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A ABSTRACT

Project Title Delphi Process Layout Improvement

A case study of Kerry Logistics (Thailand) Ltd.

Name of student Natchaya Sirikul ID. 57110277

Advisor Ms. Thaksaorn Srisangkhajorn

Major Logistics Management

This study about Improvement of Raw Material in Outbound Process to demonstrates the
application of Lean techniques to improve the working process by reducing non-values added
activities. The Value Stream Mapping are utilized to identify the value-added activities, non-value
activities and necessary. After that, the ECRS in waste reduction is applied to improve the working
process by using product line balancing of process layout for changing the flow of raw material to
balance production line. To keep the flow of goods on a continuous basis, do not waste time
moving products during production. And reduce the free time of worker to the minimum, transfer
time and waiting time can be reduced. In this study, the proposed layout is a design on the basis of
operation process for fuel pump packing. After the renovation, not only it can reduce wasted time
in the work process but the company can use the space effectively and can reduce the risk of health
problems that can create safety for workers.

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Acknowledgement ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have been working in Kerry Logistics (Thailand) Limited at Hemaraj Eastern Seaboard
Industrial Estate, 500/25 Moo3 Tambol Tasit, Ampher Pluakdaeng, Rayong 21140, Thailand.
Since 8 January to 27 April 2018. During I work there, I got a lot of knowledge and more of great
experiences. So my Co-Operative Education and Co-Operative Education report will not be
successfully completed if I don’t have any suggestion and assistance from these people as
following:

Mr. Sakda Nukulkham

Mr.Somkit Boonyasornsiri

Mr. Wuttichai Phosrima

Mr. Suwit Imklin

Mr. Kitti Kokphang

Ms. Methawee Boonyasakseree

Ms. Somporn Pudmot

Ms. Theerapron Seangbutdee

And many more people who had given the support and recommendation in processing the
report, I would like to thank to everyone who support, supervisor and give me every good
suggestions until the report is successfully completed.

Ms. Natchaya Sirikul
Co-operative Education Student

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Table of Content

Abstract ...................................................................................................................... I
Acknowledgement .................................................................................................... II
Table of Content.......................................................................................................III
Table of Figure .......................................................................................................... V
Table of Tables.......................................................................................................... V
Chapter I .....................................................................................................................1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 1
Company Profile ....................................................................................................................................... 1
About Nature of the Assigned Department and Job Supervisor ........................................................... 3
About Student Assigned Position and Job Description......................................................................... 3
Chapter II ...................................................................................................................4
Student Assigned Job Responsibility ........................................................................................................ 4
Chapter III ..................................................................................................................5
Theory and Related Content ..................................................................................................................... 5
Principles and roles of warehouses ........................................................................................................... 5
Basic Principles of Warehouse and Inventory Management ................................................................ 5
The Problem of Traditional Inventory Planning Approaches ................................................................... 5
First in First out Method ........................................................................................................................... 6
Warehouse Operations .............................................................................................................................. 6
Definitions of Time Study ........................................................................................................................ 7
Standard Time ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Determining allowances and Standard time ......................................................................................... 9
8 Steps in Time Study .......................................................................................................................... 11
Theory and formulas for standard time calculation ................................................................................ 11
Production time per work piece (Takt Time) ...................................................................................... 11
Production time (Cycle Time) ............................................................................................................. 11
Concepts and Principles of Lean ............................................................................................................. 12
Finding a Standard Time .................................................................................................................... 12
Predetermined-Time System or Synthesis Time .................................................................................. 13
ECRS Principle for Reducing the Average Cycle Time ......................................................................... 13

III
Value-Stream Mapping ........................................................................................................................... 13
New plant layout ..................................................................................................................................... 14
Conceptual Framework ........................................................................................................................... 14
Chapter IV ................................................................................................................15
Method of Project and Result of Study................................................................................................... 15
(I) Study the current work of the company ....................................................................................... 15
(II) Study the workflow ...................................................................................................................... 16
Determining allowances and Standard time ............................................................................................ 20
Cycle Time Calculations ......................................................................................................................... 21
(VI) Summarize the results ................................................................................................................. 25
Reference..................................................................................................................25
Appendix ..................................................................................................................26
Author Biography ....................................................................................................28

IV
Table of Figure
Figure 1: Flow Chart of the Organization ...................................................................................................... 2
Figure 2: Flow process of raw material inside warehouse ........................................................................... 6
Figure 3: Formula to finding standard time .................................................................................................. 9
Figure 4: Value stream mapping showed the outbound process of Delphi ............................................... 22
Figure 5: Existing Layout ............................................................................................................................. 24
Figure 6: Propose Layout ............................................................................................................................ 24
Figure 7: Welcome lunch, Figure 8: Checking stock ................................................................................... 26
Figure 9: Safety Hours, Figure 10: Investors visit ........................................................................................ 26
Figure 11: Scanning labels, Figure 12: Onsite project learning ................................................................... 27
Figure 13: Labeling, Figure 14: GMP Training ............................................................................................. 27
Figure 15: Facilitate customers ................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 16: Farewell Party, Figure 17: Senior from faculty .......................................................................... 28

Table of Tables

Table 1: Learning topics in each month .......................................................................................... 4
Table 2: Table of net captured by each process (1) ...................................................................... 17
Table 3: Table of net captured by each process (2) ...................................................................... 18
Table 4: Non-production time schedules ...................................................................................... 19
Table 5: Networking time schedule .............................................................................................. 19
Table 6: Result of cycle time and takt time comparison ............................................................... 21
Table 7: The table showed the activities of the Delphi process .................................................... 23

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Chapter I

Introduction

Company Profile
About Kerry Logistics (Thailand) Limited

Kerry Logistics Network is headquartered in Hong Kong. As of 2016, they managed 46 sq.
m. of logistics facilities (24m sq. self-owned) globally, with a fleet of 8,100+ self-owned vehicles
and over 700 service locations. KLN's business in ASEAN started in 2002, with both integrated
logistics and international freight forwarding operations in Thailand. In 2003, KLN completed the
development of a logistics centre, with a total GFA of approximately 181,000 sq. m. in Laem
Chabang, south of Bangkok, Thailand. In 2004, KLN acquired an initial equity interest in Kerry
Siam Seaport Limited (formerly "Siam Seaport Terminal & Warehouses Co., Ltd.”). As of 2013,
KLN holds 79.52% interest in Kerry Siam Seaport Limited. Kerry Siam Seaport Limited operates
Kerry Siam Seaport, a multi-purpose port terminal located near Laem Chabang.

Kerry Logistics has purchased 55,000 sq. m. of land at the Eastern Seaboard Industrial
Estate (ESIE) in Thailand’s Rayong Province, 35km from the Laemchabang Seaport. The company
plans to set up a 35,000 sq. m. for serve the logistics parts of automobile industry on the site that
nearby Ford and Mazda Factory.

About the service of Kerry Logistics Rayong the service status in the logistics line is 3PL
(Third Party Logistics) It serves as both a warehouse and a distribution center. Intermediate to
transport cargo. Kerry Logistics is the bridge between a supplier and its customers. To store
products efficiently and to efficiently meet customer requirements by one stop service from
inbound to outbound. The type of service is Cross dock it’s a convenient way to transport goods.
When a truck arrives with a product that needs sorting. Collection of goods for delivery with the
other goods. And outboundtruck may be heading to manufacturer factory (Manufacturing site).

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Figure 1: Flow Chart of the Organization

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About Nature of the Assigned Department and Job Supervisor

Warehouse operations managers are tasked with ensuring the efficient flow of products in
and out of the facility, optimizing the building’s layout, making sure orders are fulfilled and
products are in stock, but not overstocked. Add ensuring profitability and minimizing overhead
and labor costs to the mix, and warehouse operators have their work cut out for them.

About Student Assigned Position and Job Description

To make analyzing the vast array of information on warehouse operations and
improvement, Task assigned is analysis cycle time of VAS and Handling activity’s in logistics
project to improve process and reduce waste time of activity and able to be flexibility in logistics
solutions, finding the solution to support our customers and coordinate with each other to plug in
each process in Warehouse Operation Department.

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Chapter II

Student Assigned Job Responsibility
In the first month, I learned the main activity of company and the process all in the
warehouse such as the process to receive product or material from supplier, learned the flow of
document, learned how to use WMS program that company used to service their customers and
how to find the location in inventory until delivery to the customer. In the second month and third
month, I learned the value added services of the customer that I want to develop the process. The
supervisor gave me a timer to work on each step. To find out the cycle time of each process. In the
fourth month, I take the cycle time to analyses the problem and find the solutions then let the
supervisor check.
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Topic Month Month Month Month

Learning the activities of company 
Learning the detail and document of each process 
Learning the whole process of Kellogg’s Project 
Learning the whole process of Futuris’s Project  
Learning the whole process of Baxter’s Project 
Learning the whole process of Delphi’s Project  
Finding the current working process of Delphi’s Project 
Recording the time of each process 
Finding the cycle time and analyzing the problems and
impacts
Suggested solutions 
Send the document to supervisor 
Table 1: Learning topics in each month

Table 2.1: Learning topics in each month
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Chapter III

Theory and Related Content
This chapter discusses the theories and related research to be used as a guideline for the
analysis and represent each process. Find the right time to do the delivery to customers. Theories
of time-delay analysis in order to improve the environment and predict resource usage in relation
to future order. Includes the following theories.

Principles and roles of warehouses

The main purpose of warehouse is to manage movement of product it’s depend on type of
product or material. To reduce time for customers. All have an impact on the expected roles that
warehouse management. The design and use of the warehouse must be in line with the specific
requirements of the goods. Warehouses are cost effective when it is low cost and designed to meet
the level of service required by the customer. For increase efficiency of operation in warehouse
we must to design the process to match with storage area in warehouse and specialty products and
packaging. Because the product of our customer is material for produce the medical equipment.

Basic Principles of Warehouse and Inventory Management

 Planning inbound receipt procedures.
 Storage formalities e.g.:
o Location management
o Inventory control
o Occupational health and safety
 Outbound delivery procedures.

The Problem of Traditional Inventory Planning Approaches

The cost of unnecessary or unnecessary inventory in the chain of preconceived ideas.
Whether the company is responsible for inventory or not sneezing. This will have an impact on
the final cost of the company. Therefore, the inventory level of raw materials and components is
considered to be important. It can also be an opportunity to reduce costs.

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First in First out Method

The first in first out method (“FIFO”) simply means that what comes in first will be handled
first, what comes in next waits until the first one is finished. In other words, FIFO is a method of
inventory valuation based on the assumption that goods are sold or used in the same chronological
order in which they are bought. FIFO describes the principle of a queue processing technique or
servicing conflicting demands by ordering process by first come, first serve behavior.

Warehouse Operations

Each warehouse is designed to meet specific requirements of the product. There are several
functions or functions that are common in most warehouses. The operation will be applied to the
warehouse of Kerry Logistics is Manned labor force to store goods in the warehouse. The flow of
raw materials is shown in Figure 3.1.

RECEIVING

WAREHOUSE STORE UP

PICKING BY ORDER

ARRANGING AND VALUE ADDED SERVICES

PACKING AND DELIVERY

CUSTOMER

Figure 2: Flow process of raw material inside warehouse

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 Receiving – the process of unloading, checking quality and quantity, and dissembling or
repacking items for storage.
 Pre-packaging – this process for sorting and packing product to matching lot and quantity.
 Put away – defining the appropriate location for items and transferring them to the specified
storage location to wait for demand.
 Order picking – retrieving items from their storage locations that bases on FIFO Method
and transporting them either to a sorting process or straight to the shipping area.
 Shipping – inspecting, packing, palletizing and loading items into a carrier for further
delivery.

Definitions of Time Study

Time study may be defined as “the art of observing and recording the time required to do
each detailed element of an industrial operation”. The term industrial operation includes manual,
mental and machining operations, where:

(i) Manual time is divided into three types of operations, i.e. handling of tools, machines
and materials.
(ii) Mental time includes time taken by the worker for thinking over some operations.
(iii) Machining time includes time taken by the machines in doing its share of work. Task
time study standardizes the time taken by average worker to perform these opera-tions.

It can also be defined in the following words “work measurement” is the application of techniques
designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a definite level
of performance.

Use of Time Study:

(i) It is useful in determining the standard time for various operations, which helps in
fixing wages and incentives.
(ii) It is useful to estimate the cost of a product accurately.
(iii) It helps in production control.
(iv) It helps in predicting accurately as to when the work will be completed and hence
customers can be promised to take delivery on a fixed date.
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(v) Using the time study techniques, it can be found that how much machines an opera-tor
can run.
(vi) Standard time data is used as the basis for labor cost control.

Interpreting these result, K. Jirapatarasil (2002) suggested that the meaning of time education
is finding a standard time to work. Used to measure the work time. The results of the study
were: Standard Time (Standard Time)

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Standard Time

It is the time, which is taken by a normal worker for a specific task or job, working under moderate
conditions and includes other allowances such as fatigue, setting of tool and job, repairing of tool,
checking of job etc.

Determining allowances and Standard time

Standard time/ unit = Normal time/unit + Allowances/ unit
Std. T. = NT +AF

Figure 3: Formula to finding standard time

While deciding the quantum (generally in terms of percentages) of allowance to be added
to the normal time, following types of allowances are considered:

1. Relaxation Allowance: This allowance depends upon the nature of the job, and includes
following two categories of allowances:

(A) Personal Need Allowance:

It provides for the necessity to go away from the work place to attend the personal needs
such as washing, going to lavatory, getting a drink etc. It is commonly taken as 5% for
male and 7% for female worker.

(B) Fatigue Allowance:

Fatigue allowance is provided to recover a worker from the physi-ological and
psychological effect of carrying out work. It contains:

1. A constant portion, (the minimum or basic fatigue allowance) which must be adequate
for a worker who carries out the job while seated engaged on light work in ideal working
condi-tions. This is generally considered as 4% for both men and women.

2. A variable portion is added when the working conditions are severe. It is based on factors
which vary the working conditions. These factors are (a) standing or other abnormal
position, (b) use of force, (c) light, (d) air, (e) visual strain, (f) manual-strain, (g) mental
strain.

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Standing: When an operator works in a standing position, he feels more tired. To overcome
this fatigue an allowance (usually 2%) is given to the workers. However, a seat must be
provided wherever possible. Depending upon the strain involved in working while
remaining in the abnormal position, an allowance of 2.5 to 10% is allowed based on the
posture.

Use of Force: For lifting or carrying weights, muscular energy is consumed, for which due
allowances are given depending upon the quantum of weight. It requires an al-lowance of
10% for force up to 2 kg. And 20% for loading weights up to 50 kg.

Light: When lighting is below the prescribed illumination level and it is not possible to
improve it, an allowance in proportion to amount of strain is allowed.

Atmospheric Condition: Air ventilation, temperature, amount of dust or fumes avail-able
also effect the working of the workers, hence due allowances varying between 10% and
20% depending upon the atmospheric condition is allowed.

Visual Strain: Visual strain is caused by giving very close attention to the work piece or
the instrument being used, as in watch making. Maximum visual strain allowance is 4% in
good light and 8% under poor light conditions.

Manual Strain: This is the strain caused by the repeated use of certain members of the
body.

Mental Strain: Mental strain is caused due to prolonged concentration or due to repeated
use of certain mental faculties’ viz. to attend to a number of machines, as in weaving, or to
do mental arithmetic.

Other Factors: Allowances for fatigue is also required to be allowed in following cases:

(a) Loud noise, as in the use of hammers, riveting etc.

(b) Vibration, due to working of certain machines.

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8 Steps in Time Study

(i) Selecting a job to study and choose the right worker.
(ii) Divide the work into sub-tasks (Elements) with a complete job description.
(iii) Observe and measure each step of the task.
(iv) Calculate the time taken to calculate the number of counts.
(v) Performance evaluation of workers.
(vi) Calculate the normal time.
(vii) Calculate the allowable time.
(viii) Calculate Standard Time

So, the theory that will reference timekeeping to standardize the number of employees and
improve the process is as follows.

Theory and formulas for standard time calculation

Production time per work piece (Takt Time)

Is the clock count of the clock when used in the production it will mean the most
time employees can use to produce work pieces to respond to customer’s need. This will
allow you to produce one piece of work. The Takt Time can be calculated from the formula
below. Excluding time, meetings and repair.
𝐴𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑡 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 =
Customer Demand

Production time (Cycle Time)

Cycle Time refers to the time that an employee uses the product for which he or she
is responsible for each work cycle. An employee may be responsible for only one task. Or
many jobs. This will start from the start of the work until the time back from the beginning
to start production in the next round. (K. Jirapatarasil, 2002, p.08)

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Concepts and Principles of Lean

In 2009, According to K.Lai-Aksorn, "production system that focuses on everyone
who is constantly involved. To eliminate waste in the work process to achieve continuous
flow of work. And continually improve to always create value for the system. The aim is
to provide products or services with quality, on-time delivery and low cost of production.
Customer satisfaction”

Lean's concept consists of

- Identify the value of the product or service (Value)

- The Value Steam

- Create a continuous flow of flow (Flow)

- Use "pull" to avoid pulling.

- Towards Perfection

There are two types of goods and services. Value Adding Activity is any activity that
changes a product. Or to add value to the product, such as the assembly of equipment or parts into
the assembly line. Forming parts. Non-Value Adding Activity is any activity. That does not change
the product. Do not add value to the product, such as repair work due to wrong assembly.
Employees sit while machines are working. Looking for work pieces, walking, etc.

Finding a Standard Time

Finding the standard time of the job is a step that follows from the study of how it works
until found how the work best. If the way of doing the study is a new way, let the practitioner to
work until he is familiar with the skill. It may take a week or a month to begin studying.

Standard Time It is a time to work one piece under the following conditions.

1) The work is done by experienced staff who are trained to do so.

2) It works at normal rate, not rush. Or worse than usual.

3) It is a function that has certain algorithms that can be specified by default.

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Predetermined-Time System or Synthesis Time

Time study to obtain standard time from prediction before actual occurrence or time
synthesis using time-varying, And in time study, use a stopwatch. The time scale used to study
time is 1/100 minutes or 0.01 minutes.

ECRS Principle for Reducing the Average Cycle Time

ECRS is one of the motion study technique used to improve production lines. ECRS processes
activities with the following core principles:
E= Eliminate unnecessary work
C= Combine operations
R= Rearrange sequence of operations
S= Simplify the necessary operations

Earlier research works applied work study and ECRS technique to improve efficiency of
production line.

Value-Stream Mapping

Value stream mapping is a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing
a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to
the customer. A value stream focuses on areas of a firm that add value to a product or service,
whereas a value chain refers to all of the activities within a company. At Toyota, it is known as
"material- and information-flow mapping".

Purpose of value stream mapping The purpose of value stream mapping is to identify and remove
or reduce "waste" in value streams, thereby increasing the efficiency of a given value stream.
Waste removal is intended to increase productivity by creating leaner operations which in turn
make waste and quality problems easier to identify.

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Improve Workplace Layout

The revision and rewriting of the plan is aimed at eliminating waste in a prolonged process.
The layout of the plant to suit the production process, such as changing the location of the machine.
To reduce the time spent moving and moving employees. The new layout is: (1) Process Layout
(2) Layout by product type (Product Layout). In improving this flowchart, we will implement
improvements in the layout. Product Line Balancing, which processes the machines according to
the production process. And balancing the production line to keep the flow of goods on a
continuous basis, Do not waste time moving products during production. And reduce the free time
of work to the minimum.

Conceptual Framework

Earlier research works applied work study and ECRS technique to improve efficiency of
production line. Awapak et al. (2011) used ECRS technique and single minute exchange of die
(SMED) method to reduce idle time during the ice-cream making process.

Miranda (2011) proposed to adopt ECRS in increasing man efficiency of the clean room
assembly process that was affected on manpower cost reduction of one electronics manufacturer
in Philippines.

Somkit Boonyasornsiri (2016) conducted a study to reduce the problem of late delivery of
goods and high cost. Improve the efficiency of product delivery in time. Using “Fishbone analysis”
and part of problem solving using “Lean Concept”. The results of the study showed that the
problem can be solved for the purpose set in the third month.

This was one basic effective tool that can be used in manufacturing efficiency improvement. It
was applied for improving in this study.

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Chapter IV

Method of Project and Result of Study
This study was conducted by staff working directly in the process. To analyze the time of
the product. Recording of relevant information of the company, including the knowledge learned.
The study was conducted by the following methods.

(I) Study the current work of the company.
a. Study the basics of the company.
The company provides warehouse management services. Currently, there are about
80 employees operating from Monday to Saturday. Normal working hours are from
8:00 AM to 5:00 PM and break time between 12:00 PM-13:00 PM (work 8 hours
per day).
b. Study on delivery time.
The work of the company is the customer assigned the company to inspect the
product, check, clean the basics and packing. By the manufacturer (Supplier) will
bring the fuel pump (the components of the car) to send and store at the warehouse
and when customers demand the product via E-mail. The company will be
responsible for sending the goods to the agreed place.

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(II) Study the workflow and record time of each process by using the Predetermined-Time
System or Synthesis Time
a. In Time Cycle Delphi Packaging, Delphi customers have a short and fast process.
So, the timer to study the right time for the job is “Continuous Timing” is a timer
without stopping the clock to record the time. I will let the clock go on. The time
recorder observes the time at the end of the subtitle. Match any time in the clock. It
records the time, so the time of the various tasks. It is a time record that is
continuous. This is called "R" time. The R-value of the sub-task must be calculated.
Subtract the R-value of a given sub-task. We obtain the time of the subtask, called
the time T.
b. The time study in each of these processes is based on direct time study,
Which is the study of time spent by skilled employees. Use normal situations and
normal locations. Counting times are calculated in order to divide the average
standard time in each process. Study steps are as follows. (1)Find the basics of the
work to study time.(2)Split each task and record it.(3)Observe and measure
employee timekeeping.(4)Summary of performance rates.(5)Find work
allowance.(6)Find a standard time to work.

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Table of Net Time Captured by Each Process
S tep 1 : Time to remove items out of the box.
Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/Row Average time of this process Average/Piece

Row 1 0:00:00 0:00:20 0:00:20 0:00:10 0:00:32 0:00:22 0:00:30 0:00:54 0:00:24

Row 2 0:00:20 0:00:43 0:00:23 0:00:35 0:00:56 0:00:21 0:00:55 0:01:20 0:00:25
0:00:21 0:00:22 0:00:25 0:00:23 0:01:31 0:00:04
Row 3 0:00:44 0:01:06 0:00:22 0:01:00 0:01:22 0:00:22 0:01:21 0:01:47 0:00:26

Row 4 0:01:06 0:01:26 0:00:20 0:01:22 0:01:47 0:00:25 0:01:49 0:02:15 0:00:26

*Remark : 5pcs./ Row

Table 2: Table of net captured by each process (1)
S tep 2 : Resistance Check
Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/PieceAverage of this process/ Pallet Average/Piece

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Piece 1 0:01:52 0:02:00 0:00:08 0:09:02 0:09:12 0:00:10 0:00:02 0:00:12 0:00:10

Piece 2 0:02:00 0:02:11 0:00:11 0:09:12 0:09:22 0:00:10 0:00:12 0:00:18 0:00:06

Piece 3 0:02:11 0:02:20 0:00:09 0:00:09 0:09:22 0:09:31 0:00:09 0:00:09 0:00:18 0:00:26 0:00:08 0:00:08 0:00:09 0:02:57 0:00:09

Piece 4 0:02:20 0:02:28 0:00:08 0:09:31 0:09:40 0:00:09 0:00:26 0:00:34 0:00:08

Piece 5 0:02:28 0:02:37 0:00:09 0:09:40 0:09:49 0:00:09 0:00:34 0:00:43 0:00:09

S tep 3 : Marking time on workpiece after check Resistance
Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/TimesAverage of this process/ Pallet Average/Piece

1 st time 0:11:05 0:12:00 0:00:55 0:10:40 0:11:30 0:00:50 0:02:06 0:03:01 0:00:55

2 nd time 0:14:50 0:15:41 0:00:51 0:01:03 0:02:01 0:00:58 0:01:52 0:02:49 0:00:57
0:00:53 0:00:53 0:00:55 0:00:53 0:00:53 00:00:10
3 rd time 0:14:47 0:15:39 0:00:52 0:02:16 0:03:06 0:00:50 0:01:41 0:02:37 0:00:56

4 th time 0:09:08 0:10:00 0:00:52 0:00:37 0:01:32 0:00:55 0:09:10 0:10:01 0:00:51

*Remark : 5 pcs. Per times

Tables 4.1: Table of net captured by each process (1)
Table of Net Time Captured by Each Process
S tep 4 : Check the work piece and clean it and put it in the box
Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/Boxes Average/Pallet Average/Piece

Box 1 0:04:54 0:05:22 0:00:28 0:01:38 0:02:03 0:00:25 0:03:56 0:04:20 0:00:24

Box 2 0:05:22 0:05:49 0:00:27 0:03:15 0:03:42 0:00:27 0:05:12 0:05:35 0:00:23
0:00:27 0:00:26 0:00:24 0:00:25 0:08:30 0:00:09
Box 3 0:05:49 0:06:15 0:00:26 0:04:25 0:04:51 0:00:26 0:00:00 0:00:25 0:00:25

Box 4 0:06:15 0:06:42 0:00:27 0:04:51 0:05:16 0:00:25 0:02:58 0:03:21 0:00:23

*Remark : 5 pcs. per 1 Box

S tep 5 : Raise each box up the pallet with tagging and wrapping film.
Table 3: Table of net captured by each process (2)

Worker 1 Worker 2 Worker 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/PalletAverage of this process/ Pallet

Pallet 1 0:00:00 0:02:47 0:02:47 0:00:03 0:03:01 0:02:58 0:00:00 0:00:00 0:00:00

0:03:50 0:06:42 0:02:52 0:03:05 0:05:55 0:02:50 0:00:00 0:00:00 0:00:00

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Pallet 2
0:02:52 0:02:48 0:00:00 0:02:50 0:02:50
Pallet 3 0:00:00 0:02:59 0:02:59 0:05:58 0:08:45 0:02:47 0:00:00 0:00:00 0:00:00

Pallet 4 0:03:03 0:05:54 0:02:51 0:08:50 0:11:25 0:02:35 0:00:00 0:00:00 0:00:00

S tep 6 : Forklift lift up the pallet on the car and employee sorting the box
Round 1 Round 2 Round 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average Average/Pallet Average of this process

1 Pallet 0:00:00 0:20:55 0:20:55 0:00:05 0:20:02 0:19:57 0:00:01 0:20:55 0:20:54

2 Pallet 0:00:03 0:19:59 0:19:56 0:00:02 0:20:01 0:19:59 0:00:00 0:19:47 0:19:47
0:20:10 0:19:59 0:20:28 0:20:12 0:20:12
3 Pallet 0:00:05 0:20:02 0:19:57 0:00:03 0:20:05 0:20:02 0:00:55 0:21:06 0:20:11

4 Pallet 0:00:00 0:19:51 0:19:51 0:00:06 0:20:02 0:19:56 0:00:04 0:21:05 0:21:01

Average time to wait for transportation (starting from the car to pick up goods at Kerry warehouse)
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

R T Average R T Average R T Average

Round 1 8:50:00 ###### 2:00:00 ###### ###### 2:30:00 ###### 0:00:00 ######
2:02:30 2:27:30 0:00:00 2:15:00
Round 2 8:55:00 ###### 2:05:00 ###### ###### 2:25:00 ###### 0:00:00 ######

Tables 4.2: Table of net captured by each process (2)
(III) Use Cycle Time and Takt Time to calculate the standard time. And compare it with the
real time to work to find the process that will be analyzed.
Takt Time Calculations
Is finding the average time to produce a piece of work in a day from all working
hours. Schedules as below for non-production time, such as break time.

Activities Time (Minute) Time/ Days Total Time (Minute)
Lunch break 60 1 60 60

Table 4: Non-production time schedules

Schedule of work breaks by deducting the break time specified by the company.

Total Working Total Break Total Net
Start Time End of work
Time (Hr.) Time Working Time

8:00:00 17:00:00 9:00:00 1:00:00 8:00:00
Total Net Working Time (Min.) : 480
Table 5: Networking time schedule

Formula for Takt Time Calculations
𝐴𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑡 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 =
𝐶𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑑
480
=
1080
= 0.44 min. or 44 s.
So the time should be able to produce per piece is 0.44 seconds.

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Determining allowances and Standard time

The allowance to be added to the normal time, following types of allowances are
considered. (1)Personal Need Allowance: It provides for the necessity to go away from the
work place to attend the personal needs such as washing, going to lavatory, getting a drink
etc. It is commonly taken as 5% for male and 7% for female worker. (2)Fatigue Allowance:
The allowance is based on the following conditions: Comfortable condition 23 minutes /
day. (3)Basic Fatigue Allowance: set by the International Labor Organization (ILO) at 4%.
The data from the time study of work can be as follows:

Normal time of work = 0.44 second
Total time = 66.2 minutes / day

Standard time/ unit = Normal time/unit + Allowances/ unit
Std. T. = NT +AF

AF = (66.2/480) x 100 = 13%
Std.T. = NT + [(%AF/ 100) x NT]
= 0.44 + [(13/100) x 0.44]
= 0.49 Min. /Pcs.

Standard time will equal 49 seconds per piece.

20
Cycle Time Calculations Is the actual time each process is accomplished. If
cycle time is less than Takt Time, the average time per work piece is no problem. Bottle
neck is a bottleneck that causes loss to the production line. This will cause the waiting time
of the work during production) and will result in the production does not meet the needs of
customers. Cycle Time is derived from the real time at the site. The unit is the time unit,
seconds per piece. Seconds on the process. Minutes per process, etc.

Formula for Cycle Time Calculations

Cycle Time (C/T) = 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑟 (𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙)
𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑟 (𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙)
Table 6: Result of cycle time and takt time comparison

Results of Cycle Time and Takt Time Comparison
Cycle Cycle Compare
Number Time Time of between Cycle
No. Activities Average net time value
Counting Timer Calculatio each Time and Takt
ns process Time
Time to remove items out of the 4
1 0:00:04 0.4 3 0.13 TRUE
box

2 Resistance Check 0:00:09 0.9 3 0.30 TRUE

Marking time on workpiece 10
3 0:00:10 0.1 3 0.03 TRUE
after check Resistance
Check the work piece and clean
4 0:00:09 0.9 3 0.30 TRUE
it and put it in the box

The value obtained from the cycle time of each process compared to the value
calculated from the production time to work (Takt Time). Takt Time is displayed as False,
which is a process that needs to be modified.

21
(IV)

3 Shift /Days
Lunch : 1 Hr.
Value Stream Mapping
Available Time : 8 Hr.

Production Control

Supplier Customer
Delphi (IND) POAI and SYC
INFORMATION FLOWS
SKU : RT 50 D : 1080 pcs/Days

I I I
Weekly Order SYC 1200 pcs
2500-5500 360 pcs
pcs * 2 TEU Kerry Production Supervisor Daily Order
Productions, QC, Thirt Party
Transportation Data Box
Delivery 1 Shift/ POAI
frequency : Days
Transportation Data Box Lot size : 1200 pcs/
Delivery 1 Shift/ Transport 1 Days/ Transportation Data Box

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frequency : Week Daily Daily fime : Week Delivery 3 Shift/
Shift schel : 3 Hr. frequency : Days
2500-5500
Lot size : Daily Daily Lot size : 360 pcs/
pcs/ TEU
Daily Daily Transport 7 Days/
Transport 1 Days/ MATERIAL FLOWS Inventory Data Box fime : Week
fime : Week FIFO Days : 15 Shift schel : 2 Hr.
Shift schel : ## Hr. SKUs : RT 50 Returnable 72 Box/
Box : Round
Loadign Process
Checking Resistance Marked After Check Cleaning And Packing Sorting, Tagging,
Unpacking 1
Loading 1
1 1 1 Wrapping 1

T/T : 49 sece T/T : 49 sece T/T : 49 sece T/T : 49 sece T/T : ## sece T/T : ## secs
C/T : 13 secs C/T : 30 secs C/T : 3 secs C/T : 30 secs C/T : 170 secs C/T : 20.12 min
Avail : 28,800 secs
I Avail : 28,800 secs
I Avail : 28,800 secs
I Avail : 28,800 secs
I Avail : 28,800 secs
I Avail : 28,800 secs
Up time : 99% 72 pcs Up time : 99% 72 pcs Up time : 99% 72 pcs Up time : 99% 72 pcs Up time : 100% 72 pcs Up time : 95%
Batch size : 20 pcs Batch size : 20 pcs Batch size : 20 pcs Batch size : 20 pcs Batch size : 72 pcs Batch size : 72 pcs
Total Time : 9.36 min Total Time : 21.6 min Total Time : 2.16 min Total Time : 21.6 min Total Time : 7.5 min Total Time : 20.12 min

0 secs 0 secs 2 min 0 secs 2 Hr.
below it shown the average time and how long of each process used.

Figure 4: Value stream mapping showed the outbound process of Delphi

10 min 22 min 3 min 22 min 8 min 21 min

NVA time: 2 Hr. 2 min
VA time : 1 Hr. 26 min
TIME LINE Total C/T :
3 Hr. 28 min
Labor : 3
Study the process of receiving goods, storage goods, packing, loading until customer
receiving the goods via display results in the format “Value Stream Mapping” as
(V) Study and production time through the Cycle Time to analyze the cause of the problems
and suggested solutions to improve work efficiency by using ECRS.
Eliminate unnecessary movement and unnecessary process, Combine operations,
Rearrange sequence of operations by using the space within the warehouse to be most
useful and simplify the necessary operations by changing the layout of workplace to
reduce unnecessary time caused by staff walking around - to pick up materials.
Procedure for analysis design the material flow process
1. The process for product production has been used in analysis

Travelling Roller Existing Layout Travelling Roller Prepose Layout
No. Operations No. Operations
1 Store  
1 Store  
2 Unpacking  
3 Checking   2 Unpacking 
4 Bring the box   3 Checking 
5 Packing   4 Packing 
6 Bring the pallet   5 Move on pallet  
7 Move on pallet   6 Tagging and Wrapping  
8 Tagging   7 Waiting for loading  
9 Wrapping   5 4 1 0 1
10 Waiting for loading  
8 10 1 0 1
Table 7: The table showed the activities of the Delphi process

Table 8: The table showed the meaning of operations symbol

23
2. The present workplace layout was analyzed to identify the problem under flow
material operation.

Pallet Empty Waiting for
Wrapping Flim Tagging
Store Box Load
6 4 10 9 8

Door
1 2 3 5 7
Unpackin Checking and
Store
g Packing

Existing Layout
Figure 5: Existing Layout

Pallet Tagging and Waiting for
Store Wrapping Flim Load
4 5 6
Door

3 2 1
Empty Unpacking, Checking and
Store
Box Packing

Prepose Layout
Figure 6: Propose Layout

24
(VI) Summarize the results of the problem solving that analysis from the time study in the
work process of the employees in the organization.

In this study, the proposed layout is a design on the basis of operation process and based
on material flow. According to the tables of workflow for fuel pump packing, it should be
modified for the layout for convenient workflow. The distance of the process can be
reduced not only reduced the waste time but after the renovation, the company can use the
space effectively and can reduce the risk of health problems that can create safety for
workers because it can reduce accidents from the object which were not in process.

Reference

Rushton, A., Croucher, P., & Baker, P. (2014). The handbook of logistics and
distribution management: Understanding the supply chain. Kogan Page Publishers.

Somkit Boonyasornsiri, (2016): The efficiency Improvement of Parts Delivery: A
Case Study Of Company XXX.

Ram D. Vaidya & Prashant N. Shende (2012). Design and Improvement of Plant
Layout: Production Engineering & Mech. Department YCCE, Nagpur.

Sell, S. P. D. (1999). Introduction to supply chain management.
Kumar, S. A., & Suresh, N. (2006). Production and operations management. New
Age International.

25
Appendix
Figure 7: Welcome lunch Figure 8: Checking stock

Figure 9: Safety Hours Figure 10: Investors visit

26
Appendix

Figure 11: Scanning labels Figure 12: Onsite project learning

Figure 13: Labeling Figure 14: GMP Training

27
Appendix

Figure 15: Facilitate customers

Figure 16: Farewell Party Figure 17: Senior from faculty

28
Author Biography

Name Natchaya Sirikul
Student number 57110277
Major Logistics Management
Mobile +668 7133 5577
E-mail Jo.sirikul@gmail.com
Nationality Thai
Date of Birth May 19, 1996
Age 21
Address 84 M.1, Bueng, Sriracha, Chonburi, Thailand 20230
Education History English – Chinese at St. Paul Convent High School, Chonburi, Thailand
(2005-2014)
Logistics Management at Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand (2014-
Present)

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