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Example: Geogrid reinforced wall

1 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

Example: Geogrid reinforced wall

1. Introduction to safety concept

2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

3. Design as rigid block structure

4. Design of geogrids

5. Design of facing elements

2 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

DIN EN 1997-1:2009-09
(Eurocode EC 7-1)

DIN EN 1997-1/NA:2010-12
National annex
DIN 1054:2010-12
Supplementary rules

Eurocode 7-1 and national annex


3 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

Table of contents
Introduction to the Recommendations and
their Application Principles
Demands on Materials
Analysis Principles
Embankments on Soft Soils
Reinforced Foundation Pads
Highways Engineering
Retaining Structures
Landfill Engineering -
Reinforcement of Surface-parallel,
Stratified Systems
Reinforced Earth Structures over Point or
Linear Bearing Elements
Foundation Systems Using Geotextile-
encased Columns
Bridging Subsidence
Dynamic Actions of Geosynthetic-
reinforced Systems
EBGEO,Wiley, 2011
4 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

Design approach DA 2*: corresponds to ultimate limit states STR u. GEO-2:


1. Complete static calculation with characteristic values to determine the characteristic effects
2. Determination of characteristic resistances
3. Determination of design effects (increasing) and design resistances (decreasing)
4. Verification of safety
characteristic design- characteristic resistances
actions effects effects resistances Detail

Zk
Ah,k Ah,d= AGh,k·gG+ AQh,k·gQ Zd= Min {ZAk/gA; ZMk/gM}
yield-moment
MS,k Mh,d= MGh,k·gG+ MQh,k·gQ MR,d= MR,k/ gmaterial MR,k MR,k= MF

Bh,d= BGh,k·gG+ BQh,k·gQ


Eagh,k Eph,d= Eph,k/ gEp Eph,k
Bh,k t

verification: anchor (STR and GEO-2) earth-support (GEO-2) sheet-pile profile (STR)

Zd - Ah,d  0 Eph,d - Bh,d  0 MR,d - MS,d  0

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

Design approach DA 3: corresponds to ultimate limit state GEO-3 for slope stability

1. Before starting the calculation  change characteristic values to design values


2. Calculation of the overall stability with design values
3. Determination of the utilization-factor  by equalizing resistant design moments
with acting design moments
Initial situation Design situation (here: DS-1)
Qk
Qd = Qk. gQ (1,3)

jk , ck Gd = Gk . gG (1,0) jk , ck
Gk
Cd = Ck/ gc (1,25)
Nd
Rd = Nd.tan jd
tan jd= tan jk/ gj (1,25)

Verification: Utilization-factor 
MH,d  Ndi  tan jdi  Cdi   r
 1  MH,d(   tan jd,   c d )  MT,d  0
MT,d  Gdi  Qdi   sin i  r
6 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
1. Introduction to safety concept

Design approach DA2* (STR, GEO-2)


characteristic values partial factors on partial factors on
of actions actions, DS-P resistances, DS-P
sliding gG = 1,35 and gQ = 1,5 gRh = 1,1
bearing capacity gG = 1,35 and gQ = 1,5 gRv = 1,4
earth resistance gG = 1,35 and gQ = 1,5 gRe = 1,4

DS-P = permanent design situation


Design approach DA3 (GEO-3)
characteristic values partial factors on design values of
of actions actions, DS-P actions
gk = 18 kN/m3 gG = 1,0 gd = 18 kN/m3
pk = 10,0 kN/m2 gQ = 1,3 pd = 13,0 kN/m2

characteristic values partial factors on soil design values of soil


of soil parameters parameters, DS-P parameters
j'k = 35,5° gj' = 1,25 j'd = 29,71°
c'k = 0 kN/m2 gc' = 1,25 c'd = 0 kN/m2

Partial safety factors


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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

Situation

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

Unit weight and water content Drying chamber

w = 4%

gd = 18 kN/m³

g = 18 kN/m³

Density of solid particles capillary pyknometer

s = 2,65 g/cm³

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

Proctor-density

pr = 1,725 g/cm³

97% = 1,673 g/cm³

d [g/cm³] 1,777 1,725 1,639 1,604

tf [kN/m²] 82,4 73,4 70,0 67,5

10 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

Shear strength
Shear box

d [g/cm³] 1,777 1,725 1,639 1,604

tf [kN/m²] 82,4 73,4 70,0 67,5

Dpr
d   pr  0,97  1,725  1,673
100
s 2,65
e -1  1  0,59
d 1,673

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
2. Determination of characteristic soil parameters

sv

100

shear streng t f [kN/m²]


75
tf ≈ 71,5 kN/m²

50

jk´= 35,5° 25

j' ≈ 35,5
0
0 100 200
vertical pressure s [kN/m²]

12 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

B=0,7H

Earth pressure eh(z)

lv
G

H
Behaviour of the
reinforced structure Eh
like a gravity wall

Formation as a rigid block


13 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

B=0,7H

Earth pressure eh(z)

lv
G

H
Behaviour of the
reinforced structure Eh
like a gravity wall

Ultimate limit states (ULS) Serviceability limit states (SLS)

- Overturning (excentricity SLS) To be defined site-specific


- Sliding (GEO-2) - settlements
- Bearing capacity (GEO-2) - inclination
- Overall stability (GEO-3) - …

Verification of the rigid block


14 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Calculation of earth pressure coefficient


2
 
 
 cosj    
K agh  

 cos   1  sinj   a   sin j  ß  

 
 cos      cos    a  


2 GEO-2
cos 30 − −10
Kagh,k = = 0,228 = Kaph,k
sin 30 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ sin 30
cos −10 ⋅ 1+
cos −10 ⋅ cos −10 + 2 3 ⋅ 30 Natural soil: jk=30°

backfill: jk=35,5°
2
cos 29,71° − −10°
Kagh,d = = 0,232 GEO-3
sin 29,71° ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ sin 29,71°
cos −10° ⋅ 1+
cos −10° ⋅ cos −10° + 2 3 ⋅ 29,71° backfill: jd=29,7°

15 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Calculation of characteristic earth pressure


B=0,7H
Earth pressure eh(z)
p=10kN/m
Kagh,k = 0,228 = Kaph,k
lv
H=8,0m

G j=30 Ehp
g=19kN/m3
Ehg

permanent
Eagh,k = 0,5 ∙ 0,228 ∙ 19 kN/m³ ∙ (8,0 m)² = 138,62 kN/m

Eagv,k = 138,62 kN/m ∙ tan ( 2 3 ∙ 30 ) = 50,46 kN/m

transient
Eaph,k = 0,228 ∙ 10 kN/m² ∙ 5,6 m = 12,77 kN/m

Eapv,k = 12,77 kN/m ∙ tan ( 2 3 ∙ 30 ) = 4,65 kN/m

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Q
Proof of resultant load excenticity (SLS)

Gk = 18 kN/m³ ∙ 8 m ∙ 5,6 m = 806,4 kN/m G


Qk = 10 kN/m² ∙ 5,6 m = 56 kN/m

Eagh,k = 138,62 kN/m


eg
Eagv,k = 138,62 kN/m ∙ tan ( 2 3 ∙ 30 ) = 50,46 kN/m b/2
eq
Eaph,k = 12,77 kN/m

Eapv,k = 12,77 kN/m ∙ tan ( 2 3 ∙ 30 ) = 4,65 kN/m

Mk
e=
Nk

kN 8,0 m kN
Mg,k 138,62 ∙ − 50,46 ∙5,6 m/2 228,37 kN b
eg = = m 3 m = = 0,27 m < = 0,93 m
Ng,k kN kN 856,86 kN/m 6
806,4 + 50,46
m m
Mg,k + Mq,k 228,37 kN + 12,77 kN/m ∙ 8,0 m/2 – 4,65 kN/m ∙ 5,6 m/2 b
eg+q = = = 0,29 m < = 1,87 m
Ng,k + Nq,k kN kN kN 3
856,86 + 56 + 4,65
m m m
17 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Proof of bearing capacity following DIN 4017:2006-03 (GEO-2)

Rn,k = a`b` (g2 b` Nb + g1 d Nd + c Nc )

with: Nb = Nb0 • nb • ib • lb • xb
Nd = Nd0 • nd • id • ld • xd
Nc = Nc0 • nc • ic • lc • xc

with:
Ni0: Bearing capacity coefficients

w ni: Coeff. for shape of fondation


ii: Coeff. for load inclination
li: Coeff. for slope inclination
xi: Coeff. for contact area

18 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Proof of bearing capacity following DIN 4017:2006-03 (GEO-2)


Resultant vertical design load
Nd = gG ∙ NG,k + gQ ∙ NQ,k

= 1,35 ∙(Gk + Eagv,k ) + 1,5 ∙ (Pk + Eapv,k )

= 1,35 ∙(806,4 kN/m + 50,46 kN/m) + 1,5 ∙ (56 kN/m + 4,65 kN/m)= 1247,74 kN/m

Resultant vertical design resistance


1 1
Rn,d = ∙ a′ ∙ b′ ∙ (g ∙ b′ ∙ Nb ) = ∙ (b – 2 ∙ eg+p,k )² ∙ g ∙ Nb0 ∙ ib
gR,v gR,v
1
= ∙ (b – 2 ∙ eg+p,k )² ∙ g ∙ Nb0 ∙ (1 − tan k )m+1
gR,v

kN 2+1
1 138,62 + 12,77 kN/m
= ∙ (5,6 m – 2 ∙ 0,29 m)² ∙ 19 kN/m³ ∙ 10 ∙ (1 – m ) = 2786,66 kN/m
1,4 kN
917,51
m

Verification

Nd = 1274,74 ≤ Rn,d = 2786,66 kN/m

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Proof of sliding (GEO-2)


Q

Resultant horizontal design load


G
Hd = gG ∙ HG,k + gQ ∙ HQ,k
H
kN
= 1,35 ∙ Eagh,k + 1,5 ∙ Eaph,k =1,35 ∙ 138,62 + 1,5 ∙ 12,77 = 206,29
m
b/2
Rt
Resultant horizontal design resistance
1 1 N
Rt,d = ∙ Nk ∙ tan s,k = ∙ N ∙l∙ tan jk
gR,h gR,h k

1 kN
= ∙ (806,4 kN/m + 50,46 kN/m + 4,65 kN/m) ∙ 0,8 ∙ tan (30 ) = 361,74
1,1 m

Verification

Hd = 206,29 ≤ Rt,d = 361,74 kN/m

20 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
3. Design as rigid block structure

Proof of overall stability (slope failure) (GEO-3)

Most unfavorable
coefficient of utilization:

 = 0,89 ≤ 1,0

Calculation with reduced shear parameter: tanjd=tanjk/gj

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Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

Design of geogrids

pk=10,0 kN/m² pk=10,0 kN/m²

layer 16

G2d
layer 12

Gd
G1d
SEi,d
SEi,d
Rd jd
Nd
Qd
 ≥ boundary
layer 1
 < boundary

Determination of the decisive geogrid effect


by variation of the geometry of the failure mechanism
22 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

eagh,d 2,1 m =g⋅ h ⋅ Kagh,d = 18 kN m3 ⋅ 2,10 m ⋅ 0,232 = 8,80 kN m2

Eagh,d = 0,5 ⋅ 2,10 m ⋅ 8,80 kN m2 = 9,24 kN m Eagv,d =Eagh,d ⋅ tan(a+)= 1,60 kN m


Pd

0,50 m
layer 16 Ea(g+p)v,d
layer 15 2,10 m
layer 14 Ea(g+p)h,
layer 13
d
layer 12 Gd
layer 11
layer 10
8,00 m
layer 9
layer 8
layer 7 5,90 m
layer 6
layer 5
SEi,d
layer 4 Rd j
layer 3 d Nd
layer 2 Qd
layer 1 41,6

5,60 m

A = 5,6 m ⋅ 8,0 m − 0,5 ⋅ 5,6 m ⋅ 5,90 m = 28,3 m2


Gd = A ⋅ γd = 28,3 m2 ⋅ 18 kN m3 = 509,4 kN m Pd = pd ⋅ b = 13,0 kN m2 ⋅ 5,6 m = 72,8 kN m
23 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

SEi,d
Pd
layer 16 Ea(g+p)v,d
0,50 m
layer 15 2,11 m
Rd
layer 14
layer 13
Ea(g+p)h,d
layer 12 Gd
layer 11 Gd
8,00 m
layer 10 Qd
layer 9
layer 8
layer 7 5,90 m
layer 6
layer 5
SEi,d Nd
layer 4 Rd jd
layer 3 Nd
layer 2 Qd jd
layer 1 41,6
Pd
5,60 m
Ei,d Ea(g+p),d
Ei,d = ∙L
LAi Ai
24 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

=41,6°

Effect of geogrids depending on the geometry of failure mechanism


25 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

Characteristic long term strength of geosynthetics

1
RB,k = ⋅ RB,k0
A1 ⋅A2 ⋅A3 ⋅A4 ⋅A5

RB,k0 = characteristic short term strength


A1 = creeping
A2 = damages during installation or transportation
A3 = overlaps
A4 = environmental influences
A5 = dynamic stress
γM = partial safety factor for the structural resistance

Design value of long term strength

1
RB,d = RB,k ⋅
γM

26 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

Characteristic pull-out resistance


h2 sv2=gh2
RAi,k = 2 ⋅ σvi,k ⋅ LAi ⋅fsg,k sv2LA2fsg,k
LA2

RAi,k = characteristic pull-out resistance of the reinforcement relative to 1 m width


svi,k = characteristic value of the normal stress in the reinforcement plane
LAi = anchorage length of reinforcement behind the failure plane under consideration
fsg,k = characteristic value of the mean friction coefficient between the fill soil
and the plane formed by the geosynthetics and the intermediate ground
n = number of adoptable friction surfaces.

Design value of pull-out resistance


RAi,d =RAi,k / γB

27 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
4. Design of geogrids

LAi svi,d Ei,d RAi,d RBi,d Min (RAi,d;RBi,d)


layer
[m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
1 5,600 144 21,68 657,37 25,5 25,5
2 5,125 135 19,84 564,01 25,5 25,5
3 4,650 126 18,00 477,62 25,5 25,5
4 4,175 117 16,16 398,20 25,5 25,5
5 3,700 108 14,33 325,75 25,5 25,5
6 3,225 99 12,49 260,27 25,5 25,5
7 2,750 90 10,65 201,76 25,5 25,5
8 2,275 81 8,81 150,22 25,5 25,5
9 1,800 72 6,97 105,65 25,5 25,5
10 1,325 63 5,13 68,05 25,5 25,5
11 0,850 54 3,29 37,42 25,5 25,5
12 0,375 45 1,45 13,76 25,5 13,8
∑ 35,85

Proof of effects and resistances for each geogrid layer


Ei,d≤Min(Rai,d;Rbi,d)
28 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

Geogrid reinforced retaining structure Earth pressure eh(z)


sv
Z(x)
t
DEah,i
La

inactive area

effect of geogrid layer


proportionately to
corresponding earth pressure

sv Connecting force at facing:

Fi,k t Zi,k Fi,k  Zi,k  2  t  L a    Zi,k with   1,0


Lai
depending of the stiffness of facing: 0,5< <1,0
Determination of the characteristic connection force of the facing
29 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

Deformability of facing elements


(EBGEO, 2011)
30 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

efacing,i,d = ηg ⋅ Kagh,k ⋅ γk ⋅ hi ⋅ γG + ηq ⋅Kaph,k ⋅ pk ⋅ γQ .

h=0,4H
H

0,5 0,7 1,0

31 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

efacing,i,d + efacing,i+1,d
Efacing,i,d =
2

layer i+1 hi
ea,i+1,d

Ea,d lv

ea,i,d
layer i

layer i-1

efacing,i,d = ηg ⋅ Kagh,k ⋅ γk ⋅ hi ⋅ γG + ηq ⋅Kaph,k ⋅ pk ⋅ γQ .

32 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

hi eagh,d g eaph,d q efacing,i.d Efacing,i,d


layer
[m] [kN/m²] [-] [kN/m²] [-] [kN/m²] [kN/m]
1 8,0 45,1 0,7 3,5 1,0 35,1 17,1
2 7,5 42,3 0,7 3,5 1,0 33,1 16,1
3 7,0 39,5 0,7 3,5 1,0 31,2 15,1
4 6,5 36,6 0,7 3,5 1,0 29,1 14,1
5 6,0 33,8 0,7 3,5 1,0 27,2 13,1
6 5,5 31,0 0,7 3,5 1,0 25,2 12,1
7 5,0 28,2 0,7 3,5 1,0 23,2 11,1
8 4,5 25,4 0,7 3,5 1,0 21,3 10,2
9 4,0 22,6 0,7 3,5 1,0 19,3 9,2
10 3,5 19,7 0,7 3,5 1,0 17,3 9,4
11 3,0 16,9 1,0 3,5 1,0 20,4 9,5
12 2,5 14,1 1,0 3,5 1,0 17,6 8,1
13 2,0 11,3 1,0 3,5 1,0 14,8 6,7
14 1,5 8,5 1,0 3,5 1,0 12,0 5,3
15 1,0 5,6 1,0 3,5 1,0 9,1 3,9
16 0,5 2,8 1,0 3,5 1,0 6,3 1,6
gk = 18 kN/m², Kagh = Kaqh = 0,232 (= Kaph) , pk = 10 kN/m² ,
partial safety factors (BS-P, GEO-2): gG = 1,35, gQ = 1,5

Earth pressure on facing (welded steel wire mesh = partially deformable)


33 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements
Earth pressure
Ei,d from failure mechanism
without reduction
hi Ei,d eagh,d eaph,d g = q efacing,i.d Efacing,i,d
layer
[m] [kN/m] [kN/m²] [kN/m²] [-] [kN/m²] [kN/m]
1 8,0 21,7 45,1 3,5 1,0 48,6 23,6
2 7,5 19,8 42,3 3,5 1,0 45,8 22,2
3 7,0 18,0 39,5 3,5 1,0 42,9 20,8
4 6,5 16,2 36,6 3,5 1,0 40,1 19,4
5 6,0 14,3 33,8 3,5 1,0 37,3 18,0
6 5,5 12,5 31,0 3,5 1,0 34,5 16,6
7 5,0 10,7 28,2 3,5 1,0 31,7 15,1
8 4,5 8,8 25,4 3,5 1,0 28,8 13,7
9 4,0 7,0 22,6 3,5 1,0 26,0 12,3
10 3,5 5,1 19,7 3,5 1,0 23,2 10,9
11 3,0 3,3 16,9 3,5 1,0 20,4 9,5
12 2,5 1,5 14,1 3,5 1,0 17,6 8,1
13 2,0 - 11,3 3,5 1,0 14,8 6,7
14 1,5 - 8,5 3,5 1,0 12,0 5,3
15 1,0 - 5,6 3,5 1,0 9,1 3,9
16 0,5 - 2,8 3,5 1,0 6,3 1,6
gk = 18 kN/m², Kagh = Kaqh = 0,232 (= Kaph) , pk = 10 kN/m² ,
partial safety factors (BS-P, GEO-2): gG = 1,35, gQ = 1,5

Determination of the decisive effect of the facing


34 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen
Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
5. Design of facing elements

Decisive
design
resistance
effect on Manufacturers´ instructions:
layer
facing
Efacing,i,d RMFi,d
[kN/m] [kN/m]
Characteristic junction strength:
1 17,1 24,2
2 16,1 24,2 RMFi,k= 34 kN/m
3 15,1 24,2
4 14,1 24,2
5 13,1 24,2
6 12,1 24,2 Design value of junction strength:
7 11,1 24,2
8 10,2 24,2 RMFi,d= RMFi,k/gB = 34/1,4 = 24,2 kN/m
9 9,2 24,2
10 9,4 24,2
11 9,5 24,2
12 8,1 24,2 Verification:
13 6,7 24,2
Efacing,i,d ≤ RMFi,d
14 5,3 24,2
15 3,9 24,2
16 1,6 24,2

35 Educational session Geotechnik im Bauwesen


Geosynthetics in reinforced soil structures Geotechnical Engineering
Example: Geogrid reinforced wall Univ.- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler