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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 16, NO.

5, SEPTEMBER 2001

581

A Systematic Approach to Developing Single-Stage Soft Switching PWM Converters
Tsai-Fu Wu, Senior Member, IEEE and Shih-An Liang, Student Member, IEEE
Abstract—A systematic approach to developing soft switching PWM converters based on the synchronous switch scheme is presented in this paper. With the approach, several families of passive and active soft switching PWM converters, such as buck–boost, ´ Zeta, Cuk, and Sepic, can be generated from the two basic converters, buck and boost. Also, the approach is used to integrate multiple converters to form a single-stage soft switching PWM converter. It has been shown that analysis of the converters can be conveniently performed from the derived general configurations, reducing the complexity significantly. Therefore, employing the technique can not only explore more physical insights into the converters in a family but reveal more relationships among the soft switching converters over conventional approaches. Measured results from a prototype have verified the feasibility of the derived single-stage converters. Index Terms—Single-stage converter, soft switching.

Fig. 1.

Conceptual block diagram of converters in cascade connection.

I. INTRODUCTION O ACHIEVE lighter weight, smaller size and higher power density, pulse-width-modulated power converters are operated at high switching frequency. However, as the switching frequency increases, they suffer from high switching losses, high EMI levels and, consequently, low efficiency in hard switching converters. Several kinds of soft switching converters, such as series and parallel resonant converters [1]–[3], quasiresonant converters (QRCs) [4]–[6], and multi-resonant converters (MRCs) [7]–[9], have been proposed to alleviate these problems. In the converters, the power switching devices are commutated with either zero-voltage switching (ZVS) or zero-current switching (ZCS); thus, switching losses and EMI are reduced significantly. Unfortunately, some of their characteristics such as high voltage and current stresses, large conduction losses, high load limitations and high costs restrict the practical use of these converters [10], [11]. Most recent development in high frequency converter configuration is a hybrid of resonant soft switching and PWM control. This group of converters are called soft switching PWM converters which can relieve the drawbacks described previously. In converter operation, the ZVS-PWM and/or ZCS-PWM techniques can be used to minimize switching stresses and switching losses, and are particularly attractive for high frequency applications. In the soft switching PWM converters, the switches operate in resonant mode only during switching transitions and
Manuscript received November 29, 1999; revised April 27, 2001. Recommended by Associate Editor J. Qian. The authors are with the Power Electronics Applied Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: tfwu@ee.ccu.edu.tw). Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8993(01)08046-2.

T

(a)

(b) Fig. 2. Schematic diagrams of the passive soft switching PWM buck and boost converters [19].

then, return to PWM operation for the rest of a switching period. These converters can be classified into two groups: passive soft switching converters and active soft switching converters. Passive methods use only passive components to achieve zero-current transition at turn on and zero-voltage transition at turn off [17]–[20]. Active methods incorporate passive components and auxiliary active switch to achieve soft switching resonant commutation [21]–[23]. In [12]–[23], the concepts of fundamental soft switching cells were employed to generate many families of soft switching PWM converters. A general rule for generating these soft switching PWM converters, however, has not been established. In this paper, a systematic approach to developing soft switching PWM converters is proposed, which is based on the synchronous switch scheme proposed in [24], [25]. The basic converter units (BCUs) of each passive or active soft switching family are first identified, and the converters in a family are

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Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. Downloaded on May 03,2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

When the power switches can be operated synchronously and they share a common node. each power switch Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. then synthesized systematically. 1. In the following. high reliability and low cost can be achieved. These can be conceptually illustrated by a two-converter system shown in Fig. 3. A. Illustration of the derivation of passive soft switching buck–boost converter. many passive soft switching configurations have been proposed in the literature with zero-current transition at turn on and zero-voltage transition at turn off. PROCEDURES FOR GENERATING SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS can be turned on or off independently. the switching losses and EMI can be effectively reduced. Each type of passive or active soft switching PWM converters is further divided into buck and boost families for the convenience of analysis and design. As shown in Fig. NO. the passive soft switching buck and boost converters are recognized as the two BCUs. 16. and the passive soft switching cells enclosed in the dashed line are formed with only Switching power converters are usually connected in cascade to achieve multiple functions.582 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 5. such as adding a power factor corrector (PFC) to prevent harmonic current pollution. . 2. namely converter unit 1 (CU1) and converter unit 2 (CU2). that is. In the figure. VOL. and reveal more relationships among converters over conventional approaches. the two-stage converter can be converted to a single-stage converter (SSC) through an integration of the switches. SEPTEMBER 2001 Fig. Generation of Passive Soft Switching PWM Converters To reduce switching losses in high frequency PWM converters. and high performance. II. Downloaded on May 03. Therefore. a family of soft switching PWM converters are derived by using the synchronous switch scheme. Each stage in the cascaded converter system can be controlled separately. Restrictions apply. the multistage converter consists of two power stages. The proposed approach can explore more physical insights into the converters in a family.

in Fig. . 3(e). For the rest of the switching period.. these converters are operating in the regular PWM converter mode. Illustration of the derivation of passive soft switching Cuk converter. . 3(b). grafting passive soft switching PWM boost converter on PWM buck converter yields a soft switching buck–boost SSC. and no differential current circulates through and . 3(a) shows the two converters in cascade connection. Cuk. 4–6. 3(d). corresponding to CU1 and CU2. 3(f). it is possible to derive the passive soft switching converters by cascading a CU1 passive soft switching PWM converter and a CU2 PWM converter. the passive soft switching PWM buck–boost converter is obtained and depicted in Fig. The derivations of these SSC’s are illustrated in Figs.e. the converter operation is not changed except at the switching transition during turn on and turn off. By following the same derivation procedure. and relocate switch operating principle. Cuk converter). the soft switching Sepic SSC can be developed by properly organizing the PWM boost–buck converter as well as soft switching PWM boost converter. diodes and are in series when conducting steady on-state current. thus. It can be further simplified by removing diodes and to become the one shown in Fig. The derived circuit is depicted in Fig. It is apparent that. and are replaced with switch and diodes and . Alternatively. It reveals that active and are in the – type configuration (with switches a – common node). Analogously. and CU2 are grafted through switch integration in which one is PWM converter and the other is passive soft switching PWM converter. Downloaded on May 03. For instance. 3(c). Fig. Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. as thus. we observe – – network is equivalent to that the function of an . 4. 7. Restrictions apply. First of all. ´ another possible passive soft switching buck–boost. 3(d). The soft switching Zeta SSC can be derived by properly cascoding PWM buck–boost converter and soft switching PWM buck converter. CU1. without changing its that of an .2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Zeta. they can be substituted with a single diode illustrated in Fig.WU AND LIANG: SINGLE-STAGE SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS 583 Fig. passive switches and reactive elements. which is illustrated in Fig. 3. From the two BCUs. an equivalent converter configuration is derived and drawn in Fig. thus. The derivation of this SSC is illustrated in Fig. and Sepic can be generated by using the synchronous switch scheme. To obtain the passive soft switching single-stage converters (SSCs). By properly relocating switch and rearranging the overall circuit configuration. with the synchronous switches scheme. With the passive soft switching Cell. grafting passive soft switching PWM buck converter on PWM boost converter ´ can yield a soft switching boost–buck SSC (i. because the and are the same during the steady currents through on-state.

the active soft switching ´ PWM Cuk converter can be derived when the active switches posses a common node and are operated in unison. However. which are buck–boost. 5. SEPTEMBER 2001 Fig. With this approach. increasing circuit cost and deteriorating in system reliability. For convenience of illustration. grafting a PWM buck converter on an active soft switching PWM boost converter which ´ yields a soft switching boost–buck (Cuk) one is conducted. Derivation of the converter is shown in Fig. Restrictions apply. 16.584 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. using the active method increases the design complexity of both power stage and control circuit. Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. Fig.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. VOL. by applying the synchronous switches technique. 6. the other converters with active soft switching can also be derived. passive switches and reactive elements to achieve ZVS or ZCS function. . the switching losses of the main and auxiliary switches can be reduced. 5. NO. Illustration of the derivation of passive soft switching Sepic converter. Illustration of the derivation of passive soft switching Zeta converter. Downloaded on May 03. 8. Similarly. Generation of Active Soft Switching PWM Converters In addition to a passive soft switching method. Zeta. while without increasing voltage and current stresses. and Sepic converters. By following the same philosophy described previously. an active method also has been proposed by using additional active. B.

the voltage across clamp capacitor is (1) Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. To comply with the regulation. 2) low conversion efficiency. These converters present soft commutation and low voltage stress imposed on switches. and 3) high voltage stress. In the steady state. a family of isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM converters are derived with an active-clamping method. while without circulating reactive energy that would cause extra conduction losses. a number of single-stage converter topologies have been proposed [26]–[31]. Although a two-stage PFC is relatively mature and viable in the applications with a wide power range. They can be divided into two categories: two-stage PFC’s and single-stage PFC’s. Generation of Isolated Single-Stage ZVS-PWM Active-Clamping Converters To protect line source from harmonic current pollution. In order to relieve these disadvantages. 7. In the literature.WU AND LIANG: SINGLE-STAGE SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS 585 Fig. . Generation of isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM active-clamping converters includes selection of PFC’s and regulator semi-stages. Restrictions apply. 9 is formed with capacitor . C. 9 illustrates the derivation of a boost-forward ZVS-PWM SSC with the clamping action achieved by a boost cell. Illustration of grafting a boost converter on a soft switching buck converter to yield a passive soft switching buck–boost converter. Downloaded on May 03. These converters. more stringent regulation from IEC1000-3-2 has been imposed on electronic equipment. it is customary to add a power factor corrector (PFC) in front of a dc regulator. it is not an optimal design and it may suffer from the drawbacks of low conversion efficiency. Fig. high cost and high design complexity for low power applications.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. however. and applies the synchronous switch technique to integrate the semi-stages. In an effort to improve the conversion efficiency and also to reduce the component count and cost. many active PFC’s with tight output regulation have been proposed. have at least one of the following drawbacks: 1) switches operating in hard switching. The active clamping and switch of the SSC in Fig.

VOL.0688 for a 48-to-3. 9(c). By using the synchronous switch scheme. Restrictions apply. PWM converters must operate with an extremely low or high duty ratio. 9(b).3 V conversion. Thus. and are shown in Figs. T-type synchronous switch . compact size. however. the active clamping cell is a buck type. D. possible high reliability. Cascade of two (or more) converters can significantly extend the conversion ratio and resolve the problems mentioned above. these converters are grafted to form an SSC. and they can be operated of synchronously. which severely limits the switching frequency and the dynamic range of the load.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. which results in a great amount of power losses. but they require more power switches. . as shown in Fig. 10(b). After removing blocking diode the resulting converter is shown in Fig. NO. the clamping action is named as a boost cell. and simple driver design. is used to replace them. Similarly. can be expressed as in which (3) The boost and forward-boost ZVS-PWM converters connected in cascade are shown in Fig. 9(a).586 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. the duty ratio would have to be about 0. 8. switching losses are still inevitable. 5. A Family of Quadratic Soft Switching PWM Converters In applications of converters that require a wide range of input to output conversion. by adopting the approach presented in [24]. 10(a). the cell is a buck–boost cell. the rest of the isolated ZVS-PWM SSC’s can be derived. By following the same procedure. An undesirable high peak current will be introduced. [25]. SEPTEMBER 2001 Fig. as depicted in Fig. 16. For example. which can obtain the merits of only one active switch. In the above mentioned converters. in which the voltage across clamp capacitor is (2) For the circuit shown in Fig. 10 and 11. Since the source leads and share the same node. It can be seen that (1) is a transfer function same as that of a boost converter. Illustration of the derivation of active soft switching ‘Cuk converter [20]. Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. Downloaded on May 03. In order to maintain high switching frequency operation while maximizing the converter efficiency.

12. Illustration of the derivation of isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM active-clamping converter [21]–[23]. 9. It is apparent that the quadratic soft switching Zeta SSC can be and of the Zeta derived by properly relocating switches converter shown in Fig. Isolated ZVS-PWM SSC’s derived from boost and forward converter [21]–[23]. soft switching cells are introduced to the converters.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Since switches Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering.WU AND LIANG: SINGLE-STAGE SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS 587 Fig. 12(b). Restrictions apply. thus. 10. Downloaded on May 03. the circuit configuration becomes the one shown in Fig. grafting passive soft switching PWM Zeta converter on PWM Zeta converter yields a quadratic soft switching PWM Zeta SSC. The derivation of this SSC is illustrated in Fig. 12(a). Fig. For instance. .

as shown in Fig. 12(d). 12(c). Fig. VOL. 5. 16. degenerating and rearranging the circuit.588 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. . SEPTEMBER 2001 Fig. the new quadratic soft switching converter is obtained and shown in Fig. III. with the analogous procedure. Isolated ZVS-PWM SSC’s derived from boost and flyback converter [21]–[23]. NO. Illustration of the derivation of passive soft switching quadratic Zeta converter. Moreover. 11. All of these quadratic converters can operate with soft switching. APPLICATION OF AN ISOLATED SINGLE-STAGE ZVS-PWM ACTIVE-CLAMPING CONVERTER This section presents an application of the isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM active-clamping converter which is the and are in – type. a wide load range and a wide conversion ratio. Downloaded on May 03. the other quadratic soft switching PWM converters can be obtained. By properly Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. Restrictions apply. they can be replaced with an – synchronous switch . 12. 13. which are illustrated in Fig.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore.

15(a). In Fig. Schematic diagrams of the passive soft switching quadratic PWM converters. Operating Principle The converter differs from conventional single-stage con. When the auxiliary power switch is turned off. ]: At the main power Stage 1 [Fig. is turned on. the auxiliary power switch is is forward biased. turned on. namely boost PFC semi-stage and isolated forward-boost ZVS-PWM active-clamping semi-stage. Under the assumption resulting in that that the resonant frequency of the circuit formed by transformer and clamping capacitance is much primary inductor lower than the switching frequency. 13. To improve the performance and effi- Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. transformer primary inductor it leads to an approximately linear discharging characteristic and the discharging time is very short. respectively. combination of two semi-stages. 14. the two power switches are switched in a complementary way. when switch will continue to flow through clamping capacitor and the body diode of . the magnetizing current will continue to flow of and the toward the source via the output capacitor of . while the body diode of turns on with ZVS. the output configuration is designed with a self driven synchronous rectifier. and a clamping to the converter. 14. The operation of the converter can be explained as follows: A. the current applications. The detailed and then a ZVS condition of circuit operation can be explained stage by stage. verters by adding an auxiliary power MOSFET switch . the ZVS feature switch associated with a constant switching frequency makes the converter suitable for high efficiency and high power density turns off. The voltage across will decrease in the resonant manner toward zero. 14. Switch is the main power capacitor MOSFET switch. and the slope is given by (4) Fig. The current doubler is adopted to reduce current stress and simplify transformer structure. 15(a). An isolated ZVS-PWM SSC with synchronous rectifiers and current doubler used as an illustration example. As can be seen from Fig. switch can be achieved. Restrictions apply.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. The inductor current is being and linearly increased. a resonant capacitor which is a resonant inductor the output capacitance of power switch . By employing these additional components. in which a synchronous rectifier and a current doubler are added to the isolated ZVS-PWM SSC. .WU AND LIANG: SINGLE-STAGE SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS 589 Fig. Figs. The schematic is depicted in Fig. Then. diode is reverse biased is forward biased. and the current flowing switch through the switch is given by the sum of boost inductor cur. primary winding current and magnetizing current rent . Because is so small. 15 and 16 show the topological stages of the ZVS-PWM SSC within a switching cycle and its key waveforms. the voltage across will not have a significant change. Downloaded on May 03. In the converter. zero voltage and auxiliary switching (ZVS) for both main switch can be accomplished. ciency of ZVS-PWM SSC. Therefore. To facilitate the analysis of the operating principle.

output load and synchronous rectifier output inductor . 15(e). the polarity of slope of current boost inductor voltage is reversed. Therefore. ]: When the output caStage 3 [Fig. reaches zero. The output capacitor of is charged by the magnetizing current. the operation of circuit enters a discurrent and continuous conduction mode (DCM) and both diodes are reverse biased. 15(f). the slope of current is If positive. as power switch indicated in Fig. . 15(d). and the secondary current flow is the same as that during – interval. current . In the secondary winding. the magnetizing curcreased to clamping capacitor voltage rent of the transformer will continue to flow into the clamping and the body diode of auxiliary switch . continue to flow via ]: When is inStage 5 [Fig. 15(c). the auxiliary switch the clamping circuit current is decreasing in a resonant manner. resulting in the being negative. Inductor is in free wheeling through and switch output load. is turned off at . the load. is diverted to dc-link capacitor . of is continuously charged. 15(b). due to the change of the voltage polarity. the dc-link capacitor discharges energy which will be transferred to the secondary through the transformer. 15(d). Boost inductor current still continuously flow and with a slope given as follows: (6) is smaller than .590 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Fig. As a recapacitor turns on at ZVS. The resonant frequency is determined by the clamping capaciand the sum of magnetizing inductance and leakage tance inductance of the transformer. the voltage across clamping capacitor will not have a significant change during operation. Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. The polarity in the secondary winding did not change. current can be expressed as in the secondary winding (5) At this operation. The current through output inductor will switch and the load. VOL. NO. and synchronous winding will flow through . 15. in which the charge time is very short. there will be a voltage across the secondary and the current in the secondary winding which will turn on .2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Therefore. Topological stages existing in the boost-forward-boost ZVS-PWM SSC over one switching cycle. the current will flow through . Restrictions apply. voltage pacitor will increase over the rectified input voltage . ]: The main power switch Stage 2 [Fig. Therefore. sult. 5. then is maintained reverse biased and is forward bidiode ased. is forward biased and diode is increased so as diode . 15(c). Downloaded on May 03. the current through and the transformer flows back to the clamping capacitor dc-link capacitor. At the same time. . ]: When the boost inductor Stage 6 [Fig. ]: When is Stage 4 [Fig. Within this stage. which was flowing through main reverse biased. as shown in Fig. SEPTEMBER 2001 During in the on state. 16. leading to the drain to source voltage rising steeply. It is assumed that the resonant frequency of the circuit is much lower than the switching frequency.

Figs. 16. 21 shows the plot of the input power factor as a function of output power under different line Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. Downloaded on May 03. the power switch circuit operation described above will start once again. 19. Measured waveforms of drain-source voltage current i through Q and C . 17 and 18. output voltage: 20 V. . ]: At time the is turned off. 20. V F H H F F H F IRFPE 50 EI-33 turns mm across Q and Stage 7 [Fig. v and current i at v = input voltage: 90 264 . Measured waveforms of drain-source voltage current i through Q . 14. 15(g). When the main creating a ZVS operating condition for is turned on again at the end of stage 7. 100 V Measured waveforms of input voltage and I = 3:5 A. The reverse current will auxiliary power switch continue to flow through the dc-link capacitor and the output of main power switch . 18. 17. It is designed with the following parameters: mH Fig. Experimental Results and Discussion To verify the theoretical discussion of the proposed isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM active-clamping converter. line frequency: 47 Hz 63 Hz. V across Q and Fig.5 A. These waveforms agree with those predicted theoretically. 230 V Measured waveforms of input voltage and I = 3:5 A. proving that a high power factor can be achieved by the proposed ZVS-PWM SSC.WU AND LIANG: SINGLE-STAGE SOFT SWITCHING PWM CONVERTERS 591 Fig. and present ZVS commutations. 19 and 20 show the experimental waveforms of the line current versus line voltage. a 70 W SSC with the following specifications is designed: FEP6DT turns air gap Measured current and voltage waveforms of switches and are shown in Figs. A circuit diagram of the SSC with the synchronous rectifiers and current doubler is shown Fig. It can be seen that the current follows the voltage closely and the waveforms are almost sinusoidal. Restrictions apply. Fig. v and current i at v = Fig. switching frequency: 100 kHz.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. output current: 3. 11. Fig. Key waveforms of the ZVS-PWM SSC shown in Fig. B. . Voltage capacitor across will decrease in the resonant manner toward zero.

” in Proc. A detailed description can be found from reference [32]. pp. SEPTEMBER 2001 TABLE III MEASURED PF. [3] B. 318–327. “Variations of quasiresonant DC–DC converter topologies. 1985. [5] T. Measured dc-link capacitor voltage V the input voltage of 264 V . pp. and F. In this paper. Fig. Spec. and F. These show that the designed system is with a power factor higher than 0. thus. 22 shows the dc-link voltage of storage capacitor versus output . pp. Power Electron. 9–17.” IEEE Trans. Conf. Oruganti and F. [4] K. THD.. [2] R. Lee. In the paper. H. Chen.. J. Table III shows the measurements of power factor (PF). Spec. bulk-capacitor (or dc-link capacitor) voltage ( Authorized licensed use limited to: Saranathan College of Engineering. C. TABLE I LIST OF THE POWER FACTOR AND CURRENT HARMONICS (% OF IEC 1000-3-2 CLASS D LIMITS MULTIPLIED BY 2. “State-plane analysis of parallel resonant converter. The maximum dc-link power with input voltage of 264 voltage is 408 V. 41–47. 21. R. Fig. Lee. 62–67. 1989. NO. 1988. At light load. and the degree of line current distor. 1985. the dc/dc regulator semi-stage is operated in the DCM. V . Spec. pp. C. Conf. “A hybrid series-parallel resonant converter topologies. Conf. 56–73. Conf. Conf. Plots of power factor versus output power under different line voltages. “Zero-voltage-switching multi-resonant technique—A novel approach to improve performance of high frequency quasiresonant converters. a high-voltage stress problem is solved by operating the PFC semi-stage in DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) and the dc/dc regulator semi-stage in a combined DCM/CCM (continuous conduction mode). Zheng. Power Electron. 381–392. Employing the synchronous switch technique can not only provide physical insights into the converters in a family. Conf. while at heavy load it is operated in the CCM. Carsten. CONCLUSIONS It has been shown in the paper that existing and novel soft switching PWM converters can be developed with a systematic approach based on the synchronous switch scheme. Oruganti. REFERENCES [1] R.” in Proc. The measurements of power factor. C. 1987. Downloaded on May 03. Maksimovic and S. VOL. Power Electron. Power Electron. Cuk. C. Experimental results measured from a laboratorious prototype have verified the feasibility of the derived single-stage converters. “A general approach to synthesis and analysis of quasiresonant converters.3) OF THE ZVS-PWM SSC UNDER THE OPERATING CONDITION OF v = 100 V AND I = 3:5 A TABLE II LIST OF THE POWER FACTOR AND CURRENT HARMONICS (% OF IEC 1000-3-2 CLASS D LIMITS) OF THE ZVS-PWM SSC UNDER THE OPERATING CONDITION OF v = 230 V AND I = 3:5 A voltages. 3. Lee. D.” in Proc.. and F.. Lee. A. Power Electron. Lee.. High Freq. O. [7] W. July 1988. versus output power under IV. pp. Spec. 16. 22. “Resonant switches-topologies and characteristics. 230 tion under the operating condition of and A are listed in Tables I and II. total harmonic distortion ) and (THD). ´ [6] D. “Implementation of optimal trajectory control of series resonant converter. vol. O. Power Electron. C. Also.” in Proc.. 1986. Y. efficiency ( ) versus the line voltage range at full load. the dc-link voltage can be properly controlled within a certain voltage range. O.” in Proc. Oruganti.592 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. J. Spec. 5.934 at heavy load and meets the requirement from IEC 1000-3-2 over universal input voltage range.2010 at 04:06:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. AND  AT FULL LOAD Fig. so a 450 V rated dc-link bulk capacitor can be used..” in Proc. Liu. generation of several families of basic passive and active soft switching PWM converters. 713–727. Restrictions apply. Power Conv. and isolated single-stage ZVS-PWM active-clamping converters with PFC function has been presented in detail. pp. . Tabisz and F. pp. the approach is used to integrate two converters to form a family of quadratic soft switching PWM converters which can significantly extend the conversion ratios. Yang. but reveal relationships among these soft switching converters.

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