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EE

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Circuit Theory

Chapter 13

Magnetically Coupled

Circuits

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Magnetically

ll C Coupled

l dCCircuit

p

Chapter 13

13.1

13 1 What is a transformer?

13.2 Mutual Inductance

13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit

13 4

13.4 Linear Transformers

13.5 Ideal Transformers

13.6 Applications

2

13.1 What is a transformer? (1)

• It is an electrical device designed on the

basis of the concept of magnetic coupling

• It uses magnetically coupled coils to

transfer energygy from one circuit to

another

• It is the key circuit elements for stepping

up or stepping down ac voltages or

currents impedance matching,

currents, matching isolation,

isolation

etc.

• It is

i th

the ability

bilit off one inductor

i d t tto iinduce

d a voltage

lt across a

neighboring inductor, measured in henrys (H).

di1 di2

v2 M 21 v1 M 12

dt dt

The open-circuit

Th i it mutual

t l The open-circuit

open circuit mutual

voltage across coil 2 voltage across coil 1 4

13.2 Mutual Inductance (2)

• If a currentt enters

t the

th dotted

d tt d terminal

t i l off one coil,

il

the reference polarity of the mutual voltage in the

second

seco d coil

co is s positive

pos t e at the

t e dotted terminal

te a of

o

the second coil.

Dot convention for coils in series; the sign indicates the

polarity of the mutual voltage; (a) series-aiding connection,

(b) series

series-opposing

opposing connection.

L L1 L2 2 M L L1 L2 2 M

(series - aiding connection) (series - aiding connection)

6

13.2

13 2 Mutual Inductance (3)

Parallel connection

Time-domain

analysis of a circuit

containing coupled

coils.

coils

Frequency-domain

analysis of a circuit

containing coupled

coils

8

13.2 Mutual Inductance (4)

Time-domain analysis of a circuit containing

coupled coils.

coils

di1 di2

v1 i1 R1 L1 M

dt dt

di2 di1

v 2 i2 R2 L2 M

d

dt d

dt 9

Frequency-domain analysis of a circuit containing

coupled coils

V ( Z1 jL1 ) I1 jMI 2

0 jMI1 ( Z L jL2 ) I 2

10

13.2 Mutual Inductance (5)

E

Example

l 1

circuit shown below.

*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook 11

13.3 Energy

gy in a Coupled

p Circuit (1)

( )

• The coupling coefficient, k, is a measure of the

magnetic coupling between two coils; 0≤k≤1.

0≤k≤1

M k L1 L2

given by

1 2 1 2

w L1i1 L2i2 MI1 I 2

2 2 12

13.3 Energy

gy in a Coupled

p Circuit (2)

( )

Example 2

Consider the circuit below. Determine the coupling

coefficient. Calculate the energy stored in the coupled

inductors at time t = 1s if v=60cos(4t

( +30°)) V.

13

• It is generally a four-terminal device comprising

tow (or more) magnetically coupled coils

V 2M 2

Zin R1 jL1 Z R , Z R is reflected impedance

I1 R2 jL2 Z L

14

13.4 Linear Transformer (2)

Example 3

In the circuit below, calculate the input impedance

and current I1. Take Z1=60-j100Ω,

=60 j100Ω Z2=30+j40Ω,

=30+j40Ω

and ZL=80+j60Ω.

*Refer to in-class illustration, textbook 15

• An ideal transformer is a unity-coupled, lossless transformer

in which the primary and secondary coils have infinite self-

inductances.

V2 N 2 I 2 N1 1

n

V1 N1 I1 N 2 n

V2<V1→ step-down transformer

(a) Ideal Transformer

(b) Circuit symbol

16

13 5 Ideal Transformer (2)

13.5

Example 4

has 50 turns on the secondary side.

Calculate:

((a)) the turns ratio,,

(b) the number of turns on the primary side, and

(c) the current ratings for the primary and secondary

windings.

windings

Ans:

(a) This is a step-down transformer, n=0.05

(b) N1 = 1000 turns

(c) I1 = 4A and I2 = 80A

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