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PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70, 031901共R兲 共2004兲

**A 4 symmetry and neutrinos with very different masses
**

Ernest Ma

Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA

and Phenomenology Institute, Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

共Received 30 April 2004; published 18 August 2004兲

The A 4 model of leptons was proposed originally for nearly degenerate neutrino masses. With minimal

modification, it is shown to accommodate as well the cases of normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy. In all

cases, this new model predicts sin22atm⫽1 and tan2 sol ⫽0.5 for U e3 ⫽0. It also predicts their deviations from

1 and 0.5 respectively for U e3 ⫽0.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.70.031901 PACS number共s兲: 11.30.Hv, 14.60.Pq

**Neutrino oscillations are now firmly established 关1兴. The 23⫽ /4, 12⫽ , 13⫽0, 共6兲
**

mixing matrix U ␣ i linking (e, , ) to the neutrino mass

eigenstates ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) is also determined to a large extent.

This information is, however, not sufficient to fix all the which is of course consistent with present experimental data,

elements of the neutrino mass matrix M 共assumed here to i.e.,

be Majorana at the outset兲, but is indicative of its possible

approximate form in terms of a small number of parameters.

For example, if the Z 2 symmetry ↔ is imposed on sin2 2 23⯝1.0, tan2 12⯝0.4, sin2 13⬍0.067 共 3 兲 .

M , then 关2兴 共7兲

M ⫽ d

d

冉 冊 e d

a

b

d

b ,

a

共1兲 Furthermore, it has been shown 关2兴 that M of Eq. 共1兲 is

flexible enough to allow for all possible hierarchies of the

neutrino mass eigenvalues. However, since 13 is required to

which is diagonalized by be zero, there can be no CP violation in U.

冉 冊

Versatile as it is, the proposed M has a very serious flaw.

m1 0 0 Since each neutrino has its corresponding charged lepton to-

gether in a weak SU(2) L doublet, any symmetry imposed on

U T M U⫽ 0 m2 0 , 共2兲 M must affect the charged-lepton Dirac mass matrix Ml

0 0 m3 linking (e, , ) to (e c , c , c ). In particular, the Z 2 symme-

try ↔ implies that there is also a Z 2 symmetry ↔ in

where Ml . This requirement is not consistent with the implicit as-

冉 冊

cos ⫺sin 0 sumption of Eq. 共1兲 that Ml is diagonal with different values

for m and m . Attempts to fix this problem by choosing

U⫽ sin / 冑2 cos / 冑2 ⫺1/冑2 , 共3兲 other simple symmetries such Z 3 关3兴 and Z 4 关4兴 necessarily

sin / 冑2 cos / 冑2 1/冑2 entail additional arbitrary assumptions regarding Ml . One

exception is the recent application 关5兴 of the non-Abelian

with discrete symmetry S 3 . Another is the A 4 model 关6 –9兴, based

on the symmetry of the tetrahedron 共Plato’s fire兲. This group

tan 2 ⫽2 冑 2d

e⫺a⫺b

. 共4兲

has three inequivalent one-dimensional representations and

one three-dimensional representation, allowing Ml to have

three independent eigenvalues and in the basis where it is

In the convention diagonal, M has the form

U⫽ 0

0

冉 1 0

c 23

s 23

0

⫺s 23

c 23

冊冉 c 13

⫺s 13e

0

i␦

0

1

0

s 13e ⫺i ␦

0

c 13

冊 M ⫽m 0 0 冉 冊

1 0

0

0

1 . 共8兲

冉 冊

0 1 0

c 12 ⫺s 12 0

⫻ s 12 c 12 0 , 共5兲

0 0 1 This results in three degenerate neutrino masses, but the ad-

dition of the most general flavor-changing one-loop radiative

this means that corrections 关8,9兴 automatically changes it to

1550-7998/2004/70共3兲/031901共5兲/$22.50 70 031901-1 ©2004 The American Physical Society

with the multiplication rule 共17兲 3⫻3⫽1⫹1 ⬘ ⫹1 ⬙ ⫹3⫹3. M ⫽ 0 a⫹ b⫹ c 2 d . U e3 becomes 冑3 1 2 nonzero. Both Using the Higgs doublets results are very interesting and sure to be tested in future neutrino experiments. tions: 1. 共3兲 in a certain 共15兲 symmetry limit.l i 兲 ⬃3 共 i⫽1. continuous range of parameter values.2 . i ⬃3 共 i⫽4.e. It is also shown that the resulting neu. ⌽ i ⫽ 共 0i . 3 ⬃1 ⬙ . As shown in Ref. 兩 m 3 兩 ⬍ 兩 m 1 兩 ⬍ 兩 m 2 兩 .5. 共9兲 predicts three nearly degenerate neutrino masses. The present experimental bound on and U R is the unit matrix. This is naturally expected from the 3⫻3 mass matrix linking l i to l cj is given by 冉 冊 the assumed A 4 symmetry. In fact. ␦ may be chosen real by absorb. but with tan2 also fixed at 1/2. 关6兴. ⫺ i 兲 ⬃3 共 i⫽1. 共10兲 where i ⫽( ⫹⫹ i .10兴. the leptons are assumed to transform under A 4 as 0 d a⫹ b⫹ c 2 follows: 共18兲 031901-2 .… In the convention that all fermions are left. in which case 13 becomes nonzero. In that case. 共11兲 ing its phase into and and ␦ 0 set equal to zero by redefining m 0 and the other ␦ ’s. i. and atmospheric neutrino oscillations from the larger split- ting of 3 with 1. 2 ⬃1 ⬘ . 23 becomes greater or less than /4. Briefly. Remarkably. for a per bound on m 0 in either case is also about 0.3 eV on m 0 . Ml ⫽ h 1 v 2 共14兲 oscillations by at least an order of magnitude. 兩 m 1 兩 ⬍ 兩 m 2 兩 ⬍ 兩 m 3 兩 . without arbitrary assumptions regarding its 1 1 1 1 charged-lepton sector.e.⫹ i . handed. the experimental up. it is the group of even permu- come from the naturally small vacuum expectation values of tations of four objects.’’ It has 12 elements and 4 irreducible representa. jorana neutrino masses as in previous versions of the A 4 The group theory and representations of A 4 are already model. m 0 should be greater than the h 1v 1 h 2v 1 h 3v 1 square root of the observed ⌬m 2 for atmospheric neutrino h 2 v 2 h 3 2v 2 . i.2. ␦* 冊 共9兲 Without loss of generality. which can be tested in future neutrino experiments.5.3 兲 . 1 ⬃1.. Then M in the original basis is 0 given by 冉 冊 As such. l c2 ⬃1 ⬘ .1 ⬘ . Since all the mass splitting comes from radiative corrections. the A 4 model is modified to show that it Higgs potential is given by v 1 ⫽ v 2 ⫽ v 3 ⫽ v . and the CP violation in U is predicted to be maximal 关2. Away from this symmetry limit as pa. Let the tetrahedron.6 兲 . or the inverted hierarchy. 共1兲. i ).2. the neutrino mass matrix M is assumed here to discussed in Ref. where ⫽e 2 i/3 and v i ⫽ 具 0i 典 . RAPID COMMUNICATIONS ERNEST MA PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70. „Note that A 4 is isomorphic to the dihedral a⫹b⫹c 0 0 group ⌬(12).1 ⬙ . However ␦ ⬙ is in general complex. 共13兲 The neutrino mass matrix of Eq. 共16兲 rametrized by a single 共complex兲 parameter. l c3 ⬃1 ⬙ . and tan2 12 moves away from 0. if ␦ ⬙ is real. which is also the symmetry group of heavy Higgs triplets 关15兴. h1 0 0 me 0 0 with solar neutrino oscillations coming from 1 - 2 splitting 冑3 v ⫽ U L† Ml U R ⫽ 0 h2 0 0 m 0 . one of five perfect geometric solids known to the ancient Greeks. U e3 means that this model has specific predictions for 12 Instead of using the canonical seesaw mechanism for Ma- and 23 . and is a discrete subgroup 关14兴 of SO(3) as well as SU(3). either in the normal hierarchy.3 eV. and 3. 关6兴. and associated by Plato with the ele- ment ‘‘fire.. This specific form of U has long been advocated as a desirable ansatz 关13兴 where 冉 冊 and here is the first example of how it can be derived from a complete theory. the minimum of the In the following. which is very relevant h 1v 3 h 2 v 32 h 3 v 3 for neutrinoless double beta decay 关11兴 and the large-scale structure of the Universe 关12兴. 0 0 h3 0 0 m trino mixing matrix reduces to that of Eq. this M has l c1 ⬃1. L i ⫽ 共 i . 共12兲 the same form as Eq. This puts a lower bound of about 0.3 兲 . Ml can also accommodate three neutrinos of very different is diagonalized by 冉 冊 冉 冊 masses. it is ideal for describing three families of leptons 共and quarks兲. U L⫽ 1 2 . 031901共R兲 共2004兲 M ⫽m 0 冉 1⫹ ␦ 0 ⫹ ␦ ⫹ ␦ * ⫹2 ␦ ⬘ ␦⬙ ␦ ⬙* ␦⬙ ␦ 1⫹ ␦ 0 ⫹ 共 ␦ ⫹ ␦ * 兲 /2 ␦ ⬙* 1⫹ ␦ 0 ⫹ 共 ␦ ⫹ ␦ * 兲 /2 .

For b⫽c⫽d⫽0. 共33兲 . 共1兲 with the concomi- ⫽⫺ 冑 冑 1 2 3 1 1⫺ 兩 U e3 兩 2 ⫺ U e3 . until now. of a complete theory. but has never been derived from the symmetry Similarly.. In the basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix is di.3) ⫽U † 共 U L† M U L* 兲 U * ⫽ 0 0 m5 . assuming that 具 05 典 ⫽ 具 06 典 ⫽0. U e2 ⫽ . m2 1 1 1 0 b 0 m5 0 ⫽ . 共18兲 has the additional piece 冉 冊 the neutrino mass matrix of Eq. but 2 remains the same.) 冑 冑 M (e. 共25兲 共34兲 m3 ⫺1 1/2 1/2 1 c m4 0 ⫺ 冑3/2 冑3/2 0 d where m 5 ⫽i 冑2e. the experimental constraint 关16兴 ⫺2 冑2 in Eq. 共6兲. 0. a⫹ 共 2d/3兲 b⫺ 共 d/3兲 c⫺ 共 d/3兲 3 冑3 3 ⫽ b⫺ 共 d/3兲 c⫹ 共 2d/3兲 a⫺ 共 d/3兲 . Eq. c from 具 03 典 . 共20兲 ⫺1/冑6 1/冑3 1/冑2 or.16 共29兲 comes 冉 冊 implies 冑2/3 1/冑3 0 0. 1 mixes with 3 .e. 关8兴 before radiative corrections. If future experimental measurements persist in getting a value of tan2 sol outside the range predicted by Eq. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70. the neutrino mass matrix of Eq. 共22兲 冑3 具 5. 共27兲 c⫺ 共 d/3兲 a⫺ 共 d/3兲 b⫹ 共 2d/3兲 1 1 共19兲 U 3 ⫽⫺ cos ⫹ e i ␦ sin 冑2 冑6 which is the main result of this paper. 共24兲 ⫺e 0 0 m4 0 m3 resulting in 冉 冊 where 冉 冊冉 冊冉 冊 0 0 0 m1 1 ⫺1/2 ⫺1/2 1 a ⌬M (1. 共3兲 then be. 兩 U e3 兩 ⬍0.94⬍sin2 2 atm ⬍1. Let from 具 04 典 .61⬍ 兩 U 3 兩 ⬍0. ⫽U L† M U L* 冉 冊 2 1 2 i␦ U e1 ⫽ cos . and d If m 4 ⫽0.e.3) ⫽U † M (e. one 1 possible explanation within the context of this model is that 2⫽ 共 e⫹ ⫹ 兲.. the neutrino mass matrix becomes then the new mixing matrix U has elements . 共4兲.77. or tan 2 ⫽ Therefore. which is also a the new mass eigenstates be natural minimum of the Higgs potential for a continuous range of parameter values. U *⫽ 0 m2 0 . i.52 共32兲 In the basis defined by U of Eq. i. The mixing matrix U of Eq. using sin22atm⫽4兩U3兩2(1⫺兩U3兩2). it reduces to the model of Ref. In that case.2. without arbitrary assumptions regard- ing its charged-lepton sector. 共31兲 is well satisfied by the current 1⫽ 冑 2 3 e⫺ 1 共 ⫹ 兲. 2 2 共28兲 tant ↔ symmetry and thus the results of Eq. Thus Eq. but with an additional constraint. is obtained. 共32兲. 共24兲 becomes 031901-3 .) M (1. . 3⬘ ⫽⫺ 1 e ⫺i ␦ sin ⫹ 3 cos .2. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS A 4 SYMMETRY AND NEUTRINOS WITH VERY . U e3 ⫽⫺ e sin . Whereas Eq. 共20兲. which can be maintained in the Higgs potential by postulat- ing the interchange symmetry 5 ↔⫺ 6 in addition to 1 3⫽ 共 ⫺ ⫹ 兲. 1⬘ ⫽ 1 cos ⫹ 3 e i ␦ sin . 冑6 共21兲 data. e⫽a⫹b⫺d. 共19兲 rotates to 冉 冊 0 e ⫺e m1 0 m4 ⌬M ⫽ e 0 0 . which is a well-known ansatz 关13兴 with the prediction 0. 共30兲 U⫽ ⫺1/冑6 1/冑3 ⫺1/冑2 . using tan2 sol ⫽ 兩 U e2 兩 2 / 兩 U e1 兩 2 . 共31兲 tan2 12⫽1/2. 共26兲 agonal. For b⫽c. 031901共R兲 共2004兲 where a comes from 具 01 典 .5⬍tan2 sol ⬍0. .4 关17兴. 共23兲 2 ↔ 3 for the soft trilinear terms which break the A 4 冑2 symmetry. 共32兲 is at the high end of the 90% confidence limit– allowed range centered at tan2 sol ⯝0.6 0 典 are not zero as assumed. but rather 具 06 典 ⫽⫺ 具 05 典 . b from 具 02 典 . it reduces to the form of Eq.

共37兲 冑3⫹ ⑀ 31⫺ 冑2 ⑀ 32 冑2 U 3 ⫽ 具 兩 3 典 ⯝⫺ .009 eV. ⑀ 13⫽⫺0.5.5 U e3 ⫽0.3) ⫽ 冉 m1 0 m4 0 m2 m5 m4 m5 . ⌬m sol 2 ⫽6. 共24兲 and Eq.11. 共51兲 As for CP violation. ⑀ 32⯝ . m3 冊 共35兲 共 m 1 ⫺ 兲共 m 2 ⫺ 兲共 m 3 ⫺ 兲 ⫺m 24 共 m 2 ⫺ 兲 ⫺m 25 共 m 1 ⫺ 兲 ⫽0. U e1 ⫽0. The analogs of Eqs. U 3 ⫽⫺0.2⫻10⫺3 eV2 . tan2 sol ⫽0. U e3 ⫽⫺ 冑3 1 e i ␦ sin .c. then 共54兲 ⑀ 31⫽0. resulting in Another possibility of obtaining a value of tan2 sol ⬍0. the eigenstates are approximately given by 共41兲 If m 4 ⫽0 but m 5 ⫽0. ⑀ 12⫽0. 共43兲 冑3 1 ⫽⫺ 冑1⫺3 兩 U e3 兩 2 ⫹U e3 . U e1 ⫽ 冑 2 3 . m 3 ⫽0.068. m 2 ⫽0. 共9兲. Thus U 3 ⫽⫺ 1 cos ⫺ 1 e i ␦ sin 冑2 ⑀ 31⫹ ⑀ 32 冑2 冑3 U e3 ⫽ 具 e 兩 3 典 ⯝ . 共40兲 m4 m5 ⑀ 31⯝ . The solutions of Eq. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS ERNEST MA PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70. ⑀ 13⫽ . For ex- ample.48⬍tan2 sol ⬍0. Eq.071.834. then 2 mixes with 3 while 1 re- mains the same. 1⫹ 兺 j⫽i ⑀ 2i j 共36兲 where each ⑀ i j is much smaller than 1. 共4兲 is given by 031901-4 . 共49兲 m 4 共 m 1 ⫺m 2 ⫹ ␦ 1 兲 m4 As a numerical example. 共46兲 and thus m 3 ⫺m 1 m 3 ⫺m 2 0.9⫻10⫺5 eV2 . 共35兲 obey the cubic equation Consider next 1 . 共24兲 is through radiative corrections. 共19兲 sin2 2 atm ⫽0. it is allowed in both Eq. Accounting also for the mass shifts ␦ i . U e2 ⫽ 1 冑3 cos . 031901共R兲 共2004兲 M (1. 共9兲 and Eq. 共48兲 2 2 m 5␦ 1 ␦1 ⑀ 12⫽ . 共45兲 冑3 implies Consider first 3 . 共47兲 m 3 ⫺m 1 m 3 ⫺m 2 If both m 4 and m 5 are nonzero and all m i ’s are real. 共44兲 冑6 Therefore. The solutions of Eq.003 eV. consider are obtained.42 共53兲 with b⫽c. if b.686. For i ⫽m i ⫹ ␦ i . 共8兲 is radiatively corrected to become Eq.91⬍sin2 2 atm ⬍1 共38兲 U e1 ⫽ 具 e 兩 1 典 ⯝ . 共52兲 in Eq. 共39兲 m 24 m 25 ␦ 3⯝ ⫹ . the eigenvalues of Eq. Just as Eq. but is not otherwise constrained in this model.d⬍a.10.047 eV. 共35兲. 共41兲 are 1 1 ␦ 1 ⫽ 关 m 2 ⫺m 1 ⫺ 共 m 24 ⫹m 25 兲 / 共 m 3 ⫺m 1 兲兴 ⫺ 冑关 m 2 ⫺m 1 ⫺ 共 m 24 ⫹m 25 兲 / 共 m 3 ⫺m 1 兲兴 2 ⫹4m 24 共 m 2 ⫺m 1 兲 / 共 m 3 ⫺m 1 兲 . m 4 ⫽0. m 5 ⫽0.996. 共50兲 ⌬m atm 2 ⫽2.079. ⑀ 32⫽0. this example has m 1 ⫽0.2.003 eV.034. then combining Eq. 共27兲 and 共28兲 are then i⫹ 兺 j⫽i ⑀i j j 共42兲 冑 . 共41兲 are 兩 U e3 兩 ⬍0. 共19兲 may also from which get corrected so that 1 mixes with 2 in Eq. the analog of Eq. 共24兲. the experimental constraint 关18兴 冑2⫹ ⑀ 12 0.003 eV.

Q. Ma. D 64. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 70. Phys. 共55兲 completely determined by the charged-lepton masses as shown in Ref. Valle. B 552. D 64. 071302共R兲 167 共2002兲. and E. Rev. Vogel. Using the mixing and tan2 sol ⯝0. another is to include radiative corrections as in Ref.75. 17. Mod. Elliott and P. M. 013 共1999兲. 共2003兲. . Ahmad et al.e. Sarkar. 关8兴 K. with 4 parameters ⫺(d/3)⫺2 ␦ ⬘ a 兴 ⯝0. Lett.4 . 031901共R兲 共2004兲 tan 2 sol ⯝⫺2 冑2 冋 b⫺ 共 d/3兲 ⫹ ␦ ⬙ a b⫺ 共 d/3兲 ⫺2 ␦ ⬘ a 册 . If m 4 ⫽0. Rev. et al. Phys. Note that this may occur even if m 1. 关6兴 E. Smirnov.F.W.e. A 17. where In conclusion. In the basis where the 1 charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal with three indepen- ␦ ⬙⫽ ␦ e⫹ ␦ e . Phys. McGrew.V.5. Rev. 415 共1999兲.C. 221802 共2003兲. Apollonio et al. Phys. Phys. 113 共2004兲. 关5兴 S. 共19兲.H. Phys. Perkins. 共56兲 dent eigenvalues 共i. 52. a much more predictive version of the A 4 model of leptons has been proposed. Annu. Rev. Lavoura. There is also a reported Nucl. 关16兴 M. 112001 共2001兲. 关4兴 See. Ma and U. Ma. 共19兲. S. 289 共2002兲. D 68. and A.. first evidence of its observation: H. and tan2 sol ␦ ␣ ⫽0 for ␣ ⫽  . A 17. Phys. Astrophys. Sci. ibid. hep-ph/0404084.Yu. Rajasekaran. the neutrino mass ma- 2 trix is fixed to have the form of Eq.N. it becomes Eq. Rev. J. in the absence of flavor changing ⫽0. Skadhauge. 共2003兲.-H. 关15兴 E.-L. Mamm. for example. Romao. This work was other hand. Ma. On the I thank Vernon Barger for discussions. and W. Part. Phys. 207 关17兴 SNO Collaboration. Phys. Lett. D 66.3. F. Lett. and T. Lett. B 466. 115 共2002兲. 011301 共2002兲. 113012 共2001兲. E. Harrison and W. 关11兴 For a review.F. for example. Babu. B 586. Ma. Ma and G.S.. He. 关1兴 For a brief review.F. S. Phys. 89. For an updated review. Rev. A 17. 共24兲. Astropart. 92.4.G. Lett. see also E. Nucl. 451 共2001兲. 021802 Villanova del Moral. m ). J.R. J. 90. see for example A. 90. Rev.F. . Rajasekaran. Part. D 69. Lett. see P. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus hep-ph/0402264. 577 共2004兲. Mod. 5716 共1998兲. 1475 共2002兲. see. E. 关13兴 P. 148. Department of Energy under mass scale and their Yukawa couplings to the leptons are Grant No.4 is obtained if 关 b⫺(d/3)⫹ ␦ ⬙ a 兴 / 关 b matrix of Eq. be integrated away 关15兴. Hannestad. i. 关10兴 W.3 . T. Ma and G. LAND Collaboration. 关8兴. J. Sci. 004 共2003兲. Chen. To obtain the experimentally more favorable result of 关8兴 and 关9兴. Hirsch. Lett. Jung.. DE-FG03-94ER40837. 011302 共2002兲. and J. Frigerio. 02. Their only imprint on the low- energy theory is the neutrino mass matrix of Eq. 175 共2003兲.K. D. 05. Scott. 51. m e .. Scott. Phys. Phys. Suppl. Rev. Phys. tan2 sol ⯝0. B 579. 关6兴. Phys. Cosmol. Lett. Spergel et al.2. 181302 共2004兲. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS A 4 SYMMETRY AND NEUTRINOS WITH VERY . Rev. Eguchi et al. 关14兴 A.. in contrast to the requirement of Refs. 89. Valle. Phenomenological consequences are dis- cussed in detail there. 关2兴 E. Kam- 关9兴 M. Lett. 关12兴 D.W. sin22atm⫽1. Phys. erences therein. 093006 共2004兲. radiative corrections. Rev.2.S. the triplets are very heavy and may all 共35兲. then U e3 ⫽0. Boehm 关7兴 E. Lett. 198 共2004兲. ␦ ⬘ ⫽ ␦ ee ⫺ 共 ␦ ⫹ ␦ 兲 ⫺ ␦ . B 530. Grimus and L. 关18兴 C. C. 117301 共2002兲.R. B 583. Lett. 80. E. 关3兴 See. the three Higgs doublets are at the electroweak supported in part by the U. and ref. 共20兲. J. 157 共2004兲. E. Ma. Annu. Phys. independent of the neutrino mass eigenvalues m 1. Mod. Ma. Phys.. S. 031901-5 . Phys. m . Lett. hep-ph/0402006.. 627 共2002兲. Harrison. Lett. Hanany and Y. K. Mod. for example. et al. A 19. Ma. Kajita. In the Higgs sector. Phys. High Energy Phys.. 2361 共2002兲. one possibility is to add m 5 according to Eq.G. 共2003兲.

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