +4 3 B4xk-3 + ···+ 1 (k) k _ 1 k _ 2 Bk-lX 2 + kl(k) k _ 1 BkX.. (18. and let U = {u1.26) follows at once from (18. un}.j=l n n j=l j=l . Let n :::0: 1.26) Indeed. 1 B... n.Vj i.. v2.22). 18. . Vn} be sequences of elements in an integral domain containing Z... Lemma 1.25) becomes S..2j B 21 x2k+l-2j = (2k) 2j 2k + 1 1 . L UjVj. . V = {v1 .

Let k 2': 1. 18. . n. By (18. j=l By the above lemma n Sk(n)Sh(n) + sk+h(n) = L[jkSh(j) + jhSk(j)]. U!Vl I U1Vzl u1v3l U1V41 UzVl uzvzl UzV3 uzv4 I U3V1 U3V2 U3V3 u3v41 U4V1 U4V2 U4V3 U4V4 I • We give first the following expression for the product of the polynomials Sk(X).. and n L u1 vj = sk+h(]) for j = 1. j=l We compute now the right-hand side. when n = 4) by arranging the products as indicated below and adding according to the different sectors. h 2': 1.22): . Algebraic Properties 381 This may be easily seen (for example.. 2. Then Proof: Let n 2': 1 and consider the sequences Then U1 = Sk(j). Sh(X): M. Vj = Sh(j). .1.

it follows that S.(n)].29) hence (18. j 2: 3. n in the above relation.. whichever is odd). 1)B. j=2 J Noting that B 1 =. . ~.-..S2k+. S2k-3(X). k = 2 gives the formula of Djamchid ben Massoud (1589) which was rediscovered by Fermat (1636): (18. Taking h = 1. 2. 1)B. Sko(X)} (where ko = k + 1 or k + 2. 1) BjSk+h+l-j(n). Several special cases had been known (18.(n)] + h: I [ Sh+w(n) + t.382 18.. ~ k: 1 [s•+'+'(n) + (k. (18. This holds for every n 2: 1. (k.31) fork > 1.1 (X).32) . Sin.(X)J' ~ k! I [s2kH(X) + t.(X)l (18.31) means that each [Sk(X)] 2 belongs to the Q-vector space generated by {S2k+l(X). c.(n)Sh(n) t. .30) As a particular case. we note [S. . • Here are some special cases. 1)B. Bernoulli Numbers Let X be equal to 1. . S2k. adding up the relations so obtained By interchanging h and k: + Lh (h +.Sh+kH-. hence the statement is proved.Sh+w-.. Bi = 0 for j odd.

39) for k 2: 1. N. )!h BkBh ~ 2(k ~I) [(h + k + I)Bh+k + (k.33) [S3(X)f = ~ [S7(X) + Ss(X)].37) and t.1..Ss(X)]..B. (18. h 2: 1.I)BjBh+k-jl ( 18. (18. The second one is obtained by comparing the coefficients of x2.38) Proof: Equating the coefficients of X on both sides of (18. then (18.36) From the above relations between the polynomials Sk(X). (18. then (2m+ 1)B2m + m-1( L 22m) B2jB2m-2j = 0.S7(X)]. C' :~ )(h 1 + k + j . (18.35) [Ss(X)] 2 = i [2S11(X) + 5Sg(X).34) (this formula is due to Jacobi): [S4(X)] 2 = 1 15 [6Sg(X) + 10S1(X)._. + 1) (2k. e. (18. it is easy to obtain quadratic relations between Bernoulli numbers. l As a special case Bi ~ k: I [(2k + I)B. 1 + k +I. The following relation was found by Euler: 0.28) yields the first identity. If k. Algebraic Properties 383 [S2 (X)] 2 = ~ [2S5 (X) + S3(X)]. 18. If m 2: 2.j)BJBh+Hl + 2(h I+ 1) [(h + k + I)Bh+k + t.40) j=1 J .j + I)B. (18. • t.

2j)B2jB2m-2j· (18.42) j=1 J Subtracting (18. (2m_ 1) B2jB2m-2j m- 1 2j since B 8 = 0 for s odd.41) j=1 J l Applying again (18. 18. h = 1 gives.38) with k = 2m.1) 0 = 2 ~ 2. then 0 = (2m+ 1)mB2m + ~1 (~rr:) (2m.2. gives 1 0 = 2m_ [ 1 B2m + j. B2jB2m-2j· j=1 J Multiplying with 2m and noting that 2m ( 2m- 2j 1) = (2m) 2j (2m .-2 (2m+ 1)B2m.1B 2 k > 0 fork ~ 1. 2 X hence 0 = (2m+ 1)(m + 1)B2m + ~1 (~rr:) (2m+ 1.42) gives the relation of the statement. . Much less can be said about the numerator.37) with k = 2m-2. We shall prove an important theorem about the denominator. Bernoulli Numbers l Proof: Applying (18. (2m+ 1 .2 Arithmetical Properties In this section we study the arithmetical properties of the rational numbers B 2 k. since B 2 m_ 1 = 0: 1 0 = 1 " ' (2m) [ (2m+ 1)B2m + m.2j).384 18.1. .2j)B2jB2m-2j 2x2m ~ ~ j=1 1 + .1 The Denominator of the Bernoulli Numbers We recall the following terminology. h = 1.41) from (18. s ~ 3. 18. • It is possible to use this identity to derive a new proof that ( -1 )k. Thus 2m + 1 B2m + ~1 (2m .2j)B2jB2m-2j· ( 18.

that when p. D 2 k are relatively prime nonzero integers and D 2 k > 0.J-1 [k L k . J + (k + 1)k = o. then we define the congruence modulo m.1lk.1lk.1)th root of 1 in Zp (ring of p-adic integers). Arithmetical Properties 385 If r = ajb. (18. (18. and p is any prime then {3 k +~ L a k-1 Pa + ~ ~ (k). { k f3k = (18.. s E Q. with a.1fk.. that is. m E Z.43) when p. (D). we say that m divides r when m divides a. a=1 j=2 J + . if m is a nonzero integer. N2k is the numerator and D2k is the denominator of the Bernoulli number B2k· The important theorem of von Staudt and Clausen describes completely the denominator D2k. It was proved in Chapter 17. If r.2. (B)) that if p is any prime. v Bk+1-J 1 . .. Clearly Z = n p prin1e ZpZ· For every k 2': 1 we write where N 2 k.s. For every k 2': 1. p.p +1 when p. .44) pBk. the unique (p. we define Bk when p.1fk.45) . b) = 1. by saying that r = s (mod m) when m divides r . pk Lemma 2. such that p does not divide b. If p is any prime number. we denote by Zp. 18. b nonzero integers. 2. such that Wa = a (mod p). If k 2': 1.1 there exists Wa. m =/= 0. We begin by recalling (Chapter 17. We write Wa = a + PaP with Pa E Zp. gcd(a.z the ring of all rational numbers r = ajb (as above) which are p-integral. for every a = 1.

(1) If p 2: 3 and k 2: 1 then fJk E ZpZ· Moreover. and let Sj = ]o + J1 + · · · + Jh 2: 1. J k+1-J J=l after noting that k: 1(k!: ~ j) k+ ~.23). we have ~ + tr} (~) [ Bk+l-1. k+1 .1 > 3p . .1 .5 .. Section 2. then vp(p/2!) = 1. if p. . By Chapter 17. k 2: 1. Now we prove: P. we compute some p-adic values. ::. j = 2. j > 2.1 = 2 . 2: If j 2: 2. then Vp (Tp1-1) > 1.j C)._ _J j-s p-1 p .1 divides k.386 18.43) and (18. 2 p-1 p-1 . Lemma 3.44) and dividing by pk we obtain the relation of the statement. 0 ::.1 . = j . p. we have. If pis a prime.1. p-1 p-1 Thus if p > 2. then Vp ( k(:: 1)) 0. let j = ]o + J1P + J2P 2 + · · · + JhPh.Vp(j!) = j . for j > 2: Vp (p1-l) J.2j + ___2__ . • Before proving the next result. with h 2: 0. j. if p > 2. On the other hand. Bernoulli Numbers Proof: p-1 p-1 L w~ = L(a + PaP)k a=l a=l = ~ [ak + G)ak-lPaP+···+ C)ak-jPa 1 rJ+···+p~pk]· By (18.= Using (18. then pBk + 1 E p'ZpZ· (2) If k 2: 1 then 2Bk E Z 2z and 2Bk + 1 E 2Z2z when k = 1 or k is even.

. j 2': 2. as in part (1).!_(k) k j 2 k+1-j Bk+I-j j belongs to Z 2 z.k!_ (k).1 divides k +1.~ E zp'L· We proceed by induction on k... In order to show that 2Bk E Z 2z it suffices to prove. . . j then by induction Bk+I-i p. The result is true when k = 1 and we proceed by induction. k. . For this purpose. and we need to show that vp(f3k) 2': 0 for k 2': 2. j) Since pf(k +1.45). If p . j then by induction Bk+I-j k +1_ j = f3k+I-j E Zpz.. so aj E Zp'L· If p . p -1. .j-1 ( 1' p(k p- +1- 1 j) while then pBk + 1 E pZp'L· (2) If p = 2 the proof is similar.2. As already indicated when p > 2..k!_ (k) j . . that each summand a= J . we have vp(ak-IPa) 2': 0.. Arithmetical Properties 387 Proof: (1) If k = 1 then f3I = BI = . k.1 does not divide k +1. j p(k +1. then aj = .1 = f3k+I-i E ZpZ· k +1. It remains to consider the summands a J = .. 18. for j = 2.. .J-l j jJ Bk+I-j k+1-j' where j = 2.. we compute the p-adic values of the summands in (18. For each a= 1. if j > 2. j).

lf2k then q =J 2 and.1) (mod m 2 ). then B2k + Lp-ll 2k 1/p E Zqz for every prime q such that q . • It is now easy to obtain the theorem of von Staudt and Clausen (1840): Theorem 1.1 divides 2k.z. Let k 2: 1. Thus.1 does not divide 2k then pB2k S2k (p .388 18.j + 1) 2Bk+l-j/(k + 1.1) =: 0 (mod p). by (18. p-ll2k (2) The denominator of B2k is the product of distinct primes p. while if p. Let k ::::0: 1. by induction. by (P). B 2 k + 1/q E ZqZ· Since 1/p E Zq. We have the following congruences: • Q. 2f3k E Z2z.45).1) · · · (k .1 divides 2k then pB 2k =-1 (mod p). In particular. (2) Ifm ::::0: 2 then mN2k = D2kS2k(m.1l2k then. (1) If pis a prime and p.z. Proof: (1) If p.1l2k then by Theorem 1: B2k = m. fJ2k = B2k/2k E Zqz so B2k E Zq.z p-ll2k p (because each prime p above is different from q). Thus B2k + 2:: -1 E nZq.z and therefore B2k + L -1 E Zq.z when p is a prime distinct from q. If q. ~ p L q#p ~ q q-ll2k . In particular. hence S2k(P. hence 2Bk = 2k(3k + 1 E Z2Z· If k = 1 or k is even then 2Bk + 1 = 2kf3k + 2 E 2Z 2 .1l2k. by induction it belongs to Z 2 .z = z.1) = (mod p 2 ). Bernoulli Numbers For j = 2 we have o:2 = 2Bk-l E Z 2. Similarly. namely those such that p . by (P). if j > 2 then o:1 is a multiple of (k . p-ll2k p q (2) The second assertion is now immediate. Proof: (1) Let q be an arbitrary prime. 6ID 2k.1 divides 2k then pB2k = S2k(P. Then: 1 (1) B2k + 2:: 1' prillH' - p E Z.j) hence.z.1) (mod p). if p . If q .

noting that 3 divides D 2 k and D 2 (k-i) then 3:::::.1) . so pB 2 k = -1 (mod p). vp(2i + 1) + 1.23) we have hence D 2k S 2k (m .: 1/q)]. vp(A) = vp(A') s.1 :::::. hence pa. Since p 2f D 2 (k-i).2 = 2i. The rational number in brackets is p-integral. which contradicts the above inequality. A' we have. with pfr. .2 E Z..2.1) s. If p = 3. We write A = di D 2k N 2(k-i)m 2i-l and A' = Ci (2i + 1)D2(k-i)' so A= A'. by Theorem 1: 2i = 1 + (2i. di E Z. a 2: 2 we have a + 3 < pa.(2:". m) = 1. If p 2: 5 or if p = 3.m 2 k "'"' (2k) D2k 2i+l +~ 2i 2i + 1 B 2 (k-i)m so 2k S 2k (m . We shall prove that gcd(di. Vp(2i + 1) =a.mN2k = . and we write 2i + 1 =par. 18. 2i +1= 1+1 + (2i. v 3 (A) = v 3 (A') = v3 (2i + 1) + 1 = 2 . a 2: 1. by Theorem 1. 1) :::::.. We wish to prove that the right-hand side is an integer. di) = 1.-. multiple of m 2. If p is a prime dividing both di and m.2 :::::. Taking the p-adic values of A.m N 2k = -m 2 ( -2-m 2k-2) l D D2k +m 2 8 [ k 2k D2k (2i) 2i + 1 B2(k-i)m 2i-l . (2) By (18. Hence pB2 k + 1 = p[m. with ci. a = 1. D2k 2k 1 ) . then pfci. p divides 2i + 1. Arithmetical Properties 389 where m E Z. par. Let B2(k-i) 2i-l ci D 2 k 2i + 1 m = di ' i = 1. gcd(ci. 'k. Since 2 divides D 2 k and k 2: 1 then (D 2k/2)m 2k.

Bernoulli Numbers so we again reach a contradiction.1) = mN2k (mod m 2 ). Thus. gcd(x. Proof: If p = 2..1. y. . So D2kS2k(m. .1 = .I. + 1) T pl-1 E Zpz.2. because ~i-1) Vp ( -J. The last assertion follows at once. a=1 j=2 J J p2k + (2k + 1)2k -0 . By Lemma 2: (3 + p-1 "'"'a2k-1 +"'"' 2k _. . which is classical. X y where x.2 The Numerator of the Bernoulli Numbers We shall now consider divisibility properties of the numerator of Bernoulli numbers. y) = 1.390 18. ift 2 1. p. p 2 k /((2k + 1)2k) E Zpz and also 1 (2k) -1 2k j P' = (2k.. V = J . z E Z and gcd(m. k = 1. 1- J- p-1 Sj ::::: 0. l Now let p 2 3 or p = 2.1) · · · (2k.' where Pa E Zpz for a = 1.. andpt divides 2k thenptiN2k· Proof: By (P). k = 1 then t = 1 and 2 does not divide the numerator of B 2 + ~ .1. 2k L Pa L 2k .1l2k and ptl2k then pt divides the numerator of B2k + 1/p. k 2 2. v 2k + 1 .~ . p.1). The results are much less conclusive than for the denominator. lfp -1f2k. The first fact. Ijt 2 1. f32k = B2k/2k E ZpZ· Since Pti2k then PtiN2k· • The next result is due to Carlitz (1953): S. • 18.J . except when p = 2. we have shown that D2kS2k(m. is a trivial consequence of (P): R. y) = 1..J-1 [ B2k+1-j + p-1 ~ a2k-j Pi. using Theorem 1 and the above congru- ence.!__ ( 2k ) .mN2k = m z 2 + m 2 -. So m 2 (x/y) E Z and this implies that y = 1. As was indicated after Lemma 2. .

k. Proof: so N2kDbk = 2kD2kN~k· If pjD2k then pf N2k so pjD.1) (2 2/3! )B2k.1. • The next result is due to von Staudt.k.1 + 1/p.1) · · · (2k . pl-1 a1 = (2k. If k ~ 1 and pis a prime then pjD2k if and only ifpiD.1 B2k+1-J . by (P). J. J + 2) . If k ~ 1 consider the decomposition k = k1k2 with k1 ~ 1. By (R). if pjDbk then pf N~k· If pf D2k then.. as was shown after Lemma 2. k2 ~ 1 and such that the prime factors of k dividing k 2 are precisely those which divide D2k· Then k 1 divides N2k· .j If p ~ 3.p +1 . J 2k j jJ 2k + 1 . which is a contradiction. If j = 3 then a 3 = (2k .J. U. 2 kp E Zpz.1 = 0 E Z 2 z. 18. finally. If p = 2 and j ~ 4 then a 1 E Z 2z since 2 divides (2k -1 )(2k. pfr.1 /j!) ~ 1. Then: T.1 f2k and by the above relation pl2k. Conversely. If p ~ 3. Arithmetical Properties 391 Let a = 2_ (2k). say 2k = ptr. p . with t ~ 1. Thus. • The following result was given explicitly by Frobenius in 1910: We write where N~k' D~k are relatively prime integers. hence . D~k > 0.2. hence pt divides B2k . in all cases. Dj E ZpZ· We deduce that f32k _ pB2k ..2 E Z 2z and. if j = 2 then a 2 = B 2 k.2) · · · (2k- j + 2). j ~ 3 then vp(pJ. ptjN2k· Hence pt+ll2kD 2 kN~k' so pt+ 1 12k. by (P). because k ~ 2. j = 2 then a2 = (p/2)B2k-1 = 0 (when k ~ 2) or a2 = -p/4 E Zpz (when k = 1). B2k+1-J E Zpz.

. S2 (X).. is quite useful from the practical point of view. k 2 = 1. . are known to have a period p -1..1. on the other hand. are related to B 2 k/2k.. .integral rational numbers and S1(X).. Sn(X) E S then a1S1(X) + · · · +anSn(X) E S..392 18. . then L~=l ahSh(X) is still a power series. a 2 . For this purpose we consider the set S of all formal power series 00 S(X) = " " ck xk Lk! k=O with the following properties: (1) each Ck is a p-integral rational number. Proof: The idea of the proof is to consider a formal power series whose coefficients. (b) If a 1. if k = 22 then k 1 = 11. Then pfD2k sop. Since ptl2k. since it allows us to reduce the index of the Bernoulli number by multiples of p . Bernoulli Numbers Let p be any prime dividing k1 and let pt (with t 2 1) be the exact power of p dividing k 1.3 The Congruence of Kummer The following congruence.1 f2k then Bzk 2 k (mod p). are p-integral rational numbers. . E Sand they have order o(Sh(X)) 2 h (for every h 2 1). (c) If a is a p-integral rational number then a E S. if S 1(X). pt divides N 2 k. by (R). first proved by Kummer in 1851. V. (d) If n 2 1 then k L 00 exp(nX) = ~! xk k=O belongs to S. If p is a prime and p. This shows that k1l Nzk. • For example. We note the following easy facts: (a) If a 1 . because n 2 k+p-l =n 2k (mod p) for every k 2 1. and 17 divides N 3 4 = 2 577 687 858 367. taking k = 17 then k 1 = 17. reduced modulo p. 18.2. and which. . which belongs to S. Similarly. and 11 divides N44 = -27 833 269 579 301 024 235 023. an ( n 2 1) are p. k 2 = 2..lf2k. (2) C2k+p-1 =c2k (mod p) for every k 2 1...

1 = Y. X .Y = where 1 g 1 T(Y)- +(. Let S(X) .. (c).(1 + Y)Y. + (-1)m belongs to S. because (exp(X) . Hence. y· Since (1/g) (. k! · k=O Let exp(X) . gX X X T(Y) .1) a2k-1 (2k)! (2k. Now.1 = a2k-I· ..).. (1/g) (. L Ck(exp(X).1)k = L 00 00 T(Y) = a~ xn k=O n=O n.).1 exp(X) .1) Xk .) exp((m.1 . belongs to S.1)! ' hence B2k ( 2k ) 2k g . gX . so exp(gX) = (1 + Y)Y hence S(X) . ~ Bk(gk.1)m = exp(mX). by (b) above.1)k has order k. we have B2k(g 2k . 1/g are p-integral._. 1 < g < p.1 ..)Y +···+Y g . let g be a primitive root modulo p. 18. (7) exp((m.exp(gX) . and (d). 1 y gY 2 9 . Arithmetical Properties 393 (e) If m ~ 1 then (exp(X).2.1)X) + (.2)X). by long Euclidean division where each coefficient Ck is p-integral. This follows from (a). Comparing the coefficients of X 2k in the two expressions of S(X) X · T(Y). (1 + Y)Y . L.

7. 5.2. Hint: Apply (0). If p #. 1. 2 then p. k-1 k-2 k k-1 . Calculate Sk(X) for 9 -<::: k -<::: 12.1 . 4.1 2k (mod p). But p.394 18. by (V): B2p _ Bp+l B2 1 2p . Show. 6.lf2k hence g2k = g2k+p-l ¢. Show that if k > 1 then 2B 2 k =1 (mod 4). since p. Show.( k )Bk-1X 2 + ~ ( k )BkX. • We easily obtain the corollary: W. for each k 2: 1: ( 2k 2+ 1) B2k + (2k 4+ 1) B2k-2 + · · · + (2k2+k 1) B2 = 1 2. Give a new proof that ( -1 )k-l B2k > 0.1 cJ. Bernoulli Numbers From a2k-l =a2k-l+p-l (mod p) it follows that B2k+p-l 2k + p. Calculate Bk for k -<::: 20. for k 2: 1: xk+-1 + -xk + -1 Sk(X) = - k+1 2 2 1 (k) B2X k-l + -1 4 3 (k) B4X k-·l· +···+ . Show that for every k 2: 1: ( 2k 2+ 2) B2k + (2k 4+ 2) E2k-2 + · · · + (2k +k 2) B2 2 = k.p + 1 2 12 (mod p) so 6N2p =pD2p (mod p 2 ). 3. 2.1 g ( 2k+p-l _ 1) = B2k 2k g ( 2k _ 1) (mod p).1f2p. Hence. • EXERCISES 1. Proof: Indeed. 1 (mod p). 3. then 6N2p =pD2p (mod p2 ). so B2k+p-l B2k 2k + p.

7re Hint: Use Stirling's formula k k! = ~ ( ~) eOf12k. 11. Show that for every k ~ 1 and every prime p: pB2k = S2k(P) (mod Zzp)· 15. Exercises 395 8. 9. j=1 J Hint: Use the fact that sin x = tan x · cos x (for lxl < 1r /2) and the Taylor series for these functions. q. Show that s(p-1)/2 ( p. q) = (1. [Sk(X)] 2. Show that. r. Let p. Calculate ((2k) for 1 ::. 13. .. 14.1)B2j . . 1) and (m. then (k. k::.. Show that 10 a (exp(X)) =X ~ _1_ "' X 2 + k=1 L (2k)! 12.2k = 0. 2) X B(p-1)/2 (mod p). S 2 k+ 1 (X) may be written in a unique way as a linear combination with natural coefficients of [S1 (X)] 2 . 1) =2 ( (~) . Show that and that k < IB2k l 112 k. [S2(X)] 2. where 0 < e < 1. Let p be an odd prime. for every k ~ 1. 2) or vice versa. Show that if for all n ~ 1. p) = (3. 10. Prove the recurrence relation k L (~~)2 2j(2 2j . m be positive integers. 10. .

1) (p 2 .396 18.1) and let n be an integer such that n = 1 (mod k).. Show that the numerator N 2 p of B 2 p has a prime factor p 3 (mod 4)." ' k ( 2k ) . Show that if k is odd then 4 (2 2 k . 1) B 2k/2k is an integer. 18. 2! 4! (2n)! Prove the recurrence relation for Euler numbers E2n + C. 2 23.E2 x2 + E4 x4 . Show that PI.2<p(m). . . 3 be odd and let k :. . 19. + ( -1) n E2n x2n + . Show that each Euler number E2n is an integer. 26. 17. Show that [m/2) 2(1 . Hint: Use Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions. Compute E 2 k for 1 ~ k ~ 10.... Show that for every even integer k there exist infinitely many even integers h such that Bk and Bh have the same denominator.:. 27.. 1.)E2 + C:)E4 + · · · + Cn 2: )E2n-2 + 1 = 0.2k)N2k =-2kD2k L j 2k-I (mod m).:. Let m :. Bernoulli Numbers 16. . Let p be a prime such that 2p + 1 is composite. 21. 2 25. Pr be primes greater than 3.1) · · · (Pr . Show that E2k = 1 ... j=I 22.) + C:) + ···+ Cn 2: ) + 1 (mod 2). X L 2J -1 j=I Hint: sec x = sin x ·tan x +cos x (for lxl < 1r /2). Show that if pis a prime number and p =1 (mod 3) then B 2 p has denominator equal to 6. Pr do not divide the numerator of B2n/2n. Show that the Euler numbers are odd and satisfy the congruence E2n = C. Let PI....:. The Euler numbers E 2 n are defined by the Taylor series of the secant function (for lxl < 1r /2): sec x = 1 . = 20. Show that if p is an odd prime and k :. 24. . 1 then E2k E2k+(p-I) (mod p) and E2p = -1 (mod p). let k = (PI .

E2k = -1 (mod 6) and E2k = E2k+4 (mod 10). Exercises 397 28. . Show that for every k ~ 1. Conclude that the Euler numbers have a last digit alternatively equal to 1 and 5.

A. pis called irregular. • Kummer proved the following facts about the class number h of K = IQl((): (a) The class number h+ of the real cyclotomic field K+ = IQl(( + ( . The following conditions are equivalent: ( 1) p is a regular prime. so we write h = h-h+.1 Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units Definition 1. but just the quotient of h by h +. y. where h. z are integers such that xn + yn = zn. (2) ---> (1) If p divides h. otherwise. note that h.is not a class number. thus IP is a principal ideal. An odd prime p is said to be regular if p does not divide the class number h of K = IQl((). sop divides the order h of Cl(K) and therefore p is an irregular prime. usually called Fermat's last theorem. the class of I in the class group Cl(K) has order p. 19. y. there exists an ideal I whose class has order p.is an integer called the relative class number. then I is a principal ideal. was proved true in 1995 by Wiles.19 Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents Around 1636 Fermat conjectured that if n ~ 3 and if x. Proof: (1) ___. This conjecture. The classical result of Kummer on Fermat's last theorem is the main object of this chapter. (2) If I is any nonzero fractional ideal of K and if IP is a principal ideal. since Cl(K) is an Abelian group.1 ) divides h. or z is equal to 0. (2) If I is not a principal ideal. 399 . but I is not a principal ideal. then x.

1 )th root of 1.2 ap (mod p 2 ). where rj denotes the image of TJ modulo Bp. (c) For each k = 2.3)/2 units 62 .1) = 1). We may choose a primitive root g modulo p such that gP. The index of V in the group u+ of units of K+ is finite and (U+ : V) = h+. Reducing modulo the ideal Bp. Let B denote the ring of integers of Q(TJ).1 =1 (mod p 2 ). .. [Q(TJ) : Q] = cp(p. b E Z. . We shall prove these results in Part Four. • Let TJ be a primitive (p . +~sm . 1 <::: g <::: p . . there exists g' such that g' =g (mod p) and g'P. 27r TJ = cos . We note that since bl = h-(2p)t.1)gP.p.1 27r . then g + ap has the required property.1. 1 <::: k <::: p.1)/2 let b _ sin ( k7r / p) k.1 then bl is independent of the choices of TJ and of g. If g is a primitive root modulo p.1 + (p. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents (b) h. we need the following: Lemma 1.TJk). where t = p...2.1 = gP. .3)/2. . They are multi- plicatively independent and generate an Abelian free multiplicative group V of rank (p. and cl>p-l(X) divides XP. cpp-1(X) = II(X.400 19. .= I'YI/(2p)t-1.rjk). The (p.2 ap = 1 + bp. (product over k. j=O and finally g is a primitive root modulo p. Before proceeding. Proof: If gP. sin(1rjp) ' so bk is a real positive unit of K. 2 p-1 p-1 p-2 G(X) = L gjXl. 1. (A)): B = Z[TJ]. . and gcd(k.1 . Chapter 27.1 ). . let a E Z and consider the congruence (g + ap)P.c-k bk = ~ .. Choosing a such that gP. (p.1. 2 are the circular units.2 a = b (mod p).is given by the following expression: h.gP. b(p.(k 1 .(-1.1). with 2 1. we have <i>p-l (X) f1(X. We recall that (see Chapter 16. Note also that g + ap = g.1 = 1 (mod p 2 ).1 = 1 + bp..

1 = I. gcd(k. this labeling depends only on the residue class g of g modulo p and on TJ. p divides T)d. • If T) is a primitive root of 1 of order p. (3) If P is any prime ideal of B dividing Bp. p. the primitive root of unity. such that P = p~:_·.1 and g is a primitive root modulo p.1. d < p . each of these prime ideals has norm equal top.p.2. TJ. Let e ?: 1 be the largest integer such that pe divides T) d .1). ry1 when 1 :::. gcd(l.1) = 1. Then 1 = TJ (r.. Proof: We show that fjd -=f. rj is a generator of lF P·.2. k:::. if g is any primitive root modulo p. 1 :::. k :::.1) = 1. Let g be a primitive root modulo p. g 1) (mod Bp). From TJ = gk" (mod Bp) with gcd(k 0 . p. 1 ::. for 1:::.1) = 1. Moreover. gcd(k.2.gT)k). each with norm equal to p.1 for some d. Otherwise.). k. j.1)th root ofl. Moreover. let P~g.grJk) with 1 :::.g 1). and T) any primitive (p. k 0 ::. l:::. so T) d = 1 + pe f3 (with f3 E B and p does not divide {3). p . i. gcd(k. it is possible to choose TJ. We shall now describe the prime ideals of B which divide Bp: C. j :::.1 =1 + (p-1)pe f3 (mod Bpe+ 1 ) hence pe f3 = 0 (mod Bpe+ 1 ) so p divides {3.e.ry) = Bp + B(1 . and k.1. a primitive (p .1.1. it follows from (B) that there exists k 0 . d < p. We note that P~g. such that T) = gko (mod Bp). k :::. ( 1) Bp is the product of tp(p .1. lEP(p-1) hence Bp is the product of the tp(p-1) distinct prime ideals Bp+ B(TJ.p-1) = 1.2. Proof: (1) We apply Kummer's theory of decomposition of ideals (see Chapter 11. 1 :::. 1 :::.1) = 1. gcd( k 0 . and k -=f.gk) with 1 :::.p.1 E Bp. namely Bp + B(TJ . p. TJ and only on the residue class g of g modulo p. p.TJk) = II (X. thus rj belongs to lF p· B. Therefore. it follows that <Pp-1(X) = II (X. (2) Given g. rjk -=f. p. which is a contradiction. Theorem 2).ry) depends on k. p-1) = 1. since p = 1 (mod p . p - 2.1)d = (1 +pe f3)P.p.gkok) kEP(p-1) kEP(p-1) II (X . 19. . TJd. Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units 401 We have rjP.1)th root of 1. I for every d. (2) The prime ideals of B dividing Bp may be labeled as follows: Pk (g.1) distinct prime ideals.ry) = Bp + B(1 .

p-2. k :::. l:::.1)th root of 1.).g17k E P.if and only if Bp divides the ideal generated by 1/Pt. k 0 :::. there is 17.1 as indicated before.p-1) = gcd(l. Conversely. p.if and only if there exists an integer k. 1 = G(17)G(17 3 ) · · · G(17P.1J) is one-to-one. Indeed.:> 2 k.1 (17. such that P = P~~·.3)/2. (3) Given P and g.1 ) then there exists k odd. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents We show that Pk = Pk 9 '1J) is a prime ideal.1) = 2. then Tj 1 = Tjk in JFP. p. (p. if P 2 divides BG(ryk) then P 2 / Bp divides B(G(17k)jp). then 1 _ gryk = 17 -1(7] _ gryk+1) =17 -1( 17 _ gl+ku(k+1)) = 17. D. • Our aim now is to characterize the regular primes.2 ). such that p 2 divides the sum p-1 S2k(p. p .g1) (mod Bp). so if J = Bp/P then P divides JB('Ijpt. Here is a first result. k :::. then p divides h.g17k). This implies that k = l. such that P 2 divides BG(17k).1J) = P/Ml then (1. So the mapping k f--+ P~g.1J). a (p.= h\/(2p)t.1 ). with 1 :::.g11f. that is. j=1 Proof: We choose a primitive root g modulo p. by (C). . such that gP. p divides h.g17P. P divides B(1 .1) prime ideals dividing Bp. Given any such prime ideal P.(1. k :::.1) = 1.2. as indicated before. so Thus if P divides B('l jpt.1 ). and P = P~g. then P divides B (1 / pt. gcd(k 0 . 1 :::.1 = 1 (mod this is possible by Lemma 1. gcd(k. k. 1 :::.1) = 1. and let P = P~g.if and only if each prime ideal P which divides Bp also divides B('l jpt. But. p.1 .2.1)th root of 1.2 ). p.g17k E P soP= P~~·i'l.1 ). Since h. as was stated. p. If1:::. Since Bp is the product of distinct prime ideals..p-1) = 1.2. gcd(k.2 = 1.2.g17 1) = g(17 1 . let 17 be a primitive (p.17k) E P and since g is a unit. and since P does not divide J. p divides h. Let 17 1 = 17-k then 1.402 19. with 1 :::. 1:::. p 2 ). Then 1 . SoPk = Bp+B(17-g 1) is a prime ideal of B. But there are exactly <p(p.l:::. if 17 = gk" (mod p). so the mapping is onto the set of these prime ideals. where!= 1+ko(k+1) (mod p-1).

P = p(g. g 1 . Hence %I.2 = 1 (mod P). Since p is unramified in B. p. 1 "'""gj(k+l) = ~ j=O gk+l. So gJ+I = gJ(k+l) + (k + 1)gjkpaj = gj(k+I) + (k + 1)gjk(gj .g1]P. p.g>'] (mod v') and since k + 1 =j.1 = f]~. Let gj = gJ + ajp (mod p 2 ) with aj E Z. . then P 2 divides 1 .2.2 } an d . But p. .4.Jj=O2 gjk+l . .ry) p-2 contains 1 . 4 and =1 (mod p gP-l 2 ). if P' is any prime ideal of B dividing Bp then P 2 divides B(I:~:o gjgJk) exactly when P' 2 divides B(I:~:~ gjglk). this means that p 2 divides 2:~:~ gjgjk. Now we express this sum in a different way.2 g(p-l)(k+l) . { g 0 . 9p. 1. 19.2 ) = L g11](p.)j = L(g1]P- 2 2 )j = p. 1 (mod p) when k :::.+' =o (k+ 1) [% g. = Therefore p-2 p-2 G(1Jk) = L 9]1Jjk =L 9]9jk (mod p2) j=O j=O and P 2 divides BG(17k) exactly when P 2 divides B(I:~:~ gjgjk).:6(1 . thus 977. Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units 403 Actually k :::.2 ). . Taking conju~ates.1 = -1 (mod P) j=O j=O since gj = gJ (mod p).gP. We shall express the above condition in a different way involving only rational integers. . B ut t he sets of mtegers . .g1]P. Since 1 .2 = 1 (mod P 2 ) hence g 7] (mod P 2 ). .1 g1]P.1 =0 (mod p 2) because gk+ 1 =j.2 ).g1]J for j < p .g17J) = 0 (mod p 2 ) and since P = P~f!_·:jl does not contain the elements 1 .2 we have I: ]=0 gj+l = (k + 1) [I: ]=0 gjgjk].kgj(k+l) (mod p 2 ). Indeed..2 . Adding these relations for j = 0. p. g1]P. 0 (mod p) then p 2 divides 2:~:~ gjgjk if and only 1'f p2 d'IVI'd es "'p- L. This shows that P does not divide BG(7]P. because P does not divide BG(7]P.k [I:]=0 gj(k+l)l (mod p2).2 ' therefore p-2 p-2 G(7]P.gj) = (k + 1)gjgjk..1.

(0).X-adic integers with trace zero (see Chapter 17. .. p. ~ (L). . still. (0). (p. p.. .1 ) = Lp(/5~. (P).404 19. (p . Since A. 1 . We recall that log/5~.X 2 . 2k :::.\)..3.4} or.if and only if p 2 divides pN2b that is. By Chapter 17. we have expressed the sums Sk(n) = 2::7= 1 jk in terms of Bernoulli numbers.. 3.. as well as the units.. c. N2k. we have the congruence D2kS2k(p. that 15~. p divides h. ) (p. F. D2k > 0. • In Chapter 18..then {log /jp-1 1 /jp-1 l /jp-1 } 2 . 15~- 1 1 = ~ 1 (mod A.c-k c 1.1) where k E {1. D2k are integers. k :::.1)/2). p divides N 2b for some k..1) where k E {2. .XP). So the condition becomes: p 2 divides L~=~ jk+ 1 = Sk+1 (p . Proof: By Chapter 17. Hence p divides h.if and only if p divides the n·urnerator of at least one of the Bernoulli numbers B2.1 ) = L aikP 2i (k = 2. we may write (p-3)/2 log( 15~.1} coincide because g is a primitive root modulo p. such that p 2 divides S 2 k (p -1)... (P)). . log(/5~. • Now we shall study the divisibility of h+ by the prime p.\ = Ap it follows ~ ~ from Chapter 17. . i=1 where each aik E Zp· It suffices to show that det( (aik )i. that if k = 2. p 2 divides Sk(p. .if and only if there exists k. From Chapter 17.k) is invertible in Zp.1)/2 (see Chapter 17. og 3 • · · ·. B4.. p divides h. . . (L).. 4.= 1 + o: where o: E A. (Q). 1 are the circular units. If p does not divide h. . Section 3. 2 :::. Let S be the Zv-module of all real . where B2k = N2k/ D2k.. p .. (0)). p.. By Chapter 18. og (p-1)/2 is a basis of the Zp-rnodule S.3. p .:}} . Bp-3· Proof: By (D). .. We may now derive easily: E. . and gcd(N2b D2k) =1.1 ) (mod A. .1) =pN2k (mod p 2 ). Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents { 1. 2. 2 :::. . We recall from Chapter 10.1) /2 then -J 15 k - 1- 1- ck .1 E S for k = 2.

k .P.1)p kp (p-k_1)-1 ~ x ( (p _ k)p (mod A.).1 ). ( 1 _ (k)( 1 _ c-k) ( .1 >.1)p 1) (k . .c-1 )k2 k . = p (mod A>. p .(.1)((1-1 + . we have also (i . = (. 1) p kp p (p-k)p By Chapter 17.1)p 1)p) -1) _L p ( Ep(kp)- kp 1) -LP (Ep((fp--k~~) . since). hence for any integer j = 1.\P.P.= 1.1 X ( (k . . JP jp p It follows from Chapter 17.. 2) then (( . (.1 ( p -p kp -kp = (.. . + ( + 1) .1 X ( (k . (L).c.P.1 X (P-1 .. 2 Hen~ 15/ = k 2P (mod AAP) ~nee p ~ = 0 (mod A>.()(1 ..1 X (-1 ..1 ((. ( . c-1 = (1 + ( + .1) p k p p +L p ( (P-1 - (p. + ck-1 )(1 + c1 + .. 19.. + c<k-1)) = k2 (mod A>. that L (152(p-1)) =L ( ( .1).1 = ->.1 ) and /52(p-1) = 15-2k2 = (1 . 1) +L p ( Ep((p- (p.). and Chapter 17.1. 1) (mod A>.1).P.1) -1 p (p.1 ) -1 X (-k -1 ).-k 15~ = 1-=-c .1 .1 ) since p = 0 (mod A>. Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units 405 But 1.1..1)/ p =1 (mod A>. . Lemma 4.1. But kP ~ =k (mod A>.1 ) -L ( . (K): (i. Since ( .(k 1 .1 jp Therefore Lp(l5~(p-1)) = Lp ( Ep(P} .).k .1 =1 (mod A>. 1 .-L ( (P.

(p-3)/2 B L ( P JP .1 == 1 (mod A. Lemma 4. k2.1). .. Hence (p-3}/2 B det((a. (C).1).1) ==log exp(i. .1 ) it follows that fori = 1. (L): (p-3)/2 lorr(8p-l) == L (8p-l) == b k p k "'"" ~ ~ (2i)! 2i (1. that L ( Ep(X)- P X 1) ==: X 2 (p-3)/2 + ~ "'"" ~ X2i (2i)! 2i (ord P .1)/2. k)p 2 (p-3)/2 + I: ( 2~~i 2 i {p2i + l(v _ 1)pJ2i _ (kp)2i _ l(v _ k)pJ2i} i=1 (p-3)/2 == "'"" 2B2. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents Since (Ep(X). ~ (2i)! 2i p i=1 Since {j~..406 19.A. by Chapter 17. It follows from Chapter 18.1 (ord p.1) == Lp ( exp(i.1). i=l .)p2. i=l From the unique expression of log( {)kP.k2i) 2i (mod .1)/X == (exp(X). . (mod .. 1)p + kp + (p.AP-1).1) then Lp ( EpCi.Av. •=1 Hence E (" ) 1) .P)2i (mod A.k)) = 11 ( 2i)! 2i 2i D. (1 .\2). (p. ==: JP + "'"" __ 2i_ (J. and Chapter 17.3)/2 and k = 2. (p.xr-1).. 3. .1)/X (ord p. p jp 2 ~ (2i)! 2i •=1 Therefore Lp(fJ~(p-1}) == p + (p.

let V be the subgroup generated by the circular units bk.. Then h+ = (U+ : V).1) 2) D = (1.1)p-3 1. by (E).3 1 . . Since p does not divide h-. (p. . as was already mentioned..'O(p-1)/2 II 1..'O(p-1)/2 (l + rn)(l. .3 1.3P.k2i). 1r D = det 1.. Proof: Let u+ be the group of real positive units of K. If p divides h+. .3 ) · · · 1.2 - e. Regular Primes and the Lemma of Units 407 where 1. 0 (mod p). for k = 2.'0/<m.(1. . Bp-3· Hence det(aik) =ft.( .2 )(1.. p does not divide the numerators of the Bernoulli numbers B2. rn) =ft. 0 (mod p). 19.. r 1 1 1 22 32 1 x det 24 34 1r II l. B4.1)/2.- 2 But D may be easily computed: from (1. . Therefore it is invertible in Zp.1)/2} also constitutes a basis of the Zv-module S.(p.1.'OI<m.k2(i-1)) = k2(i-1)(1. .. 2P. • Kummer proved the following important and rather surprising result: G. then p divides h-.k2) then 2 2 ( ( p.( p- -- 2 1) 4 p. (p. It follows that {log bf. (p .1 I k = 2.

j :::.0 since E is a unit. .1 I 2 'og bv- 3 1 I •P. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents If p divides h+ there exists E E u+ such that E ~ v but Ep E v. • The statements (E) and (G) together give Kummer's regularity crite- rion: Theorem 1. . ' (p. For a prime p > 2 the following statements are equivalent: (1) p is a regular prime. If p is a regular prime.\ 2 ) ~nd neces- sarily m' =1.. because E ~ V.\ =( . . k=2 We have plog(EP. k=2 with ak E Zp. This is a contradiction. (2) p does not divide h:. We have seen that log( EP..1 ) E S and log( b~..1)/2. So (p-1)/2 Ep = II D~' k=2 with integers ek not all multiples of p.1) = L ak log(b~.1 ) in K Let S be the Zv-module of all real >. Hence (p-1)/2 log(EP. . this is a combination of (E) and (G). so a0 = m' (mod Zpp) with m' E Z. Since p =-. where m E Z.. (p . and (3) p does not divide the numerators of the Bernoulli numbers B 2 . by (F): {Iog bv. p.1 . If p does not divide h-.. . 2). .1 ).. . ogu(p-1)/2 } is a basis of S. and therefore m = =m'(1 + jp) 1 2) E (mod A>. . . Then (p-1)/2 E(p-1)p = II (b~-1)e'. where E1 is a unit of K Proof: By Chapter 7. Comparing the above expressions.-adic integers with trace zero.1) = Lf:: 21)/ 2 ek log(bkP. 0 :::. pak = ek for k = 2. we have E = ( 1 E1 where E1 is a real positive unit. (F). By Chapter 17.1. • Now we prove Kummer's lemma on units: H. if E is a unit of K such that E =m (mod A)P.1 (mod A.1) /2.1 ).1 ) E S for k 2...408 19. Bv-3· Proof: As stated above. B4. then E = Ei'.\ 2 ) then (J =1 + jp (mod A>.. E 1 = a0 (mod A) 2 ) with a 0 E Zp. (0). Hence E1 = m' (mod A.

. Hence o: is real.A by Chapter ~+ 17.(!og(EP. (P). 19. with Ck E Zp.(o:) = TrKIQ. Taking 1 the traces.\ 2 ). o: = 2)..::21 )/ 2 Ck log(b~.Av. showing that E is a real positive unit. Definition 2. there exist integers s. so o: E S. Thus o: E A . we need to consider certain special elements of the cyclotomic field. Finally.\ is said to be semi-primary if there exists m E Z such that o: = m (mod A.v (where u+ is the group of real units and V the subgroup generated by the circular units). Thus p divides dk for every k.1 ) E S <:. Hence Ck E Zp n IQ = zp7L' so Ck = ckf ck' with c~' cJ: E Z. hence it does not divide n.1 ). so log(EP.. Thus there exists o: E A such that po: = log( EP.. k=2 So II (p-1)/2 6f-1)d.(o:) = 0. then n divides h+.2 Kummer's Theorem Before the statement and proof of Kummer's theorem.1 ) 0 = (mod . proving the statement. From EP.1 =mP. . by (F).1 ) we deduce that log(EP.1 ) = L dk log(b~. But Eisa real unit. we must have j = 0.1 )) = 0 by Chapter 17.2.. Since pfh-. (P). Since p is regular then p does not divide h+.1 ).1 ). From En E V we may write (p-1)/2 En = II 6~' with dk E Z. I. t such that 1 = sp + tn. (P). p not dividing cJ:.\P. • 19.). Kummer's Theorem 409 By Chapter 17. Since (U+ : V) = h+ as was mentioned before.1 = 1 (mod A. pTrKIQ. An integer o: E A\ A. k=2 By (F). So ~+ TrKIQ. Let n be the order of EV in the quotient group u+ . k=2 hence (p-1)/2 npo: = nlog(EP. npck = dk for every k. u+. With this definition we have: (1) Ifm E Z then m is semi-primary if and only ifpfm. So En = Eb where Eo E v <:. then E = E 8 pEnt = (E 8 Eb)P. since p does not divide n.

.\. (mod A.\ =0 (mod A. then 1 is semi-primary.A.1)+1I'Jj. 1.. h. A(3). so (ca is semi-primary.\ E (mod A.\ (3 =n (mod A. 8 E A. then (Pa = m (mod A. (1) If . then 2) a(3 rt. • The following preliminary result will play a key role in the proof of Kummer's theorem: J.\ E hence 1 is semi-primary. then (k = 1. then £(3 =£n =m = E a (mod A.\ 2 ).. Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents (2) If a E A \A. (3 rt. a(31 cJ 0 and assume that aP + (3P + IP = 0.\P. and there exist ideals Jo.\ 2 ) with m. m. (3 E A \A>.\. and conversely. Let a..\ =m (mod A.A. (5) Let (k =m (mod A.\ (since A. m .. .\ 2). (3) If a =m (mod A.:::: 1) is semi-primary.410 19.\m.\ (3 =n (mod A..\) =m + (n.\ and a = m + n. If£ Z is such that £n =m (mod p).1.k. . = 1. n E Z. then a(3 is semi-primary and there exists(! E Z such that 0 :::. £ :::. 1.\ because Ap (A.\ 2 ). semi-primary.\mP. let m' Z be such that m'm = 1 (mod p). then for all k = 0.\ 2 ). m :f:- 0 (mod p).\fr. if£ E Z is such that £m = n (mod p). then pfm.\fa(38. Jo :::..£. with m Z. then m rt. bE A.m£). (2) IfaP+(3P = EbP. £(3 a (mod A. . if I' = gcd(Aa. whereE E U.\).\) hence k =0 2 ). (4) Clearly 1 rt. from £m n (mod p) = then (ca =(1. . .\ is a prime ideal) and a(3 =mn (mod A. p.. 2 ). 0 :::. .\ 2 ). then there exists an index Jo. = ( 4) If a.. (3 are semi-primary.\ 2 ).\)I' Jf for j # Jo.:::: 1.\ 1) so k =0 (mod A.\2 ). then 2 ). and k. 1 E A.\fa(3b. with a. so (ca is semi-primary. A( a+ (j (3) = (A. .\ (mod A.\)k =1. Proof: (1) If m is semi-primary.A.1 there exists an ideal Jk of A such that A(a + (k(3) = Jfl. (mod p) and (k = 1. hence m =1 (mod p). since A.\.\)P- 2 ). then m. p . (mod A. . if 1 E A is such that a1 = (3.p -1).\)(m + n. Therefore m =1 2 ).:::: 1. Jp-1 of A such that A(a + (j"(3) = (A.:::: 2. p. (2) Now(£ = (1 . (3) If a. Then m'n = m'(3 = m'a1 =m'm1 =1 (mod A. where I= gcd(A(a + (J(3) I j = 0. ( 5) If (k (with k .A. Then m =(1. If a =m (mod A.\ so a(3 is 2 ). are semi-primary..\/ = 1 -D. (3. (3) If 1 = b. .\)P(m.\ so m =1 (mod A.\ n Z = Zp. pfm.1.

. .. (i[J) with pairwise relatively prime ideals A(a.\P+ 1) and (JP = bP (mod A. and then so ((j _ (k){J = (j(1 _ (k-j){J E pe. it follows that A(a + (i[J) = JP for i = 0. Proof: (1) Write p-1 -"(P = aP + [JP = IT (a+ (k{J). Then aP = aP (mod A.. J1. But 1. so peiA. e ~ 1. .1 are pairwise relatively prime and not multiples of A. Indeed. Also ((k.(k-j rv 1.\P+ 1).A · Aa. contrary to the hypothesis..\P(t::f5P + f. (2) Multiplying a.. . . 1.Af'Y.\f Ji.\. Kummer's Theorem 411 and the ideals J 0 .\ divides Tif~~ (a + (i {3) = A"(P.p. k=O First we show: If j < k then gcd(A(a + (i {3).1. . ... if Pis any prime ideal.. (i[J). Hence TI From (~'Y)P = A(a. {3 with roots of unity.p. ... 19. with f1 E A. Suppose m = 1.(i)a = (i((k-j. the new elements still satisfy the same relation.\ · A{J. peiA{J hence peiA(a + (i[J) for every i = 0.\ 2 ). . Jp-1 pairwise relatively prime ideals and A. J 1 . By hypothesis there exist a. A( a+ (k[J)) =I..lA). I ' with Jo. Jp.1.\f6. So peiAa. So by (I) there is no loss of generality to assume that a.\.\ 2 ) and {3 = b (mod A. A. But P -=/:. because .2. SO peiA.(=A. 1. {3 are semi-primary. Then aP + bP = aP + (JP + f1Ap+l = .1)a E pe. . b E Z such that a =a (mod A.. . otherwise A.

..A E . Since A6)p.1 > 1. (3) Write p-1 -6P. 1.J !3) + f3(. and if j f= j 0 then a+ (.k/3 E I' for all k = 0. and this is a contradiction.A 2 IA(1 .Amp = aP + f3P = II (a+ e.AfAs.. where A>. PIJL with j < k.1 then p divides aP + bP.J !3) = A>. If j f= k.J"j3) = (A. .1(3) and A(a + (. .412 19. p2 faP + bP.k/3 (mod A.A. Next.AIA(a + (. and finally A.\PIA(aP + bP).k-J)j3 E A>.. Thus a+ j3 a+ (. So there exists j 0 such that a+ (1° j3 = 0 (mod A. so aP + bP = ps. so I' PIA/3.A . . Fermat's Last Theorem for Regular Prime Exponents Since Ap = A\P.1 and A. .A 2 ). so A.fJ~ for all k = 0.k-J "" 1. which contradicts the hypothesis. then A-AlA( a+ e. Now..1. if P is a prime ideal and PIJj.. so (1(1- e. .1(3).e. but A.P-1(3 A -A-.k /3)..\fa.p.A)p(m-1)+1I'Jjo A( a+ e.k/3).· A/3.Afi' because .k-J -1) with 1.k/3 E A-A· I'P.e. But these p elements are pairwise incongruent modulo A-A. with pfs. otherwise there exist j < k such that a+ e.. 0 (mod A.\ 2 )..p-1 I ( fl -II Jj j=O then for every j there exists an ideal J1 such that Jj = J). Indeed. by part (2) of this lemma.(p-1) = (m-1)p+ 1 .A.· I' P.A)mp-(p.A · I' P divides A( a + (.· I' Jj for j f= j 0. . a.1(e. then I' PI gcd(Aa. Similarly I' PIAa.\ 2 ) and A. Hence a+ (1/3. with A.1 ·As.AfJ1.:::: p. then a+ (. then P f= A. . a+ (. .AIA/3..1 j3 "/'. Hence A(aP + bP) = Ap ·As = A\P.k-J)A/3.e. and the ideals J1 are pairwise relatively prime. we show: The ideals J~ are pairwise relatively prime.k-1)(3 = 0 (mod A. • ..· I' PIA>.J/3 =a+ (. Since A/ A-A ~ IFP then #(A/ A-A) = p.( = . so (1(1 .k/3 = (a+ e. 1=0 hence there exists j such that A. with A. hence A>. . Hence (A.Af /3. Hence A(a + e.1) divides A(a+(1n j3) with mp. which is impossible. A/3) =I'. 1./3 E I' so a+ (.\ 2 ).1 /3)./3 a+ (. p.

Vj E A."( 5 = ±1 ± 32 (mod A.\e. . Then 0 = a 5 + (3 5 + 1 5 = ±1. (3. By (J)..\ 5 ). ±63. (3..2. "/ E K.Lj. Write p-1 _"/P = aP + (JP = IJ (a+ (l (3).\ 2 . by (A). Then a+ (l (3 ) ( J ) P forall j=0.. if a.1.Lj if and only if A.\ 3 ). (3. It may be also assumed. 1. without loss of generality. so a.Lj. Hence there exists a root of unity (h such that (h (a + (P. ±34.\f Jj. Vj # 0. . (3 are semi-primary.p. Now let p ::::0: 7. Jp-1.A.. "/ E K.\ ~ JF 3 so a. where J 0 . 1. Kummer's Theorem 413 We are ready to prove the famous theorem of Kummer which may be called "Kummer's Monumental Theorem. 19. . vj. Proof: Assume that there exist a.\h then . (3 3 . Let p = 5: AjA.\). is a principal ideal with J. ±65. J 1 .(3 5 . a(3"( # 0.\ ~ JF 5 .\) and a 5 . ±3. It may be assumed without loss of generality that a.1. ±96 (mod A.\eiAJ.. Dividing by . ±2 (mod A. if e > 0.\ 5 5. p. then A.\fa(