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Er. A.S. Kandasamy (CE/Transmission)
The most widely used input quantity, in the application of protective relays is current.
The source of this quantity is from current Transformer (CTs) which are located on or near the
protected equipment. CT’s are used to provide isolation from the power system and reduction
in magnitude to a level usable by relays and meters. Protective relays use this quantity in
numerous ways to determine if the protected system is abnormal and requires isolation. Failure
of CT’s to perform as designed, has resulted in failure to trip, failure to trip promptly and
tripping when not required.

Many of these failures can be traced to incomplete or improper testing of the CT’s and
the associated circuitry. (This manual for field testing of relaying CTs is written to provide
testing personnel with the basis to properly test the CTs.)

Accuracy class:

Understanding of the accuracy class of a CT is necessary for proper testing and


CT ratio can be checked by two generally accepted methods. The voltage method of
testing measures ratio directly by impressing a voltage on the CT secondary with the primary
open circulated, while reading primary and secondary voltages directly with a high impedance
voltmeter. The current method of determining ratio circulates a known value of current through
the CT primary while measuring secondary current. Only the latter method is discussed in
detail as the same is adopted on T. N. E. B.

Polarity Tests:

CT polarity can be determined by three generally accepted methods.

(1) The DC voltage test momentarily imposes a small DC voltage on one side of a C.T and
the direction of the momentary deflection of a milliammeter on the opposite side of the
CT is noted and compared with polarity marks.