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Andrew Verstak

averstak@kermetico.com
www.kermetico.com

Kermetico High Velocity Air-Fuel


Thermal Spray Equipment and Technology
HVAF Application Development
Superior hard & tough coatings for new markets
 Gas-tight
 WC-based 1,500-1,700 HV300
 Cr3C2-based 1,100 HV300, service up to 900oC
 MoB-based 1,200 HV300, service up to 1,100oC
 Thin coatings (40-70 micron) for:
 High and alternating stress, impact, etc.
 Economy grades for “flash chrome” replacement

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HVAF Application Development

Economical “currently specified quality”


coatings for existing and new markets

1,200 HV300 , <0.8% porosity WC-coatings,


sprayed at 65-70% DE with
spray rates 30+ kg/hour

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Kermetico HVAF Gun Design

Nozzle Combustion chamber Ceramic insert

Fuel Gas

Powder +
carrier gas

Air

1,100-1,500 m/s 850 m/s 40-50 m/s Gas velocity


<1,500oC ~1,600oC 1,800-1,900oC Gas temperature
Acceleration Heating Spray particle

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Combustion Temperature: HVAF vs. HVOF
Adiabatic combustion temperature of fuels
in oxygen and air (a=1, 20oC, 1 Bar)
T, oC 3500
Oxygen 3200
3052 3109
Air
3000 2927
Metals,
2526
T boiling 2500
2210
2093
1960 1980 2010
2000

1500
Metals,
T melting
1000

500

0
Methane Propane MAPP Hydrogen Kerosene

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Lower Gas Temperature in HVAF:
HVOF:
The combustion temperature is more than 1,000oC
higher than the melting temperature of metals;
The combustion temperature may exceed the metal
boiling point.

HVAF:
The combustion temperature is just slightly higher
than the metal melting temperature.

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Lower Gas Temperature in HVAF:

 Affects coating properties


Prevents oxidation of metals and oxidation/ thermal
deterioration of carbides
Note: oxygen activity is 5-times lower in HVAF

 Influences gun design


HVAF ability to use heating in long/ slow-gas
combustion chambers = long time for “soft” heating
High pressure in the chamber = better heat transfer

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Combustion Temperature: Design AF vs. OF
Ability to use heating in long/ slow-gas
combustion chambers =
long time for “soft” heating
High pressure in the chamber =
better heat transfer

Result:
High energy efficiency of HVAF
(same or lower power while higher spray
rates than HVOF)
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Kermetico HVAF Gun Design

Nozzle Combustion chamber Ceramic insert

Fuel Gas

Powder +
carrier gas

Air

1100-1500 m/s 850 m/s 40-50 m/s Gas velocity


<1500 oC ~1600oC 1800-1900oC Gas temperature
Acceleration Heating Spray particle

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Energy Efficiency = Coating COST

State-of-the-Art HVOF:
JP 5000 270 kW spray rate 5 kg/hour
DJ 2600 115 kW spray rate 4 kg/hour

Kermetico HVAF:
AK6 130 kW spray rate 28 kg/ hour
AK5 80 kW spray rate 15 kg/hour
AK-ID 30 kW spray rate 5 kg/hour

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Acceleration of spray particles in the nozzle:
Gas velocity & density
Time (nozzle length)
Particle size

Smaller particles are accelerated to higher velocities.

HVAF uses smaller particle size without material


oxidation/ thermal deterioration

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Note on nozzle wall influence on a particle
velocity:
HVOF – dramatic
(more so – in radial injection)
HVAF – no influence

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A Particle Acceleration:
the Influence of the Nozzle Walls
HVOF (kerosene) per A. Voronetsky et. all, ITSC2004

Rp= D powder jet / D nozzle

Nozzle Nozzle
axis wall

Influence of Rp on the mean particles velocity


at LS=250 mm. (pсс =0.9 MPa, dp=30 μm, Lb=100 mm)
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A Particle Acceleration in the Nozzle

Kermetico HVAF:
D powder jet / D nozzle = 0.1-0.2

I. There is practically no restriction on the


nozzle length to reach necessary
acceleration of spray particles

II. Uniform acceleration = uniform coating


structure and properties

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Uniformity of HVAF Coatings Properties:
Hardness of HVOF and Kermetico HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr coatings (Schlumberger, UK)

HVAF

HVOF

Relative standard HVAF: 3.9 %


deviation, % HVOF: 15.7-17.8%

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WC-10Co-4Cr Coating Characterization

Propane
1,470 HV300

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WC-10Co-4Cr Coating Characterization

Propane- 60% Butane Propylene


1,500 HV300 1,650 HV300

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Kermetico HVAF:
Carbides are Hard, but… Ductile
1
2000 1 1:WC
2:Co3W3C
3:Co
1500
Internsity/a.u.

1000 1

500 1 1
2 2 1 1 1
3 2 3 C4 Coating 1
2 2
3 2 2 3 Powder
0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
2/degree

WC-12Co
Propane
1,540 HV300

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Data of Central Power Research Institute
Bangalore, India
Comparison of WC-10Co-4Cr coatings,
deposited with HVOF (JP5000) and
Kermetico HVAF (AK6)

Notes:
HVOF optimized for the best cavitation resistance

HVAF applied with different nozzles, targeting different particle


velocity (coating hardness)

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WC-Co-Cr Spray Particle Characteristics
in HVOF and HVAF Processes
JP5000 HVOF Kermetico AK6 HVAF
Nozzle 5L Nozzle 5E Nozzle 5O
Average Particle size, micron 27 18
Particle velocity, m/s 740 895 960 1,010
+/-2 +/-3 +/-4
Particle temperature, oC 1,790-1,840 1,470 1,460 1,470
+/-10 +/-10 +/-10
Particle kinetic energy, mJ 29.4 12.7 14.7 16.2
Energy density, GJ/m3 = 3.8 5.6 6.4 7.1
= Contact pressure, GPa

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Mechanical Properties: WC-10Co-4Cr

Vickers Hardness of WC-10Co-4Cr coatings

1473
AK06-N 5O
54

1439
AK06-N 5E
58

1308
AK06-N 5L
70

1180
JP5000 HVOF
140

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600


Hardness, HV300 Standard Deviation, HV300

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Mechanical Properties: WC-10Co-4Cr

Fracture Toughness K1C of coatings, MPa*m1/2

5,60
AK06-N 5O
0,15

6,86
AK06-N 5E
0,80

6,33
AK06-N 5L
0,50

3,86
JP5000 HVOF
0,70

0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00 7,00 8,00


K1C K1C Standard Deviation

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Mechanical Properties: WC-10Co-4Cr

Young's Modulus E of WC-10Co-4Cr coatings

450
AK06-N 5O
20

452
AK06-N 5E
20

411
AK06-N 5L
21

290
JP5000 HVOF
21

0 100 200 300 400 500


Young's Modulus E, GPa E Standard Deviation, GPa

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Cavitation Resistance
of WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF and HVAF coatings

( dw/dt ) AF1 (5O) = 0.23 mg/h


( dw/dt ) AF3 (5E) = 0.71 mg/h
Nozzle 5O
( dw/dt ) AF2 (5L) = 0.96 mg/h
Nozzle 5L

Nozzle 5E
( dw/dt ) HVOF = > 3.26 mg/h

( dw/dt ) 16Cr-5Ni steel =


2.0 - 2.5 mg/h

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Surface SEM Micrographs of
WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings after Cavitation Testing
Test duration: 1 hour

JP5000 HVOF AK6 HVAF

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Surface SEM Micrographs of
WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings after Cavitation Testing
Test duration: 9 hours

JP5000 HVOF AK06 HVAF

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Resistance to Silt Erosion
WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF and HVAF coatings
Weight loss of WC-10Co-4Cr coatings during silt erosion testing
50,0

45,0 JP5000 HVOF


40,0 AK06-N 5L
35,0 AK06-N 5E
Weight losss, mg

30,0 AK06-N 5O

25,0

20,0

15,0

10,0

5,0

0,0
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5
Tets time, hour

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Other Third-Party Data,
Comparing Kermetico HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr
Coatings to HVOF ones

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Hunan University
Changsha, Hunan, China:
WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF & HVAF Coatings Cavitation Test
12
AISI316:y=0.0156x-0.4789
DJ Coating:y=0.0121x+0.4744
10 AK Coating:y=0.0047x+0.0922

8
Volume loss (mm )
3

0
0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720
Time (minutes)
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Erosion Rate vs. an Attack Angle:
WC-10Co-4Cr HVAF coatings perform as a ductile material

Midwest Thermal Spray (MI, USA)

Dry erosion rate of hard coatings


0,300

0,250
Volume loss, mm3/min

0,200

0,150

0,100

0,050

0,000
AK06-HVAF: WC-Co-Cr HVOF MTS: WC-Co-Cr SHS8000, fused
Angle 30 deg. Angle 90 deg.

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Erosion Rate vs. an Attack Angle:
WC-10Co-4Cr HVAF coatings perform as a ductile material

Q. Wang, Mat. Engineering and Performance, 24(4), 2015

Slurry erosion rate of WC-10Co4Cr coatings


0,190
0,180
Volume loss, mm3/min

0,170
0,160
0,150
0,140
0,130
0,120
0,110
0,100

AK07-HVAF (aggl.-sint.) DJ2700-HVOF (sint.-crushed)


Angle 30 deg. Angle 90 deg.

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Gesellschaft für innovative Materialtechnik Stellba AG
InnoMat GmbH Wohlerstrasse 51
Annaberger Str. 240, 09125 Chemnitz CH - 5605 Dottikon

InnoMat GmbH Report for Stellba AG (2016)


3,0

2,5

2,0

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0
GTV K2 HVOF GTV K2 UHVOF Kermetico AK6 HVAF
ASTM G75-07: Slurry Erosion Test, mg/hour
ASTM G65-04 (B): Rubber Wheel Test, mg/min
Ball-On-Disc Test, micron/10,000 cycles

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Salt Spray Test: All the Samples Passed 312-Hour Test
K2 HVOF K2 UHVOF AK6 HVAF
Before testing

After 312-hours
testing

Note: the HVAF samples were tested after Pin-On-Disc Wear Test

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The Kermetico HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr
Coatings Compared to HVOF Ones:

1) Harder (related to cohesion strength)


2) More Ductile (related to Co-matrix properties)
3) More resistant to cavitation, erosion and
abrasive wear

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Economic Aspects of Kermetico HVAF
Spraying:
Your Choice of Cost and Quality

HVAF-E (Economy) – already meets HVOF specs


HVAF-B (Balanced) – exceeds HVOF specs
HVAF-U (Ultra) – substantially exceeds HVOF specs

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Kermetico HVAF Gun Design

Nozzle Combustion chamber Ceramic insert

Fuel Gas

Powder +
carrier gas

Air

1,100-1,500 m/s 850 m/s 40-50 m/s Gas velocity


<1,500oC ~1,600oC 1,800-1,900oC Gas temperature
Acceleration Heating Spray particle

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Economic Aspects of Kermetico HVAF Spraying
Gun Setup Coating Coating Deposit
Hardness , HV300 Porosity, % Efficiency, %

Economy (E) 1,050-1,250 <0.8 65+


Balanced (B) 1,250-1,350 <0.5 48 - 58
Ultra (U) 1,450-1,700 <0.1 36 - 42

High spray rates are applicable for large and small parts

O.D. 38 mm: Rate 25 kg/hour O.D. 330 mm: Rate 32 kg/hour


Data for WC-10Co-4Cr, agglomerated/sintered powder

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HVOF vs. HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr Costs
300

250

200 Oxidant
Fuel
150
Spare parts
100 Power, etc.
Labor+Overhead
50
Amortizing
0
DJ2600 JP5000 HVAF -E HVAF-B HVAF-U
HVOF HVOF
(Hydrogen) (Kerosene)
Comparison of HVAF and HVOF operating costs, USD per hour
(prices in Texas, USA)
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HVOF vs. HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr Costs

Data used for the cost calculation:

DJ2600 HVOF JP5000 HVOF HVAF-E HVAF-B HVAF-U


Spray rate,
kg/hour 4 5 32 26 26
Deposit Efficiency 50% 43% 65% 46% 38%
Cost of WC-Co-Cr powder: $81.4 per kg

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Comparison of HVAF and HVOF costs
(the prices in Texas, USA)
Cost per WCCoCr kg deposited, USD WCCoCr Coating Hardness, HV300
350 1600
300
1500
250
1400
200
1300
150
1200
100

50 1100

0 1000
DJ2600 JP5000 HVAF -E HVAF-B HVAF-U DJ2600 JP5000 HVAF -E HVAF-B HVAF-U
HVOF HVOF HVOF HVOF
Operating cost per kg deposited
Powder cost per kg deposited

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HVOF vs HVAF WC-10Co-4Cr Costs
WC-Co-Cr powder cost: DJ2600 HVOF JP5000 HVOF AK7 HVAF (E)
81.4 USD/kg
Total operating cost,
$260 $223 $160
USD/hour
Spray rate, kg/hour 4 5 32
Deposit efficiency, % 50 43 65
Deposition rate, kg/hour 2.2 2.2 20.8
Cost per KG of sprayed
$293 $293 $133
coating, USD
AK7 savings per KG of
$160 $160
deposited coating, USD

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Kermetico HVAF Equipment

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Kermetico HVAF Guns

AK7 200 kW
AK6 130 kW

C7 200 kW

C6 130 kW

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AK HVAF Guns

AK5 80 kW

AK-HH 80 kW

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AK-HVAF Guns : Internal Diameter Spraying

AK-ID 30 kW

Spraying internal
diameters as small as
80 mm (3.15-inch)

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Rotating HVAF Gun

AK-IDR 100 mm (4”)

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Some Examples of
Kermetico HVAF Applications

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Mud Pump Rotors, Oil Drilling:
WC-20Cr7Ni, WC-10Co-4Cr

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Paper Machines:
Corrugating Rolls
Application by GZRINM, Guandong China

Coating: 60μm AK7 HVAF


Thickness deviation: <10% Life: > 30 millions meters (>3000 m2/year)

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Paper Machines:
an Helix Extractor
Application by GZRINM, Guandong China
AK7 HVAF
O.D. .99 m x L 5.65 m

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Hydro-Power:
a Francis Turbine Runner and Head Cover
Application by Plackart Ltd., Russia

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Hydro-Power:
Metering Needle Valve and Seat
Application by RenCoat Ltd., China

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Geothermal Power:
Turbine Rotor
WC-10Co-4Cr
dimensional coating
in sealing area

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A Sliding Gate of a Catalyst Tower
Spraying Upper Slide Gate

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Hydraulic Rods of Dock Cranes
Hard chrome coating performance: 0.5 year max (pitting)
HVAF WC-Co-Cr coating performance: 4+ years

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Refinery: Automated Coating Application with
the Rotating AK5 Gun Inside a Closed-End Vessel

Diameter: 1.8 m
Length: 11.8 m

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Refinery: Heat Exchanger Vessels

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A Double-Elbow Spraying with the Rotating AK5 Gun

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Double-Elbow, Coke Transport Line

12-inch ID,
6-feet long

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A Coke Line Cyclone:
Application of a WC-10Co-4Cr Coating
with the Rotating AK5 Gun

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Small ID Transport Pipe Line Components:
application of WC-10Co-4Cr coating
by the rotating AK-IDR gun

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Oil Drilling:
Fluid-End Pump Casing, 5-inch ID
Application of coating with the AK-IDR rotating gun

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AK4-ID Spraying of WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings
ID=3.5” ID=4.0”

ID=4.625” ID=6.0”

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Separation Equipment:
Press pistons, upper/lower bowls
WC-CrC-Ni and WC-10Co-4Cr coatings

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Separation Equipment:
Tin Spraying with the SL HVAF gun onto
Lock Rings and Bowl ACME Threads

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A Tensiometer Roll:
AK7 HVAF, WC-10Co-4Cr, 1.8 mm thick

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Kermetico HVAF Blast & Spray Systems

The AK-HH hand-held HVAF

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