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REVIEW ON ADVANCED MACHINING –PAM

By:
Name ID.No
Tewodros Tadesse ……………….EiTM/pr135584/10
Elias G/kiros…………........... …….EiTM/Pr081/10
Atalay bayable……………………...EiTM/Pr080/10
Amina Nurhabesha………………....EiTM/Pr134610/10
G/haweria G/mariam ……………...EiTM/Pr134634/10

Manufacturing Engineering Chair
School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Ethiopian Institute of Technology-Mekelle (EiT-M)
Mekelle University, Tigray-Ethiopia
May 2010 E.C

Submitted to: Temesgen Berhanu (Ph.D.)
Submission date: 20-09-2010 E.C
ABSTRACT

Modern machining methods are alternate machining methods to conventional machining.

These methods do not use sharp cutting edge tool for the machining of workpiece materials.

These methods are mainly categorized into different types depending upon the type of energy

used in the process of machining.

This papere covers the thermal energy based machining processes which is plasma arc

machining processes. Plasma is an electrically conductive gas. The ionization of gases causes

the production of free electrons and positive particles among the gas molecules. At the point

when this happens, the gas turns out to be electrically conductive with current conveying

abilities. In this way, it progresses toward becoming plasma.

The parts of plasma arc machining are Plasma Gun, Power Supply and Terminals, Cooling

Mechanism, Tooling,and Work piece. Their functions these parts and working principle of

PAM is described in this paper. advantage ,limitation and application of PAM also there.

At the end different Articles are reviewed to asses the process parameters of PAM and their

effect on the process and how material removal is performed.

i
Table of Contents

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................ i
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................ii
List of figures ........................................................................................................................... iii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Non-traditional machining .......................................................................................... 1
1.2. Plasma arc machining (PAM) ..................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. Advantages of PAM ............................................................................................. 2
1.2.2. Limitations of PAM ............................................................................................ 3
1.2.3. Applications ........................................................................................................ 3
1.3. Construction of PAM .................................................................................................. 4
1.4. Working Principle of PAM ......................................................................................... 5
1.5. Mechanism of Material removal ................................................................................. 6
1.6. Process Parameters of PAM ....................................................................................... 6
1.7. Performance measures of PAM................................................................................... 8
1.8. Process – types ............................................................................................................ 8
1.8.1. Transferred plasma torch ..................................................................................... 8
1.8.2. Non-transferred plasma torch .............................................................................. 9
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................ 10
CHAPTER THREE
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 15
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 16

ii
List of figures
S. No Title Page no.

Figure 1. Classification of non-traditional machining ........................................................ 1
Figure 2. Plasma formation ................................................................................................ 1
Figure 3. Details of air plasma torch construction .............................................................. 4
Figure 4. working principle of PAM .................................................................................. 5
Figure 5. Transferred plasma torch .................................................................................... 8
Figure 6. non-transferred plasma torch ............................................................................. 9

iii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Each time new tools, device materials, and power sources are used; the efficiency and
abilities of producers are enormously improved. but, with the expanding interest for the use
of new kinds of material and combinational materials for aviation applications, un-
convectional manufacturing process appeared to process the new material prerequisites.

Traditional Machining processes that involve chip formation have a number of inherent
limitations which limit their application in industry [1].

 A lot of energy are used to create undesirable chips which must be evacuated and
disposed of.
 A significant part of the machining energy winds up as unfortunate heat that
frequently creates issues of contortion and surface splitting.
 Cutting powers require that the work piece observed which can likewise lead
distortion.
 Undesirable contortion, residual stress, and burrs caused by the machining procedure
frequently require additionally handling.

1.1. Non-traditional machining
In perspective of these constraints, numerous non-traditional machining (NTM) strategies
have been created since World War II to address the developing rundown of machining
necessity which can't be dealt with by regular machining alone. Favorable circumstances of
NTM strategies may incorporate the capacity to machine [2].

 Complex geometries past straightforward planar or barrel shaped highlights
 Parts with outrageous surface complete and resilience necessities
 Sensitive segments that can't withstand substantial cutting powers
 Parts without delivering burrs or inciting remaining anxieties
 Weak materials or materials with high hardness

A major advantage of some NTM processes is that feed rate is independent of the material

Being processed. As a result, these processes are often used for difficult to machine materials.

Classification of modern machining processes:-Classification along with the principle of
working (type of energy used for material removal) is described below [3].

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Non-traditional machining processes

Mechanical processes Thermal processes Electrochemical Chmical processes
processes

.USM .EDM . ECM .CHM

.AJM .EBM .PCM

.WJM .LBM

.AWJM .PAM

.IBM

Figure 1. Classification of non-traditional machining[3]

1.2. Plasma arc machining (PAM)
The initial three conditions of matter are solid, fluid and gas. For the most normally known
substance, water, these states are ice, water and steam. In the event that you add heat energy,
the ice will transform from a solid to a fluid, and if more heat is added, it will change to a gas
(steam). At the point when generous heat is added to a gas, it will change from gas to plasma,
the fourth condition of matter[4].

Figure 2. Plasma formation [2]

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The plasma arc machining process was introduced to the industries in 1964 as a method of
bringing better control to the arc welding process in lower current ranges [4].

 Plasma arc machining (PAM) utilizes a high-speed fly of high temperature gas to
dissolve and uproot material in its way.
 Today, plasma holds the first points of interest it conveyed to industry by giving a
propelled level of control and exactness.
 Plasma is an electrically conductive gas. The ionization of gases causes the
production of free electrons and positive particles among the gas molecules. At the
point when this happens, the gas turns out to be electrically conductive with current
conveying abilities. In this way, it progresses toward becoming plasma.
 PAC utilizes a plasma stream working at temperatures in the range from 10,000 to
14,000 ºC to cut metal by dissolving.
 The cutting move makes put by coordinating the high speed plasma stream at the
work, in this way liquefying it and blowing the liquid metal through the kerf. Plasma
is experienced in electrical releases, for example, fluorescent tubes and electric
circular segments, lightning, high temperature burning blazes and the sun.
 Most use of PAC include cutting of level metal sheets and plates. Activities
incorporate gap penetrating and cutting along a characterized way.
 PAC was at first utilized to slice metals that are hard to machine by traditional
strategies. Be that as it may, lately, PAC has additionally been utilized to cut plain
carbon steel, stainless steel and aluminum.

1.2.1. Advantages of PAM[5, 6]
 The principle preferred standpoint of PAM is speed. For example,mild steel of 6mm
thick can be cut at 3m/min
 The plasma arc can be utilized to slice any metal or even to non-conducting materials
like cement and so forth since it is primarily a melting process
 Because of rapid of cutting the distortion of sheet metals is reducd while the width of
the cut is least .
 Owing to the high productivity of the plasma arc cutting coupled with the tendency to
use cheap and easily available plasma-forming media (air, water, ammonia etc.,),
PAC is finding ever increasing application.
 Smooth cuts free from contaminants are acquired all the while

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 Profile cutting of metals particularly of stainless steel and aluminum can be
effectively done by PAM
 Working expenses are less when contrasted with oxy-fuel burn
 Can be automated

1.2.2. Limitations of PAM[5,6]
 The principle Limitation of PAC is the high beginning expense of the equipment. Be
that as it may, it can be made conservative, if the amount included is expansive and
the thickness is up to 50mm.
 Very much connected drops on the underside of the cut can be an issue and there will
be warm influenced zone (HAZ). The profundity of HAZ relies upon the material and
its thickness
 Smoke and noise
 Sharp corners are hard to deliver in light of the wide breadth of the plasma stream
 Burr is regularly delivered
 Taper on the work piece may occur

1.2.3. Applications [3]
 Essentially used to cut stainless steel and aluminum combinations. It is liked to oxy-
fuel cutting since it delivers nearly smoother cuts and is free from contamination
Different metals which are impervious to oxy-fuel cutting and subsequently cut by
PAC are magnesium, titanium, copper, nickel and composites of copper and nickel
 PAC can be utilized for stack cutting, plate inclining, shape cutting and penetrating.
 It can likewise be utilized for submerged cutting.
 The plasma planes are utilized for welding materials like titanium, stainless steel and
so on.,
 Plasma curve is utilized for keeping filler metal on surface to acquire wanted
properties like consumption protection, wear protection, sturdiness or against erosion
properties – Plasma circular segment surfacing
 The plasma curve can likewise be utilized for showering a readied surface of the base
material with beads of liquid metal to acquire a surface of required thickness

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1.3. Construction of PAM[3,5]
1. Plasma Gun
Gases are utilized to make plasma like, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen or mixture of these gases.
The plasma gun comprises of a tungsten anode fitted in the chamber. The cathode is given
negative extremity and spout of the gun is given positive extremity. Supply of gases is kept
up into the gun. A strong arc is built up between the two terminals anode and cathode.

There is a crash between particles of gas and electrons of the built up circular segment.
Because of this impact gas atoms get ionized and warm is developed. This hot and ionized
gas called plasma is coordinated to the work piece with high speed. The set up circular
segment is controlled by the supply rate of gases.

2. Power Supply and Terminals
Power supply (DC) is utilized to create two terminals in the plasma firearm. A tungsten
terminal is embedded to the firearm and made cathode and spout of the weapon is made
anode. Heavy potential difference is connected over the anodes to create plasma condition
of gases.

3. Cooling Mechanism
As we know that hot gases continuously comes out of nozzle so there are chances of its
overheating. A water jacket is used to surround the nozzle to avoid its overheating.

Figure 3.Details of air plasma torch construction[Benedict, 1987; courtesy: W.A.
Whitney Corp. Rock ford, III [5]

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4. Tooling
There is no immediate unmistakable device utilized as a part of PAM. Centered shower of
hot, plasma state gases functions as a cutting device.

5. Work piece
Work piece of various materials can be handled by PAM process. These materials are
aluminum, magnesium, stainless steels and carbon and amalgam steels. Every one of those
material which can be prepared by LBM can likewise be handled by PAM process.

1.4. Working Principle of PAM[6,1,3]
 At the point when heated to elevated temperatures, gases transform into a distinctly
different type of matter, which is plasma.
 Gases are warmed and charged to plasma state.
 At the point when gases are warmed by a connected electric field, an igniter supplies the
underlying electrons, which quicken in the field before impacting and ionizing the
particles. The free electrons, thus, get quickened and create additional ionization and
warming of the gases. The torrential slide proceeds till an enduring state is gotten in
which the rate of creation of the free charges is adjusted by recombination and loss of the
free charges to the dividers and anodes.

Figure 4.working principle of PAM [5]

 The actual heating of the gas takes place due to the energy liberated when free ions and
electrons recombine into atoms or when atoms recombine into molecules
 These gases are directed on the work piece in the form of high velocity stream.

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1.5. Mechanism of Material removal[6]
 The metal removal in PAM is essentially because of the high temperature created.
 The warming of the work piece is, because of anode warming, because of direct
electron siege in addition to convection warming from the high temperature plasma
that goes with the circular segment.
 The heat delivered is adequate to raise the work piece temperature over its dissolving
point and the high speed gas stream viably overwhelms the liquid metal.

1.6. Process Parameters of PAM[4]
I. Cutting:
Quality of cut and metal removal rate are largely dependent upon proper attention to
operating variables. Several factors contribute to the quality and speed of cuts made
by the plasma arc process, including cutting-tip nozzle selection, power level, gas
type and mixture, gas flow rate, traverse speed, standoff distance, thickness of
material, type of materials, impingement angle, and equipment design.

A. Nozzle size: The highest quality plasma cut is usually obtained when maximum
thermal intensity is used. To achieve this, the smallest, or next to the
smallest, nozzle size that is capable of operating at a power level suitable for the
speed and thickness involved is used. Nozzle size for cutting usually ranges from
0.80 to 6.30 mm in diameter.
B. Power: Direct current up to 200 kW and 50-1000 A is employed in plasma arc
cutting operations.
C. Gas mixture composition: A proportion of 10% hydrogen and 90% nitrogen or
argon usually gives good general-purpose results. Choice of plasma
gas composition can have considerable effect on the plasma flame since the
ionized gas is the conductive path. The shielding gas or secondary gas can be
nitrogen, oxygen, air, or carbon dioxide. Water is sometimes used as a shield.
D. Gas flow rate: For any particular nozzle size, an increase in plasma gas (primary)
flow permits an increase in current. This increases the power density of the flame
and permits greater speed with less taper on the kerf walls. Primary gas flow rates
usually range between 0.40-5.60 m3/hr. Secondary gasses are pressurized to flow at
up to 11.3 m3/hr.

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E. Standoff distance: Due to the columnar shape of the plasma jet, a wide range of tip-
to-work piece spacing is allowable. This permits machine cutting along warped or
irregular surfaces. General consideration include:
 Better quality cuts usually result from a short standoff distance since arc
divergence is less and the thermal intensity of the arc is greater.
 Excessively close standoff distance can promote arcing due to the accumulation
of slag drops on the tip.
 Increased power input is necessary when the standoff distance is great.
 Standoff distance can range from 6.5-76.2 mm.
II. Machining:
In turning operations, torch variables include the electrical power delivered, the gases
used to form the plasma, the flow rate of the gases through the torch, the orifice diameter
through the nozzle duct, and any secondary gas streams. In general, there is an optimum
exit-orifice size for operation at a particular power level that produces a well-controlled,
high-velocity plasma jet with maximized capacity for performing the material removal
operation. Thus gas flow rate, orifice size, and power level are intimately related.

A. Metal removal rate: In the physical orientation of PAM operations, such variables as
torch standoff, angle to work, depth of cut, feed into the work, and speed of the
work toward the torch are involved. Feed and depth of cut determine the volume of
metal removed.
B. Surface finish: Surface finish can vary anywhere from helical ridges along the
surface to a completely smooth surface with approximately 0.75 o m Ra
finish, depending upon the feed into the work optimization of the process. Plasma arc
machining for maximum removal rate does produce a slight helical ridge as the cut
progresses.
C. Surface characteristics: One characteristics of the work piece surface when it is not
cooled during an operation is a gradual inward taper in the direction of the cut. This is
believed to be due to accumulated heating of the work piece as the cut progresses and
should be minimized or eliminated by appropriate cooling methods. An oxidation
scale normally forms behind the cut on an unprotected specimen, but this can be
minimized or eliminated by proper shielding.

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1.7. Performance measures of PAM
1.Those related with the outline and task of the torch – electrical power conveyed, the gases
used to shape the plasma, the stream rate of the gases through the light, the opening width
through the spout channel

2.Those related with the physical setup of the set up – burn standoff, edge to the work,
profundity of cut, bolster into the work and speed of the work toward the light

3.Condition in which the work is performed – cooling that is done on the bar, any defensive
sort of climate used to lessen oxidation for the uncovered high temperature machined surface
and any implies that may be used to spread out or divert the bend and plasma impingment
territory.

1.8. Process – types[5,3]
• Plasma generating torches are of two general designs – transferred plasma torch and non-
transferred plasma torch.

1.8.1. Transferred plasma torch
 In this torch, the cathode is associated straightforwardly to the negative of the D.C.
source, while the anode spout is associated with the positive of the supply through a
reasonable resistor to restrain the current through the spout to around 50amps.
 This technique is constrained to cutting, welding and hard surfacing of metals.

Figure 5.Transferred plasma torch [3]

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1.8.2. Non-transferred plasma torch
• In this torch, the D.C control source is associated straightforwardly over the cathode and the
spout, subsequently ionizing a high speed gas that is gushing towards the work piece.

• The anode dissipation is lost in useless heating of the nozzle.

• The electro thermal efficiency is about 65-75%

Figure 6. non-transferred plasma torch [3]

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

We have been tried to review different articles which are related to a plasma arc machining as
follows.

Nemchinsky and Severance analyzed the plasma arc cutting procedure and found double
arcing and the part of protecting inclusions at the spout opening on twofold arcing happens
when circular segment current is too high and spout hole is excessively constricted. The
investigation recognizes the reasons for those issues and presumed that the issues are looked
by PAC (electrode wearing away, two-fold arcing, dross development) are regular to PAC as
well as to other mechanical procedures too [7].

Yamamura, Takeda and co. implemented an application of the pulse width modulation
(PWM) control for generating atmospheric pressure plasma to control the material removal
size dispersion of the NC-PCVM in order to eliminate the small wavelength components. [8].
NC-PCVM is a very high-precision figuring technique which uses chemical reactions
between atmospheric pressure plasma and work material surface. The outcomes of the
investigation indicate that combination of PWM control approach and small outlet orifice
electrode is crucial for improving the spatial resolution of figuring by numerically controlled
plasma chemical vaporization machining (NC-PCVM).

Sch, Jeong and co. studied limitations of old-fashioned traditional sources of plasma which
consist of transferred arcs, plasma torches, corona discharges, and dielectric barrier
discharges. However, since these discharges are uneven or non-uniform throughout the
process, they have a very restricted use in the processing of materials [9]. Considering all the
properties of the plasmas, it look like the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet displays the
extreme similarity to a low-pressure glow discharge because the flux rises while reducing
pressure.. Consequently, this device displays possibilities in the future to be used in
applications that are now restricted to vacuum.

Sovan Bhowmicka examined the effects of process parameters; Gas pressure, machining
speed and thickness of work material during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel using the
plasma arc cutting (PAC) process[10]. From the investigation it can be identified that the
surface roughness value-Ra will be lowest for greater pressure and inferior speed when
thickness is constant; and inferior speed and lesser material thickness when pressure is

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constant respectively. Also it was noted that the MRR will be extreme for minor pressure and
greater speed when thickness is constant, for lesser pressure and greater thickness when speed
is constant; and greater speed and higher thickness when pressure is constant respectively.
From Examination of Variance it is understood that the speed and the thickness are more
important and concluded MRR is the function of speed and thickness of work material.
However, the pressure of the gas has a slight consequence on MRR. It is also witnessed that
the only major influential parameter for surface roughness is pressure. Surface roughness
amount-Ra declines with rise in pressure, reduction of speed and thickness. Also increase in
pressure, speed and thickness affects the MRR positively.

Lazarević has done an experimental research on the plasma arc cutting process[8]. He has
taken cutting current (I), traverse speed (v) and material thickness (s) as the input process
parameters and shown the effects of them on surface roughness (RZ) and bevel angle (β) as
the output parameters.

Özek et al. have prepared a fuzzy model for predicting surface roughness in plasma arc
cutting of AISI 4140 steel by taking three process parameters- three levels design matrix[14].

Rana et al. have made an experimental study on optimization of process parameters in plasma
arc cutting of mild steel piece using Taguchi Method[13].

Kavka implemented Pilot arc and a cutting phase investigational designs to analyze both
phases of PAC [11]. And established that, during the pilot arc phase extended contact period
of the anodic point due to surface roughness give rise to electrode wear. While in the cutting
phase, the anode attachment considerably impacts the kerf shape and surface morphology.
Different surface roughness values will result from fluctuating heat transferal circumstances.
The quality of the cut can be improved by assisting the anodic spot drive on the way to the
plate lowermost surface.

Almeida described that Plasma arc can be used to increase machinability of some metals
that are challenging to machine in any other way. This article describes a comprehensive
review of the subject and argues the importance of hot machining along with other likely
warming techniques. From those plasma arc heating has now appeared as the best suitable
technique of heating the temperature of the material previously before the machining[12].

Allen et al analyzed reactive atom plasma (RAP) machining which uses a chemically
sensitive ionized gas (plasma) as a machining instrument to form optical and semi conductive
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materials quickly and accurately and also for intricate shapes. Exterior surfaces of materials
are machined by a dry chemical action. During this process there will not be any induced
damage in areas below the surface. Primarily, the RAP method can similarly be used to
deposit material that perform as coating layers[13].

Arnold and Böhm proposed interaction less plasma stream based procedures to be used for
surface modeling or shaping or figure inaccuracy remedy on SiC optical and mechanical parts
surfaces because regular common rough scratching, modeling and finalizing methods are
sometimes not suitable in while working with complex surface shapes like free structures or
circles with strong curves, or little dimension parts. And from experiment concludes, the
coarseness advancement and the subsequent morphology depends clearly on the kind of
material, and on the separate pre-machining methodology implemented[14].

Salonitis, Vatousianos examined for surveying the nature of the cut in plasma cutting
procedure. The nature of the cut has been checked by estimating the kerf decrease edge
(conicity), the edge harshness and the measure of the warmth influenced zone (HAZ). They
utilized process parameters to research plasma Cutting procedure on different materials.
Along these lines parameters are cutting velocity, cutting present, cutting tallness or standoff
(i.e. the separation kept up amongst light and work piece in the wake of puncturing and
keeping in mind that cutting), nature, weight and stream of the plasma gas.so it was
discovered that the surface harshness and the conicity are basically influenced by the cutting
stature, though the warmth influenced zone is predominantly affected by the cutting
current[15].
Milan Kumar Das et al. explored on the streamlining and the impact of machining parameters
on MRR and surface harshness qualities in plasma bend cutting (PAC) of EN31 steel utilizing
Taguchi OA with dark social examination. Plasma curve current, burn geometry, gas write,
stream rate, and cutting rate factors effectsly affect the cutting quality. It was discovered that
MRR is relative to gas weight and surface harshness is corresponding to bend current[16].

Leshock examined plasma improved machining of Inconel 718 has been portrayed regarding
different warming and working conditions. Surface temperatures because of plasma warming
are efficiently described through numerical displaying and test examination utilizing infrared
radiation thermometry. They are utilized A three-dimensional limited distinction display is
set up to decide the temperature conveyance in a tube shaped work piece subjected to
extreme confined warming. Advantages of PEM were shown incorporating 30%

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diminishment in the resultant cutting power, two-overlay change in surface unpleasantness
and around 40% expansion in instrument life, contrasted and regular machining utilizing
WG-300 supplements[17].

Parthkumar Patel examination on impact and improvement of process parameters of plasma
bend cutting of Quard – 400 material on MRR and mean surface unpleasantness with the
assistance of ANOVA combined with reaction surface strategy. There are some thought
procedure parameters, cutting rate and gas weight are considered and tries are led in view of
full factorial plan. Material expulsion rate increments with increment of cutting rate and mean
surface harshness diminishes with increment of cutting pace[18].

Chamarthi examined a 12mm plate thickness Hardox-400 material has been cut and
investigated impact of fundamental parameters like voltage, cutting pace, and plasma gas
stream rate on roughness of cut surface. It was noted that as thickness of plate is increased
cutting speed will have to be minimized to improve depth of machining. It was discovered
that the arc voltage is primary parameter and it impacts every one of the features associated
with the cut quality instead of the impact on the arc power, while cutting velocity
demonstrated an obvious impact. Unevenness can be decreased by diminishing the cutting
velocity. It was demonstrated that great quality can be accomplished for every one of the
sides by differing the cutting pace, plasma stream rate and circular arc voltage only[19].

Nemchinsky proposed a technique of computing the smallest cutting speed (Umin) required
for PAC. And concluded at speeds below Umin the plasma jet does not cut through metal plate
and the liquefied metal from the kerf is welded to the foot of the work material. Also he
established that the rise in cutting speed will increase efficiency with which the arc power is
used up by the cutting practice[20].

Leshock, et all studied plasma enhanced machining (PEM) technique for Inconel 718 high
temperature alloy which is widely used for aerospace applications due to its best mechanical
and thermal characteristics. However, it’s very difficult-to-machine, as a result of the
accompanying high wear characteristics and relatively reduced external surface appearance
when conventional machining is used. They identified that PEM requires 30% less cutting
force, two-fold enhancement in surface coarseness and result about 40% rise in tool lifespan
as compared with conventional machining using WG-300 inserts [17].

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VASIL performed experimental results that indicate in addition to increasing the cutting
speed at the plasma content of 70 % of O2 and 30 % of N2, this super air–plasma technology
results in energy saving, less cost, parallel surfaces of cutting and a smaller depth of the heat
effects on the cut area. This decreases the roughness of the cut surface. This process is most
effective in the treatment of special metals which cannot be processed by autogenous cutting,
and also carbon steel. The cost of cutting 1 m, produced by the plasma-arc method, is 2–3
times lower than it is with autogenous cutting, and the productivity of a plasma cutting
machine in cutting steel with a thickness of 12–40 mm is more than 2.5 times higher than that
of autogenous cutting[21].

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CHAPTER THREE
CONCLUSION

Plasma Arc Machining (PAM) or plasma arc cutting (PAC) is an emerging process used in
various applications such as aerospace and automotive sectors for cutting difficult to machine
materials that are impossible or very difficult to machine in conventional ways. It implements
ionized gas known as plasma which is created between a cathode (part of a plasma torch),
and a workpiece (which acts as an anode). After analyzing research articles on PAM it can be
concluded that:

 The common parameters which influence the cutting quality are gas pressure, arc
current, arc voltage, standoff distance (distance between the material surfaces and the
nozzle tip), cutting speed, nozzle geometry and material thickness.
 speed and the thickness are more significant parameters for MRR while the gas
pressure has a little effect on MRR
 Pressure is the only significant parameter in case of surface roughness.
 The surface roughness value will be minimum for higher pressure and lower speed
when thickness is constant, for higher pressure and small thickness when speed is
constant and lower speed and smaller thickness when pressure is constant
respectively.
 MRR will be maximum for lower pressure and higher speed when thickness is
constant, for lower pressure and higher thickness when speed is constant and higher
speed and higher thickness when pressure is constant.
 An increase in the nozzle surface roughness leads to increased erosion rate.
 It was noted that for improving depth of machining, cutting speed will have to be
minimized (while using work materials of large thickness).
 Surface roughness or unevenness can be decreased by decreasing the cutting velocity

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