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T. Dhar. Picheo and W. Trifilieff 88 Advertiser Index 35 Integrate solar/thermal energy in oil and gas processing 90 Events K. Payyanad COLUMNS PROCESS OPTIMIZATION 7 Editorial Comment 43 Maximizing energy efficiency in paraxylene production—Part 2 Biofuels—A viable fuel source C. H. Kolluri and J. Sriganesh 87 Marketplace 31 Optimize LNG production through contaminant mitigation—Part 1 T. non-compostable. G. mixed municipal solid waste. Meesala. Canada.com C–67 8 SPECIAL FOCUS: ALTERNATIVE FEEDSTOCKS/BIOFUELS DEPARTMENTS 25 Production of renewable fuels in existing refinery assets: 4 Industry Perspectives A cost-effective coprocessing strategy 8 Business Trends P. P. Rosetta and K. Alberta. Wines. The biofuel is made from non-recyclable. Ford. Valavarasu. Rasmussen PROJECT MANAGEMENT 83 Incorporate assurance into an operational readiness program—Part 2 G. Ethakota and S. Rao and G. Shinyama and A. L. commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol operation. S. V. in Edmonton. Salgado Global Project Data C–75 Improve FCC yields from contaminated feeds Innovations using boron-based nickel passivation People K. W. M. Colling for the future? 49 Advancing export terminal technology: An optimized process 15 Reliability for the refrigeration of cryogenic hydrocarbons Dry gas sealing technology M. Bozeman 23 Engineering Practices CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE—SUPPLEMENT CAD for plant layout: Being right by being safe C–68 Raise efficiency of ultra-low SHR production of styrene monomer with a novel catalyst formulation K. is the first waste-to-biofuels producer to launch a world-class. Nichols 19 Engineering Case Histories PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION Case 99: Pooling knowledge and experience builds 63 Migrating from Fortran to ISA S-88 personal and team success J. Battaiotto DIGITAL EXCLUSIVES C–72 The optimal catalyst makeup in an FCC unit Industry Metrics H. Gupta. Reed Cover Image: Enerkem Inc. P. JANUARY 2018 | Volume 97 Number 1 HydrocarbonProcessing. C. Mokhatab and O. Kumar. Patel replaces segmented carbon rings in small steam turbines OUTLOOK: INDUSTRY LEADERS’ VIEWPOINTS 17 Management 55 2018 Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints Active career management L. . Cha C–80 A new generation of dewaxing catalysts H.

Payment should be sent directly to the CCC. representing a y-o-y decline of 46%. respectively. Production Sheryl Stone FIG. World Oil ®. age paid at Houston. prepaid. MMtpy of LNG liquefaction capacity. Total capital expendi. Salem. Over the past 3 yr. Box 2608.O.com ments have increased over the past year. Other Gulf Publishing Company titles include: Gas ProcessingTM. See Sales Offices. 01970. Editorial Production Angela Bathe Dietrich of decline has slowed over the past year. P. Contact Foster Printing at Mossberg & Co.com. The full text of Hydrocarbon On the other hand.HydrocarbonProcessing. 4 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. Advertising Production Krista Norman announcements have decreased each year.695. 1. page 88. Texas 77252. O. representing a y-o-y increase of approximately 7%. would propel the US to become one of the top three LNG Hydrocarbon Processing (ISSN 0018-8190) is published monthly by Gulf Publishing Company. nearly 800 new projects have been an. or service and supply company Asia-Pacific region has announced millions of tpy of LNG personnel connected thereto. Bloch for the first time in three years Contributing Editor Contributing Editor Alissa Leeton ARC Advisory Group Contributing Editor Anthony Sofronas According to Hydrocarbon Processing’s Construction MAGAZINE PRODUCTION / +1 (713) 525-4633 Boxscore Database. However.com . It includes a print or digital version of the magazine. at +1 (800) 428-3340 x 149 or jkaletha@mossbergco. Texas 77252-2608. Editorial Production Lindsey Craun nouncements decreased from 302 in 2015 to 256 in 2016. sent more than 62% of the total number of new gas process. import capacity to provide additional natural gas supplies Hydrocarbon Processing is indexed by Applied Science & Technology Index. Texas. The engaged in the hydrocarbon processing industry. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Hydrocarbon Processing. printed handouts. nearly 75 new gas processing/LNG projects were announced two years $679. for a price quote and the US is forecast to begin operations on more than 70 details about how you can customize with company logo and contact information.com PUBLISHER Catherine Watkins Industry Perspectives EDITOR/ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Catherine.com HPEditorial@HydrocarbonProcessing. contact Jill Kaletha with Foster Printing at tures for these projects will eclipse $50 B. LNG export capacity. Periodicals post- exporting nations in the world by 2020. Circulation Suzanne McGehee LNG project announcements declined from 127 in 2015 to 68 in 2016. USA Phone: +1 (713) 529-4301 Fax: +1 (713) 520-4433 www. DISTRIBUTION OF ARTICLES The US is utilizing cheap. Conversely. 140 Copyright © 2018 by Gulf Publishing Company. Mass. New project an. The majority of This plan provides full access to all information and data Hydrocarbon Processing has to offer. new gas processing/LNG project announce- CIRCULATION / +1 (713) 520-4498 / Circulation@GulfPub. By the end of the decade. and at additional mailing office. All rights reserved. Because Hydrocarbon Processing is edited specifically to be of greatest value to people working in this specialized business. SUBSCRIPTIONS Subscription price (includes both print and digital versions): One year $399. Advertising Production Cheryl Willis Assistant Manager. Production Sheryl Stone nounced since 2015. Assistant Manager. Texas 77046.. Single copies $35. 2 Greenway Plaza. ISSN 0018-8190/01. Artist/Illustrator David Weeks Graphic Designer Andreina Keller and to 220 in 2017. tional a year. the US. Hydrocarbon Processing’s Full Data Access subscription plan is priced at $1. nounced in the gas processing/LNG sector. new project Manager. 2015–2017. the rate Manager. P. Suite 1020. nearly 270 projects have been an. Trend analysis on new project announcements vs. This construction Mossberg & Co. subscriptions are restricted to those ing/LNG project announcements over the past 3 yr. Pipeline & Gas Journal and Underground Construction. readily available shale gas to fuel Published articles are available for distribution in a PDF format or as professionally its LNG export capacity growth. Combined. primarily along the US Gulf Coast. Vice President. Chemical Abstracts and by Engineering Index Inc. 60 40 20 President/CEO John Royall 0 CFO Alan Millis Vice President Andy McDowell Africa Asia-Pacific Canada Europe Latin Middle US America East Vice President Ron Higgins Vice President. New gas processing/ Manager.Nichols@GulfPub. This trend represents year-over-year ADVERTISING SALES (y-o-y) decreases of 15% and 14%. Finance and Operations Pamela Harvey Vice President.Watkins@GulfPub. Microfilm copies available through University Microfilms. Airmail rate outside North America $175 addi- in 2017.com Lee Nichols Lee. process handbooks. the Asia-Pacific region and the US repre. Mich. three years $897. Copying for other than personal or internal 80 2017 gas processing/LNG reference use without express permission is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to the Editor. Petroleum Economist ©. Ann Arbor. International. as well as full these projects are located in the Asia-Pacific region and the access to all posted articles (current and archived). by for power generation. the US has announced significant new Processing is also available in electronic versions of the Business Periodicals Index. new gas processing/LNG projects by region. Source: Hydrocarbon Publication Agreement Number 40034765 Printed in USA Processing’s Construction Boxscore Database. Houston. However. For more information. Construction Boxscore Database project updates and more. Box 2608 Houston. 2017 21 Congress St. Over the past few years.com EDITORIAL Executive Editor Adrienne Blume New gas processing/LNG Managing Editor Technical Editor Mike Rhodes Bob Andrew project announcements increase Digital Editor Reliability/Equipment Editor Ashley Smith Heinz P. HPI Market Data book. 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reaching 5% of the global transporta. production of refined fuels. bon emissions to help comply with the countries are instituting regulations and technology advances and how the downstream industry can innovate Paris Agreement. especially in major cities like Delhi. biofuels and 55 Industry Outlook. in catalyst technologies are discussed. Industry leaders and esteemed colleagues in the promote the production and use of biofu. referred to as Renova.3 Bgal of re. LNG supply is ing economies around the world. Although blending 43 Process Optimization. Brazil’s Senate approved a bill that would set up a new biofuels program to The EU is the leader in biodiesel pro- duction. The manufacture of paraxylene (pX) is an energy-intensive for biofuels consumption. ac. The goal of utilizing these technologies is to produce fuels and prod- Agriculture Service’s Global Agriculture Information Network. This two-part series the future? Although biofuels represent a will limit market penetration in 2018. small percentage of global fuel consump. This issue’s Special Focus examines advances and challenges in world biofuel production is forecast to blending quota of nearly 19. efficiency in pX manufacturing. mandates that call for the additional us- in 2018 and into the future. est producer of biofuels in the world. growth due to increasing consumption in dard (RFS). In 2018. China and India have made plans to age in biofuels to help mitigate emissions. the tightness in ethanol supplies LNG developments. provides many benefits to operators. EDITOR/ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Comment Lee. in catalyst technology development. would help the country reduce car. erate—the agency forecast an increase of In this special Bonus Report. with nearly 80% of the imports sourced in each region around the world.Nichols@HydrocarbonProcessing. advances portation market. Part 2 details case biofuels consumption. Editorial LEE NICHOLS. according to the increased substantially over the past sev. as well as ramping up 1%. also calls for more than 2 transportation fuels. downstream hydrocarbon processing els. INSIDE THIS ISSUE cuses on the use of alternative feedstocks cording to a report by the USDA Foreign and biofuels. the US EPA has mandated a 24 Special Focus. biofuels blending is part of the coun- sions. However. Al. electric and hybrid-electric vehicles in ef. by approximately 200 MMl to 600 MMl. the increase in production and con. forts to decarbonize the region. India plans to increase ethanol imports the future of LNG growth and a look tion. the world. ment mandates—cannot be ignored. quotas for 2018 are relatively flat when process. Europe and the US. increase by approximately 16% to more newable fuels into the gasoline pool. 67 Catalyst. mately 15. In that are widely used in aromatics representing approximately 90% of global turn. which is a major focus in decarboniz. do. from the US. ethanol blending into the gasoline pool. industry provided HP with their insight Bio. China. studies on pX manufacturing by IEA. gas processing and biofuel technologies. LNG is forecast to become one of the most valuable commodities in ucts that lower total carbon output/emis.3% in 2016—the highest of biofuels in their total energy mix. Biofuels in the glob- al transportation sector is the main driver Bgal of biodiesel to be blended into the diesel fuel supply. China is experiment. and is focusing its efforts on greater usage of renewables.com Biofuels—A viable fuel source for the future? This issue of Hydrocarbon Processing fo. tion sector by 2023—many regions are along with the strategies of several India increased its ethanol blending rate focusing their efforts to increase the use companies that are leading the charge in gasoline to 3. US ethanol production capacity has processing. ing with alternative fuels for the trans. In December 2017. The as well as the changing role of natural than 2. crystallization and selective adsorption fuels consumption into the early 2020s. which gas and alternative feedstocks in the be the leader in biofuels consumption falls under the Renewables Fuel Stan. methanol in petrol to help reduce pollu- tion.5 Bgpy in 2017. The increase in 8 Business Trends. India also plans to blend According to the International En- ergy Agency’s (IEA’s) 2017 medium- term market report on renewable energy. Part 1 examined the energy- The leaders in biofuels consumption compared to 2017. the US is the larg- efficient process design principles include Brazil. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 7 . The use of portation sectors. Although Asia will see a spike in bio. But how Although the EBP has made significant outpacing demand growth. market penetration by ethanol to date. try’s ethanol blending program (EBP). catalyst in plant operations clean fuels program. al biofuels consumption is relatively mod. details the global LNG landscape. as well. at LNG operations and developments sumption—primarily through govern. a number of into growing regions of activity.7 MMbpd by 2023. increase the use of biofuels in their trans. primarily in the transportation sector. a mestic ethanol production has increased to show how to maximize energy number of countries around the world are from nearly 14 Bgpy in 2014 to approxi. els in their total energy mix. creating a glut of supplies that could derail viable are biofuels as a major fuel source in progress. taking steps to increase the use of biofu. Asia will US EPA mandate on blending. As part of its though the IEA’s forecast increase in glob. eral years. The program. According to the US EIA. As previously mentioned.

Millions of tons per year of capacity have commenced operations. This two-part series details the present global LNG landscape. global LNG trade has surged over the past several years. . the future of LNG growth and a look at LNG operations and developments in each region around the world. This surge in the supply and demand of natural gas has led to billions of dollars of new investment in the construction of LNG liquefaction and regasification infrastructure. primarily as a feedstock for power generation. Global LNG trade is forecast to increase into the foreseeable future. Photo: LNG tanker Excelsior is shown at the dock at Freeport LNG’s regasification facility during cooldown and commissioning. with dozens of additional LNG projects proposed or under development. | Business Trends As natural gas continues to gain favor in the energy mix. Image courtesy of Freeport LNG Development.

10. Bloomberg New Ener. LNG buyers are renegotiating long-term contracts. 118% LNG supply. but it will also witness the startup of mil- the most prominent LNG exporters in the world (FIG.5%. the Middle East and the US. BP forecasts that LNG’s market share of total heavily capital-intensive terminal construction. Global growth in LNG supply to 2035. 1. 50% 1990 2005 2020 2035 Small markets. with hundreds of millions of tons still under development. 49. This trend represents a year-over-year (y-o-y) increase LNG supply is outpacing demand growth. 46% FIG. which is expected to last into the gy Finance expects total LNG demand to reach 280 MMtpy— early 2020s. 2). The ad- According to the International Group of LNG Importers’ ditional import capacity will come in the form of conventional (GIIGNL’s) The LNG Industry: GIIGNL Annual Report 2017. 197. and is forecast to grow seven The LNG glut has delayed multiple final investment decisions times faster than pipeline gas trade. 23% Kuwait. 9. FSRU. respectively. LNG sectors of the Asia-Pacific region. 49. 35. 1% Other Russia South Korea. a 6% demand increase from the previous year.com Business Trends The future of LNG—Part 1 Over the past several years. EDITOR/ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Lee. 25. global has surged in nearly every region. Soaring natural gas demand for power new LNG import and export capacity have commenced opera. etc. 25% 50 Turkey. 27. 2. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 9 .. LNG import capacity through the early 2020s (FIG. However. 17. 66% Chile. FLNG. Over the past several years. 2016. 11% 40 Italy. In 2017. 6. 8. 47% 20 Canada. 12. 101. 2016. Malaysia. global gas trade will increase from 32% in 2017 to approxi. 129. Europe. 11. as of mid-2017 demand sides has resulted in the announcement of billions of (FIG. FIG. 75% France.).g. 75% UAE.LEE NICHOLS. as LNG developers appear to be hesitant to invest in Outlook 2017. 13. This imbalance has of 2. The Asia-Pacific region remains the main demand cen- dollars of capital investment across the world. Growth on both the supply and regasification capacity is nearly 800 MMtpy. lions of tpy of new LNG import and export capacity. Source: BP. tar. 54% Taiwan. 30. 6. 36% Argentina. Australia has led the growth in new Asia-Pacific. 3). 21% 60 Qatar India. The region will not only be the leader in the con- LNG export capacity. in the next decade. according to BP’s Energy (FIDs). Part 1 of this global LNG overview will provide details on the mately 50% by 2035. new gas processing/LNG capacity According to the International Gas Union (IGU). 59% 0 Thailand. 10. 36% 10 Portugal. expanding at a substantial rate. py in 2014 to 245 MMtpy in 2015 to nearly 264 MMtpy in Even with natural gas demand increasing around the world. 21% US China. 15% Singapore. 35% 70 Africa Spain. 56% Australia UK. 40% Egypt. 5. 6. Millions of tons of ter for LNG consumption.5% and 7. 6. 80 Japan. Algeria and Indonesia for the past 15 yr. LNG trade is as well as increasing short-term purchases and spot-market deals. 36% Mexico. 43% US. LNG regasification capacity (MMtpy) by country. 37% 30 Netherlands. 16. ca. generation will be instrumental in adding millions of tons of new tions. 8. 4% Indonesia.Nichols@HydrocarbonProcessing. Canada and Latin Ameri- The global LNG export market has been dominated by Qa. 9. global LNG trade has increased from approximately 239 MMt. Bcfd Brazil. 3% Belgium. led to an oversupplied market. Australia. 7. onshore import terminals and the use of floating vessels (e. Part 2 will focus on Africa. Source: IGU. the US will struction of new refining and petrochemical capacity through significantly expand its liquefaction capacity and become one of the rest of the decade. 1).

Esri China (Hong Kong). Projects And Shareholders India has four LNG terminals in operation. DeLorme. as competition from new gas China is investing heavily in its natural gas sector. building gas distribution networks to nearly 230 cities and adding processing centers and LNG import terminals. This investment includes E&P activities. The additional supplies of natural gas will add to the country’s massive LNG import scheme. the country must build additional natural gas pipe- FIG. as spot market liquidity expands. as ing toward the nation’s LNG export projects. © OpenStreetMap contributors. METI. total energy mix from 5% in 2016 to 10% by 2020 and to 15% creases. 4. as buyers become more price-sensitive. To accomplish this goal. are forecast to eclipse 80 MMtpy. as energy deregulation expands. India will see substantial growth in all areas of its downstream 20 sector. such as power and fertilizer. petrochemicals and natural gas demand domesti- 10 cally. Source: Esri. FAO. LNG project developers will find bilateral contracts by 2030. with a total installed capacity of 40 more than 51 MMtpy (FIG. Dabhol and Kochi. and the GIS. Demand from gas- consuming industries. This ambitious target includes constructing new natural gas pipelines. Asia’s LNG buyers are renegotiating long-term LNG deals Nearly all of Australia’s downstream investments are go- and moving toward short-term and spot market pricing. line infrastructure to distribute the commodity to domestic 10 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. India is striving to move 1990 2005 2020 2035 the country to a more gas-based economy. Digital Globe. China’s LNG import capacity is forecast to 30 eclipse 100 MMtpy by 2023. increment P Corp. with Japan consuming more than 83 MMt of LNG trouble preserving their pricing power. along Middle East 70 Central/South America with a massive buildout of domestic LNG import capacity.to late-2020s. AeroGRID. To accomplish this goal. with an installed Existing. MapmyIndia. China and India’s presence in the LNG market has grown moving away from long-term deals hurts the ability of LNG substantially over the last few years and will continue to shape suppliers to secure the necessary financing to build LNG ex- LNG trade as demand increases. import Hazira. import Under construction. Planned and proposed. NPS. China will begin to receive additional piped natu- Europe 60 ral gas supplies from Russia with the completion of the Power of Siberia pipeline. the country plans to boost LNG im- port capacity from 25 MMtpy to 50 MMtpy by the early 2020s. CNES/Airbus DS. companies have invested nearly $200 B in LNG activities in ing oil-indexed LNG contracts less relevant. Intermap. China’s major initiatives is to increase natural gas in the nation’s and as the availability of LNG priced to the spot market in. more difficult to negotiate. Esri Japan.5% to 15% by the end of the decade. sion infrastructure and the construction of several LNG export Oil indexation is also becoming problematic as competition facilities. and the GIS User Community However. 4). swisstopo. GeoBase. troleum and Natural Gas. This upward trend is the result of several factors that include the country’s “Make in India” program and its need to curb emissions. is rising FIG. USDA. User Community. Business Trends Japan and South Korea have long dominated the LNG im. IGN. The country’s goal is to increase the share of natural gas in the country’s total energy mix from 6. The country’s “Make in India” program is driving re- fined fuels. LNG import terminals in China. According to the IGU’s World LNG Report 2017. By the end of the decade.. the nation is utilizing natural gas for power generation over coal. India aims to invest $100 B in its natural gas sector by the early 2020s. Southeast Asia is projected to port facilities. One of pipeline projects increases. Complementing its thirst for crude oil and petrochemi- cals. import capacity of 25 MMtpy. steadily. IGN. and high-cost sellers will have port market. Source: BP. Bcfd port terminals in operation. According to the Ministry of Pe- 0 280 560 Miles Date: 12/18/2017 Sources: Esri. LNG buyers are Australia. LNG buyers year. supplies in the mid. Multinational the large drop in oil prices from mid-2014 onward is mak. Kadaster NL Ordnance Survey. NRCAN. GeoEye. Domestic natural gas con- 80 sumption has outpaced supply for several years. These transitions are in 2016 and South Korea importing nearly 34 MMt during that ultimately expected to improve LNG economics.com . China has 16 LNG regasification/im- LNG demand. 3. This dynamic could lead to a shortage in LNG become a net importer of LNG by 2035. resulting in the Other need for additional natural gas pipeline infrastructure. transmis- looking for destination flexibility in LNG cargoes. USGS. Investments in the country’s mid- stream and downstream sectors are imperative to meet bur- geoning demand. India has the potential to become a hotbed for natural gas 0 consumption over the next few years. Source: Energy Web Atlas. According 50 to the Energy Web Atlas. Global growth in LNG demand to 2035. These terminals are located at Dahej. HERE. Due to a growing population and a rising middle class. GEBCO. USGS. Earthstar Geographics. as well. completing the gas grid. Asia In 2019. the country’s LNG exports grows between sellers.

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Since the country’s natural gas production has been in de. production. If greenlighted. the $1-B. • Installing an FSRU in neighboring Myanmar. Natural gas comprises approxi. more than 300% capacity gain can be achieved. and substantially until 2025.5-MMtpy terminal mately 70% of the country’s power generation needs. DEMISTER-PLUS designs can reduce vessel diameter by 25 to 40%. The na.koch-glitsch. visit http://www.HydrocarbonProcessing. depending on the existing vessel geometry. LNG imports of the island nation.™ ® United States (316) 828-5110 | Canada (905) 852-3381 | Italy +39-039-6386010 | Singapore +65-6831-6500 For a complete list of our offices. Between 2020 and has planned to provide China with additional natural gas and 2025. in 2016 to more than 5 Bcfd by 2036. Java. import infrastructure and trans. Select 151 at www. according to BP. Business Trends demand markets. This predicament has left Thailand with very few op- er generation capacity. In revamp situations. Indonesia will need to rely on imports from approximately 5 MMtpy in 2017 to 20 MMtpy by 2025. According to Thailand’s Ministry of Energy. along with mission and distribution networks throughout the country. The generation needs. nation’s LNG import buildout includes: ment of more than $150 B. The Thai government has also liberalized Sumatra. would begin operations in 2022/2023. The dramatic forecast in LNG LNG and FSRU vessels to increase natural gas imports. Thailand still cannot keep up with increasing • Installing the nation’s second LNG import terminal. www. and includes the construction of • Doubling the capacity of the Map Ta Phut LNG gas-fired power generation. and Thailand’s natural gas demand is forecast The facility would link into natural gas pipelines KNOWLEDGE & EXPERIENCE DEMISTER-PLUS advanced design two-stage mist eliminator Proven designs set the standard for performance. YOU CAN RELY ON US.com/RS 12JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. the island nation is scheduled to add 45 GW of pow. India is also looking into utilizing LNG as a to increase. Indonesia will rely on compact and small could reach nearly 35 MMtpy. 7. to satisfy the rapid increase in demand. supplies.com/trademarks.5 MMtpy by 2020. This ambitious goal will require an invest. Due to the landscape according to its Ministry of Energy.koch-glitsch. The DEMISTER-PLUS mist eliminator is an advanced engineering design with high capacity characteristics that is often used to minimize the size and weight of new vessels or increase capacity in existing vessels. The country plans to add 35 Myanmar is using more natural gas to meet domestic demand GW of new gas-fired power stations by 2020. Indonesia’s demand for natural gas is forecast to increase the country’s oil and natural gas reserves are decreasing. which can reduce vessel weight by 50 to 75%. a separate project that could raise the terminal’s Although the country has increased domestic natural gas capacity to 11.com . This program is part of the country’s move to attract its natural gas market to allow third-party suppliers to partici- more private-sector investment to develop the nation’s power pate in the country’s natural gas infrastructure buildout. tions other than LNG imports. In new plant construction. By 2036. tion’s natural gas supplies are at a shortfall of nearly 9 MMtpy. This demand growth is being spurred piped natural gas from Myanmar may soon cease flowing— by the county’s 35-GW program. the bunker fuel and transportation fuel to help curb emissions in country’s natural gas demand is expected to rise from 4. import terminal to 10 MMtpy in 2018.71 Bcfd inland waterways and populated cities. visit our Web site. The country plans to significantly boost its imports of LNG cline for several years. This imports has spurred the construction of additional LNG im- infrastructure will be built in Balikpapan. Sulawesi and port infrastructure.com For related trademark information. Coupled with that aspect. domestic natural gas demand.

Bay. Canada’s NEB has received more than 40 export li- tion. and has approved 35. The total cost of these projects is nearly $150 B. but no meet future demand.000 MW. Additional LNG import projects include First gas to the US by pipeline. with a total capacity of 7. Spain. to the country’s National Energy Board (NEB). Two additional FSRU vessels have been announced. responding to specific customers’ needs. Canada has exported almost all its excess natural power plant. Due to the country will install a $2-B LNG import terminal in Batangas US shale gas boom. Iran and India. power generation plants that the country intends to build. To increase natural gas imports. Canada has lost a major revenue stream. The additional supplies are imperative to nal. feedstock for these facilities. This prov- to fuel its gas generation plans. The country is also working with India’s These projects will allow Thailand to substantially boost Petronet to build a 7. Brazil. Your partner in stainless steel premium tubular solutions. the country plans to add a signifi. 3-MMtpy onshore LNG terminal (which may uti. LNG export capacity at a total cost of more than $170 B. Sri Lanka approved the construction of To export LNG. of LNG export capacity at a total cost of more than $20 B. Two FSRU vessels. Canada has announced nearly 300 MMtpy of Corp. INDUSTRIAL & TECHNICAL STAINLESS EXPERTISE GLOBAL SUPPORT TAILOR MADE ADVANCED SERVICES Tubacex group. With a worldwide network of own warehouses in Central Europe. The major- Bangladesh has ambitious plans to build out its LNG in.com TUBACEX SERVICE SOLUTIONS (TSS) The largest global master distributor of seamless stainless steel and high nickel alloys tubes and fittings.5-MMtpy onshore LNG receiving termi- its imports of LNG. try has announced more than two dozen LNG export terminal lize an FSRU in the interim). The country’s East Coast has announced more than 42 MMtpy cant amount of new LNG import capacity. publication. ity of the nation’s LNG export terminal projects are located on frastructure. In total. the ditions are within the gas processing/LNG sector. will begin operations by • The installation of a 5-MMtpy FSRU in the Gulf 2019. and the startup of Energy World projects. in the Bay of Bengal. The plant will include the construction of a 200-MW Historically. however. cense applications since 2010.com/RS Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 201813 . France.’s Pagbilao LNG import terminal. The majority of the country’s proposed capacity ad- enough to satisfy demand. The majority of this demand is due to new gas-fired land-based terminals. Ban- The Philippines’ natural gas demand is expected to triple gladesh is conducting site selections for up to five additional by 2040. To provide enough nal capacity. timetable has been provided for their construction. The facility will be near Co.HydrocarbonProcessing. operations are not likely to begin until after 2020.5 MMtpy. In September 2017. sharing your challenge One Group of leading companies: Select 152 at www. Business Trends that would ship natural gas supplies to Thailand. To offset this financial hit. The country needs additional natural gas supplies the country’s West Coast in British Columbia (BC). The imported natural gas will be used for power genera. TSS is able to provide immediate product availability and a wide range of services. However. the country’s domestic natural gas production is not Canada. Lastly. tubacex. At the time of lombo. Houston. Bangladesh plans to double its ince accounts for more than 250 MMtpy of LNG export termi- power generation capacity to 24. these producers must submit an application a new LNG regasification terminal. the coun- Gen’s $1-B. Middle East. These vessels will be located near Moheshkhali Island of Thailand.

5 MMtpy in 2006 to more than 37 MMtpy in 2015. In BC. Only one Canadian LNG project has begun ex. The facility is expect- ply and demand has continued to grow. Recent trends area. Since ports—FortisBC’s Tillbury plant exported the first Canadian natural gas is a more reliable source for power generation.cudd. The facility cording to BP.1-B LNG-to-power project includes the con- activities. such the country’s LNG imports have been sluggish since 2015. EFFICIENCY MATTERS RESTORING PLANTS QUICKLY AND SAFELY Managing turnarounds on time and on budget can present many challenges. but other LNG projects. transport. moored 4 mi off the southern coast of the country. emission rating helps reduce emissions. To shift from the use of fuel oil and diesel for power gen- Brazil’s demand for natural gas has doubled in the past eration to natural gas. the dual mode pump features a heat recovery system that reduces fuel costs. Panama is building a new LNG import terminal in Costa Many Latin American nations have announced additional E&P Norte. In the short term. visit us at www. projects will see completion by the end of the decade. The project will utilize an FSRU 18. and allow the country to reduce its dependence and steam turbines. but these operations will take time to materialize. With a 1.5 million scf capacity.A. will provide natural gas to the Puerto Rico Power Authority’s mand decreased to nearly 33 MMtpy in 2016. Latin act as a feedstock for a 190-MW gas-fired power plant in the America is focusing on gas for power generation. In struction and installation of an FSRU. saving you time and money. Pa. WWW. Our fleet of pumping. However. Triton LNG. The $1. Like much of the rest of the world. The region’s gap between natural gas sup. The country Central Aguirre Power Plant. have been gas from Bolivia. Due to the country’s recession. storage tanks and a 350-MW combined-cycle power plant. Aurora LNG. Brazil’s LNG imports are abandoned.COM Select 153 at www. only the Woodfibre LNG proj. and will likely continue ed to begin operations in late 2018. the Old Harbour LNG project will utilize an FSU to receive LNG imports. ac.com/RS 14 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. eration plants and natural gas import infrastructure. Business Trends Canada has the potential to become a global leader in LNG relies heavily on hydroelectric power for electricity genera- production and export. many Latin American nations will continue to ture.HydrocarbonProcessing. and its EPA Tier 2/C. unless additional investments are made in more E&P activities.452. A as the Douglas Channel LNG. on burning oil for electricity generation. transmission infrastruc- the short term. a way to subsidize power generation during droughts.R. The country’s natural gas demand has increased from Offshore GasPort project. The imported natural gas will Latin America. and storage vessels accommodates a wide range of flow rates for HPHT. For more information about our industrial nitrogen solutions. ect has reached a positive FID. In Jamaica. natural gas de. Cudd Energy Services helps you meet these challenges head on. the queen storage vessel tank reduces frequent deliveries that cause congestion.2800. natural gas has been gaining in prominence as at a standstill.B. Puerto Rico has proposed the Aguirre decade. It is unlikely that any of the province’s terminal likely to remain small. This gas-fired plant will replace the oil-burning plant in in industrial power production include combined-cycle plants Old Harbour.com . However. and can be safely replenished without interrupting pumping operations.CUDD.com or call us at 832. open-flame environments that get you back online safely and efficiently. rely on piped natural gas and LNG imports to satisfy demand. Equipped with emergency shut-down devices. but the nation’s projects are literally tion. large part of this fall in LNG imports is due to cheaper piped cific Northwest and Prince Rupert LNG projects. Bra- LNG shipment in late 2017—with nearly all of the remaining zil has increased its investments in both gas-fired power gen- projects delaying FIDs.

MMbpd 98 World supply 4 World demand Forecast 20 96 3 94 2 10 92 1 0 90 0 88 -1 -10 86 -2 -20 84 -3 Nov.-16 Dec. Source: EIA.-17 Oct.-17 Mar. US$/bbl 60 Dubai Fateh 30 Source: DOE 20 50 10 40 0 30 -10 -20 20 Nov.-17 Nov. Asia product markets weakened slightly due to regional diesel 12 supply-side pressure and weaker jet/kerosine and fuel oil demand.Rhodes@HydrocarbonProcessing.-16 Jan. Singapore volumes. Texas Inter. marketed production.-17 Sept.com.-17 Mar. MANAGING EDITOR Mike.com Industry Metrics US product markets improved. US$/bbl 20 Jet/kero Fuel oil 8 Dubai 10 Light sweet/medium sour 6 crude spread.-17 -2 -4 Nov.-17 2012-Q1 2013-Q1 2014-Q1 2015-Q1 2016-Q1 2017-Q1 2018-Q1 Source: EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook.-17 Oct.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. December 2017.-17 Mar.-16 Jan. Selected world oil prices. WTI.-17 Dec. gasoline Diesel W. all rights reserved.-16 Dec.-17 Mar. European product 18 markets strengthened on domestic gasoline demand growth.-17 Feb.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. wet gas.-16 Dec. copyright 2017.-17 Feb.-17 Feb. gasoline Gasoil Stock change and balance. Brent. sour grades 30 (Urals and Dubai) spread.-17 Sept.-17 Feb.-17 Sept. Rotterdam Margins. Cracking spread.-17 Mar. gasoline Gasoil Cracking spread. US Gulf weakening seen in the middle of the barrel amid large diesel import 14 Brent. MMbpd Rotterdam cracking spread vs.-16 Dec . despite 16 WTI. 2016–2017* opportunities amid unexpected refinery outages. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 14–A .-17 Oct.-17 * Material published permission of the OPEC Secretariat. 2016–2017* Prem.-17 Sept.-17 Nov. US$/bbl 70 40 Jet/kero Fuel oil Brent Blend Oil prices.MIKE RHODES.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. US$/bbl Urals 4 0 2 -10 0 -20 Nov.-17 Dec. 2016–2017* 80 60 50 Prem.-17 Feb. US$/Mcf EU 16 Singapore Production.-17 N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N 2015 2016 2017 World liquid fuel supply and demand. % 60 4 40 3 90 Monthly price (Henry Hub) 2 20 12-month price avg.-17 Dec.-17 Sept.-17 Feb.-17 Nov. 4 Nov. 2016–2017* 6 100 80 5 US Japan Gas prices.-17 Nov.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. supported by higher export Global refining margins.-16 Jan.-16 Jan.-17 Oct. MMbpd 100 5 30 Jet/kero Fuel oil Cracking spread.-16 Dec. 2016–2017* Brent dated vs.-17 Nov.-16 Jan.-17 Nov. US$/bbl Oman.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. Oman.-17 Dec.-17 Oct.-17 Sept. US$/bbl US Gulf cracking spread vs. US$/bbl Supply and demand.-17 Mar. 2016–2017* 102 6 40 Stock change and balance Prem.-17 2015 2016 2017 Production equals U. OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report. 85 Production 1 0 0 80 S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N Nov.S.-17 Oct. Bcfd 95 Utilization rates. December 2017 Singapore cracking spread vs.-16 Dec.-17 April-17 May-17 June-17 July-17 Aug. 10 8 An expanded version of Industry Metrics can be found 6 online at HydrocarbonProcessing.-17 US gas production (Bcfd) and prices (US$/Mcf) 100 7 Global refining utilization rates.-16 Jan.

.com . The majority of these projects focus around the world.Nov.. Market share analysis of active October 2016–present gas processing/LNG projects by activity level Detailed and up-to-date information for active construction projects in the refining. The US is continuing all active downstream projects..com Global Project Data Hydrocarbon Processing’s Construction Boxscore Database phases.Sept. The Asia-Pacific region continues to lead in total active is tracking more than 330 active gas processing/LNG projects gas processing/LNG projects. nearly 70% of its LNG export building boom.Dec. with more than 70 MMtpy of active gas processing/LNG projects are in the preconstruction liquefaction capacity under construction.Aug. gas processing and petrochemical industries across the globe | ConstructionBoxscore..April.Dec.Nichols@HydrocarbonProcessing... When analyzed.Feb.June..- 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Boxscore new project announcements. January 2018 32 30 30 29 29 11% Engineering 25 20 20 21 14% FEED 17 29% Under construction 12 11 12 10 10 7% Study 39% Proposed/planning Oct.. 19 Canada 36 Europe 180 61 US 212 39 28 Middle East Africa Latin America Asia-Pacific Total active gas processing/LNG projects by region.May.Mar...Oct.com 14–B JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. This sector represents approximately 26% of on utilizing natural gas for power generation.July. EDITOR/ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Lee.LEE NICHOLS.Nov.Jan.

More recently. One me. Substantially improved cartridge versions are chanical seal provider’s modular cartridge approach greatly fa- available today. mechanical seal-based glands were more difficult to assemble than the traditional segmented carbon glands. steam turbine gland replacement. Securing the rotating parts to of solid operating experience. 3) and other favorable attributes. 1. True leakage prevention has never been achieved be- cause turbine shafts are made from steel. and a de- cline in bearing distress events was also reported. steam is occasionally used as a cool- ant in certain mechanical seals. simplicity of design (FIG. FIGS.com Dry gas sealing technology replaces segmented carbon rings in small steam turbines Since the late 1800s. The early success- es in adopting high-temperature mechanical seals as upgraded FIG. single-piece and/or segmented carbon gland components to reduce and prevent steam leakage along the shaft. potential users are of no help if they continue to emphasize or demand lowest-cost parts and forget to factor in the negatives of higher maintenance and reduced availability with segmented carbons. steam turbines were discarded and replaced by bellows-type. Source: AESSEAL Inc. Source: ASSEAL Inc. However. innovation and longer machine life are not always their top priorities. HEINZ P. some equipment manufacturers are deeply vest- ed in the spare parts market. Some products excel through ern dry-running compressor gas seal technology. The carbon rings in the glands of several small FIG. highly advantageous metallurgies are now being marketed for High-temperature steam seals make extensive use of mod. Then. Physics.. The experi- menters compiled their findings and briefed at least two steam turbine manufacturers on these enhancements. This second use led to in-plant research and cost justifications in the early 1980s favoring alloy steel bellows seals over snug-fitting carbon in the gland area. however. and the steel’s coeffi- cient of thermal expansion differs from that of carbon. Modern cartridge-style steam turbine gland. and many of these (e. BLOCH. Cutaway view of a modern steam turbine gland showing glands in small steam turbines required fitting “loose” parts dry gas seal heritage. RELIABILITY/EQUIPMENT EDITOR Reliability Heinz. some good news has come to light: An innova- tive manufacturer offers a highly cost-effective upgrade option that replaces the old steam turbine gland seal. 2.g. thermodynamics and hy- draulics combine to explain the interacting processes. clean steam can also be introduced to create the thin fluid layer between station- ary and rotating seal faces in dry gas seals. the manufacturer and shipped ready for installation. small steam turbines have incorpo- rated bushing-type. Moreover. Of course. the initial response of the manufacturers was lacking in enthusiasm. Since superheated steam at 500°F/260°C is cooler than the 740°F/400°C hydrocarbon liquid transported in the refinery’s pipestill bottoms pumps. 1–3) point to years cilitates different flange designs.Bloch@HydrocarbonProcessing.1 As a result of these replacements. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 15 . high-temperature gas seals. A small amount of steam rushes through seemingly insignificant gaps at sonic velocity—an erosive effect known as “steam cutting” that causes the gap to widen. both steam turbine main- tenance costs and steam losses were notably reduced. Therefore. Assembly by the user-purchaser hardened shafts is easily achieved with a clamping sleeve that is no longer needed because the parts are cartridge-mounted by functions like a collet in the headstock of a lathe. from component seals. as today.

Not only does the cartridge seal approach extend steam It is important to realize that conversions and upgrades of the turbine life. in mechanical engineering. P. among them 20 comprehensive books on practical machinery management. His professional career commenced in 1962 and included long-term assignments as Exxon Chemical’s Regional Machinery Specialist for the US. Elsevier Publishing. 3. Elliott. pumps.HydrocarbonProcessing. bon glands with a DGS-derived cartridge seal will continue to tiveness in lowering maintenance costs for gas compressors. volves reductions in maintenance labor. For more insight on subjects of similar interest. “Mechanical seals for medium-pressure steam turbines. and H. Texas and Westminster. Cost avoidance usually in- tion of cartridge-style steam glands. Petrochemical Machinery Insights. May 1985. Reliability As dry gas seal (DGS) technology has demonstrated effec. Replacing leak-prone car. consider taking a look at Reference 2.. oil mist lubrication and practical lubrication for industry. Select 155 at www.. BLOCH splits his time between Houston. He has authored or coauthored more than 700 publications. He is an ASME Life Fellow and was awarded lifetime high-temperature elastomers. compressors. HEINZ P.com/RS 16JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. 1st Ed. registration as a Professional Engineer in New Jersey. failure avoidance. failure analysis. Cross-section view of a modern steam turbine gland showing Mr. Massachusetts. steam turbines. UK. Since these enhancements also improve plant safety. Nevada.2 able. attract risk-averse and reliability-focused refineries and other its successful migration to other fluid machines and applica. H. and Cambridge. Colorado. Las Vegas.” presented at the ASLE 40th Annual Meeting. LITERATURE CITED 1 Bloch.com . tions in small. P. 2 Bloch. H. Bloch holds BS and MS degrees (cum laude) non-rotating flexing components sealed and centered by U-cup style. FIG. Equipment uptime is extended by the implementa. Oxford. scheduling and the val- ue of downtime. payback period of 4 mos–6 mos.and medium-sized steam turbines was foresee. but it will also reduce the amount of maintenance type explained in this column generally result in an estimated required. they should be given serious consideration as a facility embarks on the path to greater reliability and profitability. 2016. process plants. Source: AESSEAL Inc.

Once this information is collected and compiled. At the end of the day.2 reconfigured with mergers. Good grooming. While experiences/training may be assigned by a instead take a horizontal transfer to gain adjacent skills. strong and quick introduction. PA Active career management A career involves a series of decisions and experiences that to differentiate oneself in the marketplace. environmental regulations • A minimum of three references and political events.1 For example. Additional tools include: scribers with free email alerts on any number of topics. in the marketplace by virtue of skills. he has been successful in improving and positioning organizations for growth across varied industries. such experiences can put a person in the In addition to “hard” technical skills. presentation and a career without relying on others. This can supervisor who believes that it would be beneficial for career prove to be more advantageous in the long term and position development. For example. it is essential prepared. if a corporation has announced plans to be prepared. it can also result in the con. it is essential to continually augment a skill set. Bethlehem. tion. ShureLine Construction. The importance of networking cannot oil price fluctuations have become intense and industry is being be overemphasized. gineer may seek to increase their knowledge of instrumentation and has completed two executive development programs in the US and abroad. Shahani. Google provides sub. Mr. Simon & Schuster. engineers and memorize a 2-min. and an MBA. Throughout their careers. These trends are widespread across most market sectors. geographies and functions. such as report writing. modesty is not a virtue—employees must be prepared to sell themselves. both of which are Pennsylvania.” Hydrocarbon solidation of redundant job positions at other locations. and other information services. ate horizons. ter market research and economic evaluation. can be a potential result. a process en. refining and chemical industries. In the context of career management. Therefore. In this turbulent standing of the required resources needed to reach that destina- and uncertain environment. This “sharpening of the saw” is an effective way He is dedicated to mentoring and assisting others in career development. In the workplace. and G. others could be an unexpected surprise. knowledge and educa- oped. To survive and prosper in this challenging Construction. MCDERMOTT. “An engineer’s guide to networking. a clear and detailed plan is need- but this column focuses on the chemical and refining industries. Previously. including • A single-page resume that should be results oriented specific companies. Delaware. Plan. improve a person’s knowledge. it is important for other roles. open a research and development (R&D) center or engineering REFERENCES office in a country where costs are lower. an engineer has to sell their This is especially true in today’s dynamic marketplace. them for a more gratifying career for a longer period of time.” which entails translating agement strategy. not be held back by a fear of failure. and J. industry trends and geopolitics. employees may be transferred into tion. developing adjacent and complementary skills. 1989.” which refers to experience and specializes in industrial gases for the energy. McDermott earned a BS degree critical to developing new R&D projects. he was Business Development Manager at Linde environment. To succeed at business. It is important to actively manage to master soft skills. an R&D engineer should make a conscious effort to study and mas. tive. as well as numerous customer. Shahani has more than 30 yr of industry This is sometimes called “sharpening your saw.” It is critical to make a should develop an understanding of the markets. In the digital world. While this article is not meant to be prescrip- big picture events and understanding their effect on an individu. Employees must actively pursue what they want. However. C. S. a Black Belt certification in lean manufacturing. Engineering North America. JOHN MCDERMOTT is a General Manager for a technology company in Bethlehem. punctuality and a professional de- to maintain a broad general awareness beyond our own immedi. and controls. “elevator pitch. It is also important to have a clear under- Bayer and Monsanto. it is essential for everyone to take charge of their career and al situation. describe experience and skills. and detail how that employee can help a prospective employer/ mation is easy to obtain from the Internet. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 17 . Kenton. Mr. For example. less of the outcome. ed. R. GOUTAM SHAHANI is Vice President of sales and marketing at ShureLine Skill development. meanor determine the first impression. this infor. an MBA. then regional growth 1 Covey. climate change. Processing. economy. in mechanical engineering. 2 Rentschler. He holds BS and MS degrees in chemical engineering. Everyone should prepare Market awareness. specific skills must be devel. To survive and prosper. competencies and personal the smartest career move may be to pass up a promotion and fulfillment. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. it is equally important optimum position for success. Regard. and departments may be employees to consider how they can differentiate themselves downsized. Management G. For the past 25 yr. networking. acquisitions and the inevitable down- sizing. it is critical to be in this globally interconnected economy.. For some employees. where ideas and capabilities. • A LinkedIn profile with recommendations. Each individual should tailor their own active career man- the next step is to “connect the dots. SHAHANI. the final destination. Likewise. Events around the world can also impact an individual’s career Once an interview has been arranged. August 2016. and all employees should have an actionable plan. A good plan is like a roadmap that shows the clear path to Recent examples of high-profile mergers include DowDuPont. and Praxair and Linde.

Selective and process debottlenecking to meet target quality and Hydrogenation (SHU) and Selective HDS (Post-treating) of product slate. or shortcomings of different process scenarios and test for ProMax replaces traditional boiling-based pseudo.www. and (3) fast evaluation of multiple scenarios for optimization. performance losses. optimize blend stocks and yields in gasoline production ultimately.com/RS . Uncertainty on future refining margins requires Amine Treating. ProMax AutoKinetic wppm.bre. refiners to place a significant emphasis on flexible planning Catalytic Reforming. The AutoKinetic® reactors in ProMax variable pricing structures and crude availabilities while make use of these species to generate reaction sets and getting ready to meet TIER 3 gasoline sulfur levels.HydrocarbonProcessing. The complexity of the conventional layered AutoKinetic reactors can be used to debottleneck and approach reduces the efficiency of scenario testing and. for sulfur. reduces the likelihood of identifying bottlenecks trains. Planning models make extensive use of linear programming to maximize margins through stream allocation and blending optimization.com ProMax® process simulation software by Bryan Research & Engineering. New regulations are expected to strain existing reactors provide users with a suite of rigorous reactor refinery configurations at a time when the US gasoline models to simulate refining and other hydrocarbon reactor market is increasing its reliance on low-octane feedstocks processes. Naphtha Hydrotreating (Figure 1). Under conventional approaches. imbalances. demand. Isomerization. layout. Likewise. Reid vapor pressure. TIER 3 regulations will reduce their corresponding rate expressions according to the strict corporate average sulfur in gasoline from 30 wppm to 10 chemical rules governing the process. Optimization routines then evaluate multiple scenarios within the process Combined with the ProMax Scenario Tool™. The process simulator links together performance criteria from multiple Figure 1 equipment models in a process layout. The rigorous process equipment models are utilized to provide generalized performance criteria to the process simulator. these models occur at different levels. Accurate prediction of future plant performance in the form of process vector yields is critical. (2) comprehensive simulation of the process layout.Process Insight: Advances in Reactor Modeling Streamlines Gasoline Production Debottlenecking Beginning in 2017. All of these distinct models may be moved into a ProMax users have the ability to evaluate the benefits and/ single simulator using ProMax®. Alkylation. In refinery simulations. LLC BR&E Engineering Solutions for the Oil. Gas. and octane number. A typical process layout for Gasoline Production from shale and experiencing a turnaround in domestic would include Blending. For more information about this topic and other capabilities of ProMax® please visit our website . Caustic Treatment. Refining & Chemical Industries Select 66 at www. the successful estimation of process vector yields must include: (1) rigorous modeling of process equipment. Fractionation. Catalytic Naphtha. By translating regulatory frameworks into targets and locating the optimum configuration. surplus capacities as well components with species that provide chemical meaning as to identify opportunities for new capital projects under to oil fractions.

I value Example 1: A machinist’s intuition. time. The rubber-type coupling connecting the operation considerably. which provided an been much less productive throughout allowed us to pinpoint the cause of the adequate design margin for his gearbox.000 the repairs and tighten the tolerances at enced shaking from the unbalanced forc. “Some of my crankcase explosion. the operators and cult to accomplish without his input. watch the film. was twice what he was planning to use. even though he is not a trained A newly installed vibrating conveyor was be performing a torsional analysis for a engineer. A locating pin had Example 2: The “nuts and bolts” of experience prompted my company to become loose on one of the lines. His recounting of the curvature errors to me. SOFRONAS. best works were achieved with the efforts but his wealth of experience told him it of others. measurements quickly con. I never would have noticed it. which benefited his career. I was working for a company A subsequent analysis showed that that repowered ships with 3. A large gas insert a clause in the warranty to pro.com Case 99: Pooling knowledge and experience builds personal and team success With the help of an excellent mentor. A friend was designing a gearbox and structures at the start of my career. es. When I realized how ab. A technician with 20 yr of ex. He told me sissippi River on a seagoing tugboat to logical thinking patterns. the ship experi. Example 4: Experience informs in- I became adept at analyzing equipment perience in repairing large compressors tuition. he was correct in his assumption. the tugboat was a good application for tails. and mechanic who had been involved in I noticed that my colleagues had unique pors in the crankcase. which caused several blades to eral thousand linings were produced per misalignment. we used the measurements our company’s engine. failure. power (hp) diesel engines. he was able to locate gears and bearings had been used at low- Of course. In this way. my task was to sail the Mis. my career.”1 A few examples serve to illus. one of the propellers hit the curvature on truck brake linings. I would have which was more extensive than my own. During this time. an error would occur in company reviewed the measurements to deliver the barges. CONSULTING ENGINEER Case Histories http://mechanicalengineeringhelp. that he believed the spring hangers were monitor the operation. was brought in to assist. The ma- The machinist was asked to supervise the engine to the gearbox was smoking chinists and operators for the various the job because of his knowledge of the so badly that the crew doused it with wa. automotive engine for use on an experi- a point where I thought that anyone in pressor. it agreed to perform hours. the problem with the gearbox had hap. tect us should a similar condition occur. for adaptation to a high-performance using analytical techniques. He said that the “real” engineering work. loose. higher gear loading.000-horse. and calculations. I asked him if he had mechanical engineering who did not per. As I have said. Sev- high stresses and weld cracking with the a log. The conveyor fix would have been diffi. The captain continued sailing day. The technician’s various racing activities during his life- talents that I did not have. Higher hp at lower speeds meant Without this realization. machining lines were called together to equipment. because of his breadth of expe- experiencing extensive cracking. and his ticed by the unit machinist. spotted the problem immediately. I was investigating a manufactur- Together. High-speed photography at 10. ed. a hot spot. A senior crewman explained that During the viewing. new system. Since I would his input. surd it was. practical knowledge of the compressor. ter to cool it.” He tapped critical performed a gear train analysis on the form detailed calculations was not doing bolts with a hammer to see if they were gearbox and bearings. My management wanted to know if Example 5: The “devil” in the de- firmed this belief. There came As we crawled around inside the com. Halfway through ing production line that was machining to build an analytical model to predict the journey. misaligned. er speeds. the technician showed me the mental aircraft. causing incident investigation. which took several the curvature. “tricks of the trade.2 After the manufacturing break off. machinists explained the cause of the pened previously. which had ignited the oil va. several loose and broken bolts. I was called in to determine good thing. but the case explosion at a remote compressor Witnessing a failure can sometimes be a people who worked the lines every day housing site. frames/sec was recorded. this was simply young. ar. periodically. rience based on trial-and-error. the parts to move as if they were ground- engine compressor experienced a crank. He did not consciously realize this fact. We found that a loose cylinder rub. Example 3: Lessons learned from would be acceptable. which slowed its own cost. Engineering A. as no. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 19 . trate the truth of this statement. I began to take a closer look bing against the piston skirt had caused My friend was a master machinist at the work habits of those around me. and at an hp measurement that rogant thinking. the cause.

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and even if engineers could achieve these goals. preventing downtime and. while ensuring minimal man-material movement. with safety as the paramount concern. in turn. TRIVEDI is an engineer with Hitech iSolutions LLP. organizations shifting to 3D plant others. of separation between two particular cooling tow- 15 and injured more than 180 personnel. Ms. numerous loopholes USHA B. However. and routing and interference maintenance. ing in a higher return on investment (ROI). takes into account the facility’s operational safety. increas- History has proven that accidental fatalities may have been ing the profitability of the entire plant. oil and gas in- Mechanical Engineers (ASME). plant design engineers must increase their ent versions of CAD software that can help engineers to subtly plant layout design capabilities by adopting the right software meet these requirements are available. Traditional design blueprints understanding of simulation data. among ten irrelevant. cidents can bring. the oil and gas industry has still faced numerous fa. we often per. forming and testing their designs can be realized. novel features such as specific piping and instrumenta- of nowhere. engineers and architects. reveal numerous features that address the design process consid- ering the aforementioned needs. loss of life and environment contamination. which provides design support services across and potential errors would exist. Engineering USHA B. we can retroactively examine the acci. Long-term gains with software solutions. something as simple as having fire extinguishers within reach). An investigation re. in timely maintenance. However. quick construction and operation. talities. most industries. an engineer’s goal of per- processes and operations lie significant safety concerns from po. Ahmedabad. contractors. etc. manufactur- Fire Protection Association (NFPA). easy checks on a single CAD platform saves time and allows a deeper access to safety equipment. For example. Trivedi provides insights for solutions for the tion of any popular software (e.. even vealed that among the major causes of the explosion and en. Modeling the layout of an entire plant takes time. tion diagram (P&ID)-driven modeling. interference checks and quire transportation and numerous processing avenues through data validation are of greater interest to plant design engineers. A quick examina. An entire tential explosions. maximum profitability. 3D modeling is not a new standards set by regulating organizations such as the National concept. ers. Differ. for training and equipping manpower with the required skills. designers. modeling and layout to ensure better ROIs do face challenges. A modeled layout serves avoided if a more efficient layout arrangement in the plant as a predictive maintenance handbook for plant managers. 3D CAD modeling and 3D rendering. The combination out that addresses safety. so heavy An EnergyWire review of federal labor statistics states that.g. easy of equipment modeling. the American Society of ing. which killed mum of 50 ft. Apart from basic 3D CAD ceive them as an enormous oil rig engulfed in flames in the middle modeling. etc. investment will be needed for technology infrastructure and “The oil and gas industry has more deaths from fires and explo. TRIVEDI Practices Hitech iSolutions LLP. had been in place (e. P&IDs. Within these complex With the right software platform. result- Plant design engineers must equip themselves to deliver a lay. pipes and ducts in a typical plant setup. Without CAD. have utilized it for some time. the globe. A CAD system will show an error and will prohibit fur- regulations and standards that resulted from a failure to invest ther design progress until the error is resolved.g. needed to meet these requirements would be considerable. some international standards require a mini- dent at the Texas City refinery on March 23. minimal downtime. Despite stringent adherence to Shifting to 3D CAD plant layout.” This suggests that within 3D modeling during plant layout will increase foresight and en- the core of plant construction lies plant layout planning that courage predictive maintenance before potential breakdowns. and machine failure. This begs the question: What is the highest priority in Advance software modeling and sketching tools have rigor- plant design—safety or profitability? ously improved front-end engineering design (FEED). have been replaced by computer-aided design (CAD) systems To avoid the loss of life and financial damage that fatal ac- that incorporate all of these goals into one application. AutoCAD or SolidWorks) will process challenges faced by fabricators. and the Hazard Analysis and dustry practices and standards follow a legacy that is old and of- Critical Control Points (HACCP) preventive approach. including construction.. Gujarat. CAD will ensure that this requirement is maintained. plant? To answer this. if the plant design engineer mistakenly overlooks this aspect of suing fire were weak compliance or non-compliance to safety design. the time platform for their needs. Consequently.. conversion. With years of experience in CAD drafting. plant layout can be planned according to standards and specifi- What can possibly go wrong in designing a processing cations. sions than any other private industry. efficiency Predictive maintenance essentially means avoiding accidents and maintenance. The cutting-edge technology essentially enables plant design engineers to correctly design Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 23 . India CAD for plant layout: Being right by being safe When we think of oil and gas industry hazards. midstream and downstream processes re. 2005.

as well as the changing role of natural gas and alternative feedstocks in the production of refined fuels. economic and logistical challenges and opportunities. and the increase in biofuels output and use. Iowa ethanol plant started ethanol production in April 2007. Nations around the globe are also increasing the use of biofuels to mitigate carbon emissions. come with technical. . Photo courtesy of Valero. | Special Focus ALTERNATIVE FEEDSTOCKS/BIOFUELS Natural gas is the fastest-growing fossil fuel. The January Special Focus examines advances and challenges in gas processing and biofuel technologies. Photo: Valero’s Charles City. The bio- refinery processes approximately 48 MM bushels of corn per year into approximately 135 MMgpy of denatured ethanol. Growth on both the supply and demand sides has resulted in the announcement of billions of dollars of capital investment. The boom in natural gas production and demand.

One cost- effective strategy for refiners to meet re. MEESALA. demand for diesel The other modern green route to DHT without any short-term loss of cat. This process route etable oil with diesel in a DHT reduces from vegetable oil is added to the die- has the advantages of using known refin. DHAR. V. P. The diesel oil fractionator produced at the 10% blend ratio for both Diesel edible and nonedible vegetable oils was FIG. The resource used in the production of biofu. jatropha oil was co. or FAME) is the primary route for nonedible jatropha oil or palm oil could accelerate the need for alternative energy producing biofuels from vegetable oils. reactor temperature). like pressure drop Hydrotreating vegetable oils to pro- are intended to combat the challenges and catalyst stability. Hydrogen Gas for purification and recycle tions (e. found to meet all diesel specifications. C ⎯ O ⎯ C ⎯ R3 cause it is nonedible and does not compete with the food chain. come from government regulations that performance indices. Biodiesel production from transester. Block diagram of diesel hydrotreating process. L.. RAO and G.g. renewable hydrocarbon that Coprocessing could also improve blending limitations in diesel. since FAME contains oxygen ing renewable oils. information on long-term existing engine and fuel specifications. potential for an alternative processing However. increase the amount of low-cetane light from vegetable oils that are 100% misci- unlike FAME. index improvement. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 25 . The end product is a strategy for renewable energy sources. cycle oil (LCO) processing in the DHT. ble in the diesel pool and compatible with Most mandates for renewable fuels Furthermore. O O ⎯ newable fuel mandates is to use existing ⎯ H2 H2 C ⎯ O ⎯ C ⎯ R1 C C ⎯ CH2 ⎯ OH R ⎯ CH3 refinery assets to make green fuels with H2 –H2O minimum CAPEX investment. FAME produced drotreat vegetable oils. Ltd. alyst activity. VALAVARASU. Reaction mechanism of hydrodeoxygenation of vegetable oil on sulfide catalyst. (O2) in its molecular structure. Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Corporate Research and Development Center. 1. ratios ranging from 5%–15% were tested. KUMAR. Vegetable oil blending FIG. concluded that a 10% blend ratio of tions and depleting fossil fuel resources yl ester. O R1 ⎯ COOH R RH –H2O ⎯ In this case study. requires dedicated. From the experimental study. H2 + –CO C ⎯ O ⎯ C ⎯ R2 C3H8 + R2 ⎯ COOH processed with non-hydrotreated diesel oil Catalyst + at diesel hydrotreater (DHT) conditions O R3 ⎯ COOH –CO2 RH ⎯ in a pilot plant. Extensive product quality testing was carried out on Straight-run gasoil the hydrotreated product generated in the Light cycle oil Hydrotreating Gas liquid high-pressure pilot plant. stringent environmental regula- ification of vegetable oils (fatty acid meth. Coprocessing of 10% veg. along with diesel. Europe. Coker naphtha reactors separator Naphtha For comparison. SRIGANESH. Production of renewable fuels in existing refinery assets: A cost-effective coprocessing strategy Vegetable oils are a renewable biomass with an incentive of 2–6 units of cetane Growing need for green fuel. is continuously increasing in Asia and producing renewable bioalkanes is to hy. duce hydrocarbons of diesel boiling point posed by greenhouse gas emissions and long-term planning. be coprocessed in an existing refinery solutions. it was mand. Jatropha oil was chosen be. Special Focus Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels P. C. it has high-quality. at varying process condi. As a mandate. ery conversion technologies for upgrad. continuous growth of global energy de- els. P. The need is fully fungible with diesel and suitable the cetane number of diesel and help exists to produce hydrocarbons directly for use in engines without blending limits. refined palm oil Kerosine was also coprocessed at the same con. G. However. dependability on fossil fuels and shows sel pool as a renewable fuel component. 2. range is one of the attractive production increasing energy demand. Product Kerosine ditions in the pilot plant.

wt% 10.35 oils have no limit for additional sulfur Density at 15°C. scale (FIG. sure of 250 barg. The Feed C SRGO + 15 wt% palm oil ides. Properties of feed components processed at DHT conditions etable oils (FIG. fuel specifications. The aim of the study was Feed A SRGO + 5 wt% palm oil Vegetable oils are composed mainly to ensure the feasibility of processing veg- Feed B SRGO + 10 wt% palm oil of fatty acid triglycerides and diglycer.1 0. 3) to increase the cetane Test name Refined palm oil Jatropha oil Straight-run diesel of product diesel is beneficial. The typical process flow diagram for a diesel hy- drotreating unit is shown in FIG. Feed D SRGO + 5 wt% jatropha oil drotreating. MJ/Kg 45.5337 processed in the DHT to improve cetane. This process involves the hy.1481 jatropha and palm oil. into ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with less than 10 ppm sulfur and cetane of 51. The reaction mechanism minimum CAPEX investment.719 that can give good diesel yields and maxi- Oxygen content. Another approach is to coprocess with 25 cc of catalyst. such as Total acid number (TAN) 1. LCO.1 1. 2. both jatropha and palm oil were copro- TABLE 2. the O2 removal takes place Feed E SRGO + 10 wt% jatropha oil in one of three ways.238 0. jatropha.555 6.. with very low cetane. to increase the cetane of LCO. decarboxylation by re. In this study.392 39. Coker naphtha Hydrotreating Gas liquid Ltd. and liquid feed flow was are then hydroisomerized to meet cold nomically viable production option with maintained by a high-pressure pump. such as straight-run gasoil.202 39. 3..e. palm oil. Experimental setup of vegetable oil coprocessing unit. cessed in the pilot unit are listed in TABLE 1. coprocessing of veg- TABLE 1. moval of CO2 and/or decarbonylation by design temperature of 550°C and a pres- structure. etable oil with diesel in a DHT unit. °C 10 0 1 hydrotreating capacity. Edible palm oil was also coprocessed in the pilot plant. Types of feed used for the hydrodeoxygenation of vegetable cessed with straight-run diesel at pilot oil on sulfide catalysts is shown in FIG. Process background. These hydrocarbons in existing refinery units to create an eco. °C 6 –3 –3 Most of India’s refineries have high diesel Cloud point. Each reactor was loaded drodeoxygenation of vegetable oils—e.4 8. which consumes a higher amount of hydrogen (H2). Vegetable Heating value. Block diagram showing coprocessing of vegetable oil in the DHT. controllers. More aromatic saturation is required FIG.3334 0. Nonedible vegetable oils. and free fatty acids. and the results were compared with jatropha to observe the differences in the quality of fuel produced. 4. Detailed fuel quality testing for the coprocessed product was carried Renewable diesel out to ensure compatibility with existing FIG. Typically. removal of CO. a two-reactor system.com . etc. As Feed F SRGO + 15 wt% jatropha oil of ways—i. The flow properties. wt% 0.324 62. can be easily co- Viscosity at 25°C.9187 0. hydrodeoxygenation by shown in FIG.7 Undetectable mize capacity utilization. 4). These units mainly process LCO of 20 wt%–30 wt% of total feed.9157 0. H2 flow was maintained by mass flow linear hydrocarbons. The reactors have a routes for biofuels using existing infra.—to these vegetable oils. coker naphtha and kerosine. In such cases. the pilot plant comprises removal of water. g/cm 3 0. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels Hydrogen Gas for purification and recycle The objective of this work is to ex- plore the coprocessing of nonedible jat- Straight-run gasoil Light cycle oil ropha oil in a Hindustan Petroleum Corp.853 content enhancement in the combined feed. This unit usually processes feedstocks. mm2/sec 76. (HPCL) research and development reactors separator Naphtha Kerosine (R&D) pilot plant facility at various pro- Vegetable oil cess conditions similar to those of a com- Product Kerosine fractionator mercial unit.g. 4. Pour point. reactor temperatures were maintained by 26 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. Vegetable oils are opportunity feeds Sulfur content. 1. when properties of the feed components pro- these feedstocks are subjected to hy. or in a combination Laboratory study parameters. rapeseed oil. along with distillates.

Detailed product analysis of hydroprocessed palm oil blend.4 1.828 60 60 0. Propane make during coprocessing of palm oil. positions of product gases were measured 575 Nm3/m3 H2-to-hydrocarbon ratio at Apart from propane. and product gases were ana. gases were found to contain significant blends of vegetable oil (TABLE 2).2 4. 40 70 60 30 50 40 Sulfur Sulfur 20 30 10 20 10 0 0 SRGO and 330 Feed A and 330 Feed B and 330 Feed B and 340 Feed C and 330 SRGO and 330 Feed D and 330 Feed E and 330 Feed E and 340 Feed F and 330 Wt% of palm oil and reaction temperature. types of feed. Results and discussion. gested that the final product includes hy- sured using a wet gas meter. Product sulfur of coprocessed palm oil samples.5 0. O°C Density at 150°C. the material balance of Product liquid was analyzed to determine produced from decarboxylation and de- the pilot plant was maintained at ±1%. 10% and 15% vegeta.0 0.2 alyzed to ascertain the diesel fuel blending and 8. °C HHV.6 5. conducted using 50 ml of diesel hy.826 50 50 Property value Property value 40 40 0. plant experiments were conducted with lot plant were analyzed using a refinery Liquid products from each of the seven three feed blends with each type of veg.4 C1–C3 mol% in product gas 1. The liquid different temperatures (312°C–342°C). oil (FIG. which are tank. MJ/kg Cetane index Pour point. including neat SRGO and etable oil—i.0 3.4 wt% O2 amounts of propane.4 mol%–1.e. lot plant at 80 bar separator pressure and drocarbons from a bio-based source. 6. 1). This compatability. from 0.2 0.0 0. Offgases from the pi. °C FIG.824 30 30 0. gm/cm3 Viscosity at 25°C. respectively.816 SRGO Feed A and 330 Feed B and 330 Feed B and 340 Feed C and 330 SRGO and 330 Feed D and 330 Feed E and 330 Feed F and 330 Feed E and 340 Type of feed and processing temperature Type of feed and processing temperature. Liquid product characterization.820 10 10 0 0 0.5 0. MJ/kg Cetane index Pour point. drotreating catalyst in a hydrotreating pi. °C Wt% of palm oil and reaction temperature. 8.0 3. FIG. some traces of CO and CO2. reaction mechanism (FIG. A set of pilot plant experiments was bone cleavage into C3.818 -10 –10 0.5 1. The first criteria to be met and jatropha oil. the offgases using a refinery gas analyzer. were an- ble oil.0 4. based on the feed blend ratio. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 27 . which sug- Reaction product gases were mea. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels a bronze-lined furnace that kept isother. along with SRGO of 10.6 2. FIG. ethane and product was collected in the product using all of the feed blends prepared. 5. mm2/sec Density at 150°C. 6). 9. FIG. 7. The pilot Gas analysis. offgas analyzer.0 Feed A and 330 Feed B and 330 Feed B and 340 Feed C and 330 Feed A and 330 Feed B and 330 Feed B and 340 Feed C and 330 Wt% of palm oil and processing temperature.5 Propane mol% in product gas 1. °C FIG.8 2. 5%. gm/cm3 Viscosity at 25°C. as shown in the mal temperature inside the catalyst bed.830 70 70 0. Product sulfur of coprocessed jatropha oil samples. and the com.7 wt% O2 and containing palm oil mol%. 10. °C Wt% of jatropha oil and reaction temperature. carbonylation of fatty acids in vegetable lyzed for extra propane make.. 80 80 0. For all runs. mm2/sec FIG.0 0. Major hydrocarbon components in offgas. mainly contained methane. O°C HHV.822 20 20 0.0 0. FIG. 5 shows that the off. fuel quality. Detailed product analysis of hydroprocessed jatropha oil blend. 1. finding suggested the triglyceride back.5 1. was the sulfur specification of 50 ppm.

He has handled capacity expansion For more information. Valavarasu is responsible for building the state-of-the-art hydroprocessing lab at HPCL’s R&D center in Bangalore. petroleum/refining processes. He has published or presented approximately 50 research works for several international journals www. Ltd. He has 5 yr of research experience in hydroprocessing. C. at a start-of-run temperature of 330°C the coprocessed product. viscosity. RAO is Chief General Manager at HPCL’s R&D center in Bangalore. oil with diesel in a DHT unit reduces the areas of interest include process intensification and total acid number (TAN). The liquid treating. G. all of the parameters for help increase the amount of low-cetane fuels hydroprocessing. and holds a patent better than. Dr. cetane index. or +1 (713) 520-4426 refineries. A 10% blend ratio of noned. point. Rao source to track active construction projects in the refining. cetane index. She has worked in world-class R&D centers and refineries around the world. biomass pyrolysis and gas both vegetable oils were on par with. pour dependability on fossil fuels and provides hydroprocessing technology development. and has published approximately and is more powerful than ever before! 80 research papers in international journals. scope. He holds a Market Intelligence for the Global Refining. includ. development (HPCL’s R&D) hydroprocessing group. in chemical engineering from the IIT at Roorkee. was droisomerization. indicating complete removal of O2. delayed coking and biomass pyrolysis. As shown in tane number of diesel by 2–8 units and She has more than 10 yr of experience in renewable FIG. region. or LCO processing in the DHT.com and conferences. PRADYUT KUMAR DHAR is an Assistant Manager lyzed by elemental analysis to determine Takeaway.Davis-Nichols@GulfPub. Dr. Ltd. He is also responsible for the development • Project details on thousands of active projects and global construction and commercialization of several products contracts. which were processed need for further hydroisomerization of to publish this article. at Hindustan Petroleum Corp. and his ing heating value. He holds an MTech degree in chemical engineering range of O2 was found in any of the sam. without any short-term loss of catalyst Kanpur and a BE degree in chemical engineering Other important parameters. His research work OJECT INTELLIGENCE THE FUTURE OF DOWNSTREAM PR also led to the commercial application of several processes in the refinery. All product samples were ana. in the area of green fuels. PEDDY V.ConstructionBoxscore. The cetane im. (FIG. cloud point and cold filter plugging an alternative processing strategy for re- point. Gas Processing/LNG Industries and has more than 26 yr of research experience in petrochemicals. He holds • Daily updates for new and updated projects a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Osmania University in Hyderabad. biofuels and resid upgrading. 7). • Advanced search that filters the listings by project type.ConstructionBoxscore. Petrochemical and PhD in chemical sciences from the IIT at Bombay.’s research and the residual O2 content. He holds a PhD in chemical engineering from Anna University in Chennai and has more than 22 yr of R&D experience in refining processes. the neat SRGO product. were measured and compared with newable energy. visbreaking. PRAMOD KUMAR is a Chief Manager at HPCL’s R&D center in Bangalore. indicating no The authors thank the management of Hindustan Petroleum Corp. He holds an MTech degree in chemical engineering from the IIT at Kanpur. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels The sulfur specification was met for all alkanes produced from fatty esters in the to 10 wt% vegetable oil does not signifi- palm oil blend ratios up to 15% (FIG. processed in an existing refinery DHT from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at ples. including contact information for key personnel and processes. now reaches further outside of India. The cold cantly affect catalyst stability. both inside and processing. and has worked in various capacities in the operations and technical Logon to www. pure SRGO hydrotreating. research. density. the most reliable catalysis. undertaken as a separate study. although engineering and technical services in the areas of provement was a result of the long-chain this study has shown that coprocessing up fluid catalytic cracking. Coprocessing of 10% vegetable from Jadavpur University in Kolkata. She graduated the results from product analyzed from Coprocessing could improve the ce. contact: J’Nette Davis-Nichols at and fuel quality upgradation projects at both Jnette. 10. petrochemical. VALAVARASU leads the hydroprocessing group as Deputy General Manager at HPCL’s R&D center in Bangalore. product meets cold flow property speci. 28 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. Hydrocarbon Processing’s Construction Boxscore Database.com. (HPCL) for granting permission 15% jatropha oil. 9 and FIG. The most important performance fications without requiring additional hy- parameter for diesel. gas holds more than 26 patents. hydrodeoxygenation process. LAVANYA MEESALA is an Assistant Manager at HPCL’s R&D center in Bangalore. No detectable ible jatropha oil or palm oil can be co. He has more than 16 yr improved by 2–8 units compared with Long-term catalyst stability should be of experience in process design. GANDHAM SRIGANESH leads HPCL’s R&D center investment and more in Bangalore as Executive Director of R&D. whereas the product sulfur was slightly flow properties of the coprocessed prod- higher than 50 ppm for the products uct samples were on par with the neat ACKNOWLEDGMENT obtained from feedstock blends with SRGO product sample. 8). activity. the neat SRGO product. He has published and presented several technical papers at national and international forums.com and take a free demo! divisions of HPCL’s Visakhapatnam and Mumbai refineries. LNG and solids industries throughout the world.com . He has been • The weekly Boxscore Update e-newsletter with new listings and trends analysis associated with HPCL since 1982.

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2018 HILTON NEW ORLEANS RIVERSIDE | NEW ORLEANS. Connect with high-level peers to share common experiences and real-world solutions for our most pressing challenges. INFORMATION-RICH SESSIONS — Economic.#AFPMAM | AFPM.org/Conferences/ REGISTER EARLY AND SAVE $100 Save an additional $200 by securing your room at the Hilton New Orleans Riverside using the AFPM room block. Emerging Technologies. you’ll get direct access to and learn alongside the thought leaders who are shaping the future of refining and petrochemicals. tech-centric conversations. Forbes. Commercial and Regulatory Issues. LA For two days.ORG march 11–13. . during and after a natural disaster. and more For a complete schedule of events. visit afpm. Economic Leader. Process Safety. Entrepreneur and Author NETWORKING LUNCH WITH TECH TALKS — Grab lunch and join one or more of these interactive. Editor-at-Large and Global Futurist. JOIN US FOR A POWER-PACKED EVENT OPENING KEYNOTE — Rich Karlgaard. GENERAL SESSION — Hurricane Lessons Learned from Harvey Followed by Breakout Sessions focused on circumventing disruption before.

the gas is pretreated to remove any Raw gas Inlet Hot regeneration Mercury to Fractionation Offgas to acid gas disposal impurities that interfere with processing or separation gas removal unit that are undesirable in the final products. Halifax. burners and pumps—are pro. equipment. removal and mercaptans removal recovery liquefaction ity that removes the liquids and routes the removal (if required) raw gas to the processing circuit. vided.1 ppm regenerators. Nova Scotia. S. contact towers. Carbon dioxide < 50 ppm including compressors. using refrigerant. In these processes. all of these posable adsorbents for mercury removal. While each facet of the LNG produc. carbons. Gas Processing Consultant. equipment is used to achieve separation ditional expenses in maintenance. which is made up FIG. Port Washington. WINES. molecular sieve are essential to maintain continuous oper. New York. Hydrogen sulfide < 4 ppm cation pretreatment unit operations— ables unit operations to run efficiently. to provide the stabilization Sour water to stripping cooling needed to condense the liquids. In special and distillation towers for NGL recov- common in many feed gas purification cases..g.1 mol% of pentane and heavier hydro. TRIFILIEFF. 1. 1). MOKHATAB. Canada. and is completely liquefied. ery and fractionation into hydrocarbon operations and can cause severe problems lium or nitrogen) is desirable. Recommendations for separation To achieve the levels of contaminants Total sulfur 30 ppm equipment and best practice contaminant listed in TABLE 1. Finally. Subse- quently. mostly of methane and contains less than Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 31 . Liquid and solid contamination issues are steps may not be necessary. metal-based dis- ation and to meet product specifications. separators. components. reduced production capacity section of the plant plays a critical role TABLE 1. various with equipment fouling. Tail gas Flue gas Sulfur recovery Incinerator nant issues in an acid gas removal unit in treating an LNG production plant and protecting Mercaptans to sulfur a cold box in a natural gas liquids (NGL) Sulfur Mercaptans recovery unit recovery plant. raw gas Gas dehydration LNG to storage/ Acid gas Mercury NGL Natural gas transport is first separated in an inlet reception facil. In a typi- cal LNG production plant (FIG. and O. he. amine contactors and regener- fectively purify the feed gas. tion plant is important. Nitrogen < 1% levels are discussed. Pall France. real case histories are provided CO2 H2S recycle that show troubleshooting and practical approaches to solving amine contami. in treating the gas to meet final product of contaminants in LNG production Details of how these contaminants specifications required by the natural gas Contaminant Allowable level affect different equipment in gas purifi. tions are utilized: gas compression. adsorbent beds. Depending beds for water removal. heat ex.1 The specifications to be met Mercury < 10 ng/Nm3 changers. Condensate to Liquid products NGL are also removed from the dry sweet Condensate storage and export Treating/drying natural gas. Paris. equip. are listed in TABLE 1. Pall Corp. Typical allowable levels and even unscheduled shutdowns. bulk (LNG) requires a number of stages to ef. H. Special Focus Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels T. These stages genic section to approximately –160°C ators for acid gas removal. the removal of other gases (e. the gas treatment ment repair. a number of unit opera. liquefaction unit. on the quality of the feed gas. recovery Acid gas Water to disposal Gas treatment components. is further cooled in the cryo. France Optimize LNG production through contaminant mitigation—Part 1 The production of liquefied natural gas 0. and treating units The remaining gas. This section also en. Overview of LNG production process. leading to ad.. thereby avoiding shutdown or damage to Water < 0.

lar sieves (zeolites) are commonly used nant levels low and enabling the overall type flooded oil compressors can lead to in gas and liquid hydrocarbon streams process to function effectively. natural gas and hydrocarbon condensate Molecular sieve bed Fast pressure drop increase. The presence of fine lead to harmful vibrations. downstream equipment. corrosion inhibi- heat exchangers. and to The use of high-efficiency particle re. be- TABLE 2. tors and hydrate inhibitors. liquid-liquid coalescers and at < 6-mos intervals.4 loss of amine solvent and excessive use of antifoam chemicals causes fouling of downstream processes. cating. Effects of contaminants on gas processing equipment come a bottleneck to production. quent and costly inspection/maintenance prevent both foaming in the regenerator moval filters. lube chanical damage to the molecular sieve material over time and. by the mixing of the liquid solvents with These materials include carryover saltwa. poor mass transfer. leading to frequent Equipment impacts from contami. Severe cases can involve catastroph. as well as to re- acid gas removal process.com . For centrifugal compressors. use 10-micron absolute filtration. foaming lecular sieve beds. Liquid hydrocarbons can lead to coking or foul- Equipment Effects of contaminant ing/blocking of active sites and reduced Compressor Sticking valves. corro. The presence of mercury molecular sieve life. high frequency of thermal regeneration and increased energy costs. other detrimental materials compressors can face challenges from gas gases (CO2 and H2S) with alkanol amines may be present that must be mitigated. carryover amine from the the inlet streams. increased maintenance for cleaning and adsorbents are typically used to remove replacement parts. an oil-gas separator to avoid fouling of cryogenic separations and extremely low ful effects of contaminants on that equip. in some cases. The contactors are used In addition to the contaminants listed oil designs. off-spec product and increased maintenance. where heavy hydrocarbon tions. which can lead to keep total suspended solids to a low level from the inlet gas pipeline (i. Free water in the inlet ment is given in TABLE 2. Depending on the well source and region. contami. Particle removal filters are used to moval units and well treating chemicals intake/exhaust area. A list of oil entrainment downstream and require for gas processing operations that require major equipment and the potential harm. A brief discussion follows of the sates. A sulfur-impregnated. corrosion sticking valves and partial bypasses. contamination. Most of the taminants can lead to fouling.3 Screw. contact towers. formation of heavy hydrocarbon residue. a 2-yr maintenance-free period. ic failure. For reciprocating com. the best practice is to stay in and hydrate inhibitors). corrosion products. re. mercury contamination. One study2 found that at least 20% of gas in columns. downstream oil contamination from aerosols in natural gas streams and the flooded screw compressors (precooling stage) causes fouling need for high-efficiency liquid-gas co- of heat exchangers. Reciprocating and centrifugal to treat natural gas for the removal of acid in TABLE 1. carryover of amine and liquid hydrocarbons mercury (Hg) can be present in both to sulfur plant. centrifugal or screw-type flooded erator columns. routine applications involve fre. have been documented. effective way to remove hydrocarbon liq- residues can be created. pumps. Compressor protection. the range of 1 ppm–5 ppm solids and to action products may form. Molecu- strated to be effective in keeping contami. reduced processing capacity. especially in nants can deposit on the rotating blades. Use of liquid-gas and carryover into the acid gas stream. fractionation columns. High- thermal regeneration processes and heat leading to imbalances and harmful vibra. in the amine. efficiency liquid-liquid coalescers are an exchangers. exchangers used in LNG precooling and Condensate and Fouling in the internal trays and reboiler. alescers to protect molecular sieve beds Amine contactor Foaming. tems can lead to the premature replacement 32 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. saltwater. Amine regenerator Foaming. using coalescer technology. acti- NGL fractionators efficiency. Pumps Fouling of rotating parts and increased maintenance Free water in both liquid and gas sys- for cleaning and replacement parts. stream can adversely affect the molecular Contaminants that come in with the inlet sieve performance. protect these contactors. Amine contactors and regenerators. hydrocarbons from condensation. coalescers can protect compressors for Molecular sieve protection. reduced processing capacity. poor flame patterns and damage to furnace. regen. vated carbon bed or metal-based catalyst/ Low-NOx burners Fouling of burner tips. poor separation liquefaction. well treating fluids. poses a health threat to humans and can cause damage to brazed-aluminum heat Mercury removal catalyst Increased pressure drop and short bed life. uids from the rich amine stream. gas may include hydrocarbon conden. These con- erator towers. geous to protect mercury removal beds by increased maintenance and increased energy costs. carryover solids pressors. premature breakthrough. regeneration cycles that can cause me- nation. of contaminants in the piston cylinder side.e. mercury removal beds industrial compressors are of the recipro. partial bypass and deposits on rotating blades drying performance. Additionally. including compressors. due to unwanted solids and liquids in Liquid-gas coalescers can be used to sion products. moisture content. and carryover in the contactor and regen- and low-NOx burners. Both methods Heat exchangers Fouling of internals. Mercury removal unit protection. reduced NGL recovery rate (cold box). liquid reciprocating compressor failures were ing to enhance mass transfer. short liquid streams. how contaminants affect them.. are non-regenerable. various pieces of equipment listed and oils. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels goals. and it is advanta- poor heat transfer. liquid-gas coalescers has been demon. with either trays or pack- ter from gas production pipelines. mo. the primary issue is the buildup cover any carryover solvents on the outlet from the molecular sieve and mercury re.

6 with sup- burner nozzles can become a costly task. Fouling of size range on a finite statistical basis. corrosion placement part costs. their internal structures. A release of collected particles is likely port layers that prevent pleat collapse with multiple banks of burners requiring to occur if the structure of the medium is occurring in conventional surface-type burner tip replacement or frequent clean. as or adsorption. separation mechanisms. a surface or fractionation train can be the inlet gas sep. conditions. such as bridging Low-NOx burners. or it can come after the precooling many liquid streams in the LNG plant. on a single plane. making replacement tion in capacity for cooling. However. The differences be- Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 33 . removal units (MRUs). well as to accelerated corrosion rates and mized. however. it can cause damage to type of filter will collect particles finer flow through the pleat height. Non-fixed random pore depth types Hybrid—pleated depth. heat exchangers for cleaning. 2 shows that the crescent- ing. in release of collected particles that are small- and lower) or by further fractionation in turn. a vacuum suction hose causes increases in pressure drop across the medium is tortuous. Surface types of filter media. In the The source of the hydrocarbon feed to the Pumps. and fractionation separations. and the flow path through difficult. leading to a reduc. The separation of par- step and before the final LNG liquefaction. curved or crescent-shaped. can be used. hydrocar. particles larger than the largest-rated par- or methanol). Depth me- tal concerns for low and ultra-low NOx filter media. in manufacturing so that quantitative re- on the economics and gas composition. no generally accepted rating sys- ers (also known as cold boxes) can be of filter medium. heat exchangers can lead to reduced recov. Condensate traveling in gas increased maintenance intervals and re. Depending loss in revenue of recovered NGL. discussed in the following sections. While particles smaller than the larg- the formation of stable emulsions and the Separation equipment. these finer particles are more collapse. heat exchang. Fixed random pore depth have evolved to describe the filtration Heat exchangers. Non-fixed random pore dia with fixed pores can be constructed so emissions. been successfully demonstrated. They also the convective surfaces and poor furnace than its pore size. The effect on the mechanical depth filter media depend principally on that the media can be pleated. such that pore dimensions can enlarge as filters. left side). The latest gen. of filter medium or a thicker single layer nately. such particles will not pass downstream. Moreover. in. under impulse sustain a longer service life without pleat performance. Typically. options exist for the separation of particu. left unchecked. however. if the flame patterns are the pressure drop increases. This. to trap particles within the interstices of holding capacity per area of the medium Burners are used for many gas pro. bon condensates and liquefied LNG. this These filters can retain some particles spent bed material will need to be shoveled can cause mechanical damage. Only a few filters on the mar- moved to protect the columns. be fouled from corrosion products. The use of a special pleating struc- also used in many refinery operations ness sufficient to trap particles in a given ture allows for laid-over pleats that are and in ethylene production. This gives combined benefits of the generation. lead. Unfortu- faction and NGL recovery. displacement pumps are used to move screen filter is one in which all pores rest arators. the the heat exchangers. compared to a conventional tri- alescers to protect low-NOx burners has likely to be released by a filter with pores angular pleat (FIG. leading to e. the structural portions of the medium als to clump together. organic degradation product formation. They nance worker in a full HAZMAT suit. propane and ethane as valuable products. Various rating systems sistent furnace performance. including amine and glycol re. type filters consist of either several layers capabilities of filter elements. and some manufactured membranes. They are constructed of non-fixed media of a thick. Centrifugal and positive strict definition of the term. as well as reduced A surface or screen filter will stop all inhibitors and hydrate inhibitors (glycol reliability of operation. including the amine solvent. Solid contaminants can lead to wear and ket today qualify as true surface filters— lar sieve dryers and cold boxes used in tear on the pump internals. This design design of the burners has been to create the filtration mechanisms of inertial im. Examples of this is much greater than a simple. by providing a cessed in a simple stabilization stage by ing to the higher temperatures needed to filter medium with sufficient thickness. ery of NGL and excessive shutdown of the also contain pores larger than their remov- creasing costs and worker safety issues. allows for increased surface area while re- smaller orifices that are more prone to paction and/or diffusional interception taining the depth media. ticles from fluid depends largely on direct Aqueous contaminants need to be re. FIG. woven yarns and filter. Fixed random pore depth types of Removal ratings. flat surface cesses. leads to increased energy costs. pipelines will pick up saltwater. Fouling also cannot distort. interception. molecular sieve regeneration loosely packed fiberglass. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels of mercury removal beds by coating active from molecular sieve dryers or mercury do their job. When used in lique. after clumping. veloped to meet stringent environmen. so that the dirt- contaminant fouling. 2. Such filters are depth style and surface type. They depend heavily on tem exists at the moment. Fouled by adsorption as a result of inertial impac- and scraped out of the vessel by a mainte.5 leading that can enlarge. as er than the removal rating can be mini- distillation towers to separate out butane. Furthermore. Heat exchangers in the amine loop can moval of particles larger than a given size hydrocarbon condensates will be pro. A number of est pore may be stopped because of other need for liquid-liquid coalescers. These conditions lead to ticle. tion and diffusional interception.. the flash evaporation to remove volatiles (C4 make the necessary heat transfer. molecu. leading to al rating. which often fouled from carryover from fines released the mechanism of direct interception to confuses filter users. late solid contaminants from liquids. pore size is controlled Fractionation towers. there is no guarantee that eration of burner designs has been de.g. filter media. to greatly reduced maintenance and con. and are constructed so that sites and causing some types of bed materi. Also. even under impulse conditions. can be ensured. every shaped pleats (right side) allow for even affected by fouling. the process. type of media are felts. The use of liquid-gas co. woven wire mesh and woven cloth.

Schultheis and M. T. S. a contaminant is intro. Comparison of filter cartridge largest hard. sales and a nominal rating of 10 µm will retain all unit. Trifilieff. “Optimize NOx reductions facility- to enhance the perceived performance of wide. 3 shows that 30-μm absolute-rated THOMAS H. medium (such as fixed random pore depth a PhD in chemical engineering from Columbia facturers rely on a nominal filter rating. FIG. Geibel and T. Drainage Gulf Professional Publishing. Flow 2 Smith. μm Absolute rating. Part 2 of this article. V. 2 wt% of presence of the test contaminant. C. University. K. He joined Pall Corp. Wood. J. New Orleans. an NGL recovery plant. 24 cartridge. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels LITERATURE CITED Pleat ruching Outer wrap 1 Mokhatab.. WER type) cartridge to a 30-µm absolute rated 5300. 4 Terrigeol. What test is used will depend on the who has been actively involved ter manufacturer. November 3–4.. the a reference contaminant with known par. A. duced upstream of the filter element and. layer Louisiana. Hopkins.” Such a rating can liquid-liquid coalescing. development projects.com . spherical particle that will pass at Pall Corp. J. M. Flow 3 Wines. It will also present case his. T. Middle East and ingful way to measure filter effectiveness. Y. tories of troubleshooting for amine con. Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas. The NFPA defines Senior Marketing Manager and Senior Staff Engineer absolute rating as: “The diameter of the for the Scientific and Laboratory Services Division FIG. 1983. 5 Wines.e. rather than Next month. technology. size or larger. 1996. work in the natural gas industry. Prior to assuming this role. Bahrain. of processing plants. Many filter manu. “Principles of filtration. S. while the effluent stream & Asset Protection (FTAP) Group from the 30-µm absolute-rated cartridge in Port Washington. be assigned only to an integrally bonded technical publications and has given numerous presentations at professional societies. and is a member of AIChE.” Compressor Work Shop. will discuss coalescer Manager for Pall Corp. Outer cage A.” US Patent 5543047.’s FTAP group upstream and downstream is a more mean. He holds Nominal rating. Africa regions. A fil. It is rarely well-defined and ing industry. Canada. he was 0 contains no particles larger than 30 µm. gas processing and chemical industries. the effluent flow (i. 48 1-μm nominal-rated their filters. Ontario. handbooks published by Elsevier in the US. which has been defined by the National Several recognized tests exist for es- SAEID MOKHATAB is a world-class Fluid Power Association (NFPA) as: “An tablishing the absolute rating of a filter. 2. and is a specialist in the fields of liquid-gas and tween nominal and absolute ratings are ing in the filter element. some filter manufacturers continue to Conference of Gas Processors Association—GCC 56 use only a nominal rating because it serves Chapter. Wolff.” been rated by a “challenge” system. ticle size distribution of silica particles) is held technical advisory positions for leading A given nominal rating of a filter means pumped through it. or even most particles of 10 µm or larger. J.’s Fluid Technologies 8 µm in diameter. H.. the filters have precommissioning and startup not reproducible. Scientific and Technical Report. R.” Hydrocarbon Processing. based on the removal of manufacturer. Number of particles in effluent to assign an absolute rating on a non-fixed A. He has flow downstream of the filter) is analyzed. J. April 28. and has received a number of that 98 wt% of the contaminant above the influent and effluent are examined for the international awards in recognition of his outstanding specified size has been removed. both the professional journals. and O. and because it is impossible filter cartridge 6 Stoyell. He has presented on gas In practice. tions.. B. Afterward. The graph in FIG. concentrating on design. refining and chemical industries. to ap.7 separation and purification experience serving the through a filter under specified test condi. ter is challenged when a suspension of a processing technologies worldwide and has authored or coauthored nearly 300 technical publications. S. Note: This is a gravimetric test. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Director of Product Management. 1997. expert in the natural gas industry arbitrary micron value assigned by the fil.. Williamson. in 2000 and has served in It cannot be assumed that a filter with taminant issues in an acid gas removal various marketing. 2015. S. Hybrid pleated depth with crescent-shaped pleats. the contaminant has passed downstream.” Pleat Filter Support collapse medium NPRA Maintenance Conference. D. Mak. “High-performance liquid-gas Core coalescers for compressor protection. Counting particles pear in February. Dr. Particle size. 2014. 34 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. M. WINES is a Director filter cartridge the effluent stream from the 1-µm nomi- 16 of Applications Development nal cartridge contains particles of up to 50 for Pall Corp. types of media or sintered metal media). societies and conferences in the field of gas processing. Wines has 29 yr of filtration. Pall Corp. for the Europe. layer Massachusetts. It is an indication of the largest open. Sarnia. 3 7 in intimate contact. 3. New York. Hanifan. In all cases. Burlington. 7 Perlmutter. readily recognized contaminant (such as including two well-known and frequently referenced subsequently. H. Lambton College. May 20–23. A.” 23rd Annual Technical 64 Yet. on the type of medium to in several large-scale gas field some percentage of all particles of a given be tested and sometimes on the process. “Millennium Petrochemicals Inc... 1999. Morris plant Support improves compressor reliability and onstream layer time using reciprocating compressor monitoring. removal ratings. “Filter with overlaid pleats 40 random pore depth type of filter. Valappil and D. refinery. and the protection of a cold box in technical assistance roles for the oil and gas. T. FIG. “Practical consider- ations for the design of adsorbent beds—Molecular sieve lifetime optimization. April 2004. OLIVIER TRIFILIEFF is the Market Sales and Business Development a particle count test.” 32 compares a 1-µm nominal rated (wound.. He has authored 47 discussed in the following sections.

well as on retrofitting existing systems but the lack of accurate data regarding the es of climate change. as well as the new policies in place. France. The shift in policy has made its mark on the investment pattern Bioethanol and bioenergy 303 91 in the energy sector—at a time when Total 7. New Delhi. dropping to Energy Outlook 2017 estimates that total (CO2 ) emissions. proving that the recent decisions of the nies. to 629 quadril- lion Btu in 2020. according to a BP Power 4. The value of fossil fuel oil produced—the US Energy Informa- and its causes is spurring the development consumption subsidies experienced a tre. or 515 MM homes/yr.5 hr for 30 d). Framework Convention on Climate to dominate energy supply. considering the calorific ongoing issue. Awareness of climate change to clean energy. and S.942 10. but also a subsidy reform per day (EJ/d). ETHAKOTA.539 study. PAYYANAD. TechnipFMC. New Delhi. with new combinations. of the sector. Identifying and total energy consumption for the coun- According to the International Energy investing in technology that will reduce try’s oil refineries exposes the negligence Outlook 2016. This will significantly impact the Biomass fossil fuel sector. CO2 emissions by source (IPCC. Mitigating sector can be a promising solution if the countries that signed the UNFCCC were climate change by reducing CO2 emis. oil production in 1Q 2017 was 97 MMb- In support of the Paris Climate Agree.175 932 mand will present further challenges due Refineries 638 798 to the constraints required to minimize environmental damage. tion Administration’s (EIA’s) Short-Term of new methods to reduce carbon dioxide mendous reduction in 2015. Oil remains the world’s lead. India. MMtpy ing fuel. This reflects not only lower fos. will Oil and gas processing N/A 50 impose greater restrictions on emissions Other sources 90 33 of CO2 . in December 2015—are burden is imposed on oil and gas compa. An approach is needed regarding new India’s oil refining capacity for 2016– Indian government represent a quantum technology that focuses on innovation. and to 629 quadrillion TABLE 1. economics of both can coincide. This is equivalent to 0. and refining are consuming almost 10% of emissions of greenhouse gases into our ergy sector investment has been attracted (approximately 9 MMbpd) of the total atmosphere.2 B homes per month (15 W for a term used under the United Nations A new approach. Iron and steel industry 269 646 The Paris Agreement’s focus on ener.8 T/yr of en. $325 B from almost $500 B in the previ. Achieve quadrillion Btu in 2012. world consumption of carbon footprint and.466 Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 35 . the aftermath fallen sharply. leap in its aspirations to face the challeng. Petrochemical industry 470 379 gy.055 exajoules ment. ous year. which is sufficient to Determined Contributions (INDCs)— light 6. Meeting the growing energy de. at the same time.9% of global Fossil fuels energy consumption. GUPTA and M. Process Number of sources CO2 emissions. as a significant monetary thermal systems to fully or partially re- in Paris. which all in both share and investment. The op- asked to publish before the 2015 United sions is not an easy task for the conven. The reason for including marketed energy will increase from 549 generate profit is the best option for oil Indian refineries in the Perform. TERI University. India is committed to tackling this sil fuel prices. Fossil fuels continue 5. India Integrate solar/thermal energy in oil and gas processing One of the greatest challenges facing investment in upstream oil and gas has and gas sector companies.887 13. roughly $1. Special Focus Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels K. but the overall The integration of renewable energy Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in distribution of energy sources is changing sources into the conventional energy greenhouse gas emissions. Oil extraction the world is climate change. 2005) Btu in 2040—a 48% increase from 2012 to 2040. accounting for 32. place fossil fuels are explored here. as 2017 was projected to be 310. The country’s balanced process that has gathered momentum in value of crude as 43 megajoules (MJ) per and comprehensive Intended Nationally several countries. pd. portunities and applications for solar/ Nations Climate Change Conference held tional sector. kilogram (MJ/kg).6 MMtpy. Cement production 1.

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

and Trade (PAT-2) cycle is their fuel con- potential and need for integrating solar/ mary parameter in deciding the total ener-
sumption itself. thermal technologies—such as parabolic gy available for the CST system. A global
As per international benchmarks, the trough collectors (PTCs), linear fresnel DNI profile is shown in FIG. 4, and can be
specific energy consumption (SEC) of reflectors (LFRs), solar towers (STs) and used to analyze the solar/thermal poten-
an Indian oil refinery is 542 Kcal/l–872 non-concentrating collectors—that can tial of a particular geographical region.
Kcal/l (kilo calorie per liter), or 5.42%– result in considerable energy gain. A solar/thermal system combined with
9.27% of total production. This means a thermal energy storage (TES) system is
that 5%–10% of the energy produced is Energy consumption in refineries. particularly effective, as it can store the
used for the production process. This is Refinery operations generally consume generated heat and can be used when solar
not an insignificant amount and therefore energy in three different forms: heat, energy is unavailable. Heat transport and
deserves recognition. Energy efficiency steam and electricity. For the same pro- storage have become a focus of research
enhancement and an increase of environ- cessing capacity, the amount of energy and can provide solutions to a variety of
mentally friendly energy resources (e.g., consumed changes depending on the re- challenges related to the intermittent na-
wind, solar, biomass) in the global energy finery’s complexity—as the complexity ture of solar energy. The three types of
mix offer a promising solution. Lower increases, so do the process steps and en- TES are sensible heat storage, latent heat
carbon emissions, increased long-term ergy consumption. It is important to un- storage and thermochemical storage. So-
profitability, higher natural gas prices and derstand the average consumption of any lar/thermal collectors are classified as
the non-availability of natural gas in cer- refinery to set a baseline for the study to low-temperature, medium-temperature
tain geographical locations are the main quantify the reduction in consumption of or high-temperature, and the suitable heat
drivers for the adoption of renewable en- conventional energy (FIG. 1 and TABLE 2). transfer media is selected primarily based
ergy. Solar/thermal technology is used in Ninety percent of the total energy on the operating temperature.
only a few areas, such as in steam genera- is used as thermal energy for the high- Low-temperature collectors can make
tion for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) ap- temperature processes: heating of feed use of refrigerants/phase-changing mate-
plications in the Middle East and North (65%) and steam generation (23%). The rials, water, water-nano fluids and water-
Africa (MENA) region. average energy consumed in each process glycol mixtures as heat transfer media.
Within oil refineries, a good share of en- and their temperature requirements are Water-glycol mixtures and hydrocarbon
ergy consumption is utilized in the name highlighted in FIGS. 2 and 3. oils are generally preferred for medium-
of “process heat.” The energy demand is When examining solar/thermal in- temperature collectors. High-temperature
met by the burning of conventional ener- tegration in refineries, it is important to systems make use of hydrocarbon oils,
gy resources such as oil and gas. Globally, consider some of those applications in nanofluids and molten salts as heat trans-
the refining sector ranks third in station- detail, along with the understanding of fer and storage media. Research is ongoing
ary CO2 emissions, as shown in TABLE 1. A the basic features of various solar/ther- for different heat transfer media—such as
typical refinery emits 0.04 metric t/bbl– mal technologies. air/compressed gases, molten metals, flu-
0.049 metric t/bbl of CO2 in processing idized solid particles and ceramics—to
light to heavy crude, which indicates the SOLAR/THERMAL achieve better properties to make them
TECHNOLOGIES suitable for storage applications. The
TABLE 2. Energy consumption of Concentrating solar/thermal (CST) main challenges for energy storage are
refineries systems use combinations of mirrors or finding a commercially viable solution
Refinery % of total production lenses to concentrate direct beam solar ra- and committing to high investment costs.
Refinery 1 8.1 diation to produce forms of useful energy,
such as heat, electricity or fuels. CST sys- Parabolic trough collectors. PTCs
Refinery 2 10
tems are mainly classified as either non- consist of solar collectors (mirrors), heat
Refinery 3 9.3 concentrating or concentrating systems. receivers and support structures (FIG. 5).
Refinery 4 7.5 Direct normal irradiance (DNI) is the pri- The parabolic-shaped collector is fabri-

140 1.2
Energy consumption, MMKcal/hr Alkylation
120 1 Catalytic reformer

100 Fluid catalytic cracker
0.8
Hydrocracker
80
0.6 Hydrotreater
60 Visbreaker
0.4
40 Delayed coker

0.2 VDU
20
ADU
0 0
Refinery 1 Refinery 2 Refinery 3 Refinery 4 0 100 200 300 400 500

FIG. 1. Energy consumption of refineries. FIG. 2. Specific energy consumption in different refinery units, Kcal/l.

36 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

cated by forming a reflective surface for ~1,300°C
concentrating sun rays to its focal line. Amine treatment Sulfur recovery Sulfur
unit unit
The receiver consists of an absorber tube ~1,000°C
Hydrogen
(usually metal) inside an evacuated glass HGU
envelope. The absorber tube is a coated ~250°C ~200°C Isomerization
stainless steel tube, with a spectrally se- Naphtha Naphtha Gasoline
hydrotreating splitter
lective coating that absorbs the solar Catalytic
C ~300°C reforming
(shortwave) irradiation well, but emits ~380°C D Kerosine
very little infrared (longwave) radiation. U hydrotreating Kerosine
jet fuel
This helps reduce heat loss. Evacuated ~350°C
glass tubes are used because they contrib- Diesel
hydrotreating Diesel
ute to reduced heat loss. PTCs are one of PRU Alkylation
the most mature solar/thermal technolo-
~350°C
gies and have been in commercial use for VGOO FCC gasoline
the last four decades. PTCs have an oper- hydrotreating FCC hydrotreater
ating range of 290°C–550°C.
Distillates Heavy fuel/
Hydrocracking bunker
Linear fresnel reflectors. LFR systems
~425°C V ~400°C–430°C
(FIG. 6) generate a line focus onto a down- ~480°C
D
ward-facing receiver. The long row of plain U Visbreaking
or slightly curved mirrors is focusing onto
the receivers. These systems are single-axis Lube oil Lube oil
plant blending
tracking, and the downward-facing cavity ~480°C Distillates
reduces convection heat losses. The cost of DCU Coke
an LFR system is lower compared to a par-
abolic trough system due to the flat mirrors FIG. 3. Temperature requirements of different sub-processes in a crude refinery (coking refinery
used and the lower requirements of the configuration).

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D I S C O V E R M O R E AT E N E R G Y W E B AT L A S . C O M
Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 37

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

supporting structure, which is mounted time, STs are a more expensive option CASE STUDIES
closer to the ground. An LFR system has than the other technologies mentioned Case studies for different high-tem-
an operating range of 250°C–390°C. here, due to the complex receivers and perature requirements for various solar/
high-temperature domains. thermal technologies are discussed in
Solar towers. STs, also known as central detail here. The absence of solar energy
receiver systems (CRSs), use hundreds Non-concentrating collectors. These at night and during cloudy days can be
or thousands of small reflectors (called collectors (FIG. 8) are either flat-plate or compensated by energy storage and a hy-
heliostats) to concentrate the sun’s rays evacuated tube collectors. Compared to brid system—a solar energy system with
on a central receiver placed atop a fixed concentrating collectors, non-concen- a backup heat source from a conventional
tower (FIG. 7). The concentrated power trating collectors can only be used in low- source—that will ensure consistent ener-
of the tower concept achieves very high temperature applications that are limited gy supply. Storage is excluded from Case
temperatures. The concept is highly flex- to 120°C. The cost is also low compared Studies 1, 2 and 3, while Case Study 4 is a
ible; designers can choose from a wide to concentrating collectors. The selection hybrid system with storage.
variety of heliostats, receivers and trans- of suitable collectors for the application
fer fluids. STs have an operating range of depends on the operating temperature of Case 1: ST systems for high-tem-
250°C–650°C, which can be extended the application. Collectors and their cor- perature process heat applications.
to 1,000°C–1,200°C by using air/helium responding temperature ranges are tabu- Traditionally, fuel oil, fuel gas and natural
as the heat transfer medium. At the same lated in TABLE 3. gas are used for heat requirements at high
temperatures. Most reactions, such as
steam reforming, catalytic reforming and
gasification, require high temperatures in
the range of 500°C–1,000°C, as well as
high heat flux due to their endothermic
nature. High heat flux and temperature
requirements make the entire process
highly energy intensive (FIG. 9).
Utilizing solar/thermal energy to sup-
ply heat to these reactions, directly or
indirectly, will be a breakthrough in the
integration of solar/thermal technology
in oil and gas processing. Different solar
thermal technologies can be considered
as integration options, but the constraint
comes with the operating temperature.
FIG. 4. Direct normal irradiation (DNI) world map (Source: DLR 2008). Technologies with high concentration
ratios, such as a central receiver system/
dish system, offer an operating tempera-
ture of 600°C–1,000°C by using heat
transfer fluid (HTF) media like air/he-
lium. Molten salt as an HTF is a viable
option for temperatures below 600°C.
A high-temperature application re-
quires a temperature of 950°C, and this
can be attained by using air as an HTF me-
dium, along with a central receiver system
with volumetric air receivers. While this is
FIG. 5. Parabolic trough collector. FIG. 7. Solar power tower.
not a mature technology, the prototypes
developed have shown a positive output.
Heliostats concentrate the solar rays
onto a volumetric receiver, which heats
the air to the desired temperature. The
high-temperature air exchanges heat in
the heat exchanger/reactor, and the low-
temperature air is returned to the central
receiver system through a blower. The
results of the case study are summarized
in TABLE 4.
A 20 MW-t (megawatts thermal) ca-
FIG. 6. Linear fresnel reflector. FIG. 8. Non-concentrating collectors.
pacity system was simulated to explore its
38 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

non-tracking compound parabolic Water tillation unit (CDU). ment of the fired heater for crude heating considered. reducing the fired heater’s load.150 MWh/ natural gas. A significant amount of heat is required to preheat Temperature range.5 MMtpy. 200–300 Parabolic trough. a PTC system has an energy collec. Because the quantity of crude pro. The addition PTC circuit. linear fresnel Synthetic oil amount of heat. tion of 930 MWh/yr/acre–1.7 MM/ in a heat exchanger by increasing the tem. The combustion of fuel oil or yr/acre. the HTF tion. including the cost for heliostats. linear fresnel Mineral oil cessed per day is large.2 m2 × 12. The partial replace- and an outlet temperature of 950°C were 300°C–400°C. a typi. Captive utility boilers are a source to four times the average footprint. the high capital expenditure (CAPEX) of heat exchanger. The integra. The conventional system was partially replaced by the proposed system with a Solar field capacity of 12 MW-t designed to heat the fluid from 302°C to 320°C. In this case study. An inlet temperature of 450°C perature requirement was in the range of from 302°C to 320°C. Operating temperature range of different collectors of crude oil production. parabolic dish Steam/molten salt cal plant processing crude with a heat re- > 650 Heliostat/central receiver Air/helium quirement of approximately 38 MMKcal/ hr was considered. Crude was further heated high-pressure steam (35 barg/360°C) of a thermal storage system to ensure a from 320°C to 380°C in the fired heater it. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels technical viability. tion is illustrated in FIG. linear fresnel Water/steam rely on fuel oil-fired heaters for preheating crude.1 acre/MW–3. and requires an investment of fuel gas also contributes to refinery emis- Case Study 2: Integration of solar/ $300/MWh (TABLE 5). 9. °C Solar collector Heat transfer fluid crude before it is processed in a crude dis. Process heating is an important part TABLE 3. Since the tem. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 39 . The proposed HTF 340°C HTF 380°C Preheated crude to crude distillation Flash Fired heater Crude at B/L Desalter Crude Heat exchanger Crude preheat train FIG. system. FIG. as it replaces 12. Typi. perature of crude from 302°C to 320°C. of steam and operate either on fuel oil or as the same required CAPEX. rating a PTC system and integrating it with system. are used for different process require- continuous energy supply requires three self. The appears to be a viable option.5 barg/150°C). the central receiver system PTC. The project is providing a simple the payback period exceeds 10 yr due to the existing system with a shell-and-tube payback period of approximately 5 yr. ment of 2. ments.2 m2 were used for the anal. Heliostats of standard size tem was suitable for this application. so is the required 300–400 Parabolic trough. High-temperature application schematic. A design point DNI of system used a PTC system for harnessing The simulation provided an energy 800 W/m2 was chosen. Generally.5 acre/MW (Therminol) was again fed back into the medium-pressure (10 barg/250°C) and without the storage system.156 MWh/yr. 10. In the high-temperature segment. plays a major role in its energy consump- tower and receiver. 400–650 Heliostat/central receiver. existing system was modified by incorpo. as well cally. Solar/thermal integrated crude heating. a temperature of 340°C to 380°C in the Case Study 3: Partial boiler replace- Typically. HTF was heated from the high-temperature ST system. sions. a PTC system or dish sys. and a land require. 10. with a refining capac- ity of 4. 5% of energy from solar with a 12-MW-t ysis. replacing 5% hourly radiation profile available for west. A refinery’s steam requirement MW. < 80 Flat plate. This demand was supplied through fired heaters that use fuel oil to heat the crude to a temperature of 302°C–380°C. output of 18. as well as to the total specific en- thermal crude heating application. and it was used to heat the crude oil ment with LFR-based solar/thermal has an initial investment of $0. After exchanging heat. refineries 80–200 Parabolic trough. Low-pressure (3. considering the solar energy into process heat. of the heat required for the heating of crude ern India.

72. The temperature needed system: 20 MW-t for the input heat changes is dependent Location (25. yr > 10 space cooling. gies can reduce CO2 emissions and save an LFR system requires 0.158 Payback period. The results are Case Study 4: Solar/thermal-based boilers cater to refinery processes. $ 83.41 MM/ solar radiation to operate. The system generated heat of 201 MWh-t from solar collectors. W/m2 750 the year. yr ~5. sions by 4. and the options presented in these case 40 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. The system used hot Total annual solar heat 18. Other potential uses include desalina- tion. Solar/thermal steam production.19 kg of CO2 /kg of is most suitable for the low-temperature TABLE 4. 71. acres 7 a cooling tower and heat storage.25°N. TR 15 water at 86°C to produce chilled water at 9°C (TABLE 7). As most of the captive solar/thermal technology. and this provides flexibility to match Design loop inlet/outlet 450/950 Design point DNI.546 CO2 reduction. providing sufficient im- quirement with solar/thermal technolo. central receiver steam production. with a simple payback and lighting.32 CAPEX.341 pacity.156 generation. %/yr 20 Land requirement.500 boiler to ensure a continuous and reliable OPEX. % 5 Solar share. period of approximately 4 yr. %/yr 17 vapor absorption chiller. Key results. Key results. $MM 14.62 MM/tph.0 heat generation produced 409 MWh-t.95°E) Design point DNI. 72. Key results. This case study for a low-temperature application is the simplest use of solar heat in the low-temperature segment. % 33 The chiller was integrated with solar/ Land requirement. The VAR system required an Design point DNI.05°E) dia. FIG. $ 2. Solar/thermal component costs are expected to drop. Typically. The system replaced 32. PTC: 12 MW-t Location (21. Solar share. 13. ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) boilers.com .13 OPEX. yr ~4. MWh/y power of 53 kW.42°E) TABLE 6. and utilized LFR tph–$0. A non-con- ment of 15 tph at 10 bar. with a payback period of 4 yr.098 generation. tpy 5.341 ly 12% of electricity is used for heating.775 cooling requirement of 15 TR for the Payback period. and can reduce centrating type of solar/thermal system CO2 generation by 0. solar collectors.75°N. a 1-MMtpy refinery requires nual solar heat generation of 18. $MM 7. $/yr 2. m2 201 thermal storage of 400 kWh and a 115-kW CAPEX.0 Payback period. tpy 78 The total heat balance between solar and conventional sources is illustrated in FIG. $MM 0.6 acre/tph of steam production. W/m 2 750 Total annual solar heat 201 input of 71 kW-h to generate a cooling generation. Availability. 35 tph–80 tph of steam through its utility MWhr/t and reducing the CO2 emis. low-temperature steam production through solar/thermal systems for heat tracing. Water/ steam can be used as the heat input me- Design point DNI. Oil and gas companies can perform various case studies by selecting suitable technol- ogy for their applications. °C Total annual solar heat 18. MWh/yr 34.05 system is illustrated in FIG. 12. tpy 9.94 The configuration of the integration of solar/thermal technology with a VAR CAPEX.975 CO2 reduction. 11. The solar-based vapor absorption Total reflective area. MWh/y refrigeration (VAR) system comprises a Annual heat collection. while fossil Payback period. and storage tank heating. typical petroleum refinery. $MM 0. the summarized in TABLE 6. Boiler and thermal stor- TABLE 7. 0.775 tpy. Land requirement. 11).75°N. LFR: 12 MW-t on the required cooling capacity.146 OPEX. application.75°N. W/m2 800 Location (26. Key results. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels ergy consumption. acres 70 CAPEX. acres 16 Land requirement. yr ~4 The case used for the analysis had a CO2 reduction. $MM 4. MWh/y Space cooling. The system is now providing an an. W/m2 750 the heat requirement with the cooling ca- temperature. CO2 reduction.18°E) to ensure continuous supply throughout Location (21. petus to explore space cooling systems. approximate- Typically. m2 50. while systems make use of heat generated from This case study had a steam require. tpy 4. 73. Replacing a part of the steam re.500 Availability. In a capacity of these systems is usually huge. vapor absorption refrigeration. solar VAR: 15TR age were considered to compensate for the non-availability of solar hours and TABLE 5.6% of the fossil heat to produce a cooling output of 53 kW.262 supply. OPEX.43 acre/tph– Solar/thermal-based vapor absorption a significant amount of fossil fuel (FIG. investment costs vary from $0.

tot in MWh 0. IRPC Europe will be held in Milan.5 1.COM/EUROPE For ten years. Reliability is the presents another challenge—e. but that system. the utility boiler must ramp up be- just a few years.Barroso@GulfPub.3 1. Vice President Research. please contact: EMEARC Refining and Chemicals Hortensia “Tish” Barroso.9 Q cool in MWh 0. 2018 | MILAN MARRIOTT HOTEL.com Wood Mackenzie Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 41 .1 0. The solar/ther. ITALY | HPIRPC.2 1. 13. Keynote Speaker Wood Mackenzie as he gives perspective on market outlook and key risks in the European refining industry. system must be integrated with the exist- tractive.4 1.8 Q aux in MWh Q s.04/kWh in tem creates budgetary concerns. REGISTER TODAY EUROPE 5–7 JUNE. For 2018. solar VAR system. tor requires heat storage or a hybrid sys. fore dropping the steam header pressure.2 0. Featured Join keynote speaker Alan Gelder. MILAN. 12.7 1.0 0. FIG.4 0. on June 5–7. in the case of the voltaics (PV).0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Day FIG. as the mirrors require and gas sector faces various challenges and process heat. tem while utilizing renewable energy.g. Improper cleaning mechanisms most prominent challenge..1 1.7 Q tot in MWh 0. The two-day conference and exhibition will provide a high-level technical forum in which key players in the global petrochemical and refinery sector will meet to share knowledge and learn about best practices and the latest industry advances.5 0. steam/ sphere.17/kWh to $0. Annual energy balance. Business Development Manager. mal system offers 35%–40% efficiency in Maintenance of a solar/thermal sys- Challenges and limitations. Solar/thermal VAR system schematic. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels studies will continue to become more at. Integration fine particles present in an open atmo- renewable technologies. The oil terms of conversion of solar energy into tem is significant. cost is demand driven. which is lower compared regular cleaning to remove the dust and limitations while adopting and integrating to fossil fuel heat conversion. as seen in the case of solar photo. at Hortensia. where the power price has high initial cost of the solar/thermal sys. Hydrocarbon Processing’s International Refining and Petrochemical Conference (IRPC) has been the leading downstream technology event. and the oil sec.3 0. Alan Gelder Sponsorship opportunities are available! VP Research For information on sponsorship opportunities. low flow of steam from the solar/thermal fallen from $0. The ing utility boiler and.6 1. heat generation through a solar/thermal can badly affect the performance of the 1. EMEARC Refining and Chemicals. Italy.6 0.

reference into Incorporate assurance program an operational readiness PROCESS OPTIMIZATION information and market data. tion of solar/thermal systems. Gupta earned her graduate degree from the Malaviya National and heat requirements for the installa. He earned an MTech New Business Manager for Asia Pacific BD and Sales degree in renewable energy engineering and and client will lead to the development for TechnipFMC. sector is a combined evaluation by an oil cedures. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels system. India process department. He is a certified boiler engineer. convincing the oil and gas sector that the crease its awareness of the potential She has more than 16 yr of experience in the design adoption of renewable energy is feasible. this group will play a major role in also include the integration of renewable of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur). her post-graduate degree in chemical engineering ward effectively utilizing the available ing the need to review land availability. manufac. Ms. includ. he worked in vinced of the benefits of adopting CST benefit from local government. the integration of these technologies and energy in their social responsibilities in the reduction of cost of these plants. petrochemical) • NEW! HPI Market Data Book 2018 • Access to the latest Construction Boxscore Database project updates. and has 20 yr of engineering consultant must be con.V. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) India. Unlock the Archives. classification of the temperature range refineries and renewables. India.com DECEMBE R 2017 | Hydrocarbo with a Full Access Plan DECEMBER 2017 PLANT DESIGN. Using the deployment of renewable energy Netherlands. This begins with the identification and with a particular focus on the integration of cies and return on investment (ROI). engineering consultant the support and guidance provided by Avril Tourmen. and an MTech degree in their experience in the oil and gas sec. within the category of corporate social SACHIN PAYYANAD is a Renewable Energy The solar developer must develop meth. The first step to. Specialist with a primary focus on solar/thermal systems. Prior to his time at Technip India. The close asso. Data Handbooks and More HYDROCARBON PROCESSING nProcessing. complexities in leasing pro. and odologies that meet the requirements of holds post-graduate diplomas in thermal power the oil and gas industry. The path forward. benefits of solar/thermal integration.com or contact J’Nette Davis-Nichols at +1 (713) 520-4426 or Jnette. and then should serve as as local policies that are favorable for Syngas Technology at Technip Benelux B. and gas engineering consultant. He earned a BTech degree from Andhra University. Oil and gas companies can chemical engineering at the Indian Institute tor. as well process and product development for Hydrogen technologies. Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur. turer/supplier. Perhaps the greatest challenge is The oil and gas industry must in. His key ciation of the solar developer. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT plant engineering and environmental law. and a diploma in renewable energy from solar/thermal potential in the oil and gas ownership. etc. solar fuels and hydrogen. at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi). KALPANA GUPTA is a Deputy Chief Engineer within the process department at TechnipFMC. Subscribe online at HydrocarbonProcessing.Davis-Nichols@GulfPub. and engineering of hydrogen and refinery units.com—the HPI’s most AND CONSTRUCTION powerful source of technical content. Maximizing energy efficiency n in paraxylene productio S TOP PROJECT AWARD of the top Reader-chosen winners of 2017 construction project awards Highlights include: • An online archive of issues and articles dating back more than 16 years • All process handbooks (refining. The authors would like to sincerely acknowledge interest areas include solar/thermal systems. Institute (TERI) India. Hydrocarbon Processing’s Full Data Access Plan ENGINEERING AND PLANT DESIGN. gas processing. The is a feasible and achievable goal. ENGINEERING provides subscribers with unlimited access to CONSTRUCTION Construction—The cornersto of a successful project ne HydrocarbonProcessing. technologies. an advocate of those technologies. for her significant contributions to management at The Energy and Resources and improvement of these technologies. finery should explore the carbon credit experience in process engineering and technology. responsibility (CSR). India.com 42 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. and can achieve the necessary efficien. the solar Partial replacement of industrial heat MARUTHI ETHAKOTA is the head of the Technip developer and the refinery client. The re.com . the development of this article.

This is particularly desorbent the aromatics complex that is available true in the modern aromatics complex. the distillation columns was taken so that unit operations involved in the produc.9 The For this study. catalytic activity and higher for light desorbent. in the distillation column. energy efficiency has 1. Light hydrocarbons in the feed to the cepts to the design of the aromatics com. desorbent. duty and energy consumption. that the energy required was approximately tion of pX. For all of the cases. higher energy software. as well. used light desorbent. ing study by the process licensors.. Unless otherwise noted. Process Optimization C. were reviewed. The adsorbed extract is rochemical plant to simplify the analysis. ben. than that for heavy desorbent. column and solvent regeneration column and purity specifications of the desired tracted mixed xylenes. The minimum efficiency in pX manufacturing and the sorbent. the transalkylation aromatic products. Unless noted. dustry switched to heavy desorbent since aromatics extraction unit (AEU) were plex usually requires a detailed engineer. This work provides case desorbed using another fluid called the since it is available in all three cases. heavy desorbent. Selective adsorption units use a solid aromatics complex. the in. Two types of desorbent are It is well known that there is a trade- lization and selective adsorption—the utilized industrially: light desorbent and off between the number of stages in a two principle pX manufacturing meth. this study In Part 1 of this two-part series. It is important to note that the aromat. BP Amoco Chemical Co. benzene and other aromatic boils at a higher temperature than pX and 10%–20% higher than the minimum en- compounds from petroleum naphtha. fractionator design in World Patent Ap- lations were constructed for the aromat. Illinois Maximizing energy efficiency in paraxylene production—Part 2 Due to reduced margins. lower temperature than pX. desorbent. the number of stages for The aromatics complex refers to the heavy desorbent process uses a desor. never been more important in refining 2. 3. included in this work to verify that the a toluene column and a heavy aromatics To illustrate typical energy consumption energy usage of light desorbent is higher (HA) column. and passes approached asymptotically at an infinite overhead in the raffinate column and as number of stages. ics complex within the site utility systems. nonaromatic coboilers that entered the removed in the reformate depentanizer. ener. Note: The reboiled pre- results of these engineering studies. However.11. More heavy desorbent head pressure for the distillation columns examples of how key concepts of process units are in operation around the world was low (0. and integration of the aromat. This unit with the feed tended to build up in The AEU was the same for all cases and study includes the specific composition the desorbent. that boils at a energy needed to perform a separation is aromatics complex.10 Energy usage was (SRC). studies on pX manufacturing by crystal. a benzene column. simu. es. bent. COLLING. Selective adsorption using a light at adequate temperature in the overhead which produces paraxylene (pX). Naperville. Applying these con. typically toluene. the over- The following case studies provide a few raffinate columns. However. CASE STUDIES a sidedraw in the extract column. condensers of many of the columns in the zene and other aromatics from naphtha. This study costs and rising atmospheric carbon diox. passes to the bottoms of the extract and ergy. plication Publication WO 2015123065 ics complex using proprietary simulation ics complex boundaries have been consis. typically para-diethylbenzene. case study using light desorbent has been contained a stabilizer.9 The initial se. thereby causing excessive contained an extractive distillation (ED) of the reformate feedstock.a The three case studies focus on tently applied to all three cases.12 A (TA) unit was the same for all cases and selectivity. Selective adsorption using a heavy there is often more heat than needed in and petrochemicals. Crystallization aromatics complex. the quantities purging of desorbent or the use of ex. The same design of the aromatics complex to reduce lective adsorption units built in the 1970s total reformate feed was used for all cas- energy consumption. adsorbent that has a greater affinity for pX did not consider exporting this heat (via gy-efficient process design principles that than the other xylene isomers to affect the steam) elsewhere in the refinery or pet- are widely used in aromatics processing separation of pX. that was described in Part 1 was not used Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 43 .4 barg) to minimize reboiler change analysis have been applied in the than light desorbent units. distillation column and the energy used ods—to show how to maximize energy The light desorbent process uses a de. the following processes: considered only the energy needed in the ide (CO2) content.

which produced a xylene column tion (isom) catalyst performance was double reslurry crystallization consist. peratures of the overheads for both col- 116 ture. An ethylbenzene conversion the aromatics complex is different. For this heavy desorbent case. The feed ef. covered from the columns and recycled. tion of these columns with the rest of 117 cordingly. The column produces a va. to boil the raffinate and extract columns and isom recycle gas compressor were tallization stage outlet temperature was in the separation section.125 was used. A few key assumptions used in the to the separation section and a liquid overhead was very low. and the overhead tem- *Typically. which can be used for TABLE 3. Comparison of heat used in selective adsorption using low-pressure higher-temperature users like the extract and high-pressure xylene columns in parallel. The crys. which can only be heat 111 removal of benzene and lighter compo. The xylene column over- The xylene column overhead pressure head pressure was set to approximately 6 Crystallization case. Feed to high-pressure Low-pressure column High-pressure column Total duty. ethane and other light gases matics in the xylene column overhead. the energy used in the high-pressure xylene column is sufficient to supply the energy needs of the aromatics complex. The performance of the TA umn (FIG. simulation for each case are listed in the bottoms stream containing mostly heavy This case study used a high-pressure following cases. The pressure in the in other parts of the aromatics complex. and toluene and coboilers par. was designed for 500 wppm of C9+ aro- widely available in the literature. The 106 of 65% per pass was used. so energy savings from the use of the low-pressure xylene column would be offset by energy imports needed perature was 210°C.7°C feed ratio of 1. The separation section was barg.8 wt% purity pX. nearly complete like the reformate splitter. 5). the tem- 103 109 parameters widely available in the litera. The high- intermediate condenser. fluent heat exchangers in the TA and pX ics (benzene. The model simulated the use of cen. Process Optimization in this study. The isom cation necessary for adsorbent in the 107 catalyst performance was modeled using separation section. However. and the isom heater lowed by two reslurry stages. The two columns are operated to meet 108 118 the stringent overhead purity specifi- 102 Heavy desorbent case.3 barg. low-pressure column produces a colder nizer was designed for nearly complete overhead stream. 115 110 products) available in the literature. a single tower that selective adsorption 99. toluene) that is sent to the Desorbent (para-diethylbenzene) purg- units used a close approach temperature AEU.com . Heavy desorbent was re- does in the deheptanizer and xylene col. and the isom heater and isom re. lene isomers from the column bottoms.13 for maximum pX per-pass recovery. The dehepta.* and raffinate columns. conversion of 30% per pass was used.14 bottoms. cake wetness and solids in liquid uene was sent to the TA unit. 230°C. TA heater and TA recycle gas compressor that is used as fuel gas. high-pressure column was set so that the 44 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. was 2. liquid and vapor sidedraw streams ing was low since the concentration of of 40°C to minimize energy consump. with selective adsorption use both a caded ethylene-propylene system. The xylene column catalyst was modeled using parameters por overhead stream containing hydro. a sidedraw column The second reslurry stage was operated finate and extract was boiled overhead was used that serves a similar function in at a temperature sufficient to produce in the raffinate and extract columns. aromatics that is sent to the TA unit. so the heat integra- cycle gas compressor were modeled ac. overhead temperature of approximately modeled using parameters from BP’s ing of one stage of crystallization fol. Schematic of a xylene column with an recovery of mixed xylenes in the column umn or the toluene column. MMkcal/hr duty. where high-pressure and low-pressure xylene ethylene was used in the crystallization column. a liquid overhead and nearly complete removal of the xy- were modeled accordingly.g. the ED col- FIG. MMkcal/hr MMkcal/hr mate the advantage of using both low- 90 24 332 356 and high-pressure xylene columns. titioned accordingly. A desorbent-to- modeled accordingly. % duty.. The isomeriza. 104 the crystallization stage. 5. trifuges to separate the pX solids us.9 barg. respectively. Simulations were performed to esti- column. integrated with low temperature users nents from the bottoms.a The pressure in the low-pressure column was 70 71 258 329 set so that the column overhead tem- 50 119 185 304 perature was sufficient to heat integrate 30 166 111 277 with a user like the toluene column. The tol- 105 114 (e. An ethylbenzene at the eutectic temperature of –67. This temperature was sufficient pX unit operations. where the feeds are distributed 101 stage and no refrigerant was used after to both columns operating in parallel. containing mostly xylenes that are sent heavy aromatics in the xylene column tion. pressure column produces a warmer overhead stream. The Some aromatics complex designs 113 refrigeration section used a standard cas. The 10 214 37 251 low-pressure column overhead pressure was 3. xylene column. raf- For crystallization. and the gen (H2 ). This case included a finishing column 1/1 112 ing centrifuge performance parameters that separated pX from toluene. umns are different. stream containing mostly light aromat.

1 0. This tended to limit how ergy savings were significant.22 Benzene column 0.56 0.12 It is generally enough to supply the needs of Consequently. The practical result would be a net en. integration to the low-temperature users. heavy desorbent case since heavy de. The amount of energy the toluene that leaves the dehepta.18 Reformate depentanizer 0. there is no for light desorbent. the isomerization sec. light desorbent case.22 0. and the purged desorbent is available in literature on the desorbent- pressure column in this case would not recycled to the TA unit.06 TA stabilizer 0. any heavy aromat- was 230°C. design was kept the same as the heavy much the purity specification in the xy- the results of TABLE 3 do not present the desorbent case. The heat require- sure column. and the overhead plied to the highest-temperature users would need to be imported to operate temperature was 197°C.9 Extract column 0.27 0. Case study results. a small desorbent purge recognized that very little information is the aromatics complex.8 barg. and a desor- only a high-pressure column is used. TABLE 3 shows the results of ics remaining in the xylene column varying the distribution of the xylene Light desorbent case. Italic font is used to show the heat used by the users in the heat integration cascades.34 HD xylene column 2.* Crystallization Heavy desorbent Light desorbent Xylene Toluene HA Xylene Xylene Toluene HA MMkcal/t pX column column column Others column Others column column column Others Reformate splitter 0. Heat supplied is fired duty using an efficiency of 94%.89 3.29 Isom heater 0. However. Adding a low.26 0. since the raffinate and extract columns. heavy desorbent case.15 was used. desorbent case.17 0. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 45 .15 0.06 0. Separation factors for the adsorbent needed in the xylene column. Consequently.11 0. bent-to-feed ratio of 1. For each case.17 Crys xylene column 0.22 LD xylene column 1. lene column overhead is not a constraint cient to heat integrate with users like the ergy savings of zero. the ments for the distillation column reboil- be added back in the other parts of the pressure of the xylene column can be ers and heaters in the aromatics complex aromatics complex. and the total is shown in the bottom row. energy pressure was 2.15 0.04 0. TABLE 4. SRC) 0. heat is sup- by using a low-pressure column. because be sufficient to supply the needs of the For the light desorbent case.22 0. the tem. The high. and the overhead temperature the overall aromatics complex.09 0. that the heavy aromatics limit in the xy. complete story. the heat used by all the suppliers (bold font) is summed. heavy desorbent and light desorbent.09 AEU (ED. The deheptanizer and the extract. even lowered compared with the heavy desor. Clearly. For the light overhead may end up in the pX product column feed between the two columns.66 2. Consequently. to-feed ratio for light desorbent. in this case. very little work has been done since the other users in the aromatics complex. Consequently. when nizer bottoms ends up in the desorbent were taken from literature.7 Finishing column 0. for each of the case studies are shown in though energy was saved in the pX unit bent case. is (toluene) loop in the separation section.1 TOTAL 1.17 0. Process Optimization column overhead temperature was suffi. The xylene column overhead TABLE 4. peratures in the bottoms of the raffinate 1970s in this area.22 0. the en.7 0. For all of the cases.3 0.15 0. However. even though energy was and extract columns are cooler than the saved in the pX unit by using a low-pres.56 HA column 0. lene column overhead could be relaxed. pX product is produced as the bottoms pressure column overhead pressure was ings if there are no net energy savings in product from the extract column in the 6. the energy would have to sorbent is not used.1 barg. Literature states and flows via pressure cascade and heat other parts of the aromatics complex. is required. reason to do this solely for energy sav.11 Deheptanizer 0. Heat required in the aromatics complex distillation columns and heaters for crystallization.89 Raffinate column 0.1 0.22 TA heater 0.9 However.15 * The heat integration cascades show the heat supplied by the heat supplier for the cascade in bold font.1 Toluene column 0.23 0.14 0. depending on the heaviness of the aro- When higher amounts of the feed were tion model was the same as that of the matics partition between the raffinate sent to the low-pressure column.

66 2. The only heat required in the xylene column.5 9302955. so it was used as a was sufficient heat available in the con.5 higher than the heavy desorbent case. users in the aromatics complex. the heat condensed isom heater for the crystallization is higher the TA stabilizer and the isom heater. heavy desorbent case. Other simula- heat integration cascades: the xylene col. heat integration cascades: the xylene ics complex. Other users in the aromatics complex for and extract column is moderately high. $/t pX** Base—48 Base denser in the heavy desorbent case can * From TABLE 4 be used to supply heat for many other ** Using Southeast Asia. the pres.32 sorption cases. Process Optimization All of these high-temperature users are column in the heavy desorbent case was was kept low to minimize the pressure hot enough that the heat would be sup.6 13. FIG. erization section feed rate is higher for the able heat from the high-pressure xylene sure in the raffinate and extract columns crystallization case because the per-pass recovery for crystallization is lower than TABLE 5.3 25. heavy desorbent and light desorbent* The heat in the crystallization case Crystallization Heavy desorbent was lower primarily because the heat Fuel for distillation and heaters.”16 for crystallization. MWh/t pX (energy equivalent 10 GJ = 1 MWh) 0. the selective adsorption cases.6 – sorbent case was approximately 9% Toluene column 19. MMkcal/t pX* 1. 5 shows the configuration of the the xylene column was not hot enough extract columns were increased so that xylene column cascade. users it could not supply were the high. whereas 46 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. The heat needed for the light de- Benzene column 13. Several other energy cascades heat to the raffinate column. this is pX aromatics complex offset by other factors.9 1. the avail. The toluene column cascade is con. the simulations showed that there depentanizer. The isom- As previously discussed. this significantly figured where the pressure of the toluene column. Other users in supplier in a cascade that supplied heat to denser of the xylene column to supply the aromatics complex for the light de- the AEU. consequently. °C the crystallization case. the toluene column pressure was columns in the aromatics complex.89 used in the xylene column for crystalliza- tion was significantly lower than the heat Electricity. sorbent case were the TA heater. the toluene column and the increased the energy needed in the xy- column has been raised (TABLE 5). that the heat needed in both the raffinate which need heat at a high temperature.8 23.4 0. isom heater—since the temperature of the pressures of the xylene. matched with the AEU. which teaches that “heavy de- sorbents tend to use less energy than sys- TABLE 6. the condenser temperatures of the raf- covered in the intermediate condenser is umn pressure. TABLE 4 shows that the heat used in the the crystallization case were the TA heater. As previously discussed. sufficient to supply nearly all of the us. extract column pressures. ers in the aromatics complex. and this increase was not the heat recovered in the toluene column the pressure of the xylene column was offset by savings elsewhere in the aro- condenser is adequate to supply the ben. °C 121 134 144 153 in the aromatics complex was lowest for Target reboiler temperature. ics complex. umn and deheptanizer. The heat needed for the crystallization was approximate- Benzene column 138 138 138 138 ly 43% lower than the heavy desorbent Reboiler duty. extract col. As described in the crystallization The HA column is one of the hottest til there was a temperature match with case. MMkcal/hr case.4 35. Toluene column condenser TABLE 4 shows that the heat needed Pressure. lene column. For light desorbent. be used to boil other users in the aromat. the were tried. and HA column. In this the reformate splitter and the reformate of approximately 280°C and a condenser case. increase in the xylene column and the plied via heaters firing fuel gas or high.18 for the xylene column in the selective ad- Total energy.5/MMKcal for fuel and $83/MWh for electricity. there were three temperature users—the HA column. the toluene column and the HA col. and the heat re. finate and extract columns were high used to supply heat to the reformate split.8 21. without significantly increasing the col. if available. but the reboiler and condens. barg 0.7 25. MMkcal/t pX 2. In this simulation. However. raffinate and umn. This pressure steam. The xylene column con- Energy cost. China prices of $48. the TA heater. It was lowered un.15 However. zene column and reformate depentanizer.com . lowered in this case compared with the matics complex. This result is consistent with US Patent Total 33. including lower xy- No pressure cascade Pressure cascade lene loss per-pass for crystallization than for selective adsorption. and the HA column was temperature of 225°C. and. the TA stabilizer and the tions (not shown) were performed where umn.6 13. Example pressure cascade for benzene and toluene columns for a 1-MMtpy for selective adsorption. Energy required in the aromatics complex distillation columns and heaters tems with light desorbents.a TABLE 4 shows TA stabilizer and the isom heater.43 3.32 0.4 37. The the raffinate and extract columns with an increased to match the benzene column.5 2 for the distillation columns and heaters Temperature. all of in the overheads of these towers could than the energy used in the isom heater for which need heat at a high temperature. HA column had a bottoms temperature adequate approach temperature. resulted in relatively low raffinate and For crystallization. there were three enough to boil other users in the aromat- ter. all of er temperatures required did not match.

New York. Processes. Trudeau and M. “Energy efficiency indicators for public higher than the electricity usage for the the energy usage and cost for electricity electricity production from fossil fuels. “Systems and methods for separating in TABLE 6. US Patent these electricity users and are presented crystallization uses electricity to drive 9302955. W. Technology. India. is approximately 27% sorption using heavy desorbent and se- ply these users. including the recent commissioning of Reliance Industries Ltd.4 barg. Marshall and G. pumps for process streams about 10%–20% higher than the mini.. crystallization has refrigeration compres. For crystal. d’Ortigue. Colling has been responsible for advancements in the areas is required. tage for crystallization was only partially The use of the lower-pressure xylene TABLE 6 also uses energy prices of reduced when other heat requirements column does make the light desorbent $48. the crystallization refrig. many of the energy-efficient process of crystallization.” 2016. M.” International heavy desorbent case. a pressure cascade was raffinate columns. R. Dr. TA. New York. of the low-energy xylene column used in tion xylene column has compared with tallization are approximately 27% lower crystallization. J. was performed at an overhead pressure nologies. 2004. crystallization still uses Energy Agency (IEA).. centrifuges. this study was done at Indian Oil Petrochemical Conclave. 1984. “LD Parex™ aromatics complex: Lowest cost of production for pX technology. REFERENCES have raised the energy usage somewhat ergy required in the extract and raffinate 9 Robertson. and pumps for cooling water. which is Processes. umns can be reduced. Amelse and C. feed ratio limit of 1. CRAIG COLLING has more than in the heavy desorbent case. this study 11 Guisnet. D. lead technical authority for BP pX tricity that accounts for the efficiency ergy consumption in the aromatics com. the low-pressure xylene column. Dr. pX less than heavy desorbent. this helped lower the overall en. engineering from the University of Michigan. adsorption. more important than ever to reduce en. add. He also BLE 6 shows that the total energy usage quencing and complex columns. In this case. lower than heavy desorbent. the major heat users are the extract and was lower than the heat needed for the tallization cases. India. 1989. still resulted in the lowest energy usage. cases must be included to achieve a com. this may feed ratio could potentially lower the en. 13 Roberts. J. 22 yr of experience in refining To calculate the total energy required Takeaways. for crystallization is approximately $48/t most all of the heat required to run the however. Colling. and is a member of the AIChE. Mumbai.” 2016. O. primarily because significant advantage that the crystalliza.48 MMBtu) of intermediate reboilers and condensers. P. The energy usage advan- heavy desorbent. which February 2016. Gattupalli. Even after 17 Taylor. the heat needed for the xylene column For both the light desorbent and crys. TABLE 6 uses an energy ef. N. Parts 1 and 2 of this work describe and third-party licensing (through CB&I). Gilson. jor electricity users in the aromatics com. The ma. 12 Ruthven. L. For crystallization. the elec. heavy desorbent. Werba and R. distillation column se.17 This factor translates into complex. A. lective adsorption using light desorbent ing the heat for the other users decreases. October 2010. Lefebvre. selective ad- cases require additional heaters to sup. New York. plete picture of the total energy use in the To minimize energy usage in the ex. than for heavy desorbent. The total energy cost case produced enough heat to supply al- sorbent more than offsets this advantage. Zeolites for cleaner tech- for the crystallization and heavy desor. and J. including pressure cascades. lowest energy usage.” 5th since it erased the energy advantage of columns. and electricity. Lowering the desorbent-to- Conversely. “BP’s energy plex include the isom compressor. Adding in energy cost for crystallization and xylene column in the heavy desorbent the heat for the other users for light de. Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption bent cases is shown in TABLE 6. the crystallization used in the distillation columns only 14 Colling. required in the extract and raffinate col. N. US Patent Application 20160318831. including BP operations of modern electric power generation plex.. Crystallization had the but does not completely eliminate. the approximately proportional to total en. Case holds seven patents. pX operations. (light desorbent and heavy desorbent). pressure xylene column could be used— lization. Francoeur. T. Gujarat. Process Optimization the crystallization and light desorbent for crystallization. Colling holds a PhD in chemical fuel energy per 1 MWh of electricity. the heat usage in the light de.’s pX plant in Jamnagar. 16 Corradi. He is the pX Process Technology Advisor for BP for the aromatics complex.” Editions Technip. close to the minimum practical pressure. where he is the about the energy equivalent of elec. so GHG emissions for crys. significant energy the heat was inadequate to supply the ergy usage in the aromatics complex and savings are not possible for selective rest of the aromatics complex. Unless the energy heavy desorbent case—because a lower- used for the toluene column. France. July 2008. The results of the sorbent aromatics complex is 9% higher For both selective adsorption cases light desorbent case showed that while than the heavy desorbent case. Wiley. New York. McGraw-Hill. Crystallization 15 Meyers. India. This is because is accounted for.5/MMKcal for fuel and $83/MWh in the aromatics complex and electricity xylene column heat usage lower than the for electricity to calculate the difference usage were tallied. 10 Chauvel.. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 47 . London. P. However.125. a desorbent-to-feed ratio of 1. “Petrochemical processes: Technical and economic characteristics. The electricity usage tract and raffinate columns. C. which includes fuel studies for crystallization. aromatics complex. the The simulations were done with enough efficient technology for the production of paraxy- TA compressor. M. Paris. xylene isomers using selective adsorption. less total energy and has a lower total sors and centrifuges that are not present cost than selective adsorption. The condenser of the heavy desorbent xylene column. ficiency for electricity production of design principles used in the aromatics He also has experience in startup and support of about 36%. heat recovery and pX separations. approximately 10 GJ (9.. aromatics complex.. “Enhanced heat recovery in paraxylene plant. A. New Delhi. The results mum energy needed. for light desorbent. refrigeration compressors and centrifug. Handbook of Petroleum Refining from the simulations were summed for does not have these columns. J. tricity usage for the crystallization case is es in the separation section. ergy usage. G. The electricity usage for the three is close to the theoretical desorbent-to. theoretical stages to keep the energy lene. information rising atmospheric CO2 content make it Petrochemicals. in these columns of 0. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are were performed. Imperial College Press. Instead. S. feed preheating. As shown in TABLE 6. 2002. Higher energy costs and and petrochemicals. eration compressors..” Petrotech 2010.

Learn more at www. equipment. you get it all Approach To with Honeywell UOP. Hydroprocessing A Unified From technical experts working together with you to Unity™ catalysts that can improve unit performance. All rights reserved.HydrocarbonProcessing. Our unified approach delivers complete Hydroprocessing catalyst. licensing and technical support solutions for hydrocracking and hydrotreating.com/RS © 2017 Honeywell International. . Select 71 at www.com.uop.

Forcast er plants and hydrocarbon gas liquids 1. 1 shows the increase had a measurable impact on the petro. carriers.000 Production.2 pacity buildout is expected to add 10 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 MMtpy–12 MMtpy of new capacity by 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2020 (TABLE 1). tion rates (whether used internally or ex.4 Domestic ethylene plant feed capacity rochemical in the world and is used to Total production manufacture a wide variety of products 0. Mbpd feedstock were converted to ethane due to improved economics and increased production rates. US ethane export capacity and ethane consumption 500 for ethylene production have increased substantially (FIG. 2). Chiyoda. In addition to the proj- FIG. US gas plant production of ethane/ethylene. Source: US EIA. NA’s ethylene production is ex. Since 2014. This bear market dy- (NA) has expanded dramatically with the various stages of development. 0. FIG.0 Ethane export terminals (HGLs) pipelines are shown in FIG. a typical ethylene carrier will range from During the early phases of the US ported) and ethylene prices are falling due 10 Mm3–25 Mm3. Houston. placed on special gas carriers for transit. Initially. With this namic has resulted in some petrochemi- onset of shale production and associated expansion. and expansion of ethylene production in NA.8 Marcus Hook. During 1.500 this time. while an LNG carrier shale revolution. a large surplus of ethane to higher production rates amid weaker will range from 140 Mm3–250 Mm3. the depressed ethane 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 commodity price led to a rapid buildout FIG. prices depressed to a value less than $0. albeit on a much smaller scale— exploration that started around 2007. 0 ane continued. Source: US EIA. Morgan’s Point.6 MMtpy by 2026. chemical market in NA—ethane prices This mode of transport is similar to LNG sponds with the rapid increase in shale are slowly rising due to higher consump. To ex- in fracked shale gas are typically 10% or MMtpy to nearly 44. 0.1 port ethylene.0 The first wave of the US ethylene ca- -0. 1. primarily along the US Gulf Coast 1. Existing US ethylene crack. ethylene produc- tion facilities that utilized naphtha as a 1. Pennsylvania The bulk of the existing ethylene crack- Production. a traditional range of 4%–7% in This ethylene capacity buildout has (liquefied) to cryogenic temperatures and associated gas. cal companies looking to export ethylene hydraulic fracking. 2. a second wave Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 49 . ects under construction. Texas 0. which corre.6 Ethylene is arguably the most vital pet.2 from the US to overseas markets. MMbpd Ethane exports by pipeline to Canada er plants are located along the USGC.2 (USGC). the gas must be refrigerated higher vs.20/gal.2 for industrial and consumer markets. 2013–2019. Ethane concentrations pected to climb from approximately 32. US ethane consumption and export capacity. had a negative effect on the Mont Bel- vieu commodity pricing index. ROSETTA and K. in US ethane production. As this sustainable production of eth. Texas Advancing export terminal technology: An optimized process for the refrigeration of cryogenic hydrocarbons Ethane production in North America of ethylene projects is being considered at domestic demand. 0. Process Optimization M. PATEL. 3.

Louisiana 1. Existing US ethylene cracker plants. the machines (i. but typically involve more LyondellBasell Corpus Christi. These systems typi. Louisiana 1. Non-cryogenic compressors Dow Chemical Plaquemine Parish.e. Texas 1.4 MMbpd Guadalajara Port-au- Consumption: 1.3 MMbpd Cuba Prince serve the overall equipment count. gies. Texas 363 Completion—3Q 2017 equipment. propylene. These machines tend to cost less due to simplicity and metallurgy factors. and Platts McGraw Hill Financial. but US ethane contain two separate tube sheets to con- Production: 1. Calgary This paper will focus on the use of cryo- Vancouver genic compressors for the open cycle. Texas 1. Process Optimization At present. Mtpy Status Open-cycle refrigeration technol- OxyChem/Mexichem Ingleside. Open-cycle refrigeration is a com- Dow Chemical Freeport.590 Completion—2H 2018 egories of design are based on one simple Sasol Lake Charles. layout. 500 Under construction. higher actual cubic feet completion—1Q 2020 per minute). particularly economizer heat exchangers. 4 shows a schematic of a typical Toronto open-cycle refrigeration unit. Texas 550 Completed—1Q 2017 ogy. PA cludes three-stage propylene compres- Denver sion for ethylene precooling and three- Philadelphia St. which in- Detroit Boston e Chicago e Marcus Hook. TX e Ethylene cracker ee e shown on the process diagram. Texas 1. Edmonton although size limitations will sometimes require multiple parallel compressors. to warm the flash gas to non- Westlake Chemical Corp. 3. etc. refrigerant. NA ethylene projects PEX) and operating costs. using propane or propylene as the developed a unique application of single. The kettle-type heat exchangers have Mexico Havana one refrigeration source (propylene).500 Under construction. two broad cat- Formosa Plastics Point Comfort. followed by a series of flash mixed refrigerant technology as a com- port terminals around the world utilize an stages. open-cycle system. 250 (expansion) Completion—4Q 2016 are frequently utilized in the refrigera- Louisiana tion industry.1 MMbpd ene flash vapors are recompressed up to Haiti 500 psia and recycled back to the kettle- type heat exchangers. A particular company has comparison between these two technolo- system. Kentucky 32 Completed—1H 2017 cryogenic temperatures prior to recom- Indorama Carlyss. design criteria: the operational decision completion—2019 on whether to utilize cryogenic or non- Axiall/Lotte Chemical Lake Charles. which also serves as a Los Angeles Atlanta suction drum for the flash gas compres- Dallas e sor. The flash gas recompression was opti- 50 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. Using cryogenic completion—2019 compressors with a lower inlet tempera- Shintech Plaquemine Parish. albeit in a separate FIG. with recompression and recircula. hydrocarbon industry for refrigeration of completion—4Q 2017 multiple fluids (propane.000 Under construction. ane. Calvert City. Company Location Capacity. Louisiana 370 Completion—4Q 2017 pression. with an emphasis on process effi- ciency. ture results in a lower overall horsepower Louisiana completion—2019 due to the higher mass volumes entering Shell Monaca. Texas 1. ee HGL pipeline e ee Houston e e Export terminal Ethylene is chilled in a consecutive Mexico e series of three kettle-type heat exchang- Monterrey Gulf of Miami ers. While many different Chemical completion—4Q 2017 configurations are possible. Ethyl- Net export: ~0.. export terminals and HGL pipelines.500 Started construction.500 Under construction.). United States Ottawa FIG. cryogenic compressors. as the inclusion of non-cryogenic machines Seattle will result in additional equipment and higher horsepower. For simplicity. ethylene. Louis Washington stage ethylene flash gas compression and San Francisco cooling.500 Under construction. tion of the flash vapors back to the front The following provides a comprehensive cally include a precooling refrigeration end of the unit. the flash drums are not Morgan’s Point. Pennsylvania 1. Each stage of flash requires a e flash drum vessel.500 Completed—2Q 2017 mon technology utilized throughout the ExxonMobil Chemical Baytown. capital expenditures (CA- TABLE 1. eth- Chevron Phillips Cedar Bayou.com . Source: US EIA pass due to the lower operating pressure. peting refrigeration technology option. the majority of ethylene ex.

This artificial mal butane components—is circulated FIG. An open-cycle refrigeration unit can be prefabricated on multiple skids and re. or field-erecting at site). but. single-cy- stainless steel due to the colder process cle. 4. rush during startup. horsepower and result in a less efficient sion provided by a two-stage. piping in these sections will be insulated including baseload facilities. and other components (primarily CO2) refrigerant (MR) compressor. flash drum struction mobilization. fewer controls BAHE is relatively clean (i. 5. HP ethylene assembled onsite to minimize field con. a must be removed from makeup refriger.. all equipment af. in that components such as butanes or pentanes. the third-stage ethylene chiller and could centrations normally encountered. For that purpose. Similar to the open cycle. De. non-cryogenic compressor. turndown and limit electrical current in- heavier than propylene will accumulate in nificant effect on operations at the con. Propylene refrigerant compressors able compression ratios and balanced flash temperature in the high-pressure Motor (HP) ethylene flash drum. with a variable speed drive to maximize the opposite effect. cumulator. As a result. Metallurgy of the equipment will be varied. HP ethylene recycle compressor pending on the location. mid-scale to minimize heat leak into the process and peak shaver units. but this typically requires sig. and vapor refrigerant in the HP MR ac- heavy hydrocarbon “dragline” is typically ant prior to loading into the mixed-refrig. in general. the MP ethylene vessels in this open-cycle refrigeration flash drum unit are to be installed horizontally to reduce the potential impact of shipping Liquid ethylene product Ethylene product receiver drum to site (complications of fabricating in a vertical position and trying to ship to site FIG. in most cases. the and a lower equipment count while pro. The necessary equipment for an First-stage Second-stage ethylene ethylene open-cycle refrigeration unit using cryo. with recompres. A simplified schematic of open-cycle refrigeration using cryogenic compression. Heavy impurities in the propyl. the ants are chilled in separate paths within from the last flash stage. cold sections of the ethylene fractionation A major disadvantage of the open. The fundamentals of the process are the process stream have on the overall rooted in a simplistic design. ethylene. SMR is a proven refrigeration tech- be low-temperature carbon steel or 304 nology that uses a closed-loop. with variable frequency accumulator chiller drives. overheads used in the production of ethyl- cycle system is the effect impurities in ene.7%). Process Optimization mized to meet two requirements: achiev. amount of methane impurities will flash The SMR refrigeration cycle for the in the flash drums and result in an arti. process. compressor is driven by an electric motor the brazed-aluminum heat exchanger Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 51 . and the cryogenic Ethylene supply (and retention of cold temperatures). have no sig. The technology is Motor temperatures. JT valve purity is greater than 99. which inher- performance of the unit. that can freeze at cryogenic temperatures frigerant is cooled and split into a liquid tion to the process. 5. direct-drive gas LP/MP ethylene recycle compressors turbines can be utilized as the compres- Motor sor driver. The liquid and vapor refriger- required to circulate accumulated liquids erant cycle. Water From the discharge of the HP mixed- potentially warm the refrigerant slightly. refrigeration unit. for turndown and to limit the elec- trical current in-rush during startup. the re- reducing the ability to transfer refrigera. Motor nificant environmental evaluations prior to project adoption. the small viding an efficient refrigeration process. refrigeration of ethylene is shown in Liquid ethylene product ficially high recycle until equilibrium is FIG. mixed refrigerant. propylene and nor. JT valve with the ethylene product. Propylene Third-stage The compression units are driven with refrigerant ethylene electric motors. A simplified schematic of an SMR recycle will increase the compression in a closed-loop system.e. All of the equipment and heavily utilized in the production of LNG. Hydrocarbon ene precooling refrigeration will have impurities in the refrigerant components. While ethylene ently leads to less piping. centrifugal. Single-mixed refrigerant (SMR) Mixed-refrigerant compressors ter the third-stage ethylene chiller will cycle. The mixed refrigerant—a blend of reached and the methane is dispensed methane. Ethylene supply chiller chiller genic compression is listed in TABLE 2.

LTCS erant are recombined at an intermediate 03-V-03 HP propylene comp. TABLE 3 provides a 2. to minimize field construction mobili- field insulated zation. The desired product temperature is 03-K-03 Propylene refrigerant accumulator Non-cryogenic. the vapor and liquid refrig- 03-V-02 MP propylene comp. Compressor(s) 03-K-01 LP MR compressor Non-cryogenic. Process Optimization TABLE 2. For the purpose of this comparison. the low-pressure (LP) refrigerant is then Pump(s) None – – recompressed in the LP MR compressor. variable speed cooled and returned to the HP MR com- 02-K-02 MP ethylene recycle compressor Cryogenic. CS mal efficiency. CS piping is uninsulated. site and/or carrier) pressure using a JT compressor variable speed valve. This speed results in a short initial startup time of Process cooler(s) 03-E-01 LP MR compressor aftercooler Air coolers1 slightly more than 2 hr. As with the open cycle. with the 02-E-02 Second-stage ethylene chiller Kettle-type. low-temperature carbon steel (LTCS) and 304 stainless steel (304SS).com . Equipment list for an SMR refrigeration unit frigeration unit can be prefabricated on Equipment type Item number Equipment callout Comments multiple skids and reassembled onsite Exchanger(s) 02-E-01 BAHE Mounted on saddles. suction drum Horizontal vessel. with the Pump(s) 03-P-01 A/B LP MR pumps Horizontal inline pump exception of the ethylene product piping exiting the main exchanger and the JT 03-P-02 A/B HP MR pumps Horizontal. LTCS point in the exchanger to maximize ther- 03-V-04 Propylene refrigerant accumulator Horizontal vessel. two-sided feed gas entering at the top and flowing tube sheets downward to the cold end at the bottom. Ambient ethylene. 304SS the BAHE. at pipeline pres- 02-K-03 HP ethylene recycle compressor Cryogenic. CS are insulated along with the ethylene product outlet piping—all other process 03-V-02 HP MR compressor suction drum Horizontal vessel.5°F/min. For the purpose of this comparison. selected to subcool the ethylene product variable speed and minimize boiloff gas (BOG) flash va- Process cooler(s) 03-E-01 HP propylene refrigerant comp. as previously identified. suction drum Horizontal vessel. speed The BAHE can be cooled down at a 03-K-02 HP MR compressor Non-cryogenic. 304SS BAHE by gravity. which Equipment type Item number Equipment callout Comments drops the pressure to approximately 70 Exchanger(s) 02-E-01 First-stage ethylene chiller Kettle-type. air coolers or wetted-surface air coolers. to the desired product temperature and compressor variable speed flashed down to the required storage (on- 03-K-02 MR propylene refrigerant Non-cryogenic. Compressor aftercoolers can be cooled with cooling water. The BAHE and JT valve loops Vessel(s) 03-V-01 LP MR compressor suction drum Horizontal vessel. tube sheets The BAHE is installed vertically. and cannot migrate to 02-V-03 Ethylene product receiver drum Horizontal vessel. variable speed sure. After a shut- down and startup/restart—provided 03-E-02 HP MR compressor aftercooler Air coolers1 the BAHE core is near cryogenic tem- 1. air coolers are selected. compression power. suction drum Horizontal vessel. 304SS liquids are isolated at the bottom of the 02-V-02 MP Ethylene Flash Drum Horizontal vessel. To enhance the design of 03-V-01 LP propylene comp. variable speed pressor. Upon exiting the BAHE. inline pump valve loops associated with the BAHE. is cooled in a single pass of the BAHE 03-K-01 LP propylene refrigerant Non-cryogenic. During a shutdown. peratures—normal operation can be ob- 2. Compressor aftercoolers can be cooled with cooling water. variable rate of approximately 1. tained within 30 min. Abbreviations: Carbon steel (CS). A key advan- aftercooler tage of the SMR refrigeration cycle is the ability to adjust the refrigerant composi- 03-E-04 HP ethylene recycle comp. 52 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. list of the necessary equipment for an SMR refrigeration cycle. The metallurgy of 03-V-03 HP MR accumulator Horizontal vessel. two-sided The cryogenic liquid produced in the tube sheets BAHE can exit only from the bottom of the exchanger. 02-E-03 Third-stage ethylene chiller Kettle-type. Abbreviations: Carbon steel (CS). Air coolers1 aftercooler tion mixture to achieve a wide range of process temperatures using the available 1. the SMR re- TABLE 3. Air coolers1 pors at the product pressure. 304SS areas of the process not designed for low temperatures. air coolers or wetted-surface air coolers. CS the SMR is carbon steel piping. two-sided psig prior to re-entry into the BAHE. air coolers are selected. Compressor(s) 02-K-01 LP ethylene recycle compressor Cryogenic. these Vessel(s) 02-V-01 HP Ethylene Flash Drum Horizontal vessel. variable which are 304 stainless steel. Equipment list for an open-cycle refrigeration unit (BAHE) prior to routing through sepa- rate Joule-Thompson ( JT) valves.

pressure in the refrigerant system. Compressor 10. Detailed simulations of Key parameters utilized in the compari- piping design pressures in the loop are both processes were developed using pro. Basis of comparison2 ries are required. Ethylene is a colorless Process cooling fan(s) 400 300 gas with a faintly sweet and musky odor at Process efficiency. low-pressure Process cooling temperature 90°F Air coolers.7 1 parison. The source of other Pump efficiency 75% Adiabatic efficiency refrigerants are from individual storage tanks (bullet-type storage tanks) or iso.900 to the system. For refrigerant makeup. Refrigerant drying beds are included for several components to Basis Value Comments ensure that the refrigerants entering the Ethylene flowrate 100 mt/hr Approximately 800 gpm closed-loop system are free of moisture Inlet conditions 1. and did not include requires less CAPEX and equipment. The design of the limits (ISBL) only.100 Pumps N/A 200 Basis of design.000 psig). It is highly Yearly electrical consumption (ISBL)2 $4. Process Optimization During the shutdown.e. Values are provided in TABLE 4. was designated as the base design.3 MM $4 MM flammable and easily ignited. operating 350 d/yr (approximately 96% availability). width × height × discharge. has system is such that only a small amount any ethylene conditioning prior to refrig. lower operating expenditures and results of refrigerant is required once the system is charged.300 10. prietary simulation software. This re.9 standard ambient conditions. All refrigerant components 4°F BAHE are added to the inlet line of the LP MR Ambient conditions 95°F/20% humidity. adjustments might provide a technology comparison for the tem stabilizes or reaches the settle-out be required to reflect a true site-specific ISBL facility. Note: The availability of pressure.3 78. Electrical consumption based on $0. or product rundown (i. A refrigerant drum is provided TABLE 5. so minimal makeup invento. overall ed since the compressor can be started at Lee Kessler enthalpy correlation. to minimize Electrical consumption (bhp)1 refrigerant losses. facility are different. pressure release as the equipment and Comparison. yearly high enough to contain the refrigerant. 20 ft USGC conditions compressor suction drum by circulat. as required. Brake horsepower 2.3% methane Mol% taken from a pipeline or brought to the End conditions –152.900 10. This bypass flow (sweep gas) length is used to moderate the ethylene tem- perature and vaporize the heavier com- ponents. increasing the ceived technology bias and provide an and load-out to a gas carrier). For the purpose of this technical com. CAPEX are based on budgetary vendor equipment cost factored for installation at the site. kWh/t 84.7% ethylene/0. settle-out pressure with the use of a suc.. the cold refrig. The fo. Typically. This accurate comparison of the two different A technology comparison is provided gradual warming and pressure increase technologies. Process efficiency comparison for any refrigerant liquid taken out of the Comparison metrics Open cycle SMR system for maintenance or due to excess Total electrical consumption liquid inventories adjustment. ethylene is transported by pipeline at Equipment piece count 18 10 elevated pressures (80°F at 1. son include: Process efficiency. Number of process skids 10 6 which places it squarely in the dense Overall layout dimensions (relative) 1.e. 10°F to dewpoint refrigerant vapor from the compressor Maximum skid dimensions 14 ft × 14 ft × 40 ft Truckable. drying and filtering/coalesc- erant slowly warms and the more volatile conditions are set to remove any precon. SMR technology tion throttling valve. As each individual site and in TABLE 5. TABLE 4. CAPEX (relative)3 1.1°F at 2 psig Saturated liquid facility in iso-containers and/or truck Compressor efficiency 77% and 79% Polytrophic efficiency transports (LNG). peripheral equipment and site-specific refrigerant to storage is not required for designs could result in a different design. cus of the simulations were inside battery As shown in TABLE 5. a set of standard parameters were 1. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 53 . This study was undertaken to can last more than a week before the sys. Peng-Robinson equation of state and the count. Horsepower (brake) 11.. Ethylene is pulled (first and second stage) from the pipeline.600 covered refrigerant can be added back Kilowatt (KW) 8. methane is Ethylene composition 99.a with the operating expenses. These eration (i. equipment piece Venting of the refrigerant is not anticipat. SMR technology development of the process simulations.6 1 phase vapor area of the phase envelope. ing).06/kWh.000 psig at 80°F Standard pipeline conditions that can potentially freeze. number of process skids. storage components vaporize. above mean sea level ing a small flow of hot. layout requirement and CAPEX. In this design. the transfer of comparison at a defined location.400 7. Approach temperature 7°F Kettle (BKU or equivalent) containers. developed to provide guidance in the 3.

provided reliability through multiple common com. With the open-cycle design. September 2017. This Services in LNG. ethane. propylene. the potential future reduction in the ethane. membrane applications dent of the refrigerant loop. Fluor Corp. including ylene refrigeration unit is a viable tech. 6). more than 25 yr of experience. PATEL is a Senior Process the same unit can be utilized to refrig. The product side is a once. proved compression efficiency. Louisiana and Oregon. BAHE cess conditions. °F at atmospheric pressure –155 –128 –54. locations.77 37. Patel received a BCh degree in chemical an ethylene SMR unit can be adjusted footprint. Ethylene and –155°F. Spot price for Mont Belvieu. vapor/liquid 1 ~less than 500:1 ~less than 450:1 ~less than 350:1 Mont Belvieu spot.. Takeaway. to refrigerate product between –130°F reduced installed capital cost and lower and holds PE licenses in Texas. Process Optimization TABLE 6. While the open-cycle eth. the non-cryogenic Refrigerant NOTES centrifugal supply equipment is designed for certain pro- Ethane a Refers to Honeywell’s UNISIM Design suite 450 compressors.com . 2017. propylene) and operate with one & Gas Solutions and Enron Engineering and Operational through. ethane or methane nology for the export of ethylene. (Common two-staged able).23 33. Rosetta is a graduate of the University of Kansas with a degree in chemical engineering. Engineer for Chiyoda International Corp. in Houston. return drums and HP MR Relative available refrigeration capacity REFERENCES accumulator as previously identified) Propylene for a 100-metric-tph ethylene refrigera.78 Relative liquefaction production 100 mt/hr 110 mt/hr 125 mt/hr (reference: 100 mt/hr ethylene unit) 1. open-cycle refrigeration technology. and surface area in the BAHE available. ROSETTA is Director of (leave the refrigerant as is) or adjust the LNG Technology for Chiyoda in a smaller footprint when compared to refrigerant composition to utilize com. KOMAL R.08 42. gas and LNG sectors for both onshore and offshore locations. A simplified schematic of an SMR of the alternative product chilling. 2. By adjusting configuration would also allow increased and fractionation facilities for both onshore and offshore the refrigerant composition.09 Expansion ratio. BAHE tion unit is shown in TABLE 6. gas and (production of LNG). than 10 yr of experience. pression horsepower and surface area where he serves on a variety of both large and small projects. Prior to joining Chiyoda. ASHRAE FIG. be adjusted to achieve a range of saturat. Ms. for Chiyoda. She has more inlet product must be free of impurities. ventional refrigeration technology. compression after- coolers.4 Specific volume. as a Senior Process Engineer at Worley Parsons. “New capacity will length- en US ethylene market. depending on the loading operating expenses compared to the con- Compression unit(s) BAHE scenarios and storage requirements avail.09 Boiling point. 54 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. in Houston. He has effectively. process can either operate less efficiently MARTIN J. and Dow Chemical in the oil. $/mt 677 584 882 Liquid density. Alternative configurations. Another Additionally. multi-product refrigeration unit. another configuration primarily in process engineering key advantage of the SMR technology is would allow operations to purchase mul. he worked in senior positions with Black & Veatch. An SMR refrigeration unit has im. 1 Fallas. and M. 2005. Patel worked Additionally. ed product temperatures. Prior to working the flexibility it offers without sacrificing tiple BAHE for each service (ex. requires less equipment. gas processing. 2 American Society of Heating. Relative refrigeration capacity—100-metric-tph SMR ethylene unit Ethylene Ethane Propylene Molecular structure H H H H H H C C C Ethylene H C C H C C Propene/ propylene H H H H Ethane H H MW 28. ethylene. ft /lb 3 13. Texas. B.06 30.8 12. 6.” S&P Global-Platts. Texas. the Handbook. and operating outside of simulation software. International Corp. In all cases. Oil performance. knockout Refrigerant that range would be very difficult at best. if desired. serves on a variety of both large- propane. tion. liquefaction projects. Mr. the same equipment can overall economics of ethylene refrigera. a smaller Ms. where she erate other hydrocarbons. For example. Compare the expansion ratio with 600:1 for natural gas to LNG. lb/ft at 2 psig 3 35. the and small-scale oil.65 9. Qureshi. cility operators to look at improving the facilities. there is enough compression horsepower pressor units. closed system that is indepen. a engineering from the University of Houston. ABB Lummus Randall Gas Technologies. Refrigeration and Depending on the severity and length Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). primarily in process engineering for gas processing and LNG which can freeze or plug the BAHE. to-ethylene price spread will require fa. for gas processing and LNG facilities. common compression unit (FIG.

industry points provide a deeper look into these throughs giving rise to a previously un- leaders and esteemed colleagues shared issues. This trend includes Disruption of “business as usual. RAHUL IYER some ways. Although The global petrochemical sector will individual producers had a rapidly de- continue to see strong growth through veloping understanding of how costs are the end of the decade. Some of the strongest growth is quence of a vast and regionalized indus- seen in the US. $2/MMBtu 2 yr ago. nologies and business practices. These lat- ciency.” the production of low-sulfur marine fu. their viewpoints on 2018 and beyond challenges that exist. The most sig. power utilities. nearly every region. Embracing technological bon value chain—one that often allows rochemical capacity. moving the industry toward clean. coal companies and petro- sulfur transportation fuels. and technological innovations and other forc- gas industry. and how the downstream industry can Executive Vice President In spite of a wealth of production data and innovate in 2018 and into the future. California waited for a consensus to form prior to capacity growth. required to sustain production. Editor/Associate Publisher 2018 Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints To kick off the new year. dashing the belief that products will be met with the latest tech. The pace with which the US went from with Hydrocarbon Processing. duction were built on the premise that to. er trends helped contribute to a collapse satisfying global demand for petroleum al drilling in 1929. low. (HPI) has witnessed the development of tices were combining to create this mega- major trends that are affecting the global Siluria Technologies. to direction. present state of the downstream oil and the discovery of more gas and oil. alysts who believed that $5/MMBtu was fur Cap regulation. and to the most recent break. but it took time to under- the world will be required to continue stand that a structural shift was occurring. abundance surprised the world and. slashing millions of tons still under development. processing/LNG capacity has surged in hydrocarbon industry weaknesses. the broader indus- nificant capacity expansions will occur try and value chain did not understand in the Asia-Pacific. Along with continued refining San Francisco. surprising many an- time Organization’s (IMO’s) Global Sul. These planning for LNG imports to natural gas viewpoints offer insight into growing re. in 1949. At the same time. help bring it to the market tomorrow. The following view. have been adopting innovative tech- have come onstream. new technologies are taking action. disruption in the participants to operate with a limited Over the past several years. production costs and creating greater The following insights will show the day’s technological advances will enable operational flexibility. as well as where the indus. pioneering innovations dating back to the renewables sharply downward. of Strategy and accessible knowledge of how dramatically The hydrocarbon processing industry geology. To adhere to chemical operators acted on commodity government regulations. es continue to drive electrical efficiency try is heading and how we will get there. investing heavily in producing low-sulfur transportation fuels. along with the opportunities and imaginable natural gas surplus in the US. new gas perspective of their businesses’ strengths. This effect is a natural conse- regions. where cheap natural gas try comprising a fragmented hydrocar- is fueling more than $100 B in new pet. trend. opportunities and threats. to measurement while drilling LNG could be a virtually endless outlet nological advances. for surplus US natural gas supply. Outlook Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints L. The story unfolds in a long string of upward. many participants in the value chain market. technological advances. Midstream gas processors. with hundreds of From the beginning. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 55 . to hydraulic fracturing in LNG prices. exploration and pro. in 1978. safety and first oil wells in Baku in 1848. process optimization. Millions of tons of The hydrocarbon value chain is no Upstream and midstream companies new LNG import and export capacity stranger to technological innovation. in gions of activity. surprised the industry itself. dynamic (not static). US and Middle East this reality. and the costs of alternatives like The continued pursuit of plant effi. technology and business prac- Corporate Development. NICHOLS. refiners around price signals. Natural gas prices collapsed to around els to adhere to the International Mari.

the value of natural gas in tricity demand in 2016. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints Today. would be impossible without natural gas ALAN GELDER Continued advancements in energy producers and processors. participants the US on a “new vs. for upstream and midstream players to cal innovation. the peakiness of this Innovation and market disruption are able sources of electricity in the US. strategically turning toward higher-value European refining margins in 2016 were panding CCGT capacity. full-value-chain awareness is technologies like natural gas-fed solid critical if the hydrocarbon industry is to oxide fuel cell systems. in power markets. downstream utilities. UK incremental power generation growth midstream. ability weaknesses associated with both solar and wind. Key signposts for an evolving of grid stability offer gas-fueled CCGT The feedstock requirements. EV power existing processes (steam cracking. down. North American re- ers and midstream processors are often vestments in gas-to-chemicals and break. Refining margins have been healthy eration. and Germany reveal the operational and ments in crude-to-chemicals projects. The European and Asian refining in- bility in the US (Texas and California) est oil companies are now making invest. Upstream produc.g. Globally is advanced distributed power generation minded. nessed over the past 20 yr). CCGT in China and India. propane dehydrogenation. variability in had been considered viable feedstocks Refining outlook for 2018: solar and wind production and the impact for the commodity chemicals industry. to ethylene and/or propylene. by embracing a more comprehensive bine (CCGT) power in the next decade. Until recently. It is well understood that across the hydrocarbon value chain on a natural gas is a cleaner fuel that enjoys global basis. Harvey witnessed better refining margins 56 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. The the energy industry. but the pace of innovation and Germany.. with 2016 being distinctly average (e. 2014. Renewables dominate Opportunities for upstream and London. While this growth market the next 3 yr. but some market chemicals. approximately what the sector has wit- stream utilities are generally tasked with ingly competitive energy markets. utility-scale solar beats coal in cycle gas turbines (OCGTs) have a strong erate. However. portant milestone as the cheapest avail. charging network operators capture the kets and new technologies that enable ergy Finance study. like a small number. Now more than ever. and is competitive advantage. Chemicals. Today. including coal and nuclear. a reactive perspective impact their ability to create and capture informed largely by commodity price value along the chain. demand could represent a high-value op. and this is provide over gasoline or diesel fuel on a likely to be true vs.) by converting methane- the US is almost entirely predicated on estimates show EV demand for electricity containing streams and/or raw natural the value of electricity. ers and midstream players from entering since the crude oil price collapse of late Studies of experiences with grid sta. the world’s larg. manufacturing and away from increas. these compa.com . Italy and Spain. and pro- presents a credible threat to natural gas cessed products like ethane and propane. Wood Mackenzie. nies have been almost entirely left out of EMEARC Refining and understood dispatchability and avail. paired with renewables to provide base- load power. The refiners that electric vehicle (EV) market. However. based on the same analysis. gas and other methane-containing gases margins were comparable to those of the ning and value capture. ing. scale and location of chemical plants market environment tive advantage over other baseload gen. Australia. massive baseload generation a valuable competi. Research storage are poised to address the well. These new Golden Age of Refining that occurred Another emerging example is the process technologies can add value to more than a decade ago. While this may seem than burning them as low-value fuel. coal in China within per-mile basis. Earlier this year. advantages over coal and other hydro- In a world where major industries carbons. fining margins did not repeat the heights of forced to respond strictly to price signals. refin. rather solar and wind energy crossed an im. crude-to. remained operational during Hurricane demand represented just 6 TWh of elec. Solar already beats substantial operational savings that EVs value-creating growth strategies. only rapid growth of renewables in the market refined products like naphtha. which are being proactively adapt and sustainably thrive. However. its impacts on markets continue to accel- present. In the present market structure. economic advantages associated with ex. new” basis. through technologies that convert natural 2012. demand by 2040. Vice President. backup power and even high- Renewable energies: Opportunity or value grid-stabilization solutions. have largely prevented upstream produc. these markets. At portunity where natural gas-fueled open. threat? Multiple trends are brewing in Another major area of opportunity for the marketplace that could be addressed producers and processors lies outside of as either threats or opportunities. in the hydrocarbon value chain can thrive poised to beat combined-cycle gas tur. dustries enjoyed record margins in 2015. can now be exported. etc. As US crude managing these issues. this growth opportunity. Even more disruptive are planned in. representing as much as 5% of total power gas to high-value hydrocarbons. Many areas of opportunity exist are routinely disrupted by technologi. not new. One of these areas signals simply will not suffice. US Gulf Coast (USGC) rather than participate in strategic plan. EV owners and EV view of energy and petrochemical mar- based on a recent Bloomberg New En.

1.0 show that gasoline demand will decline in Others Jet/kerosine LPG Fuel oil Gasoline both the US and Europe in 2018.4 MMbpd. with the overhang of middle distillate invento. While refining mar. Hence.0 during 2018.5 reflecting seasonality and freight rates. refinery capacity FIG. This sce- MMbpd nario results in crude differentials in 2018 being similar to those in 2017 and fuel oil discounts to crude remaining narrow. This de. which set global mains highly uncertain. as it would be unable to import with gasoline and diesel/gasoil demand we project annual average levels to be diluent to continue heavy oil growth being similar (FIG. its of the global economy is supporting oil refinery outages along the USGC from supply of heavy oil could decline demand growth of 1.0 not a little weaker. in terms of crude exports leads to stronger margins. Diesel/gasoil Naphtha gasoline demand growth will continue to 1. mand growth in 2018 is broadly balanced. Within Key uncertainties and signposts to with future implications for the those two years. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints in 2017 compared to 2016. gins are expected to be strong in 2018. additions have slowed since the collapse Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 57 . Distillate demand growth reflects a normal winter and a recovery in manufacturing activity. with many aspects • China’s export quotas for 2018. so US crude export flows will fluctuate –0. 2. The 2018 balanced tainties of economic growth. re. Therefore. global gaso- line inventories will not be so tight. Hurricane Harvey. we are project- ing US tight oil supply growth to exceed 2. However. This has led to the refining • The stability of Libya and Nigeria fundamentals suggest for 2018? system being tightened. It 0. 2. The global perspective masks key regional dif. supplies. weather significantly over 2017 levels.5 also results in US crude exports growing significantly.5 Supply response and margin out. We expect competi- tion between these markets to be fierce. in turn. 1. with Midland light/sweet barrels being exported to both European 0. -0. than in 2017. swiftly (by 300 Mbpd–400 Mbpd). such as: import quota increase is greater than ferences.0 1 MMbpd in 2018. lower than in 2017. our forecasts 2. our outlook is that OPEC’s production cuts are extended and the price of Brent crude in 2018 is similar. skewed toward gasoline.0 and Asian markets. • Venezuelan supplies—If Venezuela Demand growth.5 petrochemical sector lowers utilization to accommodate the US ethane-based steam cracker investment wave coming online 0. The strong growth fining margins in 2017 were boosted by defaults on its bond payments. events and unplanned outages). if 1. projected to grow strongly. As we believe that US gasoline demand peaked in 2017. to demand in 2015 and 2016. Although oil demand growth is FIG. Global oil demand change by product. as refining runs and resulted in high middle to watch (in addition to the usual uncer. as the naphtha-based 0. 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 As shown in FIG. which. Oil de. demand growth was watch. The oil and refining landscape re.0 ries expected to shrink. crude import quotas have increased distillate inventories. This scenario could trigger mand is quite different when compared a change in refinery ownership. notably in China. What do the in oil prices. Atlantic Basin refining market. This results in the oil market being unable to accommodate a Latin America Europe Asia return of OPEC and non-OPEC barrels North America Russia and Caspian without significantly weakening oil pric. 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 look. 1.5 Africa Middle East es.5 be in the emerging economies in Asia and the Middle East. MMbpd We forecast naphtha demand to decline globally in 2018. 1). Therefore. Global crude distillation unit changes.

To this customer. we often think of the produc- industry. there is an vironmental footprint. catalysts and energy usage. but an • China’s refining and chemical millions of barrels of refining capacity at entrepreneur. provide greater certainty that will the market for heavy. These specifications are rap. This opera- terest in enormous new complexes. will also see greater demand for more ef. gas to plastics). speed project announcements. At present. the industry has a new support the investments required tent bunker fuel. and scope matter. mine what research to fund. our company is in a unique posi. We ing plant. solar and wind. assets at work—the process units. which would adversely industry have entered a new phase. In fact. Mean. At the same time. all but a handful of the world’s 700 refin. the next wave To satisfy this demand. where equipment and catalysts are President and CEO. In processing packages with a smaller en- impact Asian refining margins. often years before they make ing a direct route from methane to ole. bines process technology and software- ducing transportation fuels. These two trends threaten to strand refiner or chemical manufacturer. investments to expand petro. This demand greater domestic content in manufactur- REBECCA LIEBERT growth is being driven by consumption ing. fuels. this convergence com- on investment can exceed those of pro. tation. mean that only the most attractive global refinery. And behind them read of trends in the industry—we deter. more effective solutions change on sulfur requirements such as those equivalent to Euro 5-type will be needed for energy storage so we in maritime transportation fuels. As our refineries that cannot meet the new stan. conditions in the petrochemical manufacturing and gas in exports. the processors. dates mean that operators will have to (IMO) developments. of revolutions in oil and gas technology cal manufacturers are trying to integrate will be based on technological capabili- upstream into chemical feedstocks. Des Plaines. New reuse man- • International Maritime Organization accelerating move toward tighter trans. rochemicals is growing at three times the There is also a global trend toward rate of transportation fuels. Honeywell growth in developing economies. the global refining sector. equally urgent problem. The lower prices and portability When we look at the operations of a eries. lifeblood of any of these operations is the observations and concerns—and their Several factors will affect how these people who run them. com. new standards can transfer energy from periods of peak Ongoing work by the IMO could for maritime fuels will largely eliminate supply to periods of peak demand. As the world by both the shipping and refining gy content. apply a century’s worth of chemical reac- pounding uncertainty and price volatility. the dards. pansion of the LNG sector. Demand for pet. while ties enabled by digitization. produced locally. will reduce gasoline demand. and which requirements all over the world. enabled services. portation fuel specifications that specify go beyond regulatory compliance and there has been limited response cleaner-burning fuels with greater ener. refiners are trying to move downstream This digitization trend goes far be- into petrochemicals. gas technologies and big data analytics. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints the anticipated growth in demand. includ. The solution lies largely in new or ily on a trusted advisor. disadvantage. petrochemi. demand would result in an increase As we enter 2018. decisions as process economics change. high-sulfur-con. using a connected plant solution in the of oil and gas? bringing it closer than ever to a single next 5 yr will be at a serious competitive Since our technologies are resident on benchmark price. achieve resource recovery. leading to enormous price vola. tion allows the user to see upcoming is- Natural gas will be abundant and in. UOP. will be a greater demand for refining. sues. We speak with refiners. there This imbalance between supply and technologies to develop. but global capacity surplus. the an investment decision. This is creating a yond automating existing processes. petrochemical or gas process- tion to evaluate trends in the oil and gas gas processing plants will get built. natural gas We believe that any company that is not What is the future can affordably go anywhere in the world.e. With the ex. Illinois while. We will see a faster march toward chemicals production capacity are highly the convergence of traditional oil and cyclical. tions on a continuous basis. we cannot be sure when or by how much. turns more toward electrical energy from sectors to the IMO’s major legislative idly converging to a common standard. tivity of the plant in terms of the physical chemical manufacturers and natural gas ficient gas processing solutions. large number of new entrants into the Cloud-based solutions will allow us to markets for paraxylene and olefins. tility—even though the average return For Honeywell. However. We expect that pace of capacity additions needs adapted refining technologies that use more efficient gasoline-powered vehi- to be lower than historical levels new. and rising penetration of electric ve- to avoid the reemergence of a Petrochemicals face a different but hicles. At present. kind of customer that is not a seasoned for this change and limit disruptions. tions and operating data into a platform In the refining and petrochemicals that monitors and informs plant opera- sectors. advanced catalysts and processes. cles. and they will rely heav- long-term outlook suggests. adjusted for transpor. trends play out. avoid downtime and make better expensive for many years. With stricter regulatory is an army of service technicians who ad- 58 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com . petro. Based on their fins (i.. economies of scale are driving in.

Turbomachinery vices. a 50% longer maintenance interval. 20% more power and a compact footprint vice—and often. most stringent safety and reliability stan- and on preventing disruptions that lead We are aware that this continues to be dards. In addition. industry and believe that this sustained preventive actions help lower costs and Customers will pay for this higher level low-commodity price environment is an cut down unplanned downtime. sions. seen an unparalleled push for new techno. As production maintenance schedules and lowers the to- faltered—or stopped entirely—a contin. sensor data with analytics. our industry. mind. One role in operations. which is a each unique asset over time—combining which the industry is moving. including turbomachinery. of service on an ongoing basis. and Process Solutions. The becomes a partner to the customer. to the world. that requires 25% fewer trains compared equipment and repair services. I believe we are going to to slowdowns or shutdowns. system optimization. to other standard aeroderivative solu- Around the world. and IT systems are managed of the flexibility the industry is seeking. maximizing economic recovery and as the proven benefits of these solutions services that they previously have been minimizing risk remain top priorities. we much of it rests on IIoT. models and Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 59 . while ensuring equipment meets the operation and reliability of the plant. By imple- unable to provide. a GE company. such as and far more compelling economic value operators. and it can also be utilized for simple- come with service plans. It provides 40% lower NOx emis- the opportunity cost of lost production. For example. In the oil and gas and we continue to invest in providing industry. and to pay for that ser. the customer was paying for expert ad. we are certain future of the industry and key to achieving the reward to the service provider. a challenging time for the industry. Over the past several years. Automobiles tors. trend that will surely continue in 2018. we launched the LM9000 gas turbine in diately travel to the plant. tions. emergency supplies. service companies. These a value-priced. customers would rather pay to the most innovative technology to cus- maintain or improve an operation. With cloud-based This is a level and system of service logical developments across the entire oil applications. It is an outcome-based most of which will focus on inventions operates. who that there will be more exciting change increases in growth and productivity. Both operators and service vice on an outcome-achievement basis. provides greater levels of efficiency. As a result. we have seen anoth- This allows them to budget more reliably er trend continuing to grow in this search for service throughout the entire lifecycle Increasing efficiency and for increased efficiency and productivity: of the technology. the refinery and petrochemical segment. er than just to fix it when it goes wrong. tomers in all segments we serve. continuing the digital drive digitalization. As we look at 2018. for smarter and more efficient solutions can provide an in-depth understanding of enabled services. and and gas industry. Florence. tal cost of ownership. as it is opportunity for creating profound change Big data will continue to play a critical more cost-effective for them in the long and transforming the way we operate. cogeneration and combined-cycle other heavy equipment are serviced on power generation. see continued interest in digital solutions service providers will be able to provide fore. and the model on which Petrochemicals. but that have a new requires a commitment from all players— menting new digital technology. thing I am certain about is that the need our industry uses information will contin- sons that other industries use product for innovation and technological growth ue throughout 2018 and the years ahead. and this shift in how run. This is a great example this basis. technology remote monitoring of equipment and to the customer. We can also wireless sensors. tion of the plant. Italy duces non-productive time by optimizing tered some kind of crisis.and software. lifecycle management: Early detection. outcome-based system. This shifts the para. In addition to 2017. service relation. troubleshoot and help direct repairs ALBERTO MATUCCI The present environment has forced and maintenance. with within the oil and gas industry. The world witnessed much change in companies agree that digitalization is the This operation will shift the risk and 2017. Baker in the LNG industry for technology that For generations. Customers are searching mance Management (APM) solution. re- spotlighted when a customer encoun. That is the reason gent of service personnel would imme. could not in the past. Refinery and solutions for both equipment and ser- ing business. This are already too great to ignore. Operators are under pressure to method of service delivery that focuses and advancements that create smarter minimize costs and maximize productiv- the service provider on improving the and more efficient ways to bring energy ity. providers—to work together. This is the direction in that will increase productivity. The result is a 20% reduction in the ships are moving quickly toward total total cost of ownership for LNG opera- lifecycle management. there. including Industrial Internet has changed the way a vested interest in the successful opera. we have we can also analyze it in a way that we tional reliability and safety. under service contracts. users can prevent a prob- digm from cost-plus service delivery to feel a cautious optimism across the entire lem like erosion before it happens. opera. such as our Asset Perfor- delivery that has not existed before. At the same time. Aircraft and cycle. They will do this for the same rea. Vice President. us to focus on what is critical: optimizing Service is a substantial cost of do. rath. and prevention. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints vise. there is a strong focus it has been run is overdue for a change. the value of service was Hughes. will remain at the forefront of everyone’s We can access large volumes of data.

With international emissions stan- stantly evolving idea of how the machine sumption continues worldwide. enhancing the efficiency of existing opera- tive and maintenance services. physical solvents capable of removing or- lows users to significantly improve effi. partial acid gas nature and partial organic cycles and increase returns. It is a disruptive technology that opments. more sulfur from the same operation unit. air emissions regulations require conventional solvent systems due to their missioning that will dramatically shorten much deeper (or total) sulfur removal. reduce our customers in 2018 and beyond. this is why we are gearing up to become output and minimizing sulfur content. as Increasing capacity of operations. An duction or reach deeper treating. al refining and gas processing industries simply to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) The digital twin can predict how the face the challenges of tighter air emissions from gas streams. In par. Often. This unrivalled insight al. Solutions are available that not only efficiency.8 MM. By predicting and preventing help reduce and remove sulfur content. and there will certainly be more ments be met with the limited capital re- provides operators with insights that al. solvents—a combination of chemical and and improve. tinues to invest in new refineries. reduced energy consumption by 350 detailed understanding of the asset over Meeting sulfur removal BBtu/yr and reduced the solvent makeup time. change increased the treating capacity by tween digital and physical offers a highly 48%. may arise during the startup phase and tent in crude oil and feedstocks. Refinery gas or natu- machine will interact with the process and fuel regulations. The year ahead vice companies and customers to provide there has been a noticeable shift toward will see an increased emphasis on predic. of ground-breaking technological devel. operator’s business in 2018 and beyond. systems answer critical questions on the benefits of investing in digital are clear. but also safer. ciencies and allows for more informed retrofits and expansions to reduce sulfur Hybrid solvents reduce hydrocarbon up- decision-making. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints material science—to provide a detailed Our industry has embraced a number How can the challenges of deeper sul- and evolving picture of machine opera. in organic sulfur. When the To meet these intensified emissions and nature—they require a specialized tech- machine is in operation. Dow assisted a refinery that can interact with humans. models and knowledge of materi. while offering actions that should be the ultimate digital industrial partner for abling technologies have become a critical taken to improve performance. tailored solutions that offer reliability. proven and more tangible. failures. en- set. advanced.e. sources at hand? low them to effectively plan maintenance. take and meet gas specifications for acid 60 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. if a refinery needs to increase pro- dictive software do not stop there. we can make assets not only more AJAY BADHWAR but also play a key role in the production productive. it is no longer sufficient is actually operating in the real world. the glob. This was achieved without invest- bringing them together with the physical challenges in the refining ing any capital and reduced the yearly cost (i. ticular. efficiency and productivity. Mining. Bridging the gap be. thinking and doing. Global Strategic Market of high-quality finished refinery products. high-gravity crude oil. component in the decision-making pro- risk and ensure operational safety and cess. We have wit. the opportunities for pre.” Therefore. to improve performance. capital investment and timelines tighten. However. als). (MDEA) to UCARSOL solvents. By taking data and analytics and by 34%. Gas and Solvents are required to remove sulfur when working with our own customers. is always seeing. As tive services that use advanced analytics well as close collaboration between ser. and they are differenti- and we firmly believe that predictive soft. anticipating criticalities that added challenge of increasing sulfur con. combined with the ral gas that is high in H2S is often high equipment. absolute amount of consumed energy. as these ibility. high-performance solvents can We estimate that only 3%–5% of oil and be applied to existing refineries to help gas equipment is “connected. With the aim of maximizing hydrocarbon history and present operations of an as. ganic sulfur compounds from gas streams. As industry standards tighten. improve performance. the digital twin clean fuel standards. 2018. As we look to APM is just one of a suite of predic. The industry con. Mercaptans are difficult to remove using fundamentally enabling a “virtual” com. upgrades. levels in the resulting process gas streams. as well as to remove the potential for growth is significant. we can create a detailed and con. Arti. Modern solvents are available to disruptive technology that is set to revo. fur removal and flare reduction require- tions. to come as the benefits become tested. as part of a performance im- replicas of an operator’s physical assets provement project. dards at play. Dow has developed hybrid with the ability to continuously learn or they will be forced to acquire low-sulfur. increase capacity without increasing the lutionize operations for our sector. Texas from gas streams. ated to meet contaminant removal pa- ware will be a key part of any successful rameters. and gas processing industries of operation by roughly $0. substantial capital investment is required.com . Dow Oil. flex. we expect further development. The sion’s performance. In response. operators believe that nology or a combination of technologies. such as mercaptans. helping in converting from methyl diethanolamine them to better manage the physical ver. As the incremental rise in fuel con. the refin- even more advanced way to oversee asset ery will need to use more of their valuable maintenance is by using digital twins—a energy. ficial intelligence is used to build digital For example. nessed the vast benefits of these systems Manager. Houston. The tions before new infrastructure is installed..

For example. However. These solvents have previously possible. ate at both a lower and higher rate than be used to generate electricity in avail- dustry applications. substantial operating cost penalty. emissions and fuel regulations. This technology and lead to significantly lower capital and routine measure due to a lack of pipelines selectively recovers NGL being targeted operating costs. Minimizing inefficiencies in the pensive process that required a very low. natural gas resources from oil and desired removal of water. From startup through the various life- flaring. Recovering NGL and using 20 yr. and the ability to able generators. but they continue to evolve. The resulting gas can then and have other potential oil and gas in. which is the tems can be quickly deployed and are rela- plied at natural gas plants and refineries. hybrid sol- are put online and before takeaway ca. these sys. includ. significant capital investment and had a simulation and testing capabilities. natural gas liquids the gas with a generating engine can effec- (NGL) capture was a complicated and ex. can pacity has been established. CEO of Davies Public Affairs executives and their contractors John Davies PRESENTED BY: SPONSORED BY: HYDRO-TEST INCORPORATED  To sponsor contact Karen Francis at 713-520-4450 | View the agenda and register at pipelineopportunities. It and Caspian basin. help minimize capital and op- Increasing the flexibility of systems stantially lower compared to previous erating expenditures and meet tightening can help reduce inefficiencies by expand. such as formulated amines. the including economic. innovation gas production can help capture energy NGL. tively eliminate the need for flaring. ing an operation window. In the past. These solvents can be ap. technology. 2018 | Westin Galleria | Houston. field. Explore the Challenges and Opportunities Facing Industry Leaders at Pipeline Opportunities Conference April 3. tors the opportunity to generate income solve an operator’s specific challenges flaring may be common as a temporary or from the captured NGL. temperature refrigeration unit to separate operations in the face of low-sulfur regu- sources. CO2 and lighter cycles of a project. torically available technologies can save mand. Improving refining and gas processing system and capturing valuable re. infrastructure is being These separation technologies required requires expertise. recent technological developments. sales product. Industry Leaders’ Viewpoints gas removal. The meeting has become a premiere event for the pipeline industry and is co-sponsored by the • Key issues facing the oil and gas industry. and minimizes the less. and capacity. built to obtain more fuel from produc. recovery techniques. Texas Pipeline & Gas Journal and Gulf Publishing are pleased to announce Join us for panel discussions providing industry the upcoming 14th annual Pipeline Opportunities Conference on April insight on topics such as: 3 at the Westin Galleria in Houston. rather than for the operator. however. lations goes beyond pure chemistry. with the development ing for utilities and people needed in the cost. Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA). continuity of refinery and gas processing country’s economic growth. Recovering. At present. operations. especially during the period when assets sorbents help enable the capture of valu. The one-day conference is focused on new construction opportunities in North America as well as expert • Political and legislative developments in the analyses of the numerous factors driving the industry forward. capital and operating expenses are sub. tively portable. In regions like the Middle East the liquid products from the gas stream.com Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 61 POC18_HLFH. vents and novel adsorbent systems. political and environmental Association of Oil Pipe Lines. nation’s capital that will affect the industry Keynote Address presented by: • Challenges and opportunities facing industry John Davies. creating another valuable been used in the industry for more than handle fuels with a wide degree of con. capitalizing on more mod- of infrastructure comes inefficiencies. ern. Since this NGL recovery process and experience can help streamline the resources that can be used to support a requires minimal operator intervention. His- tion to market to meet increasing de. TX.indd 1 12/7/2017 10:49:11 AM . Typically. coupled with analysis. ability for a piece of equipment to oper. tamination. and the Maguire Energy Institute at aspects SMU’s Cox Business School. able NGL from streams. allowing opera. UCARSORB NGL ad.

com REST OF WORLD: Alastair Noakes.com D I S C O V E R M O R E AT E N E R G Y W E B AT L A S . +1 (713) 520-4407 or is also available. Any time. • Shareholder data • Interactive data filtering PDF exports • Project storage and capacity • Process method • Layer/attribute access • Interactive charts/statistics and modification Additional Maps/Data Questions and More Info A geospatial dataset covering US gas processing plants AMERICAS: Brian Holsinger. +44 (0) 203 409 2244 or Alastair. the Energy Web Atlas facilitates to interrogate real-time facility and project data and find the access to the most relevant data available. Brian.Noakes@EnergyWebAtlas. • Data exports information reporting and graphing • Project status • Production quality maps. Any place. C O M . Updated in real-time.Holsinger@EnergyWebAtlas. search and query tools allow users Built for ease of use. Data points include: functionalities including: • Owner/Operator • LNG shipping/vessel • Custom annotation. Real-time Data Comprehensive Functionality The platform’s mapping. The Energy Web Atlas is a comprehensive dataset covering the global LNG market. REAL-TIME LNG DATA Any project. with various information needed for major decisions. the web-based platform enables users to access worldwide facility and project data.

The Fortran code managed all time this system was installed. DCS tag names. calculation and control and To restore the catalyst to full activity. mate the regenerations was first undertaken. of algorithms for data acquisition. batch-oriented software operated valves (MOVs) that take a reactor out of service and package was available in the 1980s when the project to auto- put the swing reactor in service in its place. large set of complex Fortran programs in the VAX computer to Other Fortran programs handled housekeeping chores. no robust. • Procedure ming afforded by S-88 compliant programs was perfectly suit. interacts with the operator console. Texas Migrating from Fortran to ISA S-88 A major refiner operates two catalytic reforming units for lers in place. A set of approximately 26 Fortran programs was written and pressor. the primary tool for a typical control strategy is the some byproduct coke is unavoidably produced and deposits on control module (CM). waits. which can be configured with a variety the catalyst. VAX computer connected to a distributed control sys. sequence interruptions and faults and contains the In the early 1990s. A “swing” reactor is brought into reforming ser. regeneration system has performed admirably for the past 25 yr. The controller selected Texas. MOV openings and closures. temperature and pressure) are adjusted during the re. • Phase programs. which controls all other regeneration ing flow. • Unit operations. tion. etc. During this process. Thinking back to the historical context when this but also the opening and closing of a complex set of motor. The RCMs were designed to implement the: same set of phases. The main components of the system are a recycle com. Process Control and Instrumentation J. a fired heater and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. example. The VAX Fortran programs. system integrator to execute the migration project.b For carbons in the presence of hydrogen (H2 ). T. trogen and air can be introduced in a controlled manner into The main programs consisted of the: the recycling gas flow. which leads to gradual catalyst deactivation. production capacity.a The refiner then commissioned the writing of a of the 14 phases of the regeneration sequence. software system available at the time. five reactors filled with catalyst provided several other tools and programming modules that are operated continuously in series to reform paraffinic hydro. handles generation procedure. Consequently. 1). Corp. which made the move to more modern hardware and software handling faults. To complete this task. The process unit had existing control. etc. and future planned migrations were also forecast gasoline octane improvement and aromatics production in to be on the same type of controllers. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 63 . Since multiple reactors were S-88 guidelines (FIG. Houston. The regeneration procedure involves not timers. with each using an identical set of valve-controller program were broken down into three RCMs to provide greater combinations and with each regeneration cycle following the modularity. the object-oriented. project was first launched. The executive program and recipe control modules (RCMs). compiled for execution in the VAX for catalyst regeneration. Louisiana. included starting-and-stopping phase or sequence programs. keeping track of the progress and parsing tag a necessity. Baton Rouge. timers. automate the catalyst regeneration procedure. FORD. MAVERICK Technologies. BOZEMAN. Also. the refiner installed a Digital Equipment emergency air cutoff interlocks. proceeds. • Executive program. Ni. the refiner engaged a control names and parameters per reactor selection. The executive program was replaced with RCMs per Migration and modernization. The regeneration of the cata- vice in place of the reactor that is being regenerated to maintain lyst occurs in a series of steps and transitions with flags. In each of these units. which include one program for each tem (DCS). the most robust engineering blanket of inert gas during various phases of catalyst regenera. MAVERICK Technologies. programs. but the VAX computer was already an old platform at the Fortran to S-88 adaptation. the In addition to the MOVs. each reactor must be logic blocks. The roles carried out by the executive involved. setpoint only the actual steps required to burn the coke off the catalyst. • Unit procedure ed for this application. and support for it ceased in the its supervisory responsibilities via its executive program. KOLLURI and J. This automated such as messaging. The refiner was facing serious obsolescence issues. there is also a system to supply a system designers chose Fortran. several regulatory controls (includ. aliasing. class-based program. This early 2000s. halts. taken offline periodically so that the coke can be burned off the catalyst. ramps. offered additional flexibility for this type of migration.

The part of the regeneration software program migration. the HMI was also upgraded to accommodate the improvements. 3. parsed approximately 200 tag names and approximately 280 Messaging. The recipe values. This feature was replaced with a messaging operations for individual reactors. with the timestamp.com . including faults and exceptions. were readily available. Migrating the S-88 solution onto the new controller. referenced through the alias a set of predefined strings to be generated as run-time messages tables. but executed at the commands of the necessary for resuming a phase in case of a fault or an operator- unit operations RCM. all the operating parameters related to RCMs and SCMs. Major improvements to the HMI included: • Introduction of a new mechanism to display startable and resumable tests on the HMI • Introduction of a regeneration program status page for all RCMs and SCMs (FIG. The resumable test checked required conditions any of the six reactors. solution that worked in tandem with the S-88 program based The executive program and exception handling. New displays were built to take advantage of these features and incorporated ASM guidelines. This set of needed to be notified of progress or alerted of an action to be parameters formed the basis for the recipe parameters in the performed. were also programmed into the exception handlers. which is fully integrated into the DCS. One of the major improvements to the HMI was the introduction FIG. 3) FIG. such as a limit switch failure Tag names and phase parameters. display of the individual phases with status of actions and progress. greatly enhancing the operator experience. The executive program and phase program parameters through a header file in Fortran. As required and critical for the safe operation of the process. were reactor-specific. allowing flexibility to fine-tune with a timestamp. along errors. RCMs. These subroutines in the For. Process Control and Instrumentation Each individual phase was designed as a sequence control startable test checked required conditions necessary for the module (SCM) with alias tables that were flexible to be run on start of a phase. 2. 64 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. The HMI included improved visibility through step-by-step of a regeneration program status page for all RCMs and SCMs. 2) • Improved visibility through step-by-step display FIG. greatly improving upon the VAX. provided the means for significant improve- ments to the HMI. The ex. The executive program of an MOV. These process-driven tests were Improving the human machine interfaces (HMIs). of the individual phases with status of actions and progress (FIG. on a custom hand-shaking mechanism. This feature was issued a series of strings as messages whenever the operator replaced with alias tables in the SCMs and RCMs. With the new program. This operation was achieved via a header file with S-88 model. and can also generate a message report at tran code were adapted into exception handlers in the SCMs/ the end of every regeneration cycle. 1. Process-driven faults. faults and interruptions. The executive program was replaced with RCMs per S-88 guidelines. This gave the refiner an opportunity to utilize all the features of the newer DCS. initiated halt. The VAX relied heavily on messaging to alert the operator of the progress of the regeneration. The new messaging so- ecutive program performed a variety of tasks to keep track of lution maintains a queue of the previous 150 messages. The program also required two specific tests as part of starting and resuming a phase.

operation. gas/liquid A Limited Time Offer: • Coking • Hydroprocessing • Upgrading heavy oil $599 • Deasphalting • Process unit internals • Desulfurization • Isomerization PER USB CARD Each process description includes application. licensed refining technologies. GulfPub.com/RefiningHandbook2017 . Hydrocarbon Processing’s Refining Processes Premier Sponsors: Handbook has been a definitive resource for processing technologies used in the refining industry. This one-of-a-kind handbook contains flow diagrams and descriptions of more than 250 leading-edge. The handbook has been specifically designed to provide engineers and refining professionals with job-related technical Order today at information that they can quickly reference at any time. 2017 Refining Processes Handbook Featured technologies include: HydrocarbonProcessing.com • Alkylation • Distillation • Lubricants and waxes Sponsor: • Aromatics • Ether • Olefins • Biofuels • Hydrocracking • Oxygen enrichment • Catalytic cracking • Hydrogen generation • Treating. economic yield and licensor information. 2017 YOUR ONE-STOP SOURCE FOR DATA ON PROPRIETARY PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES REFINING PROCESSES HANDBOOK For more than 65 years.

Since the application control Migrations from legacy systems as old as this example are system controller and the proprietary controller are designed to not that rare. After two catalyst regenera- each of these points. each MOV and HPM In early October 2016. and testing the controls with all “write” permis- from the refiner’s internal staff. This one is particularly interesting with its use work with a compatible set of execution environments. Calculate process data at flow a Rockwell Automation company. enabling you to: Size more than 50 JIM FORD is a Senior Consultant with MAVERICK Technologies. moving of the VAX computer as an extension of the DCS. While Fortran is NEW VERSION still used in various scientific communities. S-88-compliant regen- rework of the entire database when the transition to the proprie. Ford is a subject matter expert in advanced process conditions for 54 fluids. tary controller ultimately occurred. and it was put into application control systemb by configuring a unique CM for service without interruption. InstruCalc 9. size. it has largely disap- peared from industrial applications outside of legacy systems InstruCalc such as this one. which enables the user to select the flowrate with optimum accuracy. it is important to have a technical partner able to capture.c To facilitate the future in the regeneration procedure as the VAX computer.com/InstruCalc or call +1 (713) 520-4426. in either mixtures or single control in a wide variety of industries. with special focus on Honeywell DCS platforms. in the automation solutions division. a Rockwell Automation company. this refiner could be considered ahead of its time in After thorough in-house testing of the controls configura. pipe pressure loss and liquid waterhammer c Refers to Honeywell’s C300 controller. Easy to use and accurate. Mr. customization and nuances ago. Dr. consisted of loading the new software and HMI into the re- former control system on the new application control system Control development and testing. might be tempted to maintain a manual procedure. or described above). eration program. He earned his PhD components. CONTROL VALVES • FLOW ELEMENTS • RELIEF DEVICES • PROCESS DATA preserve and reuse critical intellectual property. When dealing with legacy installations this old. Most companies looking at such a situation 25 yr ago. 66 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. properties. and. the VAX was officially taken out If this additional database layer had not been designed into of service. (CAT) was performed with equipment functionally identical but efforts to implement procedural automation are growing to the on-process environment. correcting the omission would have required major beginning the new era of a modular. sives inhibited. This phase was followed by a as a means to utilize tribal knowledge gleaned from experi- pre-site acceptance test (SAT) and a SAT. and a Bch degree in electronics Please contact J’Nette Davis-Nichols and instrumentation engineering from Kakatiya University (India). it is the only sizing program you need. NOTES a Refers to a Honeywell TDC 3000 DCS. Kolluri has extensive experience in automation Upgrades and Operational Improvements engineering. This approach allowed the operators to con- tem integrator. Technologies. and 66 gases. with special focus on Honeywell DCS platforms. A team of engineers controller.0 He earned his MS degree in computer engineering from the University of Houston–Clear Lake. transition to the proprietary controller. The development of code and the new HMI. began initial migration work on the controller duct side-by-side verification and testing between the VAX development system in late 2015. TONY KOLLURI is a Senior Engineer with MAVERICK Technologies. Pre-commissioning message queue summary. while observing the behavior of the new began with the understanding that the unit would ultimately S-88 controls progressing through the same steps and phases migrate to a proprietary controller. He is a certified PMP and earned his BS degree in chemical engineering from Louisiana State University. in the automation solutions division. spects. b Refers to the Honeywell Experion Application Control Environment (ACE) flow elements and relief devices and calculates fluid controller. Mr. in InstruCalc Version 9. enced operators before retirements allow it to fade away. The deployment phase occurred in two steps: • An improved messaging solution with a time-stamped pre-commissioning and commissioning. JOSH BOZEMAN is a Project Manager with MAVERICK GulfPub. Process Control and Instrumentation • Improved display of program faults and exceptions Deployment. for more information. Implementing this migration required sufficient knowledge of Fortran programming to preserve the existing intellectual property and to avoid the need to start from scratch when writing the program for the new controller. the operations group was satisfied controller point involved in the regeneration was imaged in the with the functionality of the new system. In some re- code from one controller to the other was a seamless task. different instruments. Bozeman has extensive experience in automation engineering. Calculate the orifice in chemical engineering from Tulane University. in the automation solutions division. tions using the new system. flowrate or differential range. working with the control sys. Updates include Engineering Standard a Rockwell Automation company.0 calculates the size of control valves. a formal configuration acceptance test even today. marking a major milestone for the refinery and the solution.com . that it created the means to automate this procedure decades tion (including all the standards. flow.

Image courtesy of Haldor Topsoe. C–79 Improve FCC yields from contaminated feeds using COVER PHOTO boron-based nickel passivation C–75 Haldor Topsoe produces more than 150 different catalysts for the A new generation of dewaxing catalysts C–80 chemical and refining industries. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Special Supplement to Raise efficiency of ultra-low SHR production of styrene CORPORATE PROFILES monomer with a novel catalyst formulation C–68 Criterion Catalysts & Technologies C–71 ExxonMobil C–77 The optimal catalyst makeup in an FCC unit C–72 W. . R. Grace & Co.

products. 1) that exhibits both high activity and high selectivity under ultra-low SHR operating conditions (1 by weight). significant sion. it favors high temperatures. Tokyo. at ultra-low SHR operating condi- tions. activity increases the yield of styrene monomer at the same oper- nificant improvement in energy efficiency.5 kPa) Higher outlet P (38 kPa) proximately 10% at the lower outlet pressure. Clariant. The new ethylbenzene dehydrogenation catalysts and process suitability. FIG. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE RAISE EFFICIENCY OF ULTRA-LOW SHR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE MONOMER WITH A NOVEL CATALYST FORMULATION K. The new catalyst has already undergone comprehensive testing by the industry’s leading licensors. In the latter case. ly 15% at the higher outlet pressure. prevent quires superheated steam as an energy source. for ultra-low SHR production of styrene monomer are designed with either ribbed (shown) or smooth extrusions. The present level of SHR process conditions. plant designs has been reduced from 2. A catalyst that offers two in one.5 kPa) and higher (38 kPa) 90 outlet pressures of the last reactor. demonstrates the superior selectivity of the new catalyst. and therefore effort has been devoted to optimizing process design. Present choice: High activity or high selectivity. of styrene monomer is produced. Higher catalyst low SHR. lower SHR typically results in lower conver- tion poses the highest influence on production costs. allowing for a sig. Typical byproduct formation (at 1. 64% conversion). even at higher outlet pressure. 2. SHINYAMA and A. an independent third party. 2 shows typical byproduct forma- New styrene monomer catalyst 105 tion in a two-reactor adiabatic testing unit using the new styrene monomer catalyst vs. a natural 85 increase in byproduct formation was expected. Therefore. 2. catalyst selectivity is inversely related to Market benchmark byproduct formation. 1. Research and development teams in Toyama. Consequently. Intense devel- opment and parallel testing of numerous catalyst formulations have resulted in a new ethylbenzene dehydrogenation catalysta (FIG. the new catalyst outperformed the 80 benchmark in both cases. Fewer byproducts. representing the byproduct formation of the benchmark catalyst at a typically 95 low outlet pressure setting of the styrene unit. a greater proportion However.com . is through innovative process technologies and cata- 1950s. even under the more severe conditions. Byproduct for- mation was measured at lower (34. bi-functional performance enables more ef- ficient and sustainable production of styrene monomer than with previous catalysts. BATTAIOTTO. higher catalyst activity generally involves a loss in selectivity. lowering SHR is a complex process. the typical steam-to-hydrocarbon ratio (SHR) for new lysts that offer high activity and selectivity. Relative byproduct formation Base (=100%) 100 The measurements were set to a 100% base. and by approximate- FIG. Steam helps shift the equilibrium. reducing byproduct formation by ap- Lower outlet P (34. ating temperature. The only way to make ultra-low SHR viable. Japan The production of styrene monomer from ethylbenzene re. byproducts. C–68 CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE | JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. This is because. As shown in FIG. the market benchmark. Since the valuable. excessive coke formation and avoid over-reduction of the cata- drogenation catalysts to facilitate the reaction. defined as ultra.02 SHR. The dehydro. With higher selectivity. low pressures but not both. and has received approval for new projects based on its performance FIG.5 by weight ratio to 1. such as benzene or toluene. lyst. The significant reduction of Tests were conducted in a two-reactor adiabatic testing unit by byproduct formation. requires considerably less steam. As pre- 110 viously mentioned. As steam genera. as well as dehy. Japan have created a solution. This unique. Styrene monomer cata- mic equilibrium reaction with a higher number of moles in the lysts are available that demonstrate high activity or high selectivity. and high steam ratios. along with fewer undesired genation of ethylbenzene to styrene monomer is an endother.

Head of Sales for this product group in the EMEA-CIS region. FIG. 4).02 SHR. 4. normalized NOTES a Refers to Clariant’s StyroMax UL-3 catalyst.5 kPa) Higher outlet P (38 kPa) tivity. 3). the new catalyst exhibited a deactiva. However. This range is defined by the temperature However. which is the typical inlet tra-low SHR. (GPPC) in Taiwan.02 wt/wt. In terms of volume. Consequently. ANDREA BATTAIOTTO held the position of Global Product formance for up to 42 mos of operation.58°C/mos (FIG.02 by weight). of inlet temperature required to maintain a constant conversion or production rate at fixed operating conditions (i. is limited by the inlet temperature range. Typical inlet temperature T64 (°C at 1. the styrene monomer unit has a development. Combined. Mr. b Grand Pacific Petrochemical Corp. as well as its high 645 resilience to pressure fluctuations. 640 132–470 DOS 0. The design styrene monomer 605 production rate was achieved soon after. technical service and product management. The catalyst is expected to set the new global stan- Catalyst deactivation rate is defined by the monthly increase dard for ultra-low SHR styrene monomer production. chemical. HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–69 . 4. It lifecycle (the maximum inlet temperature depends on metallurgi. °C an Asian petrochemical producer in Taiwan. growing stability. 615 The catalyst was installed in May 2016. Generally. 635 cation of the new catalyst was at the styrene production plant of 630 T64. °C 624 low SHR (1. the Manager for Styrene Catalysts at Clariant. Based on laboratory test results. with the latter typically causing a decline in catalyst ac. Japan. The new cata. Rx-B outlet pressure = 34. temperature). and then com- pared to a benchmark catalyst (FIG. and the facility quickly 610 reached its full output capacity. 3. and has held the extreme stability of the catalyst compared to benchmarks. Tests were conducted in a two-reactor adiabatic testing the inlet temperature difference between lower and higher out. gives producers the opportunity to significantly reduce opera- cal limitations of the superheated steam). the new styrene monomer catalyst is expected to maintain favorable catalyst per. the preheated ethylbenzene. is assessed by its deactivation rate.a T64 Cutting deactivation rate. for styrene catalysts for Clariant’s catalysts business unit. He has extensive experience in industrial products and technical solutions for the petrochemical. Trend of average normalized inlet temperatures at the GPPC styrene monomer production unit using the proprietary catalyst.58°C/mos Successful commercial application. 618 Testing was conducted at both lower and higher outlet pres- 615 sures. As shown in FIG. Lower outlet P (34. 626 It is important to note that the tests were performed at very T64. and higher inlet temperatures are required to sustain a 620 fixed conversion rate. A catalyst’s stability (Base condition: SHR = 1. This is reflected in the results of the benchmark catalyst: A considerably higher inlet temperature was required at the FIG.b The company is a 625 fully integrated styrene monomer producer with a total annual 620 capacity of 370 Mtpy. the new ethylbenzene dehydrogenation catalyst temperature range at which a plant can operate during a catalyst’s solves a critical challenge in styrene monomer production. in turn. These results demonstrated He has more than 20 yr of experience in the field of styrene catalysts for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation. perature range determine the catalyst’s available lifetime. By providing both high activity and high selectivity at ul- peratures between 600°C and 650°C. A lower temperature 628 indicates higher catalyst activity. higher byproduct formation is 622 expected. and 42 mos. which typically reduces both activ- ity and selectivity.e. Mr. the deactivation rate and inlet tem. chemical engineering from Politecnico University in Milan.4% from former catalyst performance. as fixed lifetime of 2 yr. conversion). This result demonstrates the catalyst’s 650 favorable activity regardless of outlet pressure. Italy. various positions at Clariant in the fields of research and Due to national regulations. at lower temperatures 600 than in the previous operation. tion rate of 0. let pressures is minimal. plant lifetime is between 30 mos well as catalyst sales for the Asia-Pacific region. Generally. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Robust activity at low or high outlet pressures. the mix results in tem. Typi- cal catalyst deactivation rates are approximately 1°C/mos. The catalyst also demonstrated higher stability than the industry benchmarks. 632 Market benchmark lyst’s activity was analyzed by measuring the inlet temperature 630 New styrene monomer catalyst required to maintain conversion at 64% (T64). 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Days onstream proved by 0. as well as the catalyst’s high stability was also proven in commercial plant use. tional costs.5 kPaA). oil and gas and Takeaway. metals industries. Shinyama holds an MS degree in chemistry from Waseda University in Tokyo. At the KAZUHIKO SHINYAMA is the Global Product Manager styrene monomer plant. 64% higher outlet pressure. unit by an independent third party. Battaiotto holds an MS degree in largest plastics building block in the petrochemical industry. in the case of the new catalyst. the chemical reaction to produce styrene is extremely of the superheated steam (approximately 800°C) mixing with energy intensive. The first industrial appli. In addition. selectivity was im. which. styrene monomer is the fourth..

this leap forward with CENTERA GT adds to our industry leading line of SENTRY™.CRITERIONCatalysts. Leading minds. Select 54 at www. Criterion continues to race ahead for catalyst performance and value. With R&D expertise and innovation second to none. SENTRY: Ultimate protection from feed poisons and pressure drop Hydrotreating: Performance in quality meeting strict fuel standards and maximizing advantaged feeds Hydrocracking: Increasing the quality and yields for high value products processing heavier feeds With world-class technical customer service. the CENTERA GT™ high performance catalyst helps refiners keep on winning! Criterion continues to increase performance and quality. We look forward to working with you. ASCENT™ and ZEOLYST™ catalysts.com/RS www. adding value with customized refining solutions for even the most complex needs.WINNING A D V AN T AGE Criterion’s newest generation in catalysts continues to advance our technology to the pole position. Our catalysts protect and perform.HydrocarbonProcessing.com . Advanced technologies.

taining hydrocracking catalysts more accessible that encompass process technology. Taking our customers many value to refiners focus areas. With more than 50 years of experience in the end to end catalyst business. out performance. our technology family with a deep insight into positions in many of these refining segments. jet and INNOVATION ing refiner profitable options in their quest to ULSD production) Digitalize your catalyst experience as Cri. • lube oil performance improvement The recent enahancements have brought Cat. and CRI Catalyst. ebullated-bed) hydrotreating and hydrocracking profitability. which is par- and ASCENT ™ technology platforms. and isomerization units. IT IS WHAT WE DO Criterion is the world’s largest supplier of hydroprocessing catalysts providing complete process technology solution offerings though its integration with Shell Global Solutions. INDUSTRY LEADER Criterion specialises in cobalt and nickel in helping refiners to process more challeng. way for genuinely integrated refinery solutions Now in their second and third generation. ing feedstocks. Now via our JV with Rive as well as staying on technology’s forefront. These new innovations in catalyst technol- promoted molybdenum and tungsten on alu. It also provides access to an outstanding the introduction of the company’s CENTERA™ contribute research and development efforts to science and engineering resource. hydrogenation. ogy allows the refiner to selectively dial in and mina/silica based catalysts for a wide range added value in downstream units and. raise product slate flexibility. This technol- • naphtha hydrotreating superior fuel properties. The improved throughput without sacrifice to active • FCC feed pretreatment and robust analytical tool that ensures refiners receive the or selectivity and thereby improve diesel yield poison guard value they expect from the Catalyst and technol. residue upgrading. CRITERION CATALYSTS & TECHNOLOGIES ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS. hydrocracker feed terion has been leveraging digital tools for the Advanced Trilobe eXtra™ (ATX) technology pretreatment and mild hydrocracking some time now with CatCheck™ Advisor. Catalyst innovations from Zeolite-based industry needs and trends. INTEGRATION • tail-gas treating with cooperative Check to the level of not only monitoring the Criterion’s integration with Shell Global sulfur solutions. But. It provides and retains notably commanding market share to that next level of service. which maintain Zeolyst’s status as a leader in this valu. ogy opens up the ability to process extremely • distillate hydrotreating and distillate heavy feeds that were previously excluded giv- Dewaxing (for kerosene. resulting in increased internal engineering and catalysis – all three catalysts have clearly demonstrated value and yields of transportation fuels. Nano engineer. produce ultra-low-sulphur diesel with value to their unique refining needs. and volume is a commercially proven example • residue upgrading (fixed and ogy solution working within the assets driving of our innovative capabilities. Both companies tive. the Shell connection opens the combination of activity and stability. SPONSORED CONTENT HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–71 . top notch technical support and process solution services used in every type of hydroprocessing operation. Zeolyst International. CENTERA™ and ASCENT™ to hydrocarbon molecules. tial. meet new regulations like IMO. Combine with • Hydrocracking. business from the viewpoint of a refinery and advances over the past 2 decades enabled terion’s Zeolyst International joint venture with petrochemical plant owner/operator perspec- by high throughput R&D testing culminating in Philadelphia Quartz Corp. and advanced technologies. Criterion has a reputation of delivering value to its customers through leading products. way your catalyst vendor would but with trou. Solutions and CRI catalysts is important on Criterion is an industry leader in these area’s bleshooting type analysis. ticularly valuable for research and development includes a series of catalysts boasting a step able refining area. in many cases unmatched. reactor CENTERA GT™. not better direct the molecules that add the most of hydrotreating applications: least. Criterion along with our technology family has deployed industry solutions in virtually in every region of the world specializing in refining and petrochemical opera- tions to include hydrotreating. elements providing world class refining and pet- with third generation CENTERA GT continuing ing Hydrocracking’s molecular superhighway rochemical plant solutions from leading minds to add to this industry leading performance to drive molecules to their highest profit poten. we are leveraging their proprietary Molecular most importantly. Highway™ technology which makes zeolite-con. hydrocracking. a real feel for the Research has resulted in a string of technology hydrocracking catalysts are the focus of Cri.

Saudi Arabia Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the key process lecular weight might decrease the average molecular weight of technologies in the refining industry. In this process. pressures. sirable problems. Ni. of poorer feeds contain higher contents of carbon. with Ni. occurs for a long period of time. However. V and Na tend the most severe cases. prone to form olefins and aromatic compounds. which slowly destroys The effects of metals in the FCC performance. and even the ma- and reducing activity. Ni is used dates is combined with a temperature excursion in the regen- as a catalyst in hydrogenation processes.1 Basically. Unlike Ni. This correlation is better than simple Ni+V index. tend to condensate and form heavy polynuclear aromatics the combined effects of V and Na are related to loss of catalyst (HPNA) and. These types be used. therefore. SALGADO. they become more and selectivity. unless a temperature excursion perature. tive effect of Na is when it associates with V. the wet gas below the compressor design value. Ecat activity is the main parameter to con- when processing highly aromatic feeds and residues. aromatic compounds under a dehydrogenating environment Controlling the effects of metals. exposing the Ecat to a massive sion are reduced. the catalyst-to-oil (CO) ratio and conver. in either the offgas or the wet gas. which affect conversion as hydrocarbon molecules lose hydrogen. due to the increase of dry gas and coke yields. This collapse Although other metals such as iron. the metals loading in the Ecat low enough. It must be noted harmful contaminants. point of V oxides is lower than zeolite’s melting point and can melt at typical regenerator temperatures. V migrates to the zeolite crystalline a method to determine the optimal fresh catalyst makeup rate. copper. as V oxides react tions. currence of thermal cracking reactions. which is in- tion and dehydrogenation. when a high concentration of Na vana- to be at much higher concentrations in crude oil. and changes in time. which is defined as Ni+V/4 (ppm-wt). such as V is also considered a dehydrogenation promoter. no coking reactions increase delta coke and the regenerator tem. tion tendency in an FCCU is the methane to hydrogen ratio Regarding catalyst performance. when the combined effect of Ni and V tane naphtha. Ni promotes dehydrogenation at low catalyst and replace it with fresh catalyst and/or Ecat. Typically. such as propylene. In addition. lowering selectivity to V and Na are controlled. In magnesium are also present in FCC feeds. The melting with the objective to maximize FCC profits. In regard to the dehydrogenation and coke-making reac- fects the operation of the wet-gas compressor since its low mo. a dehydrogenation metals index (FDHM ) must oils. any loss of catalyst activity will increase the oc- carbon molecules to form hydrogen gas (H2). it means that the combined effects of lymerize to form heavy molecules. butylenes and naphtha. that the H2/CH4 ratio correlates very well with FDHM in Ecat. propylene. Saudi Aramco. which melt residual feed such as atmospheric residue (long residue) and at lower temperatures than V2O5. it is observed C–72 CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE | JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. due to erator. tions due to the combined effects of Ni and V. this does not occur very often. kinds and sources of feeds. ni. The following provides its on the catalyst matrix. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE THE OPTIMAL CATALYST MAKEUP IN AN FCC UNIT H. In fact. this can be a costly In addition. mainly V2O5.2 trix. These trol.com . therefore. Furthermore. V has a second effect. such as equilibrium catalyst (Ecat) deactiva. to more its dehydrogenation activity is approximately 25% compared valuable products. which depos- option that will affect FCC economics. which affects lution could be increasing the fresh catalyst makeup rate to keep the dehydrogenation activity. collapse in its crystalline structure. This process removes hydrogen atoms from hydro. Na vanadates can also form eutectics with silicon dioxide. calcium and drastically affects the activity and conversion of the catalyst. These contaminants are catalyst. es refining margins by upgrading low-value streams. Although the easy so. above the expected value. subsequently. sulfur. including with Na to form Na vanadates (primarily NaVO3). blocking active sites making the crystalline structure of zeolite. major affectation is observed. all metals deposit on the Ecat structure. This effect is magnified activity. coke. If the Ecat activity is at or Unstable olefins formed by dehydrogenation tend to po. a unit shutdown may be required to remove sintered Le Chatelier’s principle. As previously discussed. the quality of FCC feeds has become poorer. which are the typical feeds to the FCCUs. Metals in the the zeolite crystalline structure and affects catalyst activity. that can cause extra coke formation accurate since the Ni/V ratio is generally different for different and poor selectivity in cracking reactions. The FCC unit increas. although vacuum gasoils or atmospheric and vacuum residues. For this reason. FCC feed—nickel (N). Due to the greater availability of heavy crude is being studied. These contaminants can lead to unde. Conversely. butylenes and high-oc. metals are one of the most (H2/CH4). vacuum residue (short residue) in residual FCCUs. The most common indicator of the hydrogen produc- trogen and metals. hydrogen af. the main nega- present in crude oil and concentrate in high boiling point frac. together with total Na+V loading in the Ecat. Dhahran. structure and deposits as V oxides. vanadium (V) and sodium (Na)—are Although high amounts of Na might neutralize acid sites on detrimental to FCCU performance. collapse at typical regenerator temperatures.

the MCR ⎛ lb ⎞ = 2. and its impact on con. $/bbl the contribution of both functions is optimized.500 5. the dehydrogenation reactions (represented in the CH4/H2 ratio) increase abruptly (FIG. 1–4 can be applied to 0. In this work. Therefore.2 When the margin loss is added to the catalyst cost (both in $/bbl).500 5. MUFcat = Fresh catalyst makeup (metric ton/d) This solution can be costly since it might require a high MFeed = Mass flow rate of feed (metric ton/d) catalyst makeup rate.1 0. 1). 0.0 4. $/bbl 1. catalyst makeup rate must be calculated based on economic For the referenced FCCU.500 6.000 4. 2. which depends on the metal loading objective to be controlled. the gross margin loss decreases since in the Ecat (FDHM = Ni+V/4). (FDHM )Ecat = Objective FDHM in Ecat (ppm-wt) It might be believed that the fresh catalyst makeup rate (FDHM )Ecat0 = Initial FDHM in Ecat (ppm-wt) needs to be adjusted to control the metals loading at or below (FDHM)Feed = FDHM in feed (ppm-wt) the MCR.5 0.4 0.6 lower naphtha and C3/C4 yields that affect the 0. the yield to valuable products is improved by reducing the metals loading in the Ecat.400 bbl Ecat Q Feed ppm-wt. molar ratio catalyst price ($/ton).000 6. effects of hydrogen and coke production that are created due and then considering the price of fresh catalyst to calculate the to the high metals loading in the Ecat.4 the specific catalyst makeup rate.8 2. Two 1.700 ppt-wt and 6. ⎝ 131.5+ API ⎟⎠ Feed imum allowable metal loading to prevent excessive hydrogen production.7 Fresh catalyst cost. and the best 0. where: ogy used during its manufacturing. Gross margin loss ($/bbl): This must be estimated based on the yields shift due to the lower conversion 0. depending on its composition and the specific technol. above certain metals loading in the Ecat. FIG. The cost of fresh catalyst ($/bbl): This is a function 0. 1. lb/bbl Fresh catalyst cost.000 5. In an FCCU.6 Fresh catalyst cost. 1–4 to calculate factors. ppm wt INV × T − (FDHM )Ecat = K + ⎡⎣(FDHM )Ecat 0 − K ⎤⎦ e (1 – FRET ) × MUFcat (1) FIG. 141. Fresh catalyst makeup and cost as a function of the Ecat FDHM. fresh catalyst makeup cost in $/bbl. The fresh catalyst cost is a function of 0. Eqs.4 0. the fresh catalyst makeup rate had been FRET = Retention factor of Ecat calculated to control the FDHM in the Ecat at 5. Estimating the optimal fresh catalyst makeup rate. the result is the total cost of handling certain metals Fresh catalyst makeup. such as the price of fresh catalyst and the economic the specific fresh catalyst makeup for several FDHM in the Ecat.000 5. the catalyst cost per barrel increases.500 6.7 and poor selectivity caused by the hydrogen and coke MCR zone production reactions. the results are summarized version and selectivity.500 8.000 As the fresh catalyst makeup rate increases to prevent a FDHM. INV = Ecat inventory (metric ton) which is below the MCR zone.5 unit’s gross margin. 0.000 6. Therefore.15899 ⎛⎜ Q (3) The behavior shown in FIG. the maximum loading is referred to as the metals catalyst resistance (MCR).400 ppm-wt. HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–73 . the optimal fresh T = Period of time to reach the objective FDHM in Ecat (days).4 0.2 calculate the specific catalyst makeup as a function of a certain metal loading objective in the Ecat: 0. 4. which affects FCCU economics due to Q Feed = Volumetric flow rate of feed (bpd) the high cost of the fresh catalyst. which typically end up with 0. In FIG.000 7. 0.1 main economic drivers are essential to estimate the optimal fresh catalyst makeup rate: 1. 2. 2.9 of the specific catalyst makeup (lb/bbl) and fresh H2/CH4. in FIG.0 1. ppm wt high loading of metals. In that direction. CH4 /H2 ratio as a function of Ni and V loading as well.000 FDHM. 1 suggests that there is a max.204. 1. This operative window is inherent to every FCC cat- alyst. when solving Eqs.6 MU Fcat ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (4) is equivalent to an FDHM between 5.7 1. In FIG. lb/bbl 0.5 ⎞ M Feed = 0. it must be a makeup rate where Fresh catalyst makeup.500 7.500 7. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE that these effects are more sensitive to the metals loading in M Feed the Ecat rather than in the case of the combined effects of V K = ( FDHM )Feed (2) MU Fcat and Na.0 loading in the Ecat.000 4.8 operating margin of the FCCU is obtained.

0 metal management.2 0. the optimal fresh catalyst make- 9.000 from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. specializing in the areas of fluid catalytic Optimal cracking. G.000 4. are not fully considered. and then applied to the an appropriate and tuned FCC process simulator to estimate FCC balance for every case evaluated to obtain the gross mar- gin in every case.500 7. 1. Gross margin variation as a function of the Ecat FDHM. 12. eration must be considered for any analysis related to the Ecat performance. theless.05/bbl. The optimal metals loading and optimal fresh cata- the cost of fresh catalyst and lyst makeup rate. since this was the normal operation point. Net cost. in terms of the FDHM.2 drogenation metals in the Ecat. ppm-wt tha) are functions of the Ecat properties and performance. it might be required to use with the scheduling and planning area.000 6.7. are essential to estimate the The results are shown in FIG.. To calculate the gross margin loss as a The price setting for feed and products must be agreed function of the Ecat metals loading.0 Gross margin loss. the optimal changes in product yields are to have enough information and metals loading in the Ecat is 6.8 2 Sadeghbeigi.3 lb/bbl is required.000 7.4 up rate can be obtained from the FCCU economic analysis. the estimation of the effects in product yields wt in the Ecat represents a total cost of $0. $/bbl 1 Speight. the effects on product yields.000 4. J. hydroprocessing.500 6. ing the metals loading in the Ecat and the fresh catalyst make- up rate is approximately $0.000 6. High-Temperature Corrosion and Materials Applications. optimal fresh catalyst makeup: as well. the total cost was $0. Never. $/bbl 11.000 Since yields of valuable products (such as C3 /C4 and naph- FDHM.. For an FCCU of 50 Mbpd.400 ppm-wt in the Ecat was Two main economic drivers set as a base case. Salgado has experience in process analysis.6 Takeaways. corresponding to a H2/CH4 ratio of 0. may be difficult to obtain this information in most cases.8 savings would equal approximately $900 M/yr. Houston. $/bbl 0.200 ppm-wt.4 HERNANDO SALGADO is a Senior Process Engineer in the 0.6 3 Lai. Finally. When the FDHD in the Ecat increases. it loading.3 -0.500 5. $/bbl 0.200 ppm- In this work. -0. however. 2014.. 3. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum.2 refining industry. 4. Other alternatives to estimate the According to FIG. 0. which affect FCC economics. 2 and 3. and the modification of existing units. 3. in combination with fresh catalyst costs. $/bbl 11.500 5. These results mean that the savings obtained by optimiz- the variation in the specific fresh catalyst makeup. While op- was made based on the outputs from an FCC process simula.62/bbl.500 8. an FDHM of 5.500 7. ppm-wt Dr..2 Catalyst makeup.8 Base case -0. 0. 2007.67/ tor. At this metals data from test runs. catalyst cost—the optimal operation at a FDHM of 6. the gross margin loss increases.com . Gulf Publishing Company.000 5. $/bbl FCC gross margin.. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Gross margin loss. Texas. 2nd Ed. $/bbl LITERATURE CITED 1. ASM International.500 6.000 5. the Ecat can be determined after combining the results from FIGS. it is better to perform Accounting for both economic effects—gross margin and the estimation based on that data. As a reference to calculate the gross margin loss. which was run at several Ecat metals loadings according to bbl.500 8.000 7. 4. troubleshooting. if enough test run data is available. $/bbl Boca Raton. Y. crude distillation and energy 0.3 0.8 0.2 and a professional doctorate in engineering (process design) 4. 10. He earned a degree in chemical engineering loading from the Industrial University of Santander in Colombia. optimization and development.76 is obtained in the FCCU.8 Gross margin loss.3 0. G. as well as in the economic evaluation of new facilities FIG.4 tion since the economic effects of the dehydrogenation and coke 10. 4.2 production reactions. while a specific fresh catalyst makeup of 0. a complete view of the FCC op- FIG. R. 4. erating at an FDHM of 5. CRC Press. This calculation is completed by adding the gross margin loss to the fresh catalyst cost—both in $/bbl. The administration of fresh catalyst makeup based only on the H2/CH4 ratio can lead to sub-optimal FCC opera- Gross margin loss. Gross margin. FDHM. Net cost. The results are shown in FIG. 5th Ed. due to time and cost limitations.0 Combining the effects of the fresh catalyst cost and the loss of conversion and selectivity due to the concentration of dehy- 9. 2000. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook. Optimal Ecat metal loading. C–74 CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE | JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. Florida. the optimal metals loading in the gross margin loss.400 ppm-wt. an H2/CH4 ratio of 0.

the University of California. TABLE 1. Spectroscopic studies have shown that by using BBT. more contaminated feedstocks. environmental and (TABLE 1) safe-handling concerns prohibit the use of Sb in some units.9 –0. Ni passivation is es- Slurry. This successful trial verified Borotec’s limited by the immobility of Ni and the immobile nature of the ability to enable higher output of valuable products and lower alumina trap. These effects Gasoline. reducing catalyst. producing LPG. Los Angeles. particularly in functional nano.5 0. wt% 80 80. a substantial increase in profitability is possible by increasing the FCCU throughput or the severity. consequently. wt% 14.and energy materials. Ni’s effect can be reduced using passivators containing antimony has been successfully applied in refineries around the world. nickel (Ni) deposits on the FCC Conversion. an Base/Other supplier Borotec Delta increasing amount of contaminants in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock.5 catalyst and catalyzes dehydrogenation reactions. Since 2016. Alumina traps are. As boron is mobile under FCC conditions. more recently.. inhibiting its participation in dehydrogenation reactions business.9 17 0. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE IMPROVE FCC YIELDS FROM CONTAMINATED FEEDS USING BORON-BASED NICKEL PASSIVATION KITTY CHA. further passivation of Ni is needed. abling the processing of heavier. at similar vanadium and increase nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions. wt% 54 54. mize profits. sharp reduction in dry gas production and delta coke.6 –0. optimization. BASF Corp. Unlike Sb. Of these. KITTY CHA is responsible for product marketing and reducing H2 and contaminant coke formation. Borotec was launched in 2017 and is designed for refiners pro- FCC Ni passivation technologies. New Jersey The drive to improve refinery margins leads to the process. • Decrease contaminant delta coke Sb can poison carbon monoxide (CO) combustion promoters • Improve activity retention. The Borotec performance exceeded that of the competitive lysts to trap Ni by keeping it in a higher oxidation state. or air limit. For • Improve propylene and butylene yields.5 diminish the profitability and operability of the FCCU. Ni deposition on FCC catalysts typically follows a bottom-of-the-barrel yields.2 13. and MS and migrates within the catalyst to passivate Ni with greater efficacy PhD degrees in materials science and engineering from than specialty alumina. Cha has NOx emissions. Borotec was yr. Nickel passivation using cessing variable quality or mild to moderate resid feedstocks. wt/wt 2. compared to another supplier’s premium bottoms upgrading drogenation by Ni by 20%–40%. HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–75 . the ability of BBT to passivate Ni and improve prof- passivate Ni within the catalyst particle is limited.e. Their efficacy is ment were also achieved. boron-based technology. after catalyst most FCCUs that can use Sb. wt% 5. gen. Iselin. This shows that catalyst innovations from BBT provide resid Boron-based technology. regenerator temperature limit.5 0. impacting its • Improve bottoms upgrading and liquid yields effectiveness on Ni passivation. less-reducible) As a senior marketing analyst for BASF’s Refining Catalysts state.3 pecially beneficial when the FCCU operates at the wet gas com- pressor (WGC). therefore. A unique solution to passivate Ni FCCUs more flexibility in crude selection and increased yields using boron chemistry is the basis of BASF’s Boron Based Tech.4 2. where higher amounts of Ni accumulate on the outer higher crude flexibility for refiners that buy spot crudes to maxi- stages of the catalyst particle. en- or specialty alumina or. of high-value products.23/bbl profit improve- overall H2 and contaminant coke production. nology (BBT). Borotec enabled the refinery to: immediate. By LCO/slurry. it a BA in chemistry from Scripps College. Injection of Sb injection alone is effective in reducing dehy. Furthermore. She has held roles in technology has additional benefits. creating LCO. The Sb pickup and sodium levels by the FCC catalyst depends on several factors. the first FCC catalyst based on BBT.9 5.1 alleviating these constraints.. Comparison between Borotec and another supplier ing of heavier. more contaminated crude and. boron does not increase scouting and research and development. Higher C3= and C4= and a $0. Ni is kept in an electron-deficient (i. BBT also and market intelligence. In this commercial trial.1 unwanted hydrogen (H2 ) and contaminant coke. Dr. antimony (Sb) compounds has been in use for more than 40 At a refinery processing mild resid feedstock. erally effective within close proximity of Ni. Specialty aluminas are commonly used in resid-FCC cata. Borotec’s metals tolerance allows gradient.3 strong demand for Ni passivation technology. wt% 16. BoroCat. typically demonstrated by an catalyst. and their ability to To date. itability has been demonstrated in more than a dozen refineries.5 0.

Catalysts for your success You’ll find the right solutions for your business in our broad portfolio of high-performance catalysts and process technologies. As a leading operator of refining and petrochemical facilities. Find out more at catalysts-licensing. we provide world-scale expertise throughout the life of the catalyst and use of the process technology. and about how our catalysts and process technologies can power your success. Select 63 at www. All rights reserved. .HydrocarbonProcessing. we use and continually improve our catalysts and process technologies to: • Boost operational efficiency and production capacity • Enhance safety and environmental performance • Produce value-added products Through a commitment to long-term collaboration. ExxonMobil.com/RS © 2017 Exxon Mobil Corporation. the ExxonMobil logo. Let’s work together for your success and a better tomorrow.com. the interlocking “X” device and all product names herein are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation.

Our services offering typically includes: • Planning and process studies • Development of design specifications An engineer inspects catalyst production at the ExxonMobil facility • Operations support during startup and commissioning in Beaumont. for the production of xylenes. ExxonMobil’s catalysts undergo continuous improvements as a result of the company’s experience as a leading operator of refining and petrochemical processes. Backed by a 50-year legacy of leadership. we bring an operator’s perspective to solution imple- mentation. octane enhancing and diesel dewaxing • In synthetic fuels for the conversion of methanol to gasoline SPONSORED CONTENT HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–77 . This innovation is then available for license.catalysts-licensing.com BROAD CATALYST PORTFOLIO ExxonMobil’s catalysts are used to produce a number of chemical and refining products and are utilized in 150+ commercial facilities worldwide: • In the chemicals styrenics. including dewaxing via selective isomerization • In fuels for benzene reduction. innovation and a commitment to customer collaboration. application know-how and services that maximize high margin products and optimize operations for the user. specialized catalysts. quality. phenolics and polyester/fiber value chains. for distillate and lubes hydroprocessing. innovation and sustainability. CATALYST LEADERSHIP AND INNOVATION With a commitment to safety and integrity. Texas • Ongoing technical services for optimization or troubleshooting • Catalyst performance monitoring HIGH ACTIVITY AND SELECTIVITY ExxonMobil’s broad range of specialty catalysts offer high activity and selectivity for both the refining and petrochemicals industries to help customers to: • Improve process efficiency and maximize production capacity • Lower emissions and comply with environmental regulations CONTACT US • Deliver value-added products ExxonMobil Catalysts & Licensing • Enhance safety and reliability www. We enable technology success with a business-driven approach.exxonmobilchemical. EXXONMOBIL SPECIALTY CATALYSTS AND ADVANCED PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES TO MAXIMIZE YIELD AND OPTIMIZE OPERATIONS ExxonMobil solutions provide process technologies. ethylbenzene and cumene • In refining.com/en/resources/contact-us www.

Valued. Let’s do the math.com/ironpoisoning. Watch our video to learn more at grace. the difference between our refinery customers’ financial return on Grace technologies versus the alternative has reached into seven figures. we’re ready to show you how we can help. Select 61 at www. are about more than performance—and more than chemistry. grace. They’re designed to add to your bottom line. Call us to get started with the calculations. Proven. If you’re ready to put Grace chemistry to work to strengthen your business. In some cases.com/RS .com/value A collaborative effort to fight iron poisoning improved yields and increased profitability. Tested. co-developed with you.HydrocarbonProcessing. Grace custom catalyst solutions.

and chemical industries with taining regulatory compliance. Ziegler Natta and single site catalysts for essentially FROM THE INDUSTRY’S BROADEST PORTFOLIO all polypropylene and polyethylene process platforms and applications. Grace has a unique position as ing Technologies joint venture are managed in this segment. from the innovative catalytic solutions. Grace Catalysts Technologies continues to profitability during routine maintenance and unit upsets. and 6th Generation Understanding feed impacts earlier allows the refiner to optimize nonphthalate CONSISTA® Catalysts Systems. and catalyst technology specifically to meet the challenges of opportunity increasing use of heavy crudes. Refiners around the world have dem. Since that time. and CO emissions from their FCC units. Over the years. Grace provides catalyst systems and supports for polyethylene and Refining Technologies. key raw materials and intermediates. and continue Grace’s patented GSR® (FCC gasoline sulfur reduction) technolo.grace. we are commissioning the world’s first an Equilibrium Catalyst finsUltra®. Super DESOX® OCI. gies create a variety of opportunities and options for refiners to drive With investments like these. which includes the advanced process control UNIPOL UNIPPAC® Pro- lyst for their crude slate. a proprietary gas phase polypropylene process technology for additives. Manufacturing excellence and industry leading technical service Several years ago. design and process licensing. petrochemical and other chemical manufacturing applications. Grace is now expanding its portfolio of catalysts under the businesses. and a complete portfolio of hydroprocessing 7500 Grace Drive catalysts designed to meet the challenges of today’s refiners. Refineries stay competitive with Grace Dow Chemical Company. We are the leader in hydroprocessing catalysts through Advanced Refining Technologies (ART). Grace prepares for this environment with a long term light cycle oil (LCO) and lighter products are some of the challenges investment strategy focused on improving the flexibility product portfolio facing refiners looking to maximize the value from their FCC units. whilst main. to make. This is just one example of many investments we’ve made. OlefinsUltra® Analysis lab in the Middle East at Sohar University in Oman. which provide three levels of activity for LPG olefin maximization. our process catalysts through customer focus and innovation. example. Grace’s current portfolio of FCC additives allows refiners to reduce We have made broad investments across our businesses to improve SOX. world-class research and development. www. Specialty Catalysts and the Advanced Refin. The portfolio includes ZSM-5 additives. cess Control software. As an sulfur content in gasoline. OlefinsUltra® HZ. Processing be more selective. equivalent performance at lower cost to the refiner. catalysts have evolved to be more active. This new lab MZ. TECHNOLOGY AND TRUST Grace Catalysts Technologies is the global leader in developing CATALYSTS FOR POLYOLEFIN PRODUCTION AND and manufacturing process catalysts and related technologies used in MARKET LEADING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY refining. to ACHIEVE® series to address current market challenges. petrochemical. silica and magnesium based support systems. MD 21044. NOX. and the newest additive. Super requirement for assessing the operation of FCC units. global CONTACT INFORMATION manufacturing footprint. tightening environmental regulations. as well as lower the value our products and services provide to our customers. SHAC® Catalysts Systems. USA bines Grace’s material science. Chevron and Grace joined together in 2001 to form ART. onstrated that use of GSR® catalysts and additives is a cost-effective component of their clean fuels strategy to meet 10 ppmw gasoline sulfur specifications. GRACE CATALYSTS TECHNOLOGIES BUILT ON TALENT. manufacturing. and INNOVATIVE REFINING CATALYSTS AND ADDITIVES finished Chromium. polypropylene process technologies. Germany. with goals based on the values of its parents: technology expertise. and to drive the right conversion to meet the changing opportunity crudes as well as upgrading the bottom of the barrel into market demands. and of our manufacturing systems. are causing major shifts in our customers’ feeds. in both our service and product/manufacturing technology. Columbia. Grace is dedicated to helping refiners achieve success with the production of a broad range of polypropylene products.com and leadership in technology. the yield of the most valuable products through use of the optimal cata. Grace acquired UNIPOL® PP Licensing & Cata- have made Grace the world’s leading supplier of FCC catalyst and lysts. a low-rare-earth catalytic SOX reduction additive Up-to-date and easily accessible E-cat analyses are a valuable. deliver value to the refining.com SPONSORED CONTENT HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–79 . metallocene components. Ole. marketing and sales +1 (410) 531-4000 strength with Chevron’s extensive experience operating its own refineries catalysts@grace. Grace developed the ACHIEVE® FCC ing demand for low-sulfur fuel. key was first introduced during the rare-earth crisis. operating parameters and catalyst management strategies for a more The major trends expected in the refining industry including a grow- stable and profitable operation. as is the the only company currently supplying a complete portfolio of polyolefin UNIPOL® Polypropylene Licensing and Catalysts business. These first-of-their- DESOX® OCI has become a preferred product because it delivers kind labs will provide more rapid support to refiners in the Middle East. ART com. team has undergone intensive training at our facility in Worms. The UNIPOL® licensing and catalysts systems Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) technology because they can maximize business offers the industry-leading UNIPOL® PP Process Technology. catalyst systems including.

even during operating cost to the refinery. °C Pressure 1. mer periods. refiners can increase the 3. TK-930 ter months: the endpoint of the feed when diesel D-wax and TK-940 D-wax. ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and isomerization catalysts and have very Without the use of a dewaxing cata- hydrocracking services to increase the little activity toward the cracking of die. some of the extra diesel the winter months. but because today’s dewaxing In other words. FBP 752 Sulfur 1. Texas The refining industry has been con. functionality. Kerosine blending: Diluting properties and the T90. cially attractive. only a few remedies can get the cold flexibility of hydroprocessing units and sel molecules. Processing higher plication areas are shown in TABLE 1. lyst. These catalysts 2.0 wt% Nitrogen 350 wtppm 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Aromatics 41 wt% Cloud point improvement. easily justifying the cost of result in a minimal reduction of the die. Use of additives: An increased catalysts also have a significant cracking endpoint of the diesel feed. or noble met- Diesel/renewable TK-920 TK-930 als. Haldor Topsoe Inc. Houston. 50 wt% 529 Distillation curve. The dewaxing catalysts are based on TABLE 1. These properties are negatively affected the dewaxing catalyst. the wax molecules solution. catalyst in ULSD service provided the The key is to use a dewaxing cata. to produce extra die. in the diesel feed. reduction and consequently endpoint feed makes it more difficult to a loss of barrels meet product specifications for cold flow Cold flow properties.2 hr-1 C–80 CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE | JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. IBP 221 Distillation curve. such sidering incorporating dewaxing in series of dewaxing catalysts that are true as normal paraffins. 70 wt% 591 Distillation curve. 1. Yield loss as a function of dewaxing. making dewaxing less attractive in erty specs.com . to provide an unmatched selectivity towards isomerization and an exception- Lube/VGO TK-910 TK-940 al yield structure of the product.. The case study here will ends. sel yield. These options are often not commer- barrels will be lost to naphtha and light sel barrels and still meet cold flow prop. Topsoe has recently launched a by the presence of waxy molecules. 1. < 150°C. wt% FF Distillation curve. RASMUSSEN.200 psig FIG. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE A NEW GENERATION OF DEWAXING CATALYSTS HENRIK W. TK-900 D-wax a proprietary zeolite structure promoted Sweet mode Sour mode with nickel and tungsten. 90 wt% 663 TK-930 D-wax Distillation curve. refiner with a substantial increase in prof- lyst that is very selective towards fined as cold filter plugging (CFPP) and itability during both the winter and sum- isomerization and. consequently. dewaxing catalyst. Metal type Noble metal Base metal Another key feature of the TK-930 D- Yield loss Very low Very low wax and TK-940 D-wax catalysts is that H2 consumption Very low Very low they exhibit good desulfurization (HDS) and denitrification (HDN) activity in Old generation TABLE 2. or pour point (PP). ULSD cold flow properties are de. LHSV 1. 30 wt% 466 Distillation curve. Feedstock properties and dewaxing operating conditions Distillation Diesel yield loss. TK-920 D-wax. Dewaxing is one will enable true molecule management. will cloud point (CP). The new generation dewaxing catalyst. Feed management: Endpoint margins are favorable. 10 wt% 392 Distillation curve. easily justifying the cost of the show that the use of the TK-930 D-wax many cases. and their ap. These catalysts are called flow properties on spec during the win- to process more barrels by increasing TK-910 D-wax.

1 shows that the new D-wax grees–15 degrees. selectivity allows refiners to maintain high and 10% is lost to light ends (C1–C4 ). or approximately more barrels in the summer months. This Renewable fuels dewaxing with TK-920 25 yr. discuss industry challenges and developments. yield loss experienced with a traditional 90% of the diesel yield loss experienced ery to process an additional 1. please contact: Hortensia “Tish” Barroso. against the T90 spec in the product. the T90 point of the product by 12 de. Furthermore. use of noble metal-based TK-920 D-wax the catalysts work in a sour environment. The additional profit from the en. due to a reduction in the T90 point of Case study. at Hortensia.com ORGANIZED BY: HYDROCARBON PROCESSING | JANUARY 2018 | CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE C–81 . A US refinery operating operation correspond to approximately the product. Unless the renewable Haldor Topsoe and is responsible for the catalyst and license technology business for the US. HENRIK RASMUSSEN has worked top of a layer of TK-930 D-wax for use at Haldor Topsoe for more than in the higher pressure ULSD unit. which means that they rate during the five winter months by feedstocks are typically very sweet. series catalysts generate only 1/8 of the of dewaxing. it is necessary to dewax the of Copenhagen in 1989 with a degree in chemical enables the refinery to increase the feed product significantly. diesel is used in a very warm climate or as the Caribbean. and is providing the required cloud point FIG. Sponsorship opportunities are available! For more information on sponsorship opportunities. the catalyst system reduces installed in several renewable fuels reactors as the hydrotreating catalyst. n-paraffins and will have very poor cold of Catalyst and Technology for ing catalyst. share best practices. SAVE THE DATE October 25. Texas GasProcessingConference.Barroso@GulfPub. of NiMo catalyst TK-611 HyBRIM on $30 MM over the catalyst cycle. depending on the level reduction with a very low diesel yield loss. The outstanding which still provides value for the refiner— meet all ULSD specifications. confirming the high activity of TK-611 the hydrotreating of triglycerides is mainly Mr. is recommended. This catalyst is already they may be installed in the same reactor In addition. the work well in a sour environment.com Gas Processing and Hydrocarbon Processing are gathering the gas processing industry’s key players for GasPro 2018. GasPro Americas now includes the popular GTL Technology Forum. The feed properties of this flow properties. Since more than 600 bpd while still meet. He graduated from the University Using the TK-930 D-wax catalyst blendstock. Most refineries are limited yield loss per degree of CP improvement. 2018 | Houston. one-day conference offers delegates a unique opportunity to network with their peers. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY UPDATE their sulfided state. The have been proven to provide 1/8 of the eration dewaxing catalyst. The new dewaxing catalysts compared to the company’s previous gen. reduction in the T90 enabled the refin. learn about the current economic outlook. Renewable diesel generated by technical and management positions for all of Topsoe’s business units. ing cold flow property specifications. feed endpoint during the winter months hanced winter and summer modes of and. Rasmussen is the Vice President HyBRIM and the selectively of the dewax. Business Development Manager. This exclusive. and has held a number of was based on a detailed pilot plant study D-wax. it is also possible to process a 25-Mbpd ULSD unit selected a load $6 MM/yr–$8 MM/yr. Since the renewable engineering before relocating to the US in 1991.5 Mbpd dewaxing catalyst per degree of cloud with the D-wax series is lost to naphtha— during the summer months and still point improvement. Canada and unit are listed in TABLE 2. and explore solutions to improve production and efficiency. on the feed endpoint because they are up Takeaways.

C R I C A T A LY S T. W W W . C O M Select 74 at www. CRI PRESENTS BIGGER SOLVERS. AND NO BIG ADVANCEMENT EVER HAPPENED WITHOUT CHANGE. M O R E R & D. EVOLVING NEEDS. WHEN THE INDUSTRY PRESENTS BIGGER PROBLEMS.com/RS . M O RE E FFIC IE N CY. M O RE S O L U TIO N S .HydrocarbonProcessing. MORE C O ST S AV IN G S . CHANGE IS COMING. SOLVING.

targets are not defined. outside-in leading companies routinely implement a Operators have focused on what must view of the project status and readiness structured operational readiness process be done to satisfy external and internal level. into production to fully deal with what benchmark and provide insights on the This enlightened approach goes be. O&M budget must be vs. will be highlighted and in- key factor that differentiates leading com. This functionalities (and dysfunctionalities) yond the commissioning and startup methodology is sub-optimal and can be it has witnessed vs. Project Management G. This situation is unaccept. a third party will be able to operations and production phases. availability and maintain. Part 2 of this article moves design. once the Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 83 . Jacobs Consultancy.” but is rath- benefits of implementing an ORA pro. ready impact of the strategy on the lenders are likely to be even more remote. with real-time feedback on the identified targets. Manchester. as well as the steps that companies RAM that should be achieved. Assurance is an integral part readiness needs.3 The ar- strategy has no basis for achieving the ticle stated. etc. ligations. in some cases. It cannot show the value and/or mote from delivery activity. was the lack of understanding and use management provides accurate and In Part 1. items. commissioning of their policies and operations. in early project phases. The potential issues. and the from theory to practice. The conclusions drawn ation. construction. and readiness to operate and optimally dent assurance? An independent assur- To achieve required production rates. the assess- panies from the rest of the industry is the do” items to deliver upon the “must do” ment will be beneficial to all stakehold- shift from a static culture of conventional. clients respond that ers. the cant resources to leverage the benefits owner of the facility must deal with the Is assurance a “nice to have?” The of their operations experts and apply “musts” and “shoulds” concurrently. ed attention and resources from “should tensely challenged. status of compliance with statutory ob- how a client dealt with their operational derstanding led to an unacceptable situ. review (PSSR). and they often then become re- volved in look forward through mechani. These companies devote signifi. maintain the asset. a key concern part of corporate governance. and. Where practically possible. gram. ance will provide an unbiased. Typically. availabil. able for two major reasons: projects. previous experiences. The Hague. Finally. without proper reference to the levels of er a requirement of each project. it is not. up-to-date information to stakeholders readiness assurance (ORA) program was ability (RAM) techniques early in the about the efficiency and effectiveness introduced. REED. in which experiences. It cannot calculate what the surance that the asset they are invested project and up to 90 d beyond startup. In the authors’ experience. cally appoint contractors to deliver their The projects the authors have been in. they will catch up on these matters once mechanisms and mitigate value losses ic. Jacobs Consultancy. whereby the operation and main. Assurance is the lessons learned from their previous On a recent project. preservation of integrity Why use a third party for indepen- ity and maintenance targets safely. The stage gates. which helps assess the governance classic project delivery. as well as the in their capital project transitions. the future this is a rarity. and it can take up to 5 yr issues. then the O&M jor deficits in project governance. and illustrates and handover phases. Syndicates of cal completion certificate (MCC). If RAM A 2009 technical paper explained ma- must take moving forward. PICHEO.. for startup (RFSU). to a more dynam. should have been done earlier. phases. 1. the designed rates. of overall project governance. there can be what is possible. holistic and pragmatic approach that in operation. pre-startup safety RAM targets It is all too easily assumed that. RAM targets. Netherlands and W. avoided. the theory of an operational of reliability. as well as meet—and worrying signs of carelessness to ensure hopefully surpass—reliability. ongoing safety. project risks. It is not a from this case study demonstrate the tenance (O&M) strategy was contrived choice or an “add-on service. have shift. This lack of un. “Capital project owners typi- Looking beyond a vertical startup. short answer is no. UK Incorporate assurance into an operational readiness program—Part 2 Investors have a critical need for as. to the startup of the 2. Ultimately. in will achieve continuous operation at Beyond the 90-d window.

Project sponsors then Typical project phases are shown in FIG. tegrated ORA program. the ORA program begins during proj. jet fuel and LPG. proven practices—the results of recur. op. consistent process to assess critical issues • Organizational capability dency to spend more money to resolve and to achieve a smooth (vertical) startup and utilization. assigning ownership and guiding erational readiness. In addition.” and continuous operations. process. and critical activities for the asset owner primary engineering/licensing companies These factors allow the project team to to achieve prior to beginning operations. An ORA pro. Different from an integrated project gies. 6). the project turns into a ‘black box.e. ect aims was to introduce a structured and • Processes and procedures tions reduce and there is an increased ten. The assessment In collaboration with the owner’s team. Operational readiness throughout all phases of the project. ect feasibility and ends when the plant tative benchmark of the use and effec- self and no active control is needed. RTO plan includes setting milestones during the construction phase and several form the sequence of ORA assessments. • Types of deliverables cost overruns. the project will run it. The operational readiness index To ensure a successful implementation. One of the proj. assessment included facilitated group ex- ORA BUSINESS CASE mentation of best practices to ensure that ercises designed to trigger the identifica- the desired operational performance is tion of operational and startup risks and Background. 200-Mbpd greenfield crude oil re. the RTO plan aims to identify and finer’s organization to define a systematic ation of the readiness status was based track the status of mission-critical ac- approach to provide assurance on its op. 5.e. The evalu. tiveness of operational practices against result. implement any modifications to identi. based on industry best practices. complexity and products.a providing project services and technolo. the problem. 5. mixed xylenes. an active scorecard (FIG. with the desired level of quality. developed and initiated at the end of the contractors. ring lessons learned in previous projects. tors’ team members. (ORI) measurement allowed a quanti. Operational readiness assessment tool. Along with the RTO plan. The refinery was to produce naph. operations. evaluated the level of involvement of key project management and contrac- for safer and efficient startup. the RTO plan was timely transition to normal operations. A refiner was building a achieved during commissioning. Typically. is based on: until the very end.000 people onsite determine the optimum timing to per. etc. The assurance that these deliver- ables are demonstrably in use and working as intended is equally as important. • Diagnostic control systems tion.com . actions aimed at a smooth transition to tha. startup ongoing issues (i. operational bugs). these are and to identify and describe mitigating finery. planning practices on 18 areas/domains the focus of the organization’s leadership. on the assessment of key operational tivities. as well as a the different operational interfaces (i. 6. Toward the end of the project. schedule are taken into consideration to Ready-to-operate (RTO) plan. it is critical to align the operational readi- ness milestones with the existing EPC project.. FIG. maintenance. The benchmark with little visibility over what is going on and availability targets at an optimal cost.’ sign production rate and meets reliability industry best practices. $5-B. project teams. among other petroleum The project’s size. construction phase. ultra-low sulfur diesel. The refiner acknowl. The ORA program in practice. edged the need for a fully integrated ORA of the project (FIG. The project is highly complex. and initial operations. As a achieves continuous operation at the de. and possibly even litiga. Ideally. plan.). • Project phase and size find that they face significant time and The refiner wanted to install a fully in. fied gaps in a timely manner. Project Management contract is in place. This alignment ensures that key operational deliverables are completed in a timely manner. the operational readiness gram is designed to promote the imple. 7) acts as an attention- FIG.. An with approximately 10. This type of project required the re. 84 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. focusing device for the project leadership. startup and operations.

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Reed has consulted on information handovers are the main con. It is time to apply the lessons we say that we have learned. which signif. The point is that readiness is a con- stant need during operations. which suggests that effort should be applied to documenting. This most of the projects without operational Netherlands. readiness work process should provide should be augmented with professional measurable assurance and prove that all qualifications and certifications as opera- Assurance reviews. A consistent. based operational readiness introduces defects earned an MS degree in aeronautical engineering on industry best practices. Inadequate asset management. 60%–70% manufacturing and process operations. such as a turnaround (TAR). Mr. NOTES aRefers to Jacobs’ Operational Readiness Plan. when the operation is back online. each unique client and capital project. A 2016 technical paper on the impor- Looking ahead. the owner can update the events post-TAR. outside-in view of the project’s status and ries of operational and startup reviews its readiness level. maintenance and reliability. change initiatives globally. tional readiness professionals. Professional operational readiness. Crucial for the success LITERATURE CITED aimed at identifying any operational of an operational readiness assessment 3 PricewaterhouseCoopers. The key to icantly delays the realization of expected WAYNE REED has worked in the achieving readiness is the focus on future business results (typically. What’s wrong with Project gaps. more than 60 countries. will have a and reduces equipment life. While this article focused on the early life of an endeavor. 7. tributors to disruption and poor perfor.”4 These industries for his entire career. of the RTO plan.. as well as review the completion is the necessity to craft the operational Governance? 2009.” LinkedIn. 4 Pesenti. can be negatively affected long past start. Value leaking from tance of implementing an ORA program GABRIELE PICHEO is Senior Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy. Each time that substan- tive changes are made to facilities during the O&M life cycle phase at key times. Mr. program is not implemented. His expertise includes loss of value can be completely avoided readiness experience problems in startup operational readiness. W. An example of an active ORA scorecard. “Capital projects right the first time status and effectiveness of the execution readiness approach to the specifics of = Operational readiness assurance. an ORA program should be deployed as a neces- sary activity before the TAR.com . what operational readi- FIG. structured and capital cost increases. due diligence and or mitigated. Project Management Readiness is a necessary constant. February 2016. An indepen- the asset owner’s management and proj. ect management team should plan a se. and a BCh degree in aerospace engineering. the implementation of the RTO plan. The operational oil and gas community—a standard that allocate resources to correct deviations. an argument can be made that the state of readiness must be main- tained throughout the complete lifecycle of any endeavor. dent assurance will provide an unbiased. It is time to level the playing field and craft an international This data is used to monitor organization. Enough information is available in the public domain to illustrate that a com- pelling need exists to address this opera- tional readiness topic more thoroughly. take actions and mance during transition. Therefore. It is not something that is a focus only during the transition to normal operations. “Research has shown that He is based in The Hague. interface management and up and initial operations when an ORA 20 yr. major impact on cost savings. short-term efforts that may increase the results show that a project’s economics He has more than 40 yr of hands-on and practical global experience in risks onsite. in a standardized way. For the last Staffing. which limits the impact of benefits after 2 yr of operation). In parallel with deliverables are demonstrably in use. standard on operational readiness for the al and project outcomes. across all industries. ness must encompass. capital projects as they fail to achieve mentioned. Picheo operational readiness program. and must be considered an integral part of opera- tional excellence. The operability targets is unacceptable. with measurable impacts. 86 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.

com/RS wireless transmitter the following benefits: Emerson Automation Solutions intro. Schneider is system’s operational interface is simple. and functional. provides integrally designed opens the path to improved efficiency protection for the operator. ment to develop a pioneering route to the greater are the required cost and time produce monoethylene glycol (MEG) investments for installation. With the likelihood of exposure to and packaging industries. along with their associat- feasibility. renewable sources. simple. in harsh and demanding investment in production and boost the The Rosemount 3051S MultiVariable environments compared to competitiveness of the process. mak. combined with Measure two process This technological breakthrough interlocks.com/RS reliability of Shielded Solid Insulation breaker is in series with the isolating System (2SIS). the that produce important chemicals from and gas-insulated switchgear. wireless pressure transmitter delivers a traditional switchgear. Braskem seeks to decade of maintenance-free performance • Flexible. dextrose and second-generation sugars. such as sugars. The more devices there are in a facility.HydrocarbonProcessing. The project is Rosemount 3051S wireless transmitters. The static pressure sensor is avail- launching production on an industrial able as either true gage or absolute. grounding switch. scheduled from sugar. With this agreement. Reliable shielded solid includes advanced protection. with operations slated to begin tines with the 3051S. which will reduce the initial over wired installations.com. which is a critical step before ed costs. intelligence. breaking new ground with the increased intuitive and user friendly. while reducing installa.HydrocarbonProcessing. pressure transmitter. Innovations can be found online able wireless pressure transmitter (FIG. which. • Reduced opportunity of arc An expanded version of duces the Rosemount 3051S MultiVari. tion. out their facilities with greater than 99% maintenance intervals. The circuit Select 1 at www. minimum servicing of main units. variables with a single and customer experience. measurements through a non-intrusive. live parts with 2SIS reduces the main raw material used by the textile WirelessHART monitoring system. ence in smart wireless field instrumenta. Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 86–A . with its bio-based polyethylene business. signed a technological cooperation agree.com Innovations Producing monoethylene which is designed to directly measure two glycol from sugar process variables in one installation so us- ers can gain greater insight into their pro- Braskem and Haldor Topsoe have cess without increasing installation costs. role in developing sustainable solutions pertise in both air-insulated switchgear With its 3-in-1 switchgear design. • Longer time between at Topsoe’s labs and focuses on the con. for re- scale and commercial operations. version of sugar into MEG at a single in. such as sucrose. The demonstration plant will measures differential and static pressure. This monitor assets. The unit duced maintenance and calibration costs. The product to offer new solutions that complement ing it a cost-effective and reliable way to is simple to install and use. The product tiveness of different biomasses and com. and is fully by the petrochemical industry. electrical hazards. Two process variables wireless HART in different raw materials. users have instant visibility to their MEG is a key component of PET resin. will be flexible to validate the technology Backed by Emerson’s proven experi. plements the traditional solutions offered control and monitoring. and energy efficiency. based on a two-step process developed users can monitor more assets through. conduct tests to validate the technology users can reduce pipe penetrations and and confirm its technical and economic impulse piping. operator-friendly switchgear and new partnership strengthens Braskem’s tion costs. 1. catalysis will play an important Combining Schneider Electric’s ex. 1). flash or contact with live parts. Since the transmitter in 2019. The agreement calls for the maintenance and downtime. modular expand its portfolio of renewable products with a 10-yr stability specification. and provides Select 3 at www.com/RS • Smart grid-ready. TECHNICAL EDITOR Bob.Andrew@HydrocarbonProcessing. reliability and at 40%–60% cost savings 2SIS offers improved performance dustrial unit. Insulation and screening of all at HydrocarbonProcessing. FIG.BOB ANDREW.HydrocarbonProcessing. For Haldor insulation MV switchgear integrated for higher dependability Topsoe. Users can construction of a demonstration plant in simplify installation and maintenance rou- Denmark. distributed solutions that will leverage the competi. position in the development of innovative Select 2 at www.

she will be product. In September 2014. East and Caspian regions President of ExxonMobil natural resources group. as well as managing of roles. as sales and marketing process engineering. Previously. Caron was Executive been named as Regional of ExxonMobil Chemical Reed Smith as a partner and Mining.—has been named Dr. Hillock will 2005 as VP of R&D. and Caspian regions. Bibby crude and products was acquired by Gibson reservoir characterization. Venezuela. management committee. develop its business inhibitor monitoring Corp. he served and economics.—a wholly owned The National Association where he supported he became the Americas where she was a partner subsidiary of Genuine of Manufacturers (NAM) more than 100 customers Marketing Manager for the and former member of Parts Co. has been and is responsible for polyethylene business. in Europe. and ABB. Most recently. he served as petroleum reservoir and Crestchic’s plans to further team for its corrosion CEO of CITGO Petroleum General Manager of Gibson production engineering. As part of business development new Acting President and EDECO. Chapman Mr. Executive VP firm’s expansion with polyethylene business. Chávez was appointed Human Resources (HR) became VP for the global Minister of the Popular Officer. Environmental until it analysis. Heeg’s practice focuses for the Dow Chemical Co.Rhodes@HydrocarbonProcessing. Versfeld production enhancement. he worked her developments in rental markets. Heeg’s committee. Services. and became in its global energy and responsible for all oil Lavalin Inc. at the a PTDA volunteer since COO of The Dow Chemical Middle East. The Letton Hall Group Manager for its US member of the global Asdrúbal Chávez as the Before joining SIMMONS as Principal Advisor in operation. including the last strategic planning roles in She joins Reed Smith and supplier relations 15 yr as Managing Director its polyethylene business from the Houston office of for Motion Industries of Global Energy SCS. presently the recently working as senior and Director of CITGO LyondellBasell has and has co-authored Senior VP of polymers. Kirsten Lund. Mr. which. the University of Houston.’s LUX’s technical team several expansion and environmental consultant been a leading researcher board of directors has has also been bolstered organization projects serving the energy sector. Ms. TECHNICAL EDITOR Mike. he has also and Regulatory Manager Texas A&M University and of the corporation’s who brings 3 yr of served as Vice Minister for CCS Corp. Evans distillation and specialties. Christine Ehlig. As Regional ExxonMobil Chemical in time. Nosic marketing and business areas of industrial services. as assistant scientist at Petroleum Corp. role. Jim Texas. to its Australia and Houston. technical and research of petrochemicals. she led HR functions for Fulkrum Technical Global Services Co. Ms. He began his career Energy’s environmental Dr.. Prior to joining President of the Power and President at Pfizer new offices in Perth. and COO of the Manager. He brings 35 yr Mr. Verity joined Exxon on pipeline development.com People SIMMONS EDECO has Dr. VP of and environment. he has served committee of the NAM across the Middle East business and VP of focus includes crude oil on the board of directors board of directors. President of Univation Heeg was Executive VP Association (PTDA). committee. Williams has been Fitterling. Throughout complex well design and Systems (HPS). and as an Environment petroleum engineering at as Senior VP and member scientist Harry Grover.com . 100 technical papers John Verity. safety experience to his new held sales. initially as an at Schlumberger. A past chair of the at DowDuPont. With 18 yr of at the El Palito refinery in services division. Inc. Crestchic has appointed Tony Evans joins LUX The CITGO Board of appointed Niels Versfeld Economides has joined Carmen Nosic as Sales Assure as the newest Directors has appointed as Chief Executive Officer. Mr. In 2000. owned the largest 2005. plastics and resins. Executive VP and Chief Chemical Co. has published more than The board also appointed experience to LUX. and professor of elected Neil Chapman with the appointment of throughout the 1990s. Manager for the Middle Co. Mr. Transmission Distributors Global Supply. Ms. He returned to El Paso Corp. Norton Rose Fulbright LLP. Most recently. programming Energy in 2011.MIKE RHODES. and both HR of international industry Chemical in 1980 and regulatory compliance and Jim Williams. has worked in a variety Following a 20-yr career Director at Deep C Group. movement. President and operations for SCS in the 2001. marketing and corporate governance. Ehlig-Economides in the US. Officer (COO) for Palko and pressure transient in the power industry has held positions at conversion and treatment. the entity VP of global HR for SNC. activity in Venezuela. and natural gas pipeline system the motion control task materials science division be based in Abu Dhabi later served as VP of the in the US. and his career. pipeline infrastructure. Mr. He was appointed Fulbright in 2003. before establishing Technologies LLC in and General Counsel for Mr. 86–BJANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing. when he joined Co. most President of PDV Marina. working in the Previously. Tommy Hillock has polyethylene business unit Peggy Heeg has joined Power of Petroleum Ms. worldwide and led the ExxonMobil Chemical’s the firm’s executive elected as the 2018 Jurgensen. President of ExxonMobil Charles River Laboratories. corporate purchasing and health for Alcan. named Darleen Caron as two textbooks. since 2015. integrated and previously worked Synergi Solutions. is widely known for responsible for sale and experience in sales. nation’s largest provider programs and products named to the executive all company operations VP of the polyolefins of natural gas. and was the force. Since 2009. for Hawthorne Power Offshore and Nautronix. in 2005. she has Exxon Mobil Corp. board of directors. Ms. as Chief Operations oil and gas well testing has 19 yr of experience management.

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INSPIRE & CONNECT
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LARGEST GAS
& HYDROCARBON
PROCESSING AUDIENCE

THE LARGEST GATHERING GLOBAL LEADERS IN WELCOMING SPEAKER
OF TECHNICAL & NATURAL GAS & LNG APPLICATIONS ACROSS KEY
COMMERCIAL PROCESSING PROCESSING, PURIFICATION TOPICS INCLUDING:
& CRYOGENIC & LIQUEFACTION ALREADY
PROFESSIONALS IN 2018 CONFIRMED TO ATTEND
Pre-treatment, acid gas removal,
GASTECH 2018 INCLUDE: sulphur recovery, liquefaction and
cryogenic process, NGL recovery

3,500
and fractionation, process control
and optimisation technologies

CONFERENCE ATTENDEES Onshore regasification

Gas processing equipment
including heat exchange and
350+ gas turbine technologies

SPEAKERS REPRESENTING Gas to liquids including GTL
THE GLOBAL GAS & LNG monetisation, gas to methanol,
VALUE CHAIN gas and NGL to olefins

DEADLINES FOR APPLICATIONS IS 31 JANUARY 2018

65 TECHNICAL SESSIONS TO CHOOSE FROM, FOR THE FULL LIST VISIT
WWW.GASTECHEVENT.COM/HP1

DMG237

Hosted by the Spanish Gastech Consortium In association with

Co-located with: In partnership with Organised by

ALISSA LEETON, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
Alissa.Leeton@GulfPub.com

Events

JANUARY Easyfairs, Stoc Expo Europe, API Spring Refining and World Gas Conference,
March 20–22, Ahoy Rotterdam, Equipment Standards Meeting, June 25–29, Walter E.
National Aboveground Storage Rotterdam, The Netherlands April 16–19, Sheraton Seattle Washington Convention
Tank Conference & Trade Show P: +44 0-203-196-4400 Hotel, Seattle, Washington Center, Washington, D.C.
(NISTM), Jan. 16–17, Moody margaret@tankstoragemag.com P: +1 202-682-8195 P: +44 20-7978-0775
Gardens Hotel, Galveston, Texas www.easyfairs.com registrar@api.org www.wgc2018.com
P: +1 800-827-3515 www.api.org
mail@nistm.org Eastern Mediterranean
nistm.org Gas Conference (EMGC), Easyfairs, Stoc Expo Middle East AUGUST
March 21–22, Gulf Publishing Africa, April 17–18, Dubai World
Future of Polyolefins Summit, Company Events, Trade Centre, Dubai, UAE ONS, Aug. 27–30,
Jan. 17–18, Düsseldorf, Germany Hilton Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus P: +44 0-203-196-4381 Stavanger, Norway
P: +44 0-203-141-0632 EMGasConference.com duly@stocexpo.com P: +47 932-56-125
lpardoux@acieu.net (See box for contact information) www.easyfairs.com angelo@ons.no
www.wplgroup.com/aci/ www.ons.no
Easyfairs, Pumps and Valves, MCAA Industry Forum,
Underground Construction March 21–22, Antwerp Expo, April 22–24, The Woodlands HP Awards, Aug. 30,
Technology, Jan. 30–Feb. 1, Antwerp, Belgium Resort and Conference Center, Gulf Publishing Company Events,
Ernest N. Morial Convention P: +32 3-280-5352 The Woodlands, Texas Houston, Texas
Center, New Orleans, Louisiana eline.francken@easyfairs.com P: +1 757-258-3100 HydrocarbonProcessing.com/
P: 713-520-4450 www.easyfairs.com mcaa@TheMCAA.org Awards
kfrancis@uctonline.com themcaa.org (See box for contact information)
uctonline.com AFPM International
Petrochemical Conference (IPC), AIChE Spring Meeting,
March 25–27, Grand Hyatt April 22–26, Orlando World SEPTEMBER
FEBRUARY San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas Center Marriott, Orlando, Florida
(See box for contact information) P: +1 800-242-4363 Gastech Conference
Egypt Petroleum Show (EGYPS), www.aiche.org & Exhibition, Sept. 17–20,
Feb. 12–14, New Cairo Exhibition China International Petroleum Fira Gran Via, Barcelona, Spain
Centre, Cairo, Egypt & Petrochemical Technology & STRATCO Alkylation P: +44 0-203-615-5914
P: +971 0-2697-0504 Equipment (CIPPE), March 27–29, Best Practices Workshop, info@gastechevent.com
varkhaisrani@dmgeventsme.com New China International April 23–26, Omni Amelia www.gastechevent.com
www.egyps.com Exhibition Center, Beijing, China Island Plantation Resort,
P: +86 10-5823-6555 Amelia Island, Florida IRPC Americas, Sept. 25–26,
ARC Industry Forum, cippe@zhenweiexpo.com www.dupontbpw.com Gulf Publishing Company Events,
Feb. 12–15, Renaissance Orlando www.cippe.com.cn/en/ Houston, Texas
Hotel, Orlando, Florida HPIRPC.com/Americas
P: +1 781-471-1158 International Aboveground JUNE (See box for contact information)
www.arcweb.com Storage Tank Conference
& Trade Show, March 27–29, IRPC Europe, June 5–6, International Pipeline Expo,
Rosen Shingle Creek Hotel, Gulf Publishing Company Events, Sept. 25–27, Telus Convention
MARCH Orlando, Florida Milan Marriott Hotel, Milan, Italy Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
P: +1 800-827-3515 HPIRPC.com/Europe P: +1 888-799-2545
CERAWeek, March 5–9, Hilton nistm.org (See box for contact information) jessyzhao@dmgevents.com
Americas–Houston, Houston, Texas internationalpipelineexposition.com
P: +1 800-447-2273 (ILTA) International
ceraweek.com APRIL Operating Conference
& Trade Show, June 11–13, Hydrocarbon Processing/
AFPM Annual Meeting, Pipeline Opportunities George R. Brown Convention Gulf Publishing Company
March 11–13, New Orleans Hilton, Conference, April 3, Center, Houston, Texas Events
New Orleans, Louisiana Omni Galleria, Houston, Texas P: 703-875-2011 P: +1 713-520-4475
(See box for contact information) P: 713-520-4450 www.ilta.org/AOCTS Melissa.Smith@GulfPub.com
EnergyEvents@GulfPub.com
kfrancis@uctonline.com
Asia Turbomachinery & Pump pipeline-opportunities.com ACHEMA, June 11–15, Messe American Fuel &
Symposium, March 13–15, Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany Petrochemical
Suntec Singapore Convention GPA Midstream, April 15–18, P: +49 69-756-4100 Manufacturers (AFPM)
& Exhibition Centre, Singapore JW Marriott Austin, Austin, Texas www.achema.de P: +1 202-457-0480
P: +1 979-845-7417 gpamidstreamconvention.org info@afpm.org
info@turbo-lab.tamu.edu East Africa Oil & Gas www.afpm.org
atps.tamu.edu NACE Corrosion Conference Summit (EAOGS), June 14–15,
& Expo, April 15–19, The Intercontinental Hotel, Easyfairs
Middle East Sulphur CRU, Phoenix Convention Center, Nairobi, Kenya P: +44 0-208-843-8800
March 18–21, Abu Dhabi Phoenix, Arizona P: +1 254-600-0823 uk@easyfairs.com
P: +44 0-207-903-2444 P: +1 800-797-6223 wmwiti@eastafricanchamber.org www.easyfairs.com
events.crugroup.com nacecorrosion.org eaogs.com

90 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

REGISTER
TODAY

MARCH 21–22, 2018 | NICOSIA, CYPRUS | EMGASCONFERENCE.COM

Gas Processing and World Oil are pleased to bring
the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Conference (EMGC)
back to Nicosia, Cyprus.

Now in its fifth year, EMGC is the region’s premier conference for
companies operating in this rapidly rapidly-evolving energy hub.
Confirmed
The two-day conference will center around a high-level technical Keynote Speaker
program featuring speakers from leading operating and service
companies. Luca Bertelli
Chief Exploration Officer
Eni’s Chief Exploration Officer, Luca Bertelli, will open EMGC 2018
Eni
with a high-profile keynote address on Day 1.
Join the conversation and network with your peers at EMGC!

Sponsorship opportunities are available!
For more information on sponsorship opportunities, please contact:
Hortensia “Tish” Barroso, Business Development Manager
at Hortensia.Barroso@GulfPub.com

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