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EE2003

Circuit Theory
Chapter 13
Magnetically Coupled
Circuits
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Magnetically
ll C Coupled
l dCCircuit
p
Chapter 13

13.1
13 1 What is a transformer?
13.2 Mutual Inductance
13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit
13 4
13.4 Linear Transformers
13.5 Ideal Transformers
13.6 Applications
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13.1 What is a transformer? (1)
• It is an electrical device designed on the
basis of the concept of magnetic coupling
• It uses magnetically coupled coils to
transfer energygy from one circuit to
another
• It is the key circuit elements for stepping
up or stepping down ac voltages or
currents impedance matching,
currents, matching isolation,
isolation
etc.

13.2 Mutual Inductance (1)


• It is
i th
the ability
bilit off one inductor
i d t tto iinduce
d a voltage
lt across a
neighboring inductor, measured in henrys (H).

di1 di2
v2  M 21 v1  M 12
dt dt

The open-circuit
Th i it mutual
t l The open-circuit
open circuit mutual
voltage across coil 2 voltage across coil 1 4
13.2 Mutual Inductance (2)
• If a currentt enters
t the
th dotted
d tt d terminal
t i l off one coil,
il
the reference polarity of the mutual voltage in the
second
seco d coil
co is s positive
pos t e at the
t e dotted terminal
te a of
o
the second coil.

Illustration of the dot convention. 5

13.2 Mutual Inductance (3)


Dot convention for coils in series; the sign indicates the
polarity of the mutual voltage; (a) series-aiding connection,
(b) series
series-opposing
opposing connection.

L  L1  L2  2 M L  L1  L2  2 M
(series - aiding connection) (series - aiding connection)

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13.2
13 2 Mutual Inductance (3)
Parallel connection

13.2 Mutual Inductance (4)

Time-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils.
coils

Frequency-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils

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13.2 Mutual Inductance (4)
Time-domain analysis of a circuit containing
coupled coils.
coils

di1 di2
v1  i1 R1  L1 M
dt dt
di2 di1
v 2  i2 R2  L2 M
d
dt d
dt 9

13.2 Mutual Inductance ((4))


Frequency-domain analysis of a circuit containing
coupled coils

V  ( Z1  jL1 ) I1  jMI 2
0   jMI1  ( Z L  jL2 ) I 2

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13.2 Mutual Inductance (5)
E
Example
l 1

Calculate the phasor currents I1 and I2 in the


circuit shown below.

Ans: I1  13.01  49.39A;; I 2  2.9114.04A


*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook 11

13.3 Energy
gy in a Coupled
p Circuit (1)
( )
• The coupling coefficient, k, is a measure of the
magnetic coupling between two coils; 0≤k≤1.
0≤k≤1

M  k L1 L2

• The instantaneous energy stored in the circuit is


given by

1 2 1 2
w  L1i1  L2i2  MI1 I 2
2 2 12
13.3 Energy
gy in a Coupled
p Circuit (2)
( )
Example 2
Consider the circuit below. Determine the coupling
coefficient. Calculate the energy stored in the coupled
inductors at time t = 1s if v=60cos(4t
( +30°)) V.

*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook Ans: k=0.56; w(1)=20.73J


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13.4 Linear Transformer (1)


• It is generally a four-terminal device comprising
tow (or more) magnetically coupled coils

V  2M 2
Zin   R1  jL1  Z R , Z R  is reflected impedance
I1 R2  jL2  Z L

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13.4 Linear Transformer (2)
Example 3
In the circuit below, calculate the input impedance
and current I1. Take Z1=60-j100Ω,
=60 j100Ω Z2=30+j40Ω,
=30+j40Ω
and ZL=80+j60Ω.

Ans: Zin  100.14  53.1; I1  0.5113.1A


*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook 15

13.5 Ideal Transformer (1)


• An ideal transformer is a unity-coupled, lossless transformer
in which the primary and secondary coils have infinite self-
inductances.

V2 N 2 I 2 N1 1
 n  
V1 N1 I1 N 2 n

V2>V1→ step-up transformer


V2<V1→ step-down transformer
(a) Ideal Transformer
(b) Circuit symbol
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13 5 Ideal Transformer (2)
13.5
Example 4

An ideal transformer is rated at 2400/120V, 9.6 kVA, and


has 50 turns on the secondary side.

Calculate:
((a)) the turns ratio,,
(b) the number of turns on the primary side, and
(c) the current ratings for the primary and secondary
windings.
windings

Ans:
(a) This is a step-down transformer, n=0.05
(b) N1 = 1000 turns
(c) I1 = 4A and I2 = 80A

*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook 17