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Dr. Valentina LAZAROVA
Suez Environnement, France
Université Montpellier 2, France
International Water Management Institute, Ghana
Marrakech, May 28th, 2008
Outline Main Drivers of Water Reuse and Challenges for Sustainable Irrigation with Recycled Water Principal Measures for Golf Course Irrigation with Recycled Water
Wastewater treatment and storage Control of recycled water application Access restriction, human exposure control and education
22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al., Water reuse for golf course irrigation, May 28th, 2008, 2
Main Drivers of Water Reuse
Increased demand for water Reduced availability of water supply Environment protection Impact of the new laws, policies & regulations Public awareness and politic pressure
Increase in drinking water price Sustainable development
Water reuse is included in several state/national policies (Australia, California, Cyprus, Florida, Israel, Jordan, Spain, Tunisia) More and more regulations introduce requirements for water reuse (volume, %, given types of reuse as golf 22 décembre 2005 courses, high-rise buildings or industry)
LAZAROVA et al., Water reuse for golf course irrigation, May 28th, 2008, 3
Main Criteria Influencing the Choice of Recycled Water Quality for Irrigation
Water Quality Criteria for Water Reuse
Public health protection
• Microbiological parameters short-term biological risk of infection • Chemical compounds long-term biological risk of toxicity
Environmental and agronomic impacts
• Environmental adverse effects 1) on aquifers 2) on soils 3) on flora and fauna • Agronomic aspects 1) on crops 2) on soil properties
• Technical constraints 1) irrigation systems 2) treatment trains 3) storage&distribution • Political or economic pressure • Public perception 1) aesthetics 2) safety of use
22 décembre 2005
LAZAROVA et al., Water reuse for golf course irrigation, May 28th, 2008, 4
field worker and handler Any crops eaten uncooked and grown in close contact with wastewater effluent (fresh vegetables such as lettuce or carrots. or sprayirrigated fruits) Spray irrigation regardless of type of crop within 100 m of residential areas or places of public access • Industrial crops not for human consumption Crops normally processed by heat or drying before human consumption Vegetables and fruit grown for canning or other process Fodder crops and other crops that are sun-dried and harvested before consumption by animals is used LAZAROVA et al. 5 22 décembre 2005 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation. the peel of which is not eaten Any crop not identified as high-risk if sprinkler irrigation Highest risk to consumer. Crops for human consumption that do not come into direct contact with wastewater and that spray irrigation must not be used Crops for human consumption normally eaten only after cooking Crops for human consumption. but field worker must be protected Medium risk to consumer and handler • Pasture. 2008. May 28th.Levels of risks associated with different types of crops irrigated with recycled water Lowest risk to consumer.. fodder crops.
W = washing of produce. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. DO = die-off.10 W 0 .10 Root Leaf *Source: Kamizoulis. 6 .2005 22 décembre H=high growing crops) LAZAROVA et al. 2006 •= where children under 15 years are exposed T = treatment. 2008.10 8 6 7 T T T T T Sub H L DI (L) a b o r int.10 3 4 DO 3 DI (H) T DO W 2 10 . May 28th.10 .10 ..10 . T 5 6 4 5 10 . DI = drip irrigation (L=low growing cops.10 10 3 10 2 . i g h l y mec .WHO 2006: Health protection measures Log pathogen removal Thermo tolerant coliform (or E. sur face irr. coli) 10 10 10 10 7 UNRESTRICTED IRRIGATION A B C D E F RESTRICTED IRRIGATION G* H* T 01234567- .
2006: Recommended minimum verification monitoring of microbial parameters 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 7 .WHO. May 28th. 2008.. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
2 /100 mL (California) 22 (NSW. draft) 25 /100 mL (75%) (Florida) 100 /100 mL (Germany.Landscape Irrigation and Other Urban Uses Stringent regulations (principle of precaution) E. May 28th. Australia) Fecal Coliforms Not detected (USEPA) 2. parcs) 100 /100 mL (CEE. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 2008. 8 . bathing water) Total Coliforms 2. 2007) 10 /100 mL (Victoria. Australia) 10 /100 mL décembre 2005 Other Parameters Turbidity <1 to <5 NTU TSS < 5 to < 30 mg/l BOD <5 to <20 mg/L Clresidual 1 mg/L LAZAROVA et al.coli 0/100 mL (Spain.2 /100 mL (Canada) 10 /100 mL (Japan) 14 /100 mL (90%) (EPA-UK.. draft) 200 /100 mL (WHO.
9 < 2.5 > 2.Agronomic Parameters Potential irrigation problems SALINITY 0.0 > 2. Water quality for irrigation. D. S.9 if SAR = 12 to 20 & ECw = 2. W.0 > 3. and Wescot.2 < 0.5 meq / L 1.3 < 0. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.7 to 0. by Ayers.4 ECw =Electrical conductivity at 25°C TDS dS/m mg / L < 0.5 < 0.3 > 1. 2008.0 <2 Root absorption meq / L 2 to 10 > 10 < 70 mg / L 70 to 355 > 355 Chloride(Cl) <3 Foliar absorption meq / L >3 < 100 mg / L > 100 MISCELLANEOUS EFFECTS Residual chlorine (Cl2) < 1. 9 Adapted from FAO.2 if SAR = 3 to 6 & ECw = 1.0 mg / L 1 to 5 >5 Bicarbonate (HCO3) < 1.0 to 2.5 to 8.9 to 1. Italy..7 < 450 Unit Degree of restriction on use None Slight to moderate Severe LAZAROVA et al.0 mg / L Boron (B) 1. May 28th. Rome.9 SPECIFIC ION TOXICITY <3 Root absorption SAR 3 to 9 >9 <3 Foliar absorption meq / L Sodium (Na) >3 < 70 mg / L > 70 < 1.0 to 2. .7 if SAR (Sodium Absorption Ratio) = 0 to 3 & ECw = 0.5 > 8.3 < 1. Irrigation and Drainage Paper n°29.9 to 0.5 Foliar deposits < 90 mg / L 90 to 500 22 décembre 2005 > 500 pH normal 6.3 > 5. R.9 if SAR = 6 to 12 & ECw = 1. 1985.2 to 0.7 to 3. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.2 > 1.0 if SAR = 20 to 40 & ECw = 5.5 to 8..0 450 to 2000 > 2000 SOIL WATER INFILTRATION: ifmultaneous influence of SAR and ECw > 0.
May 28th. human exposure control and education 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al..Wastewater treatment and storage Control of recycled water application Access restriction. 2008. 10 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
2008.Code of Practices Wastewater Barrier to pathogens Wastewater Treatment Critical step for health protection Barrier to pathogens Storage Protection measure Application. May 28th. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. type of irrigation Crop Restriction Protection measure Harvesting Measures Protection measure Human Exposure Control Protection measure 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 11 ..
LAZAROVA et control 12 Signs . 2008.. May 28th.Guidance for Selection of Health Protection Measures for Irrigation with Recycled Water Health Protection Measures Partial Safety Credit Good Practices Wastewater treatment Secondary Tertiary Full Mandatory Application control Surface& Sprinkler Irrigation Localized Irrigation Cultivation practice Restriction measures On Crops On Access Low health risk can be ensured by a combination of control measures giving at least 6 safety credit units 2005 22 décembre Education Exposure al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
.22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. May 28th. 2008. 13 .
.Sand filters -Lamella .Clarifiers . 2008. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.Fine Screens .Settling Tanks .Lamella . May 28th.Coarse Screens .Grit Removal .Biofilters .Combined technologies Tertiary Treatment . 14 .Disinfection Air Removal of: • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Suspended solids • Microorganisms 22 décembre 2005 Removal of: • Rags • Grit • Oil and grease Removal of: • Suspended solids • Carbon pollution (partial) Removal of: • Carbon pollution • N removal • Suspended solids LAZAROVA et al.Chemicals Secondary Treatment .Activated Sludge .Grease Removal Primary Treatment .Wastewater Treatment Levels Pre-treatment .
Water reuse for golf course irrigation. May 28th. 15 .. 2008.Secondary (biological) treatment is required in Europe and is mandatory before water reuse WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PRETREATMENT PRIMARY SETTLING BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT CLARIFICATION SLUDGE TREATMENT SYSTEM FLOTATION THICKNENING SLUDGE DIGESTION DEWATERING décembre 22 2005 LAZAROVA et al.
. 16 .Evolution of wastewater quality during treatment Secondary effluent Tertiary effluent Raw sewage COD (mg/L) 30-90 BOD5 (mg/L) 5-20 Coliforms (log) 5-9 Fecal coliforms (log) 4-8 Streptococci (log) 3-6 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. May 28th. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 2008.
cat. Florida (not detec. vegetables eaten raw Arizona.Water Reuse for Irrigation Typical Treatment Schemes and Standards Fe3+. A: <1 helm eg/L.2 TC/100 mL) Canary Islands (<2.. O3 Clarifier Coag/ flocculation Filtration 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. B (< 1 helm. Trickling filters Clarifier Cl.2 TC/100 mL) Pretreatment Primary settling Activated sludge Trickling filters Disinfection Cl. UV. fruits. 17 .UV. cat. 50 mgSS/L) Rapid sand filtration Industrial crops.eg/L) Industrial crops. Al3+ Raw sewage No exposure WHO. A: <1 helm eg/L.O3 Rapid filtration Raw sewage Infiltration / percolation Anaerobic ponds Raw sewage Facultative stabilisation ponds Maturation ponds Pasture. UV. May 28th. cooked vegetables. <1000 FC/100 mL Chlorination Pretreatment Coagulation flocculation Israel (60 mg BOD/L . <1000 FC/100 mL Raw sewage Cl. FC/100 mL) California (<2.2 TC/100 mL) Israel (<2. US (<200 FC /100 mL) South Africa (<1000 FC/100 mL) WHO. forests Human exposure WHO. forests Pasture. cat. O3 Pretreatment Primary settling Activated sludge. cooked vegetables. fruits Australia (<3000 and <750 FC/100 mL) California (<23 TC/100 mL) Catalonia (<1000 FC/100 mL) EPA. 2008.
2008. landscape) Target for disinfection: <1000 FC or E.coli/100 mL Optimum size: small to medium treatment facilities Main advantages: Low operation costs and ease of operation Lagooning Rhizofiltration Rhizopur® 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 18 . May 28th. Water reuse for golf course irrigation..Infiltration-percolation Non Conventional Technologies Applications: Irrigation (agriculture.
+30.000 p.) Salaisiere WWTP Agricultural and urban irrigation Polishing by maturation ponds Reuse of 30% of treated wastewater 215 000 m3/year Irrigation of 500 ha of potatoes Project for irrigation of new areas Project extension (710 ha) WWTP Casie Objective: « Zero » discharge of wastewater in the sea 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.e.e. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. May 28th. 2008. 19 . France 2 WWTP (55..000 p.Noirmoutier Island.
. May 28th.Conventional Tertiary Treatment Applications (non-potable uses) Landscape irrigation Urban uses Industrial uses Coagulationflocculation Targets for disinfection 0 to 200FC/100 mL) Ozonation Chlorination UV Sand filtration LAZAROVA et al. 2008. 20 22 décembre 2005 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
2008. 21 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 960 m3/d 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. May 28th.Golf course irrigation in France 12 golf courses irrigated with recycled water since 1990 in the Atlantic and Mediterranean coastal areas Secondary treatment UV tertiary treatment Golf course Sainte Maxime 8 000 m3/d Golf course Saint Pierre d’Oléron..
.Golf course of Tina. New Caledonia Golf course of 90 ha. 2008. 18 holes Treatment: sand filtration and UV disinfection Capacity: 1700 m3/j Operated since >20 years by SE (Calédonienne des Eaux) Covered storage reservoir (bacterial regrowth) Sand filtration UV + 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. May 28th. 22 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
flocculation..filtration. 23 . Alicante. May 28th. 2008. chlorination High rate clarification + Sand filtration 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. Spain Golf course of 18 holes Capacity: 2. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.Golf course of Monte Orgegia. lamelar settling.6 Mm3/year Operated by SE (Agbar) since >15 years Treatment: coagulation.
External membranes Reverse osmosis Filtration EDI MBR C. 24 . Secondary Treatment Coag/floc/ clarification Pre-treatment Activated sludge C. 2008. Submerged membranes 1+2.2. Conventional scheme Disinfection lagoons/Cl/UV/O3 Pre-treatment Coag/floculation/ clarification Disinfection Filtration Cl/UV/O3 1. Quaternary treatment (desalination) Brine 2. May 28th. N-DN MF/UF Disinfection Cl/UV/O3 Electrodyalisis Reversal 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. MBR Pre-treatment Disinfection UF / MF Cl/UV/O3 3.2. Tertiary Treatment Advanced Primary Treatment 2..1. N-DN Clarification Filtration Disinfection Cl/UV/O3 2. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.Advanced Tertiary Treatment Trains 2.
Water reuse for golf course irrigation. May 28th.. 25 22 décembre 2005 .Classification of membrane processes for wastewater treatment Low pressure membranes Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Microfiltration (Memcor) High pressure membranes Reverse osmosis RO (Hydranautics) LAZAROVA et al. 2008.
2008. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.Fields of Application of Membrane Treatment and Repurification Applications Unrestricted urban irrigation / golf courses Indirect potable reuse/Aquifer recharge Industrial uses Targets for disinfection 0 to <200FC/100 mL) Microfiltration Other Targets Trace organics. emerging parameters. May 28th. 26 .. Submerged membranes desalination Reverse osmosis Reversible electrodialysis 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.
Water reuse for golf course irrigation.. 27 .Landscape and golf course irrigation in Bora Bora Project characteristics Secondary treatment (AS): 6250 m3/d Tertiary treatment (UF): 300 m3/d Storage reservoir Chlorination End users UF MBR The MBR building 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. May 28th. 2008.
May 28th. µS/cm . Water reuse for golf course irrigation. mg/L LAZAROVA et al..500 µS/cm 0 120 Time of operation. 2008.Golf course of Calafell. Spain Sand filtration 1600 MF Conductivity of raw sewage RO 10000 Golf course Calafell 1200 7500 COD 800 Conductivity of secondary effluent 5000 400 2500 BOD 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 <1.700 m3/d Disinfection requirements: 22 décembre 2005 <200 E. 28 Conductivity.coli/100 mL Concentration of organics in raw sewage. number of weeks (Jan 2005 to May 2007) Calafell Golf Course: 18 holes Target salinity <1500 µS/cm Capacity: 4.
29 . May 28th.. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 2008.22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.
good program of tillage for soil aeration Greens: 300 mm/h 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. Drainage Good drainage. 30 . May 28th.. 2008.Best Practices for Landscape and Golf Course Irrigation 1. especially on the greens and other intensely played surfaces Methods: installation of drainage layer. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. drainage system.
salt-tolerant grass species for use on fairways and particularly on the greens and tees 3. 2008. Regulation of irrigation Close attention to variations in daily evapotranspiration (ETo) and soil water depletion. May 28th.. 31 22 décembre 2005 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation. preferably using on-site instrumentation (soil moisture) Best solution: automatic irrigation system LAZAROVA et al.Best Practices for Landscape and Golf Course Irrigation (2) 2. Selection of turfgrass and ornamentals Selection of drought resistant. Balanced fertilization Accounting for the fertilizer value present in recycled water 4.
Other recommandations in case of high salinity. through seasonal use of alternate sources of water or real-time blending with such waters Dual plumbing to irrigate greens with potable water in cases of excessively high SAR or high salinity. as necessary.Best Practices for Landscape and Golf Course Irrigation (3) 5. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. countering potentially higher irrigation water SAR Provision of an adequate leaching fraction Blending with lower-SAR. 32 . or lower-TDS water sources if necessary and feasible.. lime). May 28th. to adjust the SAR of soil moisture. Miscellaneous Warning signs to alert golfers not to drink water from irrigation sources—without arousing unnecessary fear of recycled water 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. sodicity Use of amendments (gypsum. as a last resort Adaptation of irrigation schedule and depth of irrigation to the quality of irrigation water from a recycled water 6. 2008.
P and K must be included the fertilisation programme Significant economic benefits Often. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. fertilization is not necessary Warning: avoid potential excess of nitrogen Nitrogen is well assimilated by turfgrass: to reach 10 mgN-NO3/L in drainage water to aquifer. May 28th. irrigation volume must be >110±10 mm/week (>6 m/year !!!) During certain periods of plant growth.Adjustment of Nutrients Macro-. phosphorus. micro-nutrients and oligo-elements: as a rule in concentrations that cover plant needs Principal nutrients: nitrogen. excess of N can lead to excess plant development thus favouring some diseases Recommended measures: add growth regulators décembre 2005 22 LAZAROVA et al. zinc. 33 . 2008.. boron and sulfur N. potassium.
Impact of excess nitrogen on turfgrass 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.. 2008. 34 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation. May 28th.
35 . salinity problems may appear even when salinity is in the range of 700 22 décembre 2005 to 3000 µS/cm LAZAROVA et al.Problems of Salinity Favorable conditions (no problems of salinity) Temperate climate with frequent raining Planting of salt-tolerant turfgrass (warm season) Golf courses with well-drained sandy soils Adverse (not favorable) conditions (high probability for salinity problems) Dry climate without raining Planting of salt-tsensitive turfgrass (cold season) Golf courses with poor drainage and clay soils Factors to be considered The effect depends not only on recycled water salinity. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. a “global” value as several examples of irrigation with higher salinity are reported In the case of clay soils and without good management practices. May 28th.. soil type and salt tolerance of turfgrass and ornamental plants Typical recommended levels: 3000 µS/cm (3 mS/m). 2008. but also on soil salinity.
2008. May 28th. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.. Millet.Example of variation of recycled water conductivity Source : F. 2004 Mois 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.Fernandez. 2004 Variations depending on wastewater quality Salt intrusion in sewers to be considered in coastal areas . 36 Source : X.
2008. May 28th.Example of salinity problem in a golf course Salinity problems observed in a loam saltincrusted soil irrigated with recycled water of moderate quality ECw 1480-1770 µS/cm SARadj 8-10 (Harivandi. 37 . 2007) 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation..
38 Source :Harivandi. 2008.Salt Tolerance of Turfgrass Typical recommended values: <2000 . May 28th. 2007 .. moisture). soil properties Stage of turfgrass growth Typical levels reported for Bermuda grass: from 12 to 33 dS/m 22 décembre 2005 *Conductivity of soil extract LAZAROVA et al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.3000 µS/cm (2-3 dS/m) Salt tolerance varies and depend on several factors Environment (T°C.
. 39 .Combined effect of irrigation water SAR and EC on soil infiltration rate Salts and sodium do not act independently in the plant environment: the effect of sodium on soil particle dispersion is counteracted by high soluble salts concentration Sodium Adsorbtion Ratio 35 Source : Lazarova et Bahri. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. dS/m 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 2005 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Severe reduction in soil infiltration rate Slight to moderate reduction in soil infiltration rate No reduction in soil infiltration rate 1 2 3 4 5 22 décembre Electrical conductivity of irrigation water. 2008. May 28th.
or drying of turfgrass Bermudagrass 22 décembre 2005 Poor drainage LAZAROVA et al. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 40 . May 28th.. 2008.Sodicity Sodium tolerance of turfgrass is significantly higher than other plants Most of ornamental plants tolerate <70 mg/L of sodium during sprinkling irrigation Paspalum Sodium excess (SAR > 9) leads to: Problems of soil texture Yellow or brown spots.
. 41 . May 28th. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.Recommendations for Irrigation Control Implement automatic regulation of irrigation with sensors of soil moisture Provide sufficient storage capacity Use of water basins eutrofisation Need of filtration Use of closed reservoir (less maintenance) 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 2008.
May 28th.Recommendations for Irrigation Control Implement automatic regulation of irrigation with sensors of soil moisture Provide sufficient storage capacity Use of water basins Eutrofisation Need of filtration Use of closed reservoir (less maintenance) 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 42 . 2008.. Water reuse for golf course irrigation.
May 28th.22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 43 . 2008. Water reuse for golf course irrigation..
2008. Spain. May 28th.. irrigated with secondary treated water for the past 27 years Golf course of Costa décembre 2005 Brava.Good management practices are the keys of success of golf course irrigation with recycled water France: over 12 golf courses irrigated with recycled water since 1990 Spain: over 30 golf courses irrigated with recycled water since 1995 Tunisia: over 10 golf courses irrigated with recycled water since 1980 Golf course of Sainte Maxime. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 44 . France El Kantaoui Golf Course in Tunisia. 22 irrigated with recycled water since 1998 LAZAROVA et al.
2008. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. irrigated since 1986 with recycled water 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al. 45 . but this in conditions of good management practices Golf course of Pebble Beach in California.California: the world leader in water recycling Over 200 golf courses are irrigater with recycled water in California since more than 20 years The total number in the USA is more than 1000 golf courses irrigated with recycled water No degradation of greens quality was reportes.. May 28th.
Water reuse for golf course irrigation.5 millions of m3) were used for landscape irrigation with open public access such as parks and golf courses 52% of wastewater is recycled In 2006. 49% of total volume of recycled water (2..Florida: the world leader in water recycling for landscape irrigation In 2005 in Florida. 46 .465 residential lawns. 572 parks and 251 schools were irrigated with recycled water Irrigation of Walt Disney World Resort Complex with 5 golf courses Irrigation of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens and 22 décembre 2005 golf course Irrigation of Jacksonville golf course LAZAROVA et al. May 28th. 201. 2008. 462 golf courses.
May 28th. 47 . Water reuse for golf course irrigation.. 2008.Morocco: a future Mediterranean leader in water recycling for irrigation ??! 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al.
The Key of Success Best Practices of Water Reuse Negative impacts of salinity Conductivity >3. May 28th.0 dS/m TDS > 3000-5000 mg/L Cl. Water reuse for golf course irrigation. 2008. 48 .>150 mg/L SAR >3-9 22 décembre 2005 LAZAROVA et al..
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