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Western Mindanao State University

College of Teacher Education
Normal Road. Baliwasan, Zamboanga City

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Submitted by:
Clifford Bon F. Alvarez

What is meant by “PARITY RIGHTS”? why did the American impose it on Filipinos? Was it fair for them to have done so? Why? What trait that this action show? Parity rights granted U. Roosevelt signed the declaration of war later the same day. 18 U. 1941. In 1956. the U. the Bell Trade Act was superseded by the Laurel-Langley Agreement. President Franklin D.S. Americans united against Japan in response to calls to "Remember Pearl Harbor. Roosevelt addressed a joint session of United States Congress.11 percent) voted no. servicemen there. government finished converting to a war economy.000 to the Philippines provided the Bell Trade Act was ratified.403 victims were killed. Of the 548. cast the only dissenting vote. off- guard.S. Overnight. 1. and the late delivery of the note from the Japanese government breaking off relations with the U. also known as the Philippine Trade Act of 1946. economy.S. 188 U. regardless of whether the fuel depots or machine shops had been destroyed or even if the carriers had been caught in port and sunk. and 2. The Act was designed to set conditions on the Philippine economy and link it to the U. ships were sunk or damaged. the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the neutral U. government. a Republican from Montana. a process begun by provision of weapons and supplies to the Soviet Union and the British Empire." American solidarity in the war effort probably made possible the unconditional surrender position later taken by the Allied Powers. aircraft were destroyed. U. Continuing to intensify its military mobilization. passed by the United States. believe the attack doomed Japan to defeat simply because it awakened the "sleeping giant". among them Samuel Eliot Morison. once mobilized. naval base at Pearl Harbor without warning. Public opinion had been moving towards support for entering the war during 1941.89 percent) voted yes on the amendment.S. citizens and Filipinos equal rights in regard to using the natural resources of the Philippines.786 total votes. The United States agreed to pay $800.833 (78. The day after the attack. After two hours of bombing. but considerable opposition remained until the attack. called the Parity Amendment. 2. These parity rights were created through an amendment of the Philippine Constitution. an agreement that benefited Filipino citizens more. 432.S. Pacifist Representative Jeannette Rankin. actions considered treacherous. and 115. Roosevelt called December 7 “a date which will live in infamy". Some historians. 1947. The attack on Pearl Harbor immediately galvanized a divided nation into action. The amendment was part of the Bell Trade Act. which was voted through on March 11. after which tariffs were to be applied over the next 20 years.S. The Act was supported by many Filipino politicians because of the economic benefits it brought while the Philippines recovered from World War II. especially those who were sleeping. Congress declared war on the Empire of Japan amid outrage at the attack. catching the U. Why and how is the war in the Pacific break out? Was Japan justified in bombing Pearl Harbor without the declaration of war? On December 7. the deaths of thousands of victims. industrial and military capacity.S.S.000. was able to pour overwhelming resources into both . The Japanese Americans from the West Coast were sent to internment camps for the duration of the war. The Parity Act was unpopular amongst Filipino citizens because the Philippine Constitution stated that the Philippines' natural resources were only for Filipinos.853 (21. It set up eight years of free trade between the nations.S.

notably by General John DeWitt.1973)  Agarao. Senior staff member. because its effect was enormous and impossible to counter. Philippine News Service. Released ---. the information presented below will follow the following structure: Full name. STAND youth activist leader. Composer of FQS protest song.  Tayag. Other factors included misrepresentations of intelligence information suggesting sabotage. Carlito. KM leader. including citizens of Japanese descent and was a factor in the subsequent Japanese internment in the western United States. commanding general of Western Defense Command on the Pacific Coast. Roger. stated that his first thought regarding American assistance to the United Kingdom was that "We have won the war “very soon after the United States had been attacked. Others. Jr. KM general secretary. 3. Nilo. Clarence.the Pacific and Atlantic theaters.. Alexander. "Remember Pearl Harbor!" became the watchwords of the war. who had personal feelings against Japanese Americans. The closest friend Roosevelt had in the developing Allied alliance. Arrested in Oct 1950. Youth activist. requiring all Japanese Americans to submit themselves for an internment.. Sir Winston Churchill. and Mark Parillo believe Japanese trade protection was so incompetent that American submarines alone might have strangled Japan into defeat. such as Clay Blair. US-Marcos dictatorship period The first wave of martial law detainees (Sep 1972 . LP senator. Arrested Aug 1971.  Arienda. Arrested Sep 1970. "Sumulong Ka. detaining authority Date and place of release Legal status of case Related documentation  Politburo-in headed by Jose Lava (then PKP general secretary).  Aquino. Roosevelt signed United States Executive Order 9066. Perceptions of treachery in the attack before a declaration of war sparked fears of sabotage or espionage by Japanese sympathizers residing in the U. In February 1942. Radio commentator. Brother of Ruben. Luzvimindo. Released --- .S.  David.  Aquino.  Almario. Manuel. Benigno Jr. Propaganda made repeated use of the attack.  Aycocho. KM national chairman. sorted alphabetically by family name Political involvement of individual at time of arrest Date and place of arrest (with more information in case of repeated arrests) Arresting unit Place/s of detention. records of transfers. Anakpawis" . Who were the political personalities arrested and determined during martial law? Why were they imprisoned? Post-Marcos period Roster of political prisoners As much as possible.

Liao. Arrested Dec 1974. China exercised nominal suzerainty over the Philippines. 9. Early Relations with Japan Historical records show that Japanese pirates (wako). Bernabe. Carlos and wife (unidentified). later reported missing. Eugenio. Luis D. Antonio. Rex. Arrested 1975. YRC. Labor lawyer. Evening News. Veronica. Flores. Youth activist. Juan Andres. kingdom builders. 4. 12. Visual artist. Nenita. again arrested and reported missing since Apr 1977. Japanese traders. and some Filipinos paid tribute to China. Apolonia. The last Filipino tribute embassy came to China in 1421. Evangelista-Luneta. Orlando. Brother of Carlito. Ruben. What makes People Power I at EDSA a unique phenomenon in the history of toppling down dictatorship? Early Trade Contacts Relations with the Indians & Chinese Trade relations with Chinese started in the 10th century (A. later reported missing. 15. Leader of militant urban poor organization Zone One Tondo Organization (ZOTO). 6. Missing since 1975. later reported missing. Student activist. Arrested 23 Oct 1976 with Orlando Fideres. later reported missing. Flora. salvaged. Reported missing on 27 Oct 1976. See also: Martial law arrests and detentions by end-1972 Succeeding waves of mass arrests (1974-1977) 1. Hermon. Coronacion. Lagman. Dela Torre. Early Chinese trading junks brought goods and immigrants to the Philippines.  Beltran. Later reported missing together with her child. 8.  Castillo. Arrested Jul 1975. Margarito. later reported missing. Wife of deported newsman Rizal Yuyitung. Jacinto. Aka Commander Dante. 10. Fideres. Chao Ju-Kua described the Chinese trade with Ma-i (Mindoro) and praised the honesty of the Filipinos. Buscayno. Orlando.D. Under the Ming Dynasty. later IRC. Trade relation of the Philippines with the Indians reached its peak in the late 13th century. Arrested in 11 May 1977 with companion Victor Reyes. Part of Batch 1974-12a. 14. Johannes. according to the Ming-Shih or dynastic annals of the Ming. later reported missing. 5. Trinidad. chief of the New People's Army. 13.  Yuyitung. Ed"). Barrozo. . 11. Marcos believed the country was under communist threat and arrested anyone without warranted who he believed that was a threat to his reign. Arrested 30 June 1975 with her 3-year-old child. Arrested 23 Oct 1976 with Flora Coronacion.  Aycocho. Buenaventura. 3. 2. later reported missing. Herrera. Arrested 30 Jun 1975.  Begg. 4. Alvarez. 7. Arrested Sep 1976 in Pampanga. Arrested 16 Mar 1976. William. Arrested in Apr 1977 as part of Batch 1977-04a. especially from Nagasaki. Arrested 12 Jun 1976. Edralin. 982 is the year given in the Sung annals) and reached its zenith in the 14th and 15th centuries. C. Buenaventura. Arrested 19 Feb 1977. later reported missing. and settlers had come to Luzon before and immediately after the Spanish colonization. later released on 27 Feb 1977 directly from a military safehouse. Edicio ("Fr.

and native earthen jars. Several Moro sultans led these jihads. according to the tarsilas (Muslim chronicles).frequently visited Philippine shores and bartered Japanese goods for Filipino gold. prince of Menankabaw. Government Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT and the LOCAL GOVERNMENTS that administered provinces. Muslim leader of Johore. reached Sulu in 1450. They defeated Spanish attempts to conquer Mindanao. led an army of Muslim invaders to Sulu and overcame native opposition with firearms. Sumatra. and married the daughter of Rajah Baginda. hacienda. who landed in Cotabato in 1475. The Sultanate of Maguindanao was also instrumental in the Islamization of Mindanao. After Baginda’s death. E. The Muslim conquest of Maguindanao was attributed to Sharif Kubungsuan. American and Japanese rule in the context of the following:  Economy  Government  Education  Communication Spanish Economy The Spaniards implemented economic programs which are mainly about land ownership and taxes. Early Relations with the Muslim World in 1380. La Union Province. cities. He married a native princess and founded the first Muslim Sultanate of Maguindanao. he founded the Sultanate of Jolo. the early Spaniards found Japanese settlements in Manila and Agoo. Describe the status of the Philippine Society under Spanish. The Spanish had use their massive numbers to force the Moros to withdraw. Rajah Baginda. Sumatra. A "culture of jihad" emerged among the Moros due to the centuries long war against the Spanish invaders. 6. imposition of different kinds of taxes. 5. Abu Bakr. Why do you think the Moros were to resist Spanish colonization and Christianization? The Moros declared a jihad against the Spanish and Filipino Christians. the Arab missionary-scholar Mudum landed in Sulu and there laid the foundation of Islam in the Philippines. Kabungsuan as sultan of Maguindanano had larger domain than the Sultanate of Sulu. According to Japanese records. In 1390. pearls. galleon trade. Muslim leader from Palembang. and monopoly and polo y servicios. to defend themselves against the Spanish invaders who tried to take over Moro territory. Certain shipwrecked Japanese sailors and immigrants settled in the Philippines and intermarried with Filipinos. The programs are encomienda. and municipalities Education . with himself as sultan. The Moros retaliated with major pillaging campaigns and enslaved Filipino Christians after totally razing their villages. towns.

American Economy The greatest single factor that caused the phenomenal development of Philippine economy was free trade relations with the United States. when the present Constitution removed its official status. the Military rule was started. the culture of the archipelago experienced a major transformation from a variety of native Asian and Islamic cultures and traditions. including the Spanish language and the Catholic faith. legislative as well as judicial powers. Religion was not part of the curriculum of the schools. Gen. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. The students were given free school materials. and the third was the "college" or tertiary level. Economic laws were passed by the Congress. By the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power. There were three levels of education during the American period. it was removed in 1973 by a constitutional change. This government had executive. Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia Communication Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century. It remained. Government The Military Government is the first government that was established by the Americans. including animist religious practices. Interestingly. such as the Payne – Aldrich Tariff Act in 1909 that the partial free trade relations between the Philippines and US were established until the Simmons – Underwood Tariff Act in 1913 abolished the quota limitations of Philippine export products. The highest authority in the land is the Military Governor. colleges. Education Every child from age 7 was required to register in schools located in their own town or province. . along with English. to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culture. Elwell Otis and Gen. vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. Arthur McArthur. particularly Spanish. as co-official language until 1987. As early as 1902. the American Congress consistently refused to admit Philippine products into US free of duty. designating it instead as an optional language. The "elementary" level consisted of four primary years and 3 intermediate years. a reduction of 25% was allowed on goods coming from the Philippines. The oldest universities. When they captured the city of Manila in the month of April year 1898. After a few months it was re-designated an official language by presidential decree and remained official until 1987. The "secondary" or high school level consisted of four years.During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines (1521–1898). Wesley Meritt. the Military Governors who serve in this government are Gen. as it had been during the Spanish period. The Military government was established because of the existence of war. Nevertheless. through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898.

and eventually the Japanese established a strong military presence in the Philippines. Vargas was appointed by Homma as the Chairperson of the said Commission. Government On January 23." Education Japanese educational policies were embodied in the Military Order No. Philippine-Japanese relations have grown stronger. most Filipino nationals resented the occupation and many actively fought against the Japanese.000. Schools were REOPENED in June 1942 with 300. Since the end of the war and Japanese occupation. Cameron Forbes came to known as “the American Road-Building Governor-General” because of the many fine roads constructed during his administration Japan Economy The Japanese invaded the Philippines on December 8. 1942. The Japanese have served as an essential trade partner to help rebuild and stimulate the Philippine economy. While the Japanese promised independence to the islands after the war. Finance. Governor W. The first act of the Philippine Commission was the appropriation of Php 2. Japan continues to provide humanitarian and economic aid to the Philippines. 2. 1941 as a strategic move against the United States. for the commercial and industrial products need to be transported efficiently to various places for marketing purposes. Justice. Eventually. Agriculture and Commerce. Communications.Communication Economic development would be meaningless if the means of transportation and communication were primitive. The Central Administrative Organization was composed of six executive departments: Interior. Health and Public Welfare. . headed by a Chairperson. Health and Public Welfare. most notably during the restoration period after Typhoon Haiyan. Education. This invasion started less than a day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.000 students. General Homma issued an order re-naming the national government as Central Administrative Organization. the Japanese surrendered and lost control of the Philippines in 1945. and Public Works and Communications. Communication Filipinos has not much enthusiasm in the returning to school first because the Filipinos as a whole were suspicious of the Japanese intention even though the Japanese allowed continuing using English as the medium of instruction in teaching. Jorge B. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education.000 for the construction of roads and bridges. and the Japanese aided in rebuilding the Philippine government in the 1980s. Each of these departments was under a Commissioner whose task was to "execute an administration within his jurisdiction under the control of the Chairman of the Executive Commission.