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Beam Coring Slab Coring

Beam coring locations shall be typically in the middle of the beam span, and in the middle of the beam height to avoid Drill slab core within the 1.3 of the slab span in each direction. See Figure 2-8.
the main tension reinforcement at the bottom of the beam. With zero or low shear demands on the beam in the mid span
it will not affect the beam capacity, either. See Figure 2-7. Figure 2-8 Typical location of core sample taken from a slab

Figure 2-7 Typical location of core sample taken from a beam

2.3.2 Concrete Core Petrography Testing

A petrographic examination is a test which can determine numerous characteristics of hardened concrete. Petrographic
samples are typically prepared from core samples or test cylinders. The hardened sample of concrete is cut, ground and
polished until the concrete aggregates resemble a granite countertop. The polished surface is then examined with a
microscope at magnifications that range from 10x to 60x on lapped sections and up to 400x on thin sections.
Petrographic examination compares the discoloration of the cooled concrete, and should establish whether the aggregate
contains chemically unstable minerals such as soluble sulphates, unstable sulphides that may form sulphuric acid or create
distress in concrete exposed to high temperatures during service, or volumetrically unstable materials. Specifications may
limit the quartz content of aggregates for use in concrete that may be subject to high temperature (purposefully or
accidentally) because of the conversion to beta-quartz at 573 °C [1063 °F], with accompanying volume increase.
Furthermore, data from Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will help to
estimate the temperature history of concrete following the fire event. The microscopic examinations are performed in
accordance with the applicable sections of ASTM C856 Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened
Concrete and ASTM C1723 Standard Guide for Examination of Hardened Concrete Using Scanning Electron Microscopy to
determine some of the following properties:

1. Heating history through the concrete depth. Plot of thermal isotherms through the concrete depths at 100°C
2. Depth of damage to concrete caused by elevated temperatures,
3. Alkali Silica Reaction, Carbonation,
4. Chloride Ion content,
5. Chemical Attack (Hydrochlorid acid)
6. Aggregate type & composition, (Aggregate Mineralogy),
7. Aggregate Segregation,

Assima Complex - Kuwait Revision 00
Material Testing and Survey Specification 24 August 2017
Copyright © 1976 - 2017 BuroHappold Engineering. All Rights Reserved Page 15

ASTM C1723 Standard Guide for Examination of Hardened Concrete Using Scanning Electron Microscopy APG SR2 A code of practice for the petrographic examination of concrete. Water Content/ Moisture Content.Kuwait Revision 00 Material Testing and Survey Specification 24 August 2017 Copyright © 1976 . Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel 3. which has a tip diameter of ASTM Standard Guide for Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete 6mm. Delamination 4. See Figure 2-10. Permeability.000-3. It cannot measure the concrete strength but has greater potential for comparing known/good concrete with the affected concrete. Detection of cracks 3. homogeneity etc. Particularly suitable for slabs and walls. Type of Hydraulic Binder (cement and/or cement replacements. 2. The quality of affected concrete due to fire and unaffected concrete when compared to good concrete. Longitudinal Pulse Velocity m /s Concrete Quality 11.500 doubtful 15. 9.The method consists of measuring the time of travel of an ultrasonic pulse passing through the concrete being tested. Consolidation. 2. For most practical concretes made with natural aggregates the estimate of modulus of elasticity should be accurate within 10%. Presence of honeycombing 5. Presence of voids 6.000 poor <2. 3. is the most useful making only point contact and normally requiring no surface treatment.500 good 13. Ultrasonic measurement on concrete cores along its length using point exponential probe transducers UPV is one of the most responsive indicators of the thermal damage. All Rights Reserved Page 16 . given the fundamental relationship between pulse velocity and dynamic elastic modulus and the pronounced temperature sensitivity of this latter parameter. due to pronounce temperature sensitivity of the Young's modulus. 14. ASTM C856 Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete  Cores extracted from undamaged concrete do not require UPV test. Comparatively higher velocity is obtained when concrete quality is good in terms of density. This test requires a flat surface and is therefore appropriate only for unspalled surfaces. The signal C39C39C39C295 power available from a transmitting transducer of this type is so low that its use is not normally practicable ASTMC42 Standard Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores of Concrete for site testing and more suitable for laboratory testing.000 very poor Cores samples are taken from affected and unaffected materials in order to establish the benchmark to compare the results of the affected materials to the values of good/original materials. The results are typically interpreted as: Assima Complex .3. Water to Cement Ratio.2017 BuroHappold Engineering.500 excellent 12.3 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) The use of the pulse velocity technique for the assessment of thermally damaged concrete is well established.000-3. uniformity. >4. Tests are done to obtain the following information: 1. 8. on two Figure 2-9 Concrete Petrography Analysis Related Standards orthogonal axes of the core For this type of tests the exponential probe receiver. Cause of Cracking. 10. pfa). measured along the concrete cores. Applied Petrography Group concrete Figure 2-10 UPV Scanning along the length of Concrete Cores 2.500-4. The UPV is proposed for: Petrographic examination of samples shall be performed as per the latest revisions of the following codes and standards:  All Concrete cores taken from the fire damage concrete. ggbs. Density of Concrete.

Interpretation narratives providing analysis of results from all tests performed is required.Kuwait Revision 00 Material Testing and Survey Specification 24 August 2017 Copyright © 1976 . Additionally.2. All Rights Reserved Page 19 .3.The number of test specimens may increase when other levels of structure is inspected and/or become accessible Assima Complex . BHSK-02.8 Keeping Records and Reporting Testing Agency shall have a photographic record for each extracted core.3. BHSK-03 the following is the proposed number of test specimens: Figure 2-19 Proposed number of Test Specimens (1) Σ Compression Core – Walls Compression Core – Columns Compression Core – Slab Compression Core – Beams Petrography Core – Walls Petrography Core – Columns Petrography Core – Slab Petrography Core – Beams Reinforcement – Walls Reinforcement – Columns Reinforcement – Slabs Reinforcement – Beams (1) . Photographic records of reinforcement specimens are also required. A report is to be provided by the testing agency which contains detailed data as well as a summary of each of the testing methods undertaken complete with photographs.2017 BuroHappold Engineering.9 Proposed Number of Test Specimens Based on the Appendix B: BHSK-01. The report will also clearly identify all standards used in testing and provide information such as calibration of testing apparatus and laboratory qualifications as appropriate. all raw data tables shall be provided in soft copy Excel format. including the photograph of the core hole in the structure element. 2.